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Sample records for study comparing smokers

  1. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state

    PubMed Central

    Arowojolu, Modupe O.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Dosumu, Elizabeth B.; Opeodu, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups comprising of 117 smokers (cases) and 96 non-smokers (control). Intra oral examination was done using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Gingival index (GI). Results: The mean age of the smokers was 31.2 ± 12.6 years and that of the non-smokers 32.8 ± 9.5 years. The mean Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.15 ± 0.51 for the non-smokers and 2.19 ± 0.62 for the smokers (P < 0.05). The mean GI was 1.06 ± 0.55 for the non-smokers and 1.62 ± 0.58 for the smokers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study shows that smoking is associated with increased severity of gingival disease. It is, therefore, recommended that smokers should be encouraged to visit a dentist for preventive procedure more regularly than the non-smokers and better still, smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking as gingival disease is not without consequences if allowed to persist. PMID:24249949

  2. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity. PMID:27082437

  3. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers.

  4. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers. PMID:27625444

  5. The social context of smoking: A qualitative study comparing smokers of high versus low socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reductions in smoking prevalence in a number of industrialised countries are accompanied by a strong social gap and associated health inequality. Groups such as the World Health Organisation emphasise the importance of exploring potential causal factors for smoking such as socio-economic context & position. There has been little effort to compare the social context of smoking for smokers of high versus lower socio-economic position (SEP) to consider how tobacco control efforts might reduce smoking-related health inequality. Method Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants for eight focus groups. The groups were segregated by age, gender and SEP. Samples were selected from suburbs within the Sydney metropolitan area defined as either high or low SEP based on the Socio Economic Index for Areas. Emergent themes were analysed according to Poland's six dimensions of the social context of smoking. Differences according to SEP, age group and gender were explored. Results While there was commonality in social experiences for smokers across groups, some important aspects of the social context of smoking varied. Smokers of high SEP appeared to be aware of particular social pressures not to smoke on five of the six social context dimensions (power, body, identity, consumption and place). Not only were some of those pressures absent for low SEP participants, there were additional influences within the social context which were pro-smoking. Conclusions In order to narrow the health inequality gap associated with smoking, it is important to take account of the more pro-smoking social context experienced by low SEP smokers. Suggestions are made regarding social marketing campaigns, support for quit assistance and approaches to the regulation of smoking which may assist in minimising smoking-related health inequality. PMID:20420707

  6. [The comparative test of nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Monge, J M; Soda Merhy, A

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the changes produced in the nasal respiratory epithelium in individuals with an important smoking habit. The purpose of this study is to compare the nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers. The nasal mucociliary transport of aspartame particles was measured in 50 healthy non-smokers and in 50 healthy smokers under similar conditions. The average time taken for the displacement of the test substance from the middle third of the inferior turbinate to the oropharynx was found to be in the smokers 13.62 min., and in the non-smokers, 10.34 min. The results were compared using student's "t" test and a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between both groups. This result is taken as a simple clinical test that evaluates the smoking effects on the nasal mucociliary function.

  7. Open-Label Study of Craving in Smokers With Schizophrenia Using Nicotine Nasal Spray Compared to Nicotine Patch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Steinberg, Marc L.; Lu, Shou-En; Foulds, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine nasal spray (NNS) may be better for relieving acute cigarette cravings than other nicotine replacement and it may help smokers with schizophrenia because of its rapid onset of action. Objectives: We tested whether NNS was more effective than a nicotine patch (NP; 21 mg) in reducing cue-induced craving during a 3-day abstinence. Methods: Twenty-five smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SA) were randomized to open-label NNS or NP treatment after baseline measures of craving were assessed. NNS users were instructed to dose at a minimum of 1/hour and up to a maximum of 40/day. Averages from a 4-item visual analogue scale (need, urge, want to smoke, crave a cigarette) measured craving. Results: Five subjects who smoked (4 NP, 1 NNS) were excluded, leaving 21 (11 NP, 10 NNS) for analyses. No differences were detected between groups on baseline craving. On day 3, NNS users reported significantly less craving in response to smoking cues compared to NP users (mean craving scores: NNS, 7.0; NP, 20.3; p = .014). A repeated measure ANCOVA demonstrated significantly reduced craving in the NNS group compared to the NP group from baseline to day 3 (F = 5.09; p = .037). NNS users took an average of 20 doses/day, and NNS was rated as being as easy to use as NP. Conclusions: The potential utility of NNS in smokers with schizophrenia supports the need for placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19763279

  8. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  9. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  10. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  11. Cue reactivity in smokers: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson and Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N = 21) and non-smokers (N = 21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers' evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  12. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  13. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  14. Real-world comparative study of behavioral group therapy program vs education program implemented for smoking cessation in community-dwelling elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Deesomchok, Athavudh

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is known to be an important contributor to a wide variety of chronic diseases, especially in older adults. Information on health policy and practice, as well as evaluation of smoking cessation programs targeting older people, is almost nonexistent. Purpose To compare the real-world implementation of behavioral group therapy in relation to education alone for elderly smokers. Materials and methods Elderly smokers ready to quit smoking were identified from a cohort who completed a questionnaire at a smoking exhibition. They were allocated into two groups, behavioral therapy (3 days 9 hours) and education (2 hours), depending on their preferences. Demographic data, the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score, and exhaled carbon monoxide level were recorded at baseline. Smoking status of all subjects was followed at months 3, 6, and 12. Statistical differences in continuous abstinence rate (CAR) between the two groups were analyzed using chi-square tests. Results Two hundred and twenty-four out of 372 smoking exhibition attendants met the enrollment criteria; 120 and 104 elected to be in behavioral group therapy and education-alone therapy, respectively. Demographic characteristics and smoking history were similar between both groups, including age, age of onset of smoking, years of smoking, smoking pack-years, education level, and nicotine dependence as measured by the FTND scale. The CAR of the behavioral therapy group at the end of the study (month 12) was significantly higher than the education group (40.1% vs 33.3%, P=0.034). Similar results were also found throughout all follow-up visits at month 3 (57.3% vs 27.0%, P<0.001) and month 6 (51.7% vs 25%, P<0.001). Conclusion Behavioral group therapy targeting elderly smokers could achieve higher short-and long-term CARs than education alone in real-world practice. PMID:25926726

  15. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  16. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  17. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Syrine Ben; Sfaxi, Ines; Tabka, Zouhair; Saad, Helmi Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of smoking tobacco leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are beginning to be understood. However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims To investigate the oxidative stress in blood or lung associated with tobacco smoke and to evaluate its effect on pulmonary function data and its relation with physical activity. Methods It is a case-control study. Fifty-four male-smokers of more than five pack-years (PY) and aged 40–60 years were included (29 Non-COPD, 16 COPD). Physical activity score was determined. Blood sample levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein-cys-SH (PSH), and Glutathione (GSH) were measured. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and plethysmographic measurements were performed. Correlation coefficients (r) evaluated the association between oxidative stress markers and independent variables (plethysmographic data and physical activity score). Results Non-COPD (48±6 years) and COPD (49±5 years) groups had similar tobacco consumption patterns, that is, 27±14 PY versus 30±19 PY, respectively. Compared to the Non-COPD group, the COPD group had significantly lower levels of GSH and PSH, that is, mean±SE were 40±6 versus 25±5 µg/mL and 54±10 versus 26±5 µg/g of hemoglobin, respectively. However, MDA level and FeNO values were similar. In the COPD group, none of the oxidative stress markers was significantly correlated with plethysmographic data or physical activity score. In the Non-COPD group, GSH was significantly correlated with physical activity score (r = 0.47) and PSH was significantly correlated with total lung capacity (TLC) (r=−0.50), residual volume (r = 0.41), and physical activity score (r = 0.62). FeNO was significantly correlated with TLC of the COPD group (r=−0.48). Conclusion Compared to the Non-COPD group, the COPD group had a marked decrease in blood antioxidant markers (GSH and PSH) but similar blood oxidant (MDA) or lung (Fe

  18. Comparing socially disadvantaged smokers who agree and decline to participate in a randomised smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Paul, Chris; D'Este, Catherine; West, Robert; Siahpush, Mohammad; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Palazzi, Kerrin; Bryant, Jamie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics associated with consent to participate in a smoking cessation trial for socially disadvantaged smokers. Design Baseline data were collected prior to seeking consent for the Call it Quits, a randomised controlled trial. Setting An Australian social and community service organisation. Sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics were compared between smokers who agreed or declined to participate. Participants Of the 584 smokers invited to participate, 431 (74%) consented and 153 (26%) declined. Results Logistic regression modelling indicates the ORs of participation were twice as high for those reporting ‘high’ motivation to quit compared to the ‘moderate’ motivation group, and five times higher than the ‘low’ motivation group (p=0.007). The ORs of consenting were higher for those with a preference for gradual reduction in cigarettes in quit attempts compared with ‘no preference’. The ORs were lower for those reporting ‘don't know’ regarding their enjoyment of smoking compared to ‘not at all’ enjoying smoking, and reporting that fewer of their family or friends smoked compared to ‘most or all’. Conclusions This study is the first to examine the characteristics of socially disadvantaged smokers who consent or decline to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Low-income smokers who are motivated to quit, are not enjoying smoking, had family or friends who smoked, and who are interested in gradual cessation approaches may be more likely to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85202510. PMID:26369799

  19. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  20. Absolute and Comparative Cancer Risk Perceptions Among Smokers in Two Cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge about health effects of smoking motivates quit attempts and sustained abstinence among smokers and also predicts greater acceptance of tobacco control efforts such as cigarette taxes and public smoking bans. We examined whether smokers in China, the world’s largest consumer of cigarettes, recognized their heightened personal risk of cancer relative to nonsmokers. Methods: A sample of Chinese people (N = 2,517; 555 current smokers) from 2 cities (Beijing and Hefei) estimated their personal risk of developing cancer, both in absolute terms (overall likelihood) and in comparative terms (relative to similarly aged people). Results: Controlling for demographics, smokers judged themselves to be at significantly lower risk of cancer than did nonsmokers on the comparative measure. No significant difference emerged between smokers and nonsmokers in absolute estimates. Conclusions: Smokers in China did not recognize their heightened personal risk of cancer, possibly reflecting ineffective warning labels on cigarette packs, a positive affective climate associated with smoking in China, and beliefs that downplay personal vulnerability among smokers (e.g., I don’t smoke enough to increase my cancer risk; I smoke high-quality cigarettes that won’t cause cancer). PMID:24668289

  1. Decreased blood antioxidant capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in young cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers: Impact of dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Background Blood of cigarette smokers routinely displays decreased antioxidant capacity and increased oxidized lipids compared to nonsmokers. This is thought to be due to both chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in addition to low intake of dietary antioxidants, and is a routine finding in veteran smokers. No study to date has determined the independent and combined impact of dietary intake and cigarette smoking on blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in a sample of young, novice smokers. Methods We compared resting plasma antioxidant reducing capacity (ARC; expressed in uric acid equivalents), serum trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), whole blood total glutathione, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) between 15 young (24 ± 4 years), novice smokers (pack-year history: 3 ± 2) and 13 nonsmokers of similar age (24 ± 5 years). Detailed dietary records were maintained during a seven-day period for analysis of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intake. Results ARC (0.0676 ± 0.0352 vs. 0.1257 ± 0.0542 mmol·L-1; mean ± SD, p = 0.019), TEAC (0.721 ± 0.120 vs. 0.765 ± 0.130 mmol·L-1, p = 0.24) and glutathione (835 ± 143 vs. 898 ± 168 μmol·L-1, p = 0.28) were lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, with only the former being statistically significant. MDA (0.919 ± 0.32 vs. 0.647 ± 0.16 μmol·L-1, p = 0.05) and oxLDL were both higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers (229 ± 94 vs. 110 ± 62 ng·mL-1, p = 0.12), although only the MDA comparison was of statistical significance. Interestingly, these findings existed despite no differences in dietary intake, including antioxidant micronutrient consumption, between both smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion These data, with specificity to young, novice cigarette smokers, underscore the importance of smoking abstinence. Future studies with larger sample sizes, inclusive of smokers of different ages and smoking histories, are needed to extend

  2. Smoking cessation attempts among adolescent smokers: a systematic review of prevalence studies

    PubMed Central

    Bancej, Christina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Platt, Robert W; Paradis, Gilles; Gervais, André

    2007-01-01

    Objective To synthesise estimates of the prevalence of cessation attempts among adolescent smokers generally, and according to age and level of cigarette consumption. Data sources PubMed, ERIC, and PsychInfo databases and Internet searches of central data collection agencies. Study selection National population‐based studies published in English between 1990 and 2005 reporting the prevalence, frequency and/or duration of cessation attempts among smokers aged ⩾10 to <20 years. Data extraction Five reviewers determined inclusion criteria for full‐text reports. One reviewer extracted data on the design, population characteristics and results from the reports. Data synthesis In total, 52 studies conformed to the inclusion criteria. The marked heterogeneity that characterised the study populations and survey questions precluded a meta‐analysis. Among adolescent current smokers, the median 6‐month, 12‐month and lifetime cessation attempt prevalence was 58% (range: 22–73%), 68% (range 43–92%) and 71% (range 28–84%), respectively. More than half had made multiple attempts. Among smokers who had attempted cessation, the median prevalence of relapse was 34, 56, 89 and 92% within 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year, respectively, following the longest attempt. Younger (age<16 years) and non‐daily smokers experienced a similar or higher prevalence of cessation attempts compared with older (age ⩾16 years) or daily smokers. Moreover, the prevalence of relapse by 6 months following the longest cessation attempt was similar across age and smoking frequency. Conclusions The high prevalence of cessation attempts and relapse among adolescent smokers extends to young adolescents and non‐daily smokers. Cessation surveillance, research and program development should be more inclusive of these subgroups. PMID:18048598

  3. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  4. [The comparative analysis: the occurrence of acute respiratory system infections and chronic diseases among active smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the factors causing a lot of health problems. Breathing the smoke makes the development of arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart disease faster and the risk of myocardial infarction much higher. Toxic substances contained in the smoke induce inflammatory processes in bronchial tree, which finally leads to the destruction of lungs. One of the way of preventing complications in the circulatory system and stopping the inflammatory process in lungs is to give up the habit of smoking. Within the period of three years the group of more than 1000 people (smokers and non-smokers) was examined and the analysis of occurrence of acute respiratory system infections and chronic diseases was conducted. In the studies the questionnaire prepared by the author of the paper, some specialistic studies and medical reports were used. The achieved results show that more and more women smoke as many cigarettes as men and for as many years as they do. Both men and women who graduated either a grammar school or a university smoke more often than with elementary level of education. People who smoke suffer more often from numerous acute respiratory tract infections and must more often pay a visit to general practitioner. Considering the sex there are no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of chronic pulmonary diseases and the cardiovascular system. The achieved results show the changes of the attitude to smoking in Polish society. The increase of the consumption of cigarettes among women with high education is very worrying. It is a serious challenge for the whole medical staff. PMID:17288171

  5. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  6. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  7. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 150 subjects, including 50 hookah smokers, 50 passive smokers, and 50 non-smokers. Bioassay Technology Laboratory cotinine kit was used to determine salivary levels of cotinine using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at a sensitivity rate of 0.019 pg/ml. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings The highest salivary cotinine levels were recorded in hookah users (20.24 ± 5.62 ng/ml), followed by passive smokers (16.09 ± 3.51 ng/ml), in descending order. No detectable cotinine levels were observed in non-smokers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a strong and positive correlation between use of hookah and salivary cotinine levels (r = 0.932, P = 0.001). Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, salivary cotinine levels were higher in hookah smokers compared with passive smokers and non-smokers, in descending order. PMID:26885355

  8. A comparative evaluation of self-report and biological measures of cigarette use in nondaily smokers.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gass, Julie C; Miller, Eleanor I; Wilkins, Diana G; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    A large subset of individuals who smoke cigarettes do not smoke regularly, but the assessments used to collect data on cigarette consumption in nondaily smokers have not been rigorously evaluated. The current study examined several self-report and biomarker approaches to the assessment of cigarette use in a sample of nondaily smokers (n = 176). Participants were randomly assigned to a daily monitoring condition (n = 89), requiring a daily report of the number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours, or a no monitoring condition (n = 87). Number of cigarettes smoked over the first 28 days of the study was assessed using 2 quantity frequency measures, a graduated frequency measure, and a timeline follow back (TLFB) interview at the Session 5 study visit. Hair nicotine (NIC), hair cotinine (COT), and expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) were collected from each participant. Total cigarettes reported via daily report were strongly correlated with all Session 5 measures of total cigarettes, but were most strongly associated with TLFB total cigarettes. Collapsed CO across 5 sessions was the biomarker most strongly correlated with daily report total cigarettes. The results support the use of daily report and TLFB methods of assessing cigarette use in nondaily smokers. Results also support the use of CO as appropriate biological markers of exposure in nondaily smokers, and point to some limitations in the use of hair biomarkers in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Quantitative estimation of sodium, potassium and total protein in saliva of diabetic smokers and nonsmokers: A novel study

    PubMed Central

    Kallapur, Basavaraj; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Bastian; Mujib, Ahmed; Sarkar, Amitabha; Sethuraman, Sathya

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in sodium, potassium, total protein in whole saliva in diabetic smokers, diabetic nonsmokers and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Nonstimulated saliva samples were collected from a group of diabetic smokers, diabetic nonsmokers, and controls. Supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the levels of sodium, potassium, and total protein by using semiautomatic analyzer. Results: There exists a statistical difference in the levels of potassium and total protein between diabetic smokers, nondiabetic smokers, and controls. Difference in the levels of sodium is only significant with nondiabetic smokers and controls. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is known to alter the composition of saliva. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the levels of salivary potassium, sodium, and total protein in smoker diabetic patients and nondiabetic smokers and controls, and to explore potential of salivary electrolytes [Na+, K+] and total proteins as markers. The estimated values of salivary constituents add to the data already recorded in Indian population. However, further studies using large samples are required to evaluate the findings in our study. PMID:24082729

  10. [Contribution to the study of the phagocytosing ability of broncho-alveolar macrophages in smokers and non-smokers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kleisbauer, J P; Poirier, R; Colonna, J; Laval, P

    1980-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchial washing from 20 pairs of matched smokers and non-smokers. The following parameters were studied: phagocytosing ability of macrophages on silica in cell culture in the presence or absence of cotinin, a biocompound of nicotin; migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin in sera of patients. The results are reported as a function of absolute number of macrophages obtained, their viability, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the action of cotinin. MIF was stronger in the smokers. There was no difference between the groups as far as power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin are concerned. Cotinin provokes important lesions in the macrophages. The phagocytic power was not significantly different in smokers and non smokers, but the results were better in non-smokers. PMID:7003666

  11. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be

  12. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Setting Community, Australia. Results Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the ‘right’ or ‘better’ choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers’ beliefs and decisions about quitting. Conclusions The reasons for smokers’ rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers’ reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve

  13. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

  15. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  16. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  17. Psychological and hormonal features of smokers at risk to gain weight after smoking cessation--results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Anne; Dinter, Christina; Grosshans, Martin; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hentschel, Rahel; Dahmen, Norbert; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wagner, Michael; Gründer, Gerd; Thürauf, Norbert; Wienker, Thomas; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Mobascher, Arian; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Clepce, Marion; de Millas, Walter; Wiedemann, Klaus; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest modulating effects of appetite-regulating hormones and stress perception on food intake. Nicotine intake also interferes with regulation of body weight. Especially following smoking cessation gaining weight is a common but only partially understood consequence. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between smoking habits, the appetite regulating hormone leptin, negative affectivity, and stress vulnerability on eating behavior in a clinical case-control study under standardized conditions. In a large population-based study sample, we compared leptin and cortisol plasma concentrations (radioimmunoassay) between current tobacco smokers with high cognitive restraint and disinhibition in eating behavior and smokers scoring low in both categories as assessed with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ; Stunkard & Messick, 1985). As a measure for smoking effects on the stress axis, the saliva cortisol concentrations were compared before and after nicotine smoking. Additionally, stress perception was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), symptoms of depression and anxiety with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition we found significantly higher leptin concentrations than in the group of smokers scoring low in both categories. Furthermore there was a significant group difference in saliva cortisol concentrations after nicotine intake. Smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition were also characterized by significantly higher scores in the STAI, the PSS and the BDI. Our results suggest that smokers with a pathological eating behavior show an impaired neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and are prone to experience higher levels of stress and negative affectivity. This interaction of behavioral and neuroendocrinological factors may constitute a high risk condition for gaining weight

  18. Re-training Automatic Action Tendencies to Approach Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Larsen, Helle; Cavallo, Dana; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Salemink, Elske; D'Escury-Koenigs, Annemat L. Collot; Morean, Meghan; Wiers, Reinout; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Background This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli, (1) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (2) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Methods Sixty adolescent smokers received four weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, with CBM (90% avoidance/10% approach for smoking stimuli and 10% avoidance/90% approach for neutral stimuli) or sham (50% avoidance/50% approach for smoking and neutral stimuli) training in the Netherlands (n = 42) and the United States (n = 18). Results While we did not observe changes in action tendencies related to CBM, adolescents with higher smoking approach biases at baseline had greater decreases in approach biases at follow up, compared to adolescents with smoking avoidance biases, regardless of treatment condition (p = 0.01). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed that CBM, when compared with sham trended toward higher end-of-treatment, biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point prevalence abstinence, (17.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.071). ITT analysis also showed that regardless of treatment condition, cotinine level (p = 0.045) and average number of cigarette smoked (p ≤ 0.001) significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggests that re-training approach biases toward cigarettes shows promise for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. Future research should utilize larger samples and increased distinction between CBM and sham conditions, and examine mechanisms underlying the CBM approach. PMID:26186485

  19. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, J Mark; Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to conduct culturally-based participatory research to assess cultural and belief contexts for smoking behaviours within Mandarin and Cantonese communities. Outcome variables were smoking-related knowledge, smoking patterns, attitudes and beliefs, and perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. Design A community-based approach was applied involving smokers, community key-informants and professionals in study design and implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted and findings were used to develop study instrument. Participants responded once to study questionnaire after informed consent. Setting Community based in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada. Participants 16 Chinese smokers participated in focus groups and subsequently, 167 current Chinese immigrant (137 males and 30 females) smokers from Mandarin and Cantonese communities, recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that a majority believed smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (<35 years of age) did not mind smoking in front of young children compared to older smokers (≥35 years of age) (p<0.001). People with high school or lower levels of education believed that they would benefit more from smoking than suffering from withdrawal symptoms compared to better educated smokers (p<0.05). Mandarin smokers were significantly more likely to encourage others to quit than Cantonese smokers (p<0.05). Many indicated not receiving adequate support from care providers and lack of access to culturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programmes impacted on their ability to quit smoking. Conclusions Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco beliefs and perceptions among Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as

  20. Executive-affective connectivity in smokers viewing anti-smoking images: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Williams, Laurence; Mendrek, Adrianna; Dumais, Alexandre; Bourque, Josiane; Potvin, Stéphane

    2014-12-30

    Despite knowledge of the harmful consequences of smoking on health, tobacco users continue to smoke. Neuroimaging studies have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying this response. Regions involved in executive control and affective processing/persuasion are activated when viewing the negative value of smoking, but these systems can interact in ways that promote or hinder its impact on behavior. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine the dynamics between these systems during the processing of images designed to elicit a negative emotional response regarding tobacco smoking in a group of current smokers. Thirty chronic smokers passively viewed aversive smoking-related, aversive nonsmoking-related and neutral images presented in a block design while being scanned. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is negatively associated to activity in medial frontal, cingulate, limbic, subcortical and parietal regions in chronic smokers during the processing of aversive smoking-related material, a pattern that was significantly greater when stimuli were drug-related compared with when they were nondrug-related. Our results suggest that individuals with tobacco dependence present different patterns of functional connectivity depending on whether the aversive stimuli are smoking- or nonsmoking-related. Activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus may act to down-regulate corresponding activity in regions key to an affective and persuasive response during the processing of anti-smoking material. This mechanism may reduce the extent to which "feeling bad" brings about a change in behavior.

  1. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  2. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  3. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers.

  4. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918784

  5. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  6. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  7. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the 'waterpipe' antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  8. A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

  9. A Screening Study to Determine the Prevalence of Airway Disease in Heroin Smokers.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Burke, Nadia; Vlies, Ben; Wooding, Olivia; Davies, Lisa; Walker, Paul P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 20 years smoking has become the most common method of heroin use and increasing numbers of heroin smokers are presenting to local medical services, before the age of 40 years, with severe airway disease. To determine COPD prevalence we recruited 129 subjects from two local community drug services, of whom 107 were heroin smokers. We collected demographic, medical and treatment data, smoking history (including cannabis and opiates) and details of symptoms including MRC dyspnoea. Subjects completed the COPD Assessment Tool and spirometry. Thirty heroin smokers were identified as having COPD resulting in a COPD prevalence of 28%. Mean age was 43 (4) years and FEV1 was 2.71 (0.98) L; 70 (23) %predicted. Breathlessness and wheeze were more common in subjects with COPD (p < 0.04 and p < 0.05) but symptoms were common in all heroin smokers. MRC score was higher (3 vs. 2.4; p < 0.04) in those with COPD and health status appeared poorer (CAT 20.4 vs. 15.8; p < 0.07). Only 4 (11%) had previously been diagnosed with COPD and only 16 (53%) received any inhaled medication. Asthma prevalence was also high at 33% and asthmatic subjects had similar symptoms and health status compared with the COPD subjects, and were also significantly undertreated. COPD and asthma are common in current and former heroin smokers. They are often present at a young age and are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Awareness of this issue should be highlighted within drug services and in particular to heroin smokers. Screening this high-risk population with spirometry should be considered. PMID:26701201

  10. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p = 0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p = 0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p = 0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised. PMID:15148211

  11. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  12. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  13. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  14. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  15. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  16. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M; Fleming, Michael F; Bonus, Katherine A; Baker, Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (with minor modifications) as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56%) achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial. PMID:17254362

  17. Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Pena-Álvarez, Carolina; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were recruited from individuals undergoing minor, non-oncological surgery. Residential radon was measured using alpha track detectors. We included 521 individuals, 192 cases and 329 controls, 21% were males. We observed an odds ratio of 2.42 (95% CI 1.45-4.06) for individuals exposed to ≥200 Bq·m(-3) compared with those exposed to <100 Bq·m(-3). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home increased lung cancer risk in individuals with radon exposure>200 Bq·m(-3). Individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and to radon concentrations>200 Bq·m(-3) had higher lung cancer risk than those exposed to lower radon concentrations and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Residential radon increases lung cancer risk in never-smokers. An association between residential radon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of lung cancer might exist.

  18. Lung cancer in never smokers in the UK Million Women Study

    PubMed Central

    Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    To assess directly the effects of various risk factors on lung cancer incidence among never smokers, large prospective studies are needed. In a cohort of 1.2 million UK women without prior cancer, half (634,039) reported that they had never smoked. Mean age at recruitment was 55 (SD5) years, and during 14 (SD3) years of follow‐up, 0.2% (1,469) of these never smokers developed lung cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for 34 potential risk factors, of which 31 were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The remaining three risk factors were associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers: non‐white vs. white ethnicity (RR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.55–3.52, p < 0.001), asthma requiring treatment vs. not (RR = 1.32, 1.10–1.58, p = 0.003) and taller stature (height ≥ 165 cm vs. <160 cm: RR = 1.16, 1.03–1.32, p = 0.02). There was little association with other sociodemographic, anthropometric or hormonal factors, or with dietary intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and fiber. The findings were not materially affected by restricting the analyses to adenocarcinomas, the most common histological type among never smokers. PMID:26954623

  19. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  20. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  1. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  2. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  3. Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure in Smokers Switching to a Carbon-Heated Tobacco Product: A Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label 5-Day Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Haziza, Christelle; Weitkunat, Rolf; Magnette, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco harm reduction aims to provide reduced risk alternatives to adult smokers who would otherwise continue smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, single-center, short-term confinement study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of cigarette smoke in adult smokers who switched to a carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) compared with adult smokers who continued to smoke CCs and those who abstained from smoking for 5 days. Methods: Biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, including nicotine and urinary excretion of mutagenic material, were measured in 24-hour urine and blood samples in 112 male and female Caucasian smokers switching from CCs to the CHTP ad libitum use. Puffing topography was assessed during product use. Results: Switching to the CHTP or smoking abstinence (SA) resulted in marked decreases from baseline to Day 5 in all biomarkers of exposure measured, including carboxyhemoglobin (43% and 55% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). The urinary excretion of mutagenic material was also markedly decreased on Day 5 compared with baseline (89% and 87% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). No changes in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs or urinary mutagenic material were observed between baseline and Day 5 in the CC group. Conclusions: Our results provide clear evidence supporting a reduction in the level of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in smokers who switch to CHTP under controlled conditions, similar to that observed in SA. Implications: The reductions observed in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in this short-term study could potentially also reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in those smokers who switch to a heated tobacco product. PMID:26817490

  4. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jessica L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Alberg, Anthony J; Cummings, K Michael; Gray, Kevin M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    To refine public health policy amidst a changing landscape of tobacco products in the United States, it is first necessary to describe fully the nature of smokers' alternative product use. Little research addresses smokers' snus use, and most studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional designs, and crude outcome measurement. This study sample includes 626 adult US smokers who denied intention to quit in the next month and were randomized to receive free snus during a 6-week sampling period, after which no snus was provided. Participants were then followed for one year. Outcome data were collected via phone. Participants (mean age: 48.7years) were predominately female, White non-Hispanic. Eighty-four percent reported trial of snus. Eleven percent reported purchase (i.e., adoption). Current use declined from 47.1% at the end of the sampling period to 6.5% at the end of follow-up. Frequency and quantity of snus use among current users was low. Among snus users, 79.3% said it functioned as an alternative to smoking and 58.4% said it provided a means of coping with smoking restrictions; options not mutually exclusive. In logistic regressions, men were more likely to report trial (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p<0.01) and adoption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) than women. Baseline expectations about the nature of snus use also predicted snus outcomes (OR=1.28-1.78, p<0.05). Smokers showed willingness to try snus, but product interest waned over time. Snus as currently marketed is unlikely to play a prominent role in US tobacco control efforts.

  5. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  6. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jessica L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Alberg, Anthony J; Cummings, K Michael; Gray, Kevin M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    To refine public health policy amidst a changing landscape of tobacco products in the United States, it is first necessary to describe fully the nature of smokers' alternative product use. Little research addresses smokers' snus use, and most studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional designs, and crude outcome measurement. This study sample includes 626 adult US smokers who denied intention to quit in the next month and were randomized to receive free snus during a 6-week sampling period, after which no snus was provided. Participants were then followed for one year. Outcome data were collected via phone. Participants (mean age: 48.7years) were predominately female, White non-Hispanic. Eighty-four percent reported trial of snus. Eleven percent reported purchase (i.e., adoption). Current use declined from 47.1% at the end of the sampling period to 6.5% at the end of follow-up. Frequency and quantity of snus use among current users was low. Among snus users, 79.3% said it functioned as an alternative to smoking and 58.4% said it provided a means of coping with smoking restrictions; options not mutually exclusive. In logistic regressions, men were more likely to report trial (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p<0.01) and adoption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) than women. Baseline expectations about the nature of snus use also predicted snus outcomes (OR=1.28-1.78, p<0.05). Smokers showed willingness to try snus, but product interest waned over time. Snus as currently marketed is unlikely to play a prominent role in US tobacco control efforts. PMID:27450153

  7. [Sensitivity of cough with capsaicin in smokers].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Celik, Pinar; Havlucu, Yavuz; Coşkun, Evşen; Yorgancioğlu, Arzu; Sakar, Ayşin; Dinç, Gönül

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effect of long term smoking on sensitivity of cough reflex was investigated. Healthy, current smoker male and female was evaluated by capsaicin cough challenge test and they were compared with healthy, non-smoker persons with similar age and gender, prospectively. In current smokers, there were 50 male and 39 female, in non-smoker control group, there were 20 male and 21 female. Mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker and non-smoker groups and mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker according to gender were calculated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results of capsaicin cough challenge test in current and non-smoker groups were evaluated by using Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test. In current smokers comparison of results of capsaicin cough challenge test with smoking history (age with first smoking, duration, pocket year and smoking per day) was evaluated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in current smokers when they were compared to control group (p< 0.00). In current smoker group mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in male (p< 0.002). When the results of capsaicin cough challenge test were compared between current smoker and control groups, sensitivity of cough reflex in concentration with 0.49, 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6 microM was significantly decreased in current smoker group. Also there was a significant correlation between concentration with 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2 microM, and duration of smoking and pocket year of smoking. Also there was a correlation between concentration with 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125 microM and smoking per day. This results were correlated with hypothesis about inhibition of C-fibers with nicotin or decrease of C-fibers' sensitivity due to induction of neuropeptide wasting. PMID:18330750

  8. Genetic Determinants for Promoter Hypermethylation in the Lungs of Smokers: A Candidate Gene-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Liu, Yushi; Edlund, Christopher K.; Willink, Randall P.; Han, Younghun; Landi, Maria Teresa; Thun, Michael; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Crowell, Richard E.; Van Den Berg, David; Caporaso, Neil E.; Amos, Christopher I.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Gilliland, Frank D.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation in sputum-derived exfoliated cells predicts early lung cancer. Here we identified genetic determinants for this epigenetic process and examined their biological effects on gene regulation. A two-stage approach involving discovery and replication was employed to assess the association between promoter hypermethylation of a 12-gene panel and common variation in 40 genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, regulation of methylation, and DNA damage response in members of the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (n=1434). Molecular validation of three identified variants was conducted using primary bronchial epithelial cells. Association of study-wide significance (P<8.2×10−5) was identified for rs1641511, rs3730859, and rs1883264 in TP53, LIG1, and BIK, respectively. These SNPs were significantly associated with altered expression of the corresponding genes in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, rs3730859 in LIG1 was also moderately associated with increased risk for lung cancer among Caucasian smokers. Together, our findings suggest that genetic variation in DNA replication and apoptosis pathways impacts the propensity for gene promoter hypermethylation in the aerodigestive tract of smokers. The incorporation of genetic biomarkers for gene promoter hypermethylation with clinical and somatic markers may improve risk assessment models for lung cancer. PMID:22139380

  9. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  10. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  11. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  12. Lung Cancer Occurrence in Never-Smokers: An Analysis of 13 Cohorts and 22 Cancer Registry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thun, Michael J; Hannan, Lindsay M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E; Feskanich, Diane; Flanders, W. Dana; Jee, Sun Ha; Katanoda, Kota; Kolonel, Laurence N; Lee, I-Min; Marugame, Tomomi; Palmer, Julie R; Riboli, Elio; Sobue, Tomotaka; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wilkens, Lynne R; Samet, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Background Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. Methods and Findings We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million persons for incidence and mortality, respectively. We also abstracted population-based data for women from 22 cancer registries and ten countries in time periods and geographic regions where few women smoked. Our main findings were: (1) Men had higher death rates from lung cancer than women in all age and racial groups studied; (2) male and female incidence rates were similar when standardized across all ages 40+ y, albeit with some variation by age; (3) African Americans and Asians living in Korea and Japan (but not in the US) had higher death rates from lung cancer than individuals of European descent; (4) no temporal trends were seen when comparing incidence and death rates among US women age 40–69 y during the 1930s to contemporary populations where few women smoke, or in temporal comparisons of never-smokers in two large American Cancer Society cohorts from 1959 to 2004; and (5) lung cancer incidence rates were higher and more variable among women in East Asia than in other geographic areas with low female smoking. Conclusions These comprehensive analyses support claims that the death rate from lung cancer among never-smokers is higher in men than in women, and in African Americans and Asians residing in Asia than in individuals of European descent, but contradict assertions that risk is increasing or that women have a higher incidence rate than men. Further research is needed on the high and variable lung cancer rates among women in Pacific Rim countries. PMID:18788891

  13. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  14. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. Methods We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Results Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Conclusions Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the ‘Distorted Mirror Hypothesis’. PMID:24548463

  15. Quitting experiences and preferences for a future quit attempt: a study among inpatient smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dennis; Abramson, Michael J; Bonevski, Billie; Taylor, Simone; Poole, Susan G; Weeks, Gregory R; Dooley, Michael J; George, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding smokers’ quit experiences and their preferences for a future quit attempt may aid in the development of effective cessation treatments. The aims of this study were to measure tobacco use behaviour; previous quit attempts and outcomes; methods used to assist quitting; difficulties experienced during previous attempts; the motives and preferred methods to assist quitting in a future attempt; identify the factors associated with preferences for smoking cessation. Design Face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Setting Inpatient wards of three Australian public hospitals. Participants Hospitalised smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Results Of 600 enrolled patients (42.8% participation rate), 64.3% (n=386) had attempted quitting in the previous 12 months. On a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high), current motivation to quit smoking was high (median 9; IQR 6.5–10), but confidence was modest (median 5; IQR 3–8). Among 386 participants who reported past quit attempts, 69.9% (n=270) had used at least one cessation aid to assist quitting. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was most commonly stated (222, 57.5%), although the majority had used NRT for <4 weeks. Hypnotherapy was the most common (68, 17.6%) non-pharmacological treatment. Over 80% (n=311) experienced withdrawal symptoms; craving and irritability were commonly reported. Most participants (351, 58.5%) believed medications, especially NRT (322, 53.7%), would assist them to quit in the future. History of previous smoking cessation medication use was the only independent predictor of interest in using medications for a future quit attempt. Conclusions The majority of smokers had attempted quitting in the previous 12 months; NRT was a popular cessation treatment, although it was not used as recommended by most. This suggests a need for assistance in the selection and optimal use of cessation aids for hospitalised smokers. Trial registration number Australian and

  16. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. Methods We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1,303±2,676 μg/m2; p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the amount of nicotine in homes of e-cigarette users and non-users (p>0.05). Conclusions Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25869751

  17. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  18. Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Higher levels of self-efficacy, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, interpersonal support, positive paternal support, and perceived social standing were associated with lower odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Our analysis indicates that women who smoked during pregnancy experienced a more negative constellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions.

  19. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-08-05

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers' social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers' understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects.

  20. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers' social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers' understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  1. Smoking, self-regulation and moral positioning: a focus group study with British smokers from a disadvantaged community.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Antoniak, Marilyn; Docherty, Graeme; Jones, Laura; Stead, Martine; McNeill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Smoking in many Western societies has become a both moral aand health issue in recent years, but little is known about how smokers position themselves and regulate their behaviour in this context. In this article, we report the findings from a study investigating how smokers from an economically disadvantaged community in the East Midlands (UK) respond to concerns about the health impact of smoking on others. We conducted ten focus group (FG) discussions with mixed groups (by smoking status and gender; N = 58 participants) covering a range of topics, including smoking norms, self-regulation, and smoking in diverse contexts. We transcribed all FG discussions before analysing the data using techniques from discourse analysis. Smokers in general positioned themselves as socially responsible smokers and morally upstanding citizens. This position was bolstered in two main ways: 'everyday accommodation', whereby everyday efforts to accommodate the needs of non-smokers were referenced, and 'taking a stand', whereby proactive interventions to prevent smoking in (young) others were cited. We suggest that smoking cessation campaigns could usefully be informed by this ethic of care for others. PMID:23710702

  2. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  3. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers.

  4. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  5. Real-time patterns of smoking and alcohol use: an observational study protocol of risky-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Brandon, Thomas; Armeli, Stephen; Ehlke, Sarah; Bowers, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the strong relationship between smoking and health-related consequences, very few smokers quit. Heavy drinking is a significant risk factor for health consequences, and is implicated in persistent smoking and less success at quitting smoking. Self-efficacy (SE) to abstain from smoking is an important determinant of smoking outcomes and may link alcohol use to poor quit rates. Even though research has demonstrated a strong association between drinking and smoking, and the multiplicative effect of these substances on cancer-related, heavy-drinking smokers has been largely ignored in the literature. Further, research has not taken advantage of innovative methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, to capture the impact of daily factors on smoking cessation outcomes in this particular group. The proposed study identifies daily changing factors that impede or promote SE and future smoking cessation efforts in risky-drinking smokers. Methods and analysis This is an observational study of 84 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day) who drink at risky levels, report a desire to quit in the next 6 months, and show no evidence of psychiatric disturbance, severe history of alcohol withdrawal or drug dependence (excluding nicotine and caffeine). Participants report on their smoking, alcohol consumption and SE related to smoking twice a day for 28 days using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. Multilevel regression and path models will examine within-person daily associations among drinking, smoking and SE, and how these variables predict the likelihood of future smoking behaviour at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by an accredited Institutional Review Board. The findings will help us understand the factors that promote or impede smoking cessation among a high-risk group of smokers (heavy-drinking smokers) and will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at

  6. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  7. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Woud, Marcella L; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  8. Paying Smokers to Quit May Pay Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15, 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Money may help some smokers stub out their cigarettes ... program started, 44 percent of smokers who received money said they had been abstinent continuously, compared with ...

  9. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation.

  10. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on tobacco craving in cigarette smokers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress with subsequent polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) peroxidation. Low concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs can affect neurotransmission, resulting in hypofunctioning of the mesocortical systems associated with reward and dependence mechanisms and thus may increase cigarette craving, hampering smoking cessation efforts. PUFA deficiency, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), has also been linked to reduced psychological health and ability to cope with stress. Although stress is well linked to smoking urges and behavior, no research to date has examined the effects of PUFA supplementation on tobacco craving. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, performed in regular cigarette smokers (n=48), administration of 2710 mg EPA/day and 2040 mg DHA/day for one month was accompanied by a significant decrease in reported daily smoking and in tobacco craving following cigarette cue exposure. Craving did not return to baseline values in the month that followed treatment discontinuation. This is the first study demonstrating that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces tobacco craving in regular smokers, compared to placebo treatment. Thus, omega-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in managing tobacco consumption. Further studies are needed on larger samples to explore the possible therapeutic implications for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:24899596

  11. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α4β2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher α4β2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α4β2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

  12. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  13. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. Conclusion High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed. PMID:24112218

  14. Oral Mucosal Lesions Associated with Smokers and Chewers – A Case-Control Study in Chennai Population

    PubMed Central

    Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To determine the association of oral mucosal lesions in a group of Chennai population aged 15 years and above with smoking and chewing habits. To also determine the dose-response relationship of these habits associated with the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Materiala and Methods The study was undertaken with 450 subjects with smoking and/or chewing habits aged 15 years and over gathered through random selection in Chennai, India. Subjects with alcohol intake were excluded from the study. Based on the habits the study group was categorized into smokers, chewers and mixed (smoking+chewing). One hundred and fifty subjects diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions designated as “cases” and 300 lesion-free “controls”, frequency matched for age, sex, habit and family income were assessed during the study. The study protocol included a visual oral soft tissue examination and a questionnaire-based interview. In addition, those requiring further examination, scalpel biopsies were performed to establish a definitive diagnosis. Results Irrespective of the type of habit, 78% of cases smoked and/or chewed for more than 10 years as compared to 37.4% of the control group. Similarly, 71.3% of cases smoked and/or chewed more than 5 times per day as compared to 25.6% of the control group. Eleven habits related mucosal lesions of the oral cavity were encountered. Smoker’s melanosis was the most common oral mucosal lesion followed by Oral submucous fibrosis and Leukoplakia. Dose-response relationships were observed for both duration and frequency of habits on the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Conclusion The result of the present study provides information on the association of oral mucosal lesions in smokers, chewers and patients with mixed habits. The mucosal lesions encountered included a few potentially malignant conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Habits were more prevalent in men thus more lesions were encountered in males than in females

  15. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  16. A qualitative study of smokers' responses to messages discouraging dual tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried smokeless tobacco were unaware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, perceived scary messages as effective and acknowledged the addictive nature of nicotine. Smokers who had tried smokeless tobacco shared their personal (mainly negative) experiences with smokeless tobacco, were aware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but denied personal addiction, and misinterpreted or disregarded more threatening messages. Portraying women as smokeless tobacco users was perceived as unbelievable, and emphasizing the lack of appeal of novel smokeless tobacco products was perceived as encouraging continued smoking. Future ads should educate smokers about risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but past users and never users may require different message strategies. PMID:24441592

  17. Metabolic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Abuse in Non-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Obianyo, Obiamaka; Liang, Yan; Burnham, Ellen L.; Mehta, Ashish; Park, Youngja; Uppal, Karan; Harris, Frank L.; Jones, Dean P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    An alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infection and injury and, upon hospitalization, higher mortality rates. Studies in model systems show effects of alcohol on mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and antioxidant systems. The present study applied high-resolution metabolomics to test for these changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of subjects with an AUD. Smokers were excluded to avoid confounding effects and compliance was verified by cotinine measurements. Statistically significant metabolic features, differentially expressed by control and AUD subjects, were identified by statistical and bioinformatic methods. The results show that fatty acid and acylcarnitine concentrations were increased in AUD subjects, consistent with perturbed mitochondrial and lipid metabolism. Decreased concentrations of methyl-donor compounds suggest altered one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. An accumulation of peptides suggests proteolytic activity, which could reflect altered epithelial barrier function. Two metabolites of possible microbial origin suggest subclinical bacterial infection. Furthermore, increased diacetylspermine suggests additional metabolic perturbations, which could contribute to dysregulated alveolar macrophage function and vulnerability to infection. Together, the results show an extended metabolic consequence of AUD in the bronchoalveolar space. PMID:26102199

  18. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  19. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  20. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  1. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  2. Poor trabecular microarchitecture in male current smokers: the cross-sectional STRAMBO study.

    PubMed

    Szulc, P; Debiesse, E; Boutroy, S; Vilauphiou, N; Chapurlat, R

    2011-10-01

    Current smoking (but not past smoking) is associated with higher risk of fracture independent of areal bone mineral density (aBMD); however, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this association is not clear. In 810 men aged 60-87, aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone microarchitecture at the distal radius and distal tibia was assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography using the Xtreme CT Scanco device. Current smokers (n = 47) had lower trabecular volumetric density (Dtrab), lower trabecular number (TbN), more heterogenous trabecular network (higher trabecular spacing standard deviation [TbSpSD]), as well as higher urinary deoxypyridinoline and higher C-reactive protein levels in comparison with 261 men who never smoked (adjusted for age, weight, height, time spent outdoors, physical activity, and intake of alcohol, caffeine, and calcium). Abnormal values (lower Dtrab and TbN, higher TbSpSD, deoxypyridinoline, and C-reactive protein) were found mainly in 21 current smokers who smoked eight or more cigarettes per day. Cortical parameters and aBMD did not differ from the never-smokers. In 502 former smokers, aBMD and all bone microarchitectural parameters did not differ from the never-smokers. At the tibia (not radius), Dtrab decreased, whereas TbSpSD slightly increased across quartiles of smoking intensity (number of pack-years). In conclusion, older men who are moderate current smokers have poor trabecular (but not cortical) microarchitecture, which is not reflected by a decrease in aBMD.

  3. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions including mood lability, sleep disruption, and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in nontreatment seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were inpatient. On the first inpatient day, active marijuana (6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, decreased caloric intake, and weight loss. Compared to placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake, and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence. PMID:22741619

  4. Comparison of end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in shisha (water pipe) and cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measuring eCo is rapid, non-invasive and inexpensive tool and correlate correctly with carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the increase in end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in exhaled breath of passive smokers and healthy smokers after cigarette and shisha smoking. Findings In a cross sectional study eCO levels were measured in 70 subjects (24 cigarette smokers, 20 shisha smoker, 26 passive smokers) by use of portable device. Smokers were asked to smoke shisha for 30 mins in shisha cafe or to smoke 5 cigarettes in 30 mins in a restaurant. eCo levels were measured at baseline (30 mins), 35 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins in all groups after entry to the venue. The baseline mean eCO level among cigarette smokers was 3.5 +/- 0.6 ppm (part per million), passive cigarette smokers 3.7+/-1.0 ppm, shisha smokers 27.7+/-4.9 ppm and passive shisha smokers 18.3+/-8.4 ppm .The mean increase in eCO after 90 min among smokers was 9.4+/-4.6 (p < 0.005), passive cigarette smokers 3.5+/-2.5 (p < 0.05), shisha smokers 57.9+/-27.4 (p <0.005) and passive shisha smokers 13.3+/-4.6 (p = 0.03). Conclusion Exposure to shisha smoke is a cause of elevated eCO in smokers and passive smokers and due to in-door pollution, sitting in shisha bar causes significant increase in eCO levels. PMID:25206319

  5. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  6. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  8. Mood differences between male and female light smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    File, Sandra E; Dinnis, Abigail K; Heard, Joy E; Irvine, Elaine E

    2002-06-01

    In an open study, we determined whether there were sex differences in the mood ratings of non-deprived light smokers and nonsmokers under baseline conditions and after completing a battery of cognitive tests that were mildly stressful. Male and female students who were light smokers (5-12 cigarettes a day) were tested immediately after smoking their usual cigarette, at a time that they normally smoked. They were compared with a group of male and female students who were nonsmokers and did not differ on age, IQ, personality measures, anxiety or depression. Compared with the nonsmokers, both male and female smokers felt overall significantly more discontented, troubled, tense, quarrelsome, furious, impatient, hostile, annoyed and disgusted and experienced greater dizziness. The performance of distracting cognitive tasks did not reveal anxiolytic effects of smoking, and after performance of these tasks, both smokers and nonsmokers became more discontented and anxious. In addition, after the cognitive testing, both male and female smokers showed greater increases than nonsmokers in feeling spiteful, rebellious, incompetent and in sweating, suggesting that they experienced greater mood changes in response to cognitive stress. There were no overall differences between the smokers and nonsmokers in the performance of divided or sustained attention tasks or in episodic memory. It is unlikely that either nicotine withdrawal or differences in cognitive performance could account for the greater anxiety, discontent and aggressive mood that was found in smokers.

  9. Expanding metabolite coverage of real-time breath analysis by coupling a universal secondary electrospray ionization source and high resolution mass spectrometry--a pilot study on tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Gaugg, Martin Thomas; Gomez, Diego Garcia; Barrios-Collado, Cesar; Vidal-de-Miguel, Guillermo; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato; Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Online breath analysis is an attractive approach to track exhaled compounds without sample preparation. Current commercially available real-time breath analysis platforms require the purchase of a full mass spectrometer. Here we present an ion source compatible with virtually any preexisting atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer that allows real-time analysis of breath. We illustrate the capabilities of such technological development by upgrading an orbitrap mass spectrometer. As a result, we detected compounds in exhaled breath between 70 and 900 Da, with a mass accuracy of typically  <1 ppm; resolutions between m/Δm 22,000 and 70,000 and fragmentation capabilities. The setup was tested in a pilot study, comparing the breath of smokers (n  =  9) and non-smokers (n  =  10). Exogenous compounds associated to smoking, as well as endogenous metabolites suggesting increased oxidative stress in smokers, were detected and in some cases identified unambiguously. Most of these compounds correlated significantly with smoking frequency and allowed accurate discrimination of smokers and non-smokers. PMID:26866308

  10. Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is one crop that accumulates cadmium, making smokers susceptible to higher levels of the metal in their bodies. The findings suggest that even a low-level exposure to a heavy metal like cadmium is likely to cause a change in the functions of neurons in the brain and the behavioral response to drugs of abuse.

  11. Distinct SNP Combinations Confer Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0. PMID:23284801

  12. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Golka, Klaus; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  13. Effects of expectancy and abstinence on the neural response to smoking cues in cigarette smokers: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dharma; Barrett, Sean P; Kelly, Jared T; Aw, Andrew; Dagher, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Cues associated with drug taking can trigger relapse, drug seeking, and craving in addicted individuals. Behavioral studies suggest that drug availability and withdrawal can affect the individual response to drug cues. Moreover, the importance of subjective craving in cue-induced relapse has been questioned and an alternative model put forward according to which drug cues trigger habitual drug-seeking behaviors independently of craving. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain response to smoking and control videotapes in 20 healthy smokers, while varying their expectancy to smoke and abstinence levels. The neural response to cigarette cues was strongly modulated by expectancy and, to a lesser extent, abstinence. In people expecting to smoke immediately after the scan, smoking cues activated brain areas implicated in arousal, attention, and cognitive control. However, when subjects knew they would not be allowed to smoke for 4 h, there was almost no brain activation in response to smoking cues, despite equivalent reported levels of craving. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the neural response was a function of both craving and expectancy. Thalamo-cingulate connectivity, thought to be an index of arousal, was greater during expectancy than nonexpectancy. Our findings confirm the importance of expectancy in the neural response to drug cues, and lend support to the theory that these cues act on brain areas involved in arousal and attention.

  14. Prevalence of periodontopathogens and Candida spp. in smokers after nonsurgical periodontal therapy - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Gabriela Alessandra da Cruz Galhardo; Abreu, Mariana Gouvêa Latini; Cordeiro, Renata Dos Santos; Wenderoscky, Letícia de Farias; Duque, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on clinical and microbiological parameters after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Forty-eight subjects were grouped into smokers (SM, n = 24) and nonsmokers (NS, n = 24) and paired according to gender, age, ethnicity, and periodontal status. Both groups received oral hygiene education and scaling and root planing. Clinical evaluation was performed using plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), and clinical attachment level (CAL) before instrumentation (baseline) and at 3 and 6 months. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The data were statistically analyzed considering p < 0.05. Clinical conditions improved between baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment. However, NS had a better clinical response, presenting greater PPD reduction and CAL increase in comparison to SM. Periodontal treatment reduced the levels of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia individually after 3 months for the NS group and after 6 months for both groups. The prevalence of Candida species was markedly higher in SM than in NS at all time points evaluated. Periodontopathogens associated or not with C. albicans or C. dubliniensis were more prevalent in SM than in NS at baseline and after 3 months. It was concluded that smoking impairs clinical and microbiological responses to periodontal therapy. Periodontopathogens combined or not with some Candida species are resistant to short-term periodontal therapy in SM. PMID:27556680

  15. Cluster Analysis in the COPDGene Study Identifies Subtypes of Smokers with Distinct Patterns of Airway Disease and Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Castaldi, Peter J; Dy, Jennifer; Ross, James; Chang, Yale; Washko, George R; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Williams, Andre; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Bowler, Russ P; Regan, Elizabeth A; Hokanson, John E; Kinney, Greg L; Han, Meilan K; Soler, Xavier; Ramsdell, Joseph W; Barr, R Graham; Foreman, Marilyn; van Beek, Edwin; Casaburi, Richard; Criner, Gerald J; Lutz, Sharon M; Rennard, Steven I; Santorico, Stephanie; Sciurba, Frank C; DeMeo, Dawn L; Hersh, Craig P; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Background There is notable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of patients with COPD. To characterize this heterogeneity, we sought to identify subgroups of smokers by applying cluster analysis to data from the COPDGene Study. Methods We applied a clustering method, k-means, to data from 10,192 smokers in the COPDGene Study. After splitting the sample into a training and validation set, we evaluated three sets of input features across a range of k (user-specified number of clusters). Stable solutions were tested for association with four COPD-related measures and five genetic variants previously associated with COPD at genome-wide significance. The results were confirmed in the validation set. Findings We identified four clusters that can be characterized as 1) relatively resistant smokers (i.e. no/mild obstruction and minimal emphysema despite heavy smoking), 2) mild upper zone emphysema predominant, 3) airway disease predominant, and 4) severe emphysema. All clusters are strongly associated with COPD-related clinical characteristics, including exacerbations and dyspnea (p<0.001). We found strong genetic associations between the mild upper zone emphysema group and rs1980057 near HHIP, and between the severe emphysema group and rs8034191 in the chromosome 15q region (p<0.001). All significant associations were replicated at p<0.05 in the validation sample (12/12 associations with clinical measures and 2/2 genetic associations). Interpretation Cluster analysis identifies four subgroups of smokers that show robust associations with clinical characteristics of COPD and known COPD-associated genetic variants. PMID:24563194

  16. [Salivary, urinary and plasma thiocyanate in smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Ngogang, J; Eben-Moussi, E; Raisonnier, A

    1983-03-01

    Thiocyanate is a major metabolic product of hydrocyanic acid. Its concentration in the serum, urine and saliva of individuals with little exposure to hydrocyanic acid (i.e. non smokers) is very low. But about three fold higher concentrations of thiocyanate are found in the sera, urine and saliva of smokers as compared to non smokers, because of cyanide provided by cigarette smoke. The concentrations of thiocyanate in the three biological fluids studied were different and it appeared to be no correlation in the distribution of thiocyanate concentrations in these fluids when individual subjects were compared. Urinary and salivary concentration power showed decreased kidney excretion of thiocyanate in smokers. The appearance or the disappearance of thiocyanates in the saliva and the urine takes place slowly. The salivary or urinary levels of thiocyanates are therefore good indicators of chronic intoxication from tobacco because it is not very sensitive to daily variations in tobacco smoking; it reflects the slow transformation of cyanide as well as the final elimination of this ion from urine which is slowed down in smokers. PMID:6343971

  17. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers’ social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers’ understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  18. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  19. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  20. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  1. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

  2. Asthma and its relation to smoking behavior and cessation motives among adult daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Avallone, Kimberly M; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; Jeffries, Emily R

    2013-06-01

    Despite the negative effects of smoking on lung functioning and overall health, smoking is more prevalent among individuals with asthma compared to those without asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive ability of asthma diagnosis in terms of smoking behavior and reasons for quitting. Participants were 251 regular daily smokers: 125 smokers with self-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma and 126 smokers without asthma. Asthma diagnosis significantly predicted age of regular smoking onset, number of quit attempts, and reasons for quitting related to self-control suggesting that smokers with asthma may have more difficulty quitting and unique reasons for quitting.

  3. [Length and surface density of the resorption villi's blood vessels in smokers placentas].

    PubMed

    Zigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Ramić, Suada

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted with intention to reveal the quantitative values of feto-maternal nutrition exchange in smokers placentas, considering the great importance of harmful influence of smoking in pregnancy. The study was done on 90 human placentas. We have divided them into three groups: 30 placentas of moderate smokers, 30 placentas of heavy smokers and control group (non-smokers). Stereologic analysis was done with multipurpose test system M42. Pregnant smokers (both moderate and heavy) had significantly lower length density of the blood vessels compared to the control group. Significantly higher surface density of the blood vessels was found in the pregnant heavy smokers. The least absolute length density of the resorption villi's blood vessels was in the pregnant heavy smokers and it was significantly lower compared to pregnant moderate smokers and control group. In the group of the pregnant heavy smokers there was statistically higher average absolute surface of the blood vessels. The intensity of smoking effects the structural changes of the placenta. Intensity of smoking during pregnancy had a great impact on the proportion of the morphologic changes of the placentas. It leads to hypoxia, which in turn may be the cause of fetal growth and developmental retardation.

  4. Distribution and levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the lung and plasma in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Linja-aho, Anna; Mazur, Witold; Toljamo, Tuula; Nieminen, Pentti; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Rönty, Mikko; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2013-01-01

    Our recent non-biased proteomic screening study revealed elevated SerpinA1 i.e. alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in induced sputum of smokers with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to further investigate the role of AAT in smokers and subjects with COPD. The expression/distribution of AAT was studied by immunohistochemistry/digital image morphometry in the lung, by Western blot in the lung and sputum, and by ELISA in the plasma at baseline (n = 349) and after a 2-year follow-up (n = 58). AAT was localized mainly in airway and alveolar epithelium and endothelium, especially in smokers and in those with COPD. AAT was elevated in smokers and in subjects with COPD in the lung endothelial cells. Total lung AAT immunoreactivity was elevated in subjects with moderate COPD compared with smokers and with non-smokers. AAT showed elevated tendency in sputum of smokers with COPD compared with 'healthy' smokers. Plasma AAT levels were elevated in smokers with/without COPD compared with non-smokers. In the follow-up, plasma AAT concentrations decreased significantly after quitting smoking. Chronic smoking/COPD leads to AAT elevation especially in the endothelium of the lung periphery; these changes reflect only modestly to the AAT in sputum, while plasma AAT significantly reflects smoking-related systemic manifestations, and decreases after smoking cessation.

  5. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  6. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  7. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  8. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  9. Cardiac autonomic function in healthy young smokers.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Alim; Ayhan, Suzi Selim; Öztürk, Serkan; Özlü, Mehmet Fatih; Alcelik, Aytekin; Sahin, Safak; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Gumustekin, Kenan; Yazici, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in healthy young smokers (<40 years) to assess the effects of smoking on cardiac autonomic function. The study included 75 smokers with a history of habitual smoking for at least 1 year (41 males and 34 females; mean age, 29.3 ± 7.3 years) and 30 nonsmokers (hospital staff; 16 males and 14 females; mean age, 29.0 ± 6.1 years). Addiction to smoking was evaluated using the modified Fagerström test for nicotine-dependence index (NDI). HRT, HRV, basic clinical and echocardiographic, and Holter test parameters were compared between groups. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the basic clinical and echocardiographic variables. Turbulence onset (TO) was significantly higher in the smoking group than in the controls, and turbulence slope was significantly lower in the smokers, than in the controls (p < 0.05). Standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) interval index (SDNNI) was the only HRV parameter that was significantly different between the smoking and control groups (p < 0.05). The NDI was positively correlated with the TO (p < 0.05). Smoking impairs the baroregulatory function in healthy young smokers, particularly the HRT parameters and SDNNI. Our findings highlight the importance of complete smoking cessation.

  10. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José; and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  11. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-02

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group.

  12. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  13. Detection of Salivary Human Papilloma Viruses 16 and 18 (HPV) in Smoker Men in an Iranian Population by PCR: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Bameri, Zakaria; Rigi, Fiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the oropharynx is acquired through a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. Recent epidemiologic evidence has suggested that HPV may be an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers, but risk factors for persistent HPV infection in the oropharynx are unknown. More evidence is needed regarding the prevalence of oral high-risk HPV among healthy smoker and nonsmoker adults. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare salivary infection with human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 between smokers and nonsmokers. Patients and Methods: A hundred healthy adult subjects were selected from Zahedan dental school for this pilot study. DNA was isolated from saliva samples and screened for high-risk HPV strains of HPV 16 and 18. Then, further processed using Real Time PCR for quantification and confirmation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Data was analyzed by t-test. Results: There were no high-risk types of virus in patients and no significant differences between the groups (P = 1). Conclusions: It seems that smoking cannot increase the prevalence of high risk HPV 16, 18 in saliva samples. PMID:25632381

  14. Recruiting unmotivated smokers into a smoking induction trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S; Staggs, Vincent S; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult smokers with low motivation to quit. Over 15 months, 33% of smokers who inquired about the study were enrolled. Common recruitment methods included word-of-mouth, print advertisements and clinic referrals. Frequently mentioned reasons for participating included to: gain financial incentives (44.7%), learn about research or help others quit (43%), learn about smoking and risks (40%) and help with future quits (i.e. Quit Assistance, 23.9%). Separate regression models predicting study outcomes at 26 weeks indicated that smokers who said they participated for Quit Assistance reported higher motivation to quit (B 1.26) and were more likely to have made a quit attempt (OR 2.03) compared to those not mentioning this reason, when baseline characteristics were controlled. Understanding reasons for unmotivated smokers' interest in treatment can help practitioners and researchers design effective strategies to engage this population. PMID:27081187

  15. Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Gupta, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ΔDBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (ΔDBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low

  16. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  17. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  18. A Feasibility Study of Home-Based Contingency Management with Adolescent Smokers of Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A.; Shelton, Brent J.; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted three video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT: n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT: n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until six-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until post-treatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  19. Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masamichi; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Background:Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. Methods:Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was re-evaluated, and AC was assessed in 147 of the male current smokers in 2009 (visit 2). The diagnosis of Mets was based on the criteria used in the Hisayama Study. Results:No significant relationships were observed between AC and spirometric parameters such as % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC. However, decline in FEV1 was significantly correlated with AC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that AC was a significant discriminating factor for decline in FEV1, independently of age, Brinkman index and change in body mass index from visit 1 to visit 2. At visit 2, there was a greater prevalence of decline in FEV1 among subjects with Mets (n=17) than among those without Mets. Although there were no differences in % predicted FVC, % predicted FEV1 or FEV1/FVC between subjects with or without Mets, the rate of decline in FEV1 was significantly greater in subjects with Mets than in those without. Conclusions:This retrospective analysis suggested that measuring AC may be useful for discriminating male smokers who show a decline in FEV1. PMID:23288999

  20. Intervention for Smokers through New Communication Technologies: What Perceptions Do Patients and Healthcare Professionals Have? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fábregas Escurriola, Mireia; Lozano Moreno, Maribel; Burón Leandro, Raquel; Gomez Quintero, Ana María; Ballve, Jose Luis; Clemente Jiménez, María Lourdes; Puigdomènech Puig, Elisa; Casas More, Ramón; Garcia Rueda, Beatriz; Casajuana, Marc; Méndez-Aguirre, Marga; Garcia Bonias, David; Fernández Maestre, Soraya; Sánchez Fondevila, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health service is increasing. In spite of limitations, such as lack of time and experience, the deployment of ICTs in the healthcare system has advantages which include patient satisfaction with secure messaging, and time saving benefits and utility for patients and health professionals. ICTs may be helpful as either interventions on their own or as complementary tools to help patients stop smoking. Objectives To gather opinions from both medical professionals and smokers about an email-based application that had been designed by our research group to help smoking cessation, and identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with interventions based on the utilization of ICTs for this purpose. Methods A qualitative, descriptive–interpretative study with a phenomenological perspective was performed to identify and interpret the discourses of the participating smokers and primary healthcare professionals. Data were obtained through two techniques: semi-structured individual interviews and discussion groups, which were recorded and later systematically and literally transcribed together with the interviewer’s notes. Data were analyzed with the ATLAS TI 6.0 programme. Results Seven individual interviews and four focal groups were conducted. The advantages of the application based on the email intervention designed by our research group were said to be the saving of time in consultations and ease of access for patients who found work timetables and following a programme for smoking cessation incompatible. The disadvantages were thought to be a lack of personal contact with the healthcare professional, and the possibility of cheating/ self-deception, and a greater probability of relapse on the part of the smokers. Conclusions Both patients and healthcare professionals viewed the email-based application to help patients stop smoking as a complementary aid to face-to-face consultations

  1. Do brain responses to emotional images and cigarette cues differ? An fMRI study in smokers.

    PubMed

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Edward F; Costa, Vincent D; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Brown, Victoria L; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Chronic smoking is thought to cause changes in brain reward systems that result in overvaluation of cigarette-related stimuli and undervaluation of natural rewards. We tested the hypotheses that, in smokers, brain circuits involved in emotional processing: (i) would be more active during exposure to cigarette-related than neutral pictures; and (ii) would be less active to pleasant compared with cigarette-related pictures, suggesting a devaluation of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. We obtained whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 smokers during the presentation of pleasant (erotica and romance), unpleasant (mutilations and sad), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Whole-brain analyses showed significantly larger BOLD responses during presentation of cigarette-related pictures relative to neutral ones within the secondary visual areas, the cingulate gyrus, the frontal gyrus, the dorsal striatum, and the left insula. BOLD responses to erotic pictures exceeded responses to cigarette-related pictures in all clusters except the insula. Within the left insula we observed larger BOLD responses to cigarette-related pictures than to all other picture categories. By including intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant pictures in addition to neutral ones, we were able to conclude that the presentation of cigarette-related pictures activates brain areas supporting emotional processes, but we did not find evidence of overall reduced activation of the brain reward systems in the presence of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. PMID:22097928

  2. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  3. Serum cotinine and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol levels among non-Hispanic Asian American smokers and nonsmokers as compared to other race/ethnicities: data from NHANES 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum cotinine and total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol (NNAL) levels from a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic Asian Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used for this purpose. The total sample size used was 4580. Regression models were fitted to estimate serum cotinine and urinary NNAL levels for smokers and nonsmokers aged 20 years and older adjusted for other factors that affect these levels. For nonsmokers, exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with about 30 times higher serum cotinine levels when compared to those without such exposure (0.717 ng mL(-1) vs. 0.024 ng mL(-1), p<0.01). NNAL levels among nonsmokers with second hand smoke exposure at home were about twenty times what they were in those without such exposure (9 pg mL(-1) vs. 109 pg mL(-1), p<0.01). As compared to other racial/ethnic groups, the lowest adjusted serum cotinine levels occurred in non-Hispanic Asian smokers (92.6 ng mL(-1)) and Hispanics (84.5 ng mL(-1)) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (143.8 ng mL(-1)) and non-Hispanic blacks (158.4 ng mL(-1)). Urinary NNAL levels for smokers were in the order: non-Hispanic Asian (0.121 ng mL(-1))Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had substantially higher levels of serum cotinine but substantially lower levels of urinary NNAL irrespective of smoking status thus pointing towards differences in elimination kinetics of nicotine/cotinine and NNAL.

  4. Smokers at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  5. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all P<0.001). A weak but positive correlation was observed between VRIS and smoking index. Conclusions VRI can intuitively show the differences between non-smokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  6. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  7. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  8. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  9. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  10. A preliminary study suggests that nicotine and prefrontal dopamine affect cortico-striatal areas in smokers with performance feedback

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. R.; Gallen, C.L.; Ross, T.J.; Kurup, P.; Salmeron, B.J.; Hodgkinson, C.A.; Goldman, D.; Stein, E. A.; Enoch, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine and tonic DA levels (as inferred by COMT Val158Met genotype) interact to affect prefrontal processing. Prefrontal cortical areas are involved in response to performance feedback, which is impaired in smokers. We investigated whether there is a nicotine × COMT genotype interaction in brain circuitry during performance feedback of a reward task. We scanned 23 healthy smokers (10 Val/Val homozygotes, 13 Met allele carriers) during two fMRI sessions while subjects were wearing a nicotine or placebo patch. A significant nicotine × COMT genotype interaction for BOLD signal during performance feedback in corticostriatal areas was seen. Activation in these areas during the nicotine patch condition was greater in Val/Val homozygotes and reduced in Met allele carriers. During negative performance feedback, the change in activation in error detection areas such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/superior frontal gyrus on nicotine compared to placebo was greater in Val/Val homozygotes compared to Met allele carriers. With transdermal nicotine administration, Val/Val homozygotes showed greater activation with performance feedback in the dorsal striatum, areas associated with habitual responding. In response to negative feedback, Val/Val homozygotes had greater activation in error detection areas, including the ACC, suggesting increased sensitivity to loss with nicotine exposure. Although these results are preliminary due to small sample size, nevertheless, they suggest a possible neurobiological mechanism underlying the clinical observation that Val/Val homozygotes, presumably with elevated COMT activity compared to Met allele carriers and therefore reduced prefrontal DA levels, have poorer outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:23433232

  11. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  12. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  13. African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ebersole-Robinson, Maiko; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, African Americans have lower cessation rates and experience disproportionately higher rates of smoking-related health consequences. Because of their high preference for menthol cigarettes, it has been suggested that smoking menthol cigarettes may contribute to the excess smoking-related morbidity experienced by African Americans. Smoking menthol cigarettes could increase health risks from smoking if smokers of menthol cigarettes have lower cessation rates and thereby have longer duration of smoking compared to smokers of nonmentholated cigarettes. Few studies have examined associations between smoking of mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation among African Americans. This study examined the smoking patterns of menthol cigarette smokers and their smoking cessation experiences. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 480 African-American smokers at an inner-city health center. Survey examined sociodemographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking cessation experiences of participants. Menthol smokers (n = 407) were compared to nonmenthol smokers (n = 73) in these characteristics. RESULTS: Menthol smokers were younger and more likely to smoke cigarettes with longer rod length, with filters, and those high in nicotine and tar. Although both groups did not differ by number of past quit attempts, time since most recent quit attempt was shorter for menthol smokers. The durations of most recent and longest-ever quit attempts were nonsignificantly shorter for menthol, compared to nonmenthol smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that African-American menthol smokers are less successful with smoking cessation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine mechanisms underlying such differences. PMID:15481749

  14. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  15. Varenicline-Induced Elevation of Dopamine in Smokers: A Preliminary [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO PET Study.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Guranda, Mihail; Lagzdins, Dina; Tyndale, Rachel F; Gamaleddin, Islam; Selby, Peter; Boileau, Isabelle; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist, is the most effective treatment for tobacco use disorder. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear and may involve stimulating dopaminergic transmission. Here we used PET imaging with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO to explore for the first time the impact of varenicline on dopamine transmission in the D2-rich striatum and D3-rich extra-striatal regions and its relationship with craving, withdrawal and smoking. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers underwent two PET scans with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, each following 12-h overnight smoking abstinence both prior to receiving varenicline and following 10-11 days of varenicline treatment (ie, at steady-state drug levels). Subjective measures of craving and urges to smoke were also assessed on the days of the PET scans. Varenicline treatment significantly reduced [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the dorsal caudate (p=0.008) and reduced some craving measures. These findings provide the first evidence that varenicline is able to increase DA levels in the human brain, a factor that may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26442600

  16. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥ 10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease.

  18. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in ATM Gene, Cooking Oil Fumes and Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in Chinese Female Non-Smokers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Yin, Zhihua; Wu, Wei; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    Background The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene plays an important role in the DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ATM -111G>A (rs189037) polymorphism, environmental risk factors and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese female non-smokers. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 487 lung cancer patients and 516 matched cancer-free controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and environmental risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, 10 ml venous blood was collected from each subject for biomarker testing. Single nucleotide polymorphism was determined by using TaqMan method. Results This study showed that the individuals with ATM rs189037 AA genotype were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the GA or GG genotype (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.02, P = 0.039). The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ATM rs189037 AA genotype in individuals who never or seldom were exposed to cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.03–3.49, P = 0.040). Conclusions ATM rs189037 might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, ATM rs189037 AA genotype might be a risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers without cooking oil fume exposure. PMID:24819391

  20. Attentional bias in smokers: exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies.

    PubMed

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Voogd, Hubert; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that smokers have an attentional bias for pictorial smoking cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether smokers also have an attentional bias for dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies and therefore fixate more quickly, more often and for longer periods of time on dynamic smoking cues than non-smokers. By drawing upon established methods for assessing attentional biases for pictorial cues, we aimed to develop a new method for assessing attentional biases for dynamic smoking cues. We examined smokers' and non-smokers' eye movements while watching a movie clip by using eye-tracking technology. The sample consisted of 16 smoking and 17 non-smoking university students. Our results confirm the results of traditional pictorial attentional bias research. Smokers initially directed their gaze more quickly towards smoking-related cues (p = 0.01), focusing on them more often (p = 0.05) and for a longer duration (p = 0.01) compared with non-smokers. Thus, smoking cues in movies directly affect the attention of smokers. These findings indicate that the effects of dynamic smoking cues, in addition to other environmental smoking cues, need to be taken into account in smoking cessation therapies in order to increase successful smoking cessation and to prevent relapses.

  1. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus H; Walter, Bertram; Kagerer, Sabine; Mucha, Ronald F; Pauli, Paul; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers

  2. Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm.

  3. Evaluation of young smokers and non-smokers with Electrogustometry and Contact Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Pavlidis; Vasilios, Nikolaidis; Antonia, Anogeianaki; Dimitrios, Koutsonikolas; Georgios, Kekes; Georgios, Anogianakis

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is the cause of inducing changes in taste functionality under conditions of chronic exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate taste sensitivity in young smokers and non-smokers and identify any differences in the shape, density and vascularisation of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of their tongue. Methods Sixty-two male subjects who served in the Greek military forces were randomly chosen for this study. Thirty-four were non-smokers and 28 smokers. Smokers were chosen on the basis of their habit to hold the cigarette at the centre of their lips. Taste thresholds were measured with Electrogustometry (EGM). The morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) at the tip of the tongue were examined with Contact Endoscopy (CE). Results There was found statistically important difference (p < 0.05) between the taste thresholds of the two groups although not all smokers presented with elevated taste thresholds: Six of them (21%) had taste thresholds similar to those of non-smokers. Differences concerning the shape and the vessels of the fungiform papillae between the groups were also detected. Fewer and flatter fPap were found in 22 smokers (79%). Conclusion The majority of smokers shown elevated taste thresholds in comparison to non-smokers. Smoking is an important factor which can lead to decreased taste sensitivity. The combination of methods, such as EGM and CE, can provide useful information about the vascularisation of taste buds and their functional ability. PMID:19695082

  4. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  5. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  6. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers.

  7. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  8. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  9. [Personality disorders in smokers: a review].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Elena; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2010-01-01

    The association between psychopathology and nicotine dependence in smokers has been a relevant topic in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about personality disorders in smokers. The aim of this article is to review research published nationally and internationally which analyzes the relation between tobacco use and personality disorders. Our review permits us to affirm that research on the presence of Axis II disorders in smokers is rather scarce. Of 12 studies analyzed, it can be concluded that the prevalence of personality disorders in smokers is highly variable (between 9% and 45%), and that, in the majority of the studies, smoking is associated first with the presence of cluster C disorders (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive), and second, with cluster B disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial). Finally, we note the various limitations of previous studies and stress the need to better understand these disorders, given their relevance to the treatment of smokers.

  10. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  11. Comparisons of various salivary parameters in smokers before and after the use of a nicotine-containing chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Olson, B L; McDonald, J L; Gleason, M J; Stookey, G K; Schemehorn, B R; Drook, C A; Beiswanger, B B; Christen, A G

    1985-05-01

    This study was designed to compare various salivary parameters between smokers and non-smokers and to determine the influence of a nicotine-containing chewing gum (used to aid in quit-smoking efforts) upon these same parameters. At the baseline examination, subjects were assigned to one of three groups: non-smokers who did not utilize any gum, smokers provided a nicotine-containing gum, and smokers provided a placebo gum. Saliva was collected from all subjects and analyzed for acidogenicity and buffer pH as well as for levels of thiocyanate, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and secretory IgA. After 15 weeks of gum usage, saliva was again collected from each subject and the identical analyses performed. Significant differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers with regard to three parameters: The saliva of smokers contained greater concentrations of thiocyanate and lower concentrations of lactoferrin, at the baseline examination and after the 15-week test period. In addition, the CO content of alveolar air was higher in smokers at both examination periods. In contrast, the use of the nicotine gum per se had no effect on any of the test parameters.

  12. Altered Arterial Stiffness and Subendocardial Viability Ratio in Young Healthy Light Smokers after Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Robert J.; Scheffler, Patrick; Yu, Alice; Egiziano, Giordano; Mutter, Andrew; Bacon, Simon; Carli, Franco; Daskalopoulos, Marios E.; Daskalopoulou, Stella S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. Methods/Results Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9) and non-smokers (n = 53) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1) after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition) and 2) immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition). At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. Conclusion Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired ‘vascular reserve’ or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have

  13. Cognitive dissonance in tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    McMaster, C; Lee, C

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs about smoking of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers were examined within a cognitive dissonance framework. The 186 respondents completed a questionnaire concerned with smoking habits, knowledge of the effects of smoking, beliefs about smoking, and estimates of risk of lung cancer to themselves and to the average Australian smoker. Smokers estimated their risk of contracting lung cancer as greater than the risk non-smokers or ex-smokers saw for themselves, but less than the risk for the average Australian smoker. No differences were found in the amount of factual knowledge about the effects of smoking. However, smokers endorsed significantly more rationalisations and distortions of logic regarding smoking than did non-smokers or ex-smokers. Smokers may experience cognitive dissonance as a result of using tobacco despite its well-publicised ill-effects, and it may be that interventions targeting rationalisations for smoking will be useful in smoking cessation.

  14. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  15. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5

  16. Comparative waste forms study

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  17. Arsenic concentrations in prediagnostic toenails and the risk of bladder cancer in a cohort study of male smokers.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Wright, Margaret E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2004-11-01

    At high concentrations, inorganic arsenic can cause bladder cancer in humans. However, it is unclear whether low exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (<100 microg/liter) is related to bladder cancer risk. No study has been known to use biomarkers to assess the relation between individual arsenic exposure and bladder cancer risk. Toenail samples provide an integrated measure of internal arsenic exposure and reflect long-term exposure. The authors examined the relation between toenail arsenic levels and bladder cancer risk among participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort of Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years. Data for 280 incident bladder cancer cases, identified between baseline (1985-1988) and April 1999, were available for analysis. One control was matched to each case on the basis of age, toenail collection date, intervention group, and smoking duration. Arsenic levels in toenail samples were determined by using neutron activation analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Arsenic toenail concentrations in this Finnish study were similar to those reported in US studies (range: 0.02-17.5 microg/g). The authors observed no association between inorganic arsenic concentration and bladder cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 1.81 for the highest vs. lowest quartile). These findings suggest that low-level arsenic exposure is unlikely to explain a substantial excess risk of bladder cancer. PMID:15496537

  18. Arsenic concentrations in prediagnostic toenails and the risk of bladder cancer in a cohort study of male smokers.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Wright, Margaret E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2004-11-01

    At high concentrations, inorganic arsenic can cause bladder cancer in humans. However, it is unclear whether low exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (<100 microg/liter) is related to bladder cancer risk. No study has been known to use biomarkers to assess the relation between individual arsenic exposure and bladder cancer risk. Toenail samples provide an integrated measure of internal arsenic exposure and reflect long-term exposure. The authors examined the relation between toenail arsenic levels and bladder cancer risk among participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort of Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years. Data for 280 incident bladder cancer cases, identified between baseline (1985-1988) and April 1999, were available for analysis. One control was matched to each case on the basis of age, toenail collection date, intervention group, and smoking duration. Arsenic levels in toenail samples were determined by using neutron activation analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Arsenic toenail concentrations in this Finnish study were similar to those reported in US studies (range: 0.02-17.5 microg/g). The authors observed no association between inorganic arsenic concentration and bladder cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 1.81 for the highest vs. lowest quartile). These findings suggest that low-level arsenic exposure is unlikely to explain a substantial excess risk of bladder cancer.

  19. Responses to online GSTM1 genetic test results among smokers related to patients with lung cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; O'Neill, Suzanne C; White, Della Brown; Bepler, Gerold; Bastian, Lori; Lipkus, Isaac M; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-07-01

    Providing smokers with personal genetic test results indicating increased lung cancer risk may increase uptake of effective smoking cessation services. Using the internet may increase reach and enable real-time assessment of how people process genetic risk information away from the clinic setting. We therefore explored smokers' responses to Web-delivered GSTM1 genetic test results indicating higher or lower lung cancer risk. Participants were smokers (n = 44) biologically related to patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Measures were assessed at baseline, before and immediately after receipt of online genetic test results, and at 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included accurate comprehension of results, regret about being tested, cessation-related cognitions (e.g., perceived response efficacy), and uptake of free smoking cessation services (nicotine replacement therapy, printed self-help materials, telephone counseling sessions). Twenty-two "relative smokers" received a GSTM1-missing (higher risk) and 22 a GSTM1-present (lower risk) result. All relative smokers with GSTM1-missing results and 55% of those with GSTM1-present results accurately interpreted their results. No relative smokers regretted having taken the test. Relative smokers receiving GSTM1-missing results reported lower confidence that quitting could reduce lung cancer risk (perceived response efficacy) than those receiving GSTM1-present results. There were no other significant between-group differences. Uptake of smoking cessation services was high (e.g., 91% nicotine replacement therapy uptake). Genetic test results may not influence uptake of free smoking cessation services because of ceiling effects. Further research is needed to determine the risks and benefits of Web-based disclosure of genetic test results.

  20. Comparing the Experience of Regret and Its Predictors Among Smokers in Four Asian Countries: Findings From the ITC Surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Lee, Wonkyong B.; Laux, Fritz L.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341–S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: “If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking.” Results: Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%–90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p < .001). Conclusions: Across the Asian countries and high-income Western countries, the prevalence of regret varies, but the factors predicting regret are quite consistent. Regret may be an important indicator of tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting. PMID:23509091

  1. Lack of an Association between Passive Smoking and Incidence of Female Breast Cancer in Non-Smokers: Evidence from 10 Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Skrip, Laura; Wang, Yang; Liu, Shengchun

    2013-01-01

    Background Several case-control studies have suggested that passive smoking may increase the incidence of female breast cancer. However, the results of cohort studies have been inconsistent in establishing an association. The present study evaluated the association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods Relevant articles published before August 2012 were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined with either a fixed or random effects model and were used to assess the strength of the association. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, menopausal status, and the period and place of exposure to passive smoking were also performed. Results Ten prospective cohort studies involving 782 534 female non-smokers were included in the meta-analysis and 14 831 breast cancer cases were detected. Compared with the women without exposure to passive smoking, the overall combined RR of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.06, P = 0.73) among women with exposure to passive smoking. Similar results were achieved through the subgroup analyses. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that passive smoking may not be associated with increased incidence of breast cancer. However, the present conclusion should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:24204725

  2. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Pickworth, Wallace B.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Wetter, David W.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Method: Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. Results: In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Conclusion: Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. PMID:26180228

  3. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  4. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X.; Yi, Zan X.; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  5. Does "smoker's paradox" exist in clopidogrel-treated Turkish patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Edem, Efe; Kirdök, Ali Hikmet; Kınay, Ahmet Ozan; Tekin, Ümit İlker; Taş, Sedat; Alpaslan, Erkan; Pabuccu, Mustafa Türker; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Previously conducted studies revealed that smoking enhanced the efficacy of clopidogrel by increasing formation of the active metabolite (AM) from the prodrug through induction of the cytochrome CYP1A2. The expression of cytochrome enzymes depends on genotype and no data exists in literature conducted in Turkish patients comparing the clopidogrel responsiveness between active smokers and non-active smokers treated with clopidogrel. In this study, our aim was to investigate the clopidogrel responsiveness in clopidogrel-treated Turkish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients according to their smoking status. We retrospectively enrolled 258 patients who were hospitalized due to ACS. Clinical variables of the patients, especially smoking status were recorded. Clopidogrel resistance was evaluated by using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregometry. Clopidogrel resistance was detected as a change in maximal aggregation ≤20% from baseline. A total of 139 patients were active smokers while 12 were former smokers. 107 patients did not have a history of smoking. Ten of the smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel, whereas 36 of non-smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel (p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that Au-min value >612.5 predicted the clopidogrel resistance with a sensitivity of 60% (OR: 100.65, %95 CI = 19.996-506.615 p < 0.001). Results of this study demonstrated that ADP responses were lower in smokers receiving clopidogrel and aspirin than in non-smokers receiving the same drug regimen. This finding indicates that smoking was related to an enhanced clopidogrel responsiveness in Turkish patients hospitalized due to ACS, suggesting that "smoker's paradox" probably exists in Turkish ACS patients. PMID:26367336

  6. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during coughing in smokers. [Conclusion] The activity of the deep abdominal muscles in nonsmokers was also higher than that of smokers during coughing. PMID:27190443

  7. Gut Microbial Diversity Is Reduced in Smokers with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Jorrit L.; Plassais, Jonathan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Achouri, Emna; Pichaud, Matthieu; Siersema, Peter D.; Cervino, Alessandra C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. Methods: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. On average, 40 million paired-end reads were generated per sample. Gene richness and the Shannon index were computed to assess microbial diversity. Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests for paired samples were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups. Results: In total, 21 smoking and 21 nonsmoking patients with CD were included. Compared with nonsmoking patients, gut microbial gene richness (P = 0.01), genus diversity (P < 0.01), and species diversity (P = 0.01) were decreased in smoking patients. This was accompanied by a reduced relative abundance of the genera Collinsella (P = 0.02), Enterorhabdus (P = 0.02), and Gordonibacter (P = 0.02) in smokers. No statistically significant differences at the species level were observed, although smokers had lower proportions of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.10). Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is reduced in smokers with CD compared with nonsmokers with CD. The microbial profile differs between these groups at the genus level. Future studies should evaluate whether intestinal microbes mediate the adverse effects of smoking in CD. PMID:27542127

  8. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  9. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and may improve the opportunities

  10. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure prevalence and secondhand smoke level of children living with parental smokers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Unger, Friederike; Groß, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Factors that might account for the probability of children being exposed to secondhand smoke compared to those who are unexposed and characteristics associated with the urinary cotinine level (UCL) of those who are exposed were investigated. All households in a German region with a child aged 3 years or younger (n = 3,570) were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing secondhand smoke exposure. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 915 (71.3%) participated in the study. For data analyses, we used a two-part model. Characteristics of the households associated with SHSE of the youngest child were analyzed, as well as characteristics associated with UCL among those exposed. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined using a UCL ≥ 10 ng/ml. Secondhand smoke exposure was detected in 57.1% of the samples. Nursery attendance was associated with secondhand smoke exposure, in addition to the number of smokers living in the household, extent of home smoking ban and parental education. Among children exposed, nursery attendance, season of urine collection and age of the child were associated with UCL. Consideration of seasonal smoking behavior and a child's age at the time of intervention may increase attention to the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  11. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (≥50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Results Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government’s failure to protect the public—even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Conclusion Given the Food and Drug Administration’s new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry’s “best customers” (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco. PMID:23958397

  12. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  13. Altered human brain anatomy in chronic smokers: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaojun; Qian, Wei; Shen, Zhujing; Zhang, Minming

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, such as China, and is the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. New emerging reports are highlighting how chronic cigarette smoking plays a role in neural dysfunctions, such as cognitive decline. Basic animal experimental studies have shown that rats undergo persistent pathological brain changes after being given chronic levels of nicotine. What is perhaps less appreciated is the fact that chronic cigarette smoking induces subtle anatomical changes in the human brain. Consequently, this chapter aims to summarize and integrate the existing magnetic resonance imaging studies on both gray- and white-matter marcostructural and microstructural changes. The reviewed studies demonstrate that chronic cigarette smoking results in discrete and localized alterations in brain region tissue (both the gray and white matter of different brain regions), which may, in part, be responsible for different neural dysfunctions. In addition, we further discuss the possible pathological and neurobiological mechanisms of these nicotinic effects on the brain tissue. We will also address the limitations of the current studies on this issue and identify opportunities for future research. PMID:25577510

  14. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  15. Altered human brain anatomy in chronic smokers: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaojun; Qian, Wei; Shen, Zhujing; Zhang, Minming

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, such as China, and is the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. New emerging reports are highlighting how chronic cigarette smoking plays a role in neural dysfunctions, such as cognitive decline. Basic animal experimental studies have shown that rats undergo persistent pathological brain changes after being given chronic levels of nicotine. What is perhaps less appreciated is the fact that chronic cigarette smoking induces subtle anatomical changes in the human brain. Consequently, this chapter aims to summarize and integrate the existing magnetic resonance imaging studies on both gray- and white-matter marcostructural and microstructural changes. The reviewed studies demonstrate that chronic cigarette smoking results in discrete and localized alterations in brain region tissue (both the gray and white matter of different brain regions), which may, in part, be responsible for different neural dysfunctions. In addition, we further discuss the possible pathological and neurobiological mechanisms of these nicotinic effects on the brain tissue. We will also address the limitations of the current studies on this issue and identify opportunities for future research.

  16. A Correlative Histocytological Study of Carcinoma and Epithelial Atypia of the Palate Among Indian Reverse Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Fali S.; Sahiar, B. E.; Daftary, D. K.; Gupta, P. C.; Pindborg, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    A correlative histocytological study was made of 6 patients with palatal carcinomata and 342 patients with palatal lesions (primarily leukoplakias) associated with reverse smoking from the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. Among 6 histologically diagnosed carcinomata only 2 showed cytological findings typical of carcinoma. Of the 46 atypias diagnosed histologically among the other palatal lesions, only 6 (13%) were diagnosed cytologically. Our findings show that cytological examination of precancerous and cancerous lesions located on the hard palate, which is a highly keratinized area of the oral cavity, may not be reliable enough for revealing premalignant or malignant changes. PMID:5047146

  17. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  18. Gender Differences in Responses to Cues Presented in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. PMID:25762753

  19. Wanting to attend isn’t just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged

  20. Smokers' perceptions of smokeless tobacco and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Sami, Mojgan; Timberlake, David S; Nelson, Russ; Goettsch, Brittany; Ataian, Naeem; Libao, Penney; Vassile, Elanora

    2012-05-01

    Existing survey data indicate that most smokers are not receptive to harm reduction incentives of switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT). Little is known about the underlying reasons for these views. To explore smokers' perceptions of SLT, we conducted a focus group (eight in total) study of daily smokers between 2009 and 2010 at the University of California, Irvine. We transcribed each 2-hour focus group verbatim and analyzed it using domain analysis. The discussions revealed several reasons why smokers are not receptive to SLT. First, smokers associated new spit-less SLT (that is, Snus) with historic images of chewing tobacco. Second, smokers viewed smoking as an incentive to take a break from their daily routine. Third, smokers expressed lack of control over nicotine delivery when using SLT, relative to cigarettes. These findings challenge tobacco manufacturers' strategies to market a smokeless alternative as a growing number of smoke-free policies are introduced.

  1. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S.; Moolchan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18–35. Methods Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Results Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = . 0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p =.01). Conclusions Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. PMID:25744873

  2. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  3. Current Major Depression Among Smokers Using a State Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Kiandra K.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Hernandez, Sandra; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking are generally not assessed for current depression, yet depression among smokers may influence quitting outcome. Purpose This study aims to formally assess current major depression among smokers calling a state tobacco quitline. Methods A total of 844 smokers calling the California Smokers’ Helpline in 2007 were screened for depression by the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was also administered to these callers. Two months after the screening, follow-up evaluations were conducted to assess cessation outcome. Results In all, 24.2% of smokers met criteria for current major depression and 16.5% reported symptoms indicating mild depression. Callers with current major depression were more likely to be heavy smokers and on Medicaid. Moreover, 74.0% of smokers with current major depression had substantial social and occupational functioning deficits. Two months later, those with major depression at baseline were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (18.5% vs 28.4%). Conclusions Almost one in four smokers to the California Smokers’ Helpline met criteria for current major depression. Over 400,000 smokers call state quitlines in the U.S. for help with quitting each year, which means that as many as 100,000 smokers with serious depressive symptoms are using these services annually. The large number of depressed smokers who seek help suggests a need to develop appropriate interventions to help them quit successfully. PMID:21146767

  4. Demystifying the Enigma of Smoking – An Observational Comparative Study on Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nallakunta, Rajesh; Reddy, Sudhakara Reddy; Chennoju, Sai Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a hazardous habit which causes definite changes in the oral cavity, consequently there exist changes in the mucosa when subjected to smoking. Palatal mucosa is first to be affected. The present study determines the palatal status in reverse smokers and conventional smokers. Aim To study and compare the clinical, cytological and histopathological changes in palatal mucosa among reverse and conventional smokers. Materials and Methods Study sample was categorized into two groups. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of reverse smoking and Group 2 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of conventional smoking. Initially, clinical appearance of the palatal mucosa was recorded, followed by a cytological smear and biopsy of the involved area among all the subjects. The findings were studied clinically, the specimens were analysed cytologically and histopathologically, and compared among the two groups. Results The severity of clinical changes of the palatal mucosa among reverse smokers was statistically significant when compared to those of conventional smokers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in cytological staging between the groups with a p-value of 0.35. The histopathological changes in both the groups showed a significant difference with a p-value of 0.02. A significant positive correlation was observed between the clinical appearance, and cytological, histopathological changes. Conclusion Profound clinically aggressive changes were observed in group I compared to group II. Severity of dysplastic changes have been detected in few subjects through histopathological examination irrespective of no prominent clinical and cytological changes observed among the two groups. PMID:27190962

  5. The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1,623,713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

  6. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  7. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  8. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  9. Sputum proteomics identifies elevated PIGR levels in smokers and mild-to-moderate COPD.

    PubMed

    Ohlmeier, Steffen; Mazur, Witold; Linja-Aho, Anna; Louhelainen, Noora; Rönty, Mikko; Toljamo, Tuula; Bergmann, Ulrich; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. However, the exact mechanisms leading to COPD and its progression are still poorly understood. In this study, induced sputum was analyzed by cysteine-specific two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry to identify proteins involved in COPD pathogenesis. The comparison of nonsmokers, smokers, and smokers with moderate COPD revealed 15 changed proteins with the majority, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), being elevated in smokers and subjects with COPD. PIGR, which is involved in specific immune defense and inflammation, was further studied in sputum, lung tissue, and plasma by Western blot, immunohistochemistry/image analysis, and/or ELISA. Sputum PIGR was characterized as glycosylated secretory component (SC). Lung PIGR was significantly elevated in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium of smokers and further increased in the alveolar area in mild to moderate COPD. Plasma PIGR was elevated in smokers and smokers with COPD compared to nonsmokers with significant correlation to obstruction. In conclusion, new proteins in smoking-related chronic inflammation and COPD could be identified, with SC/PIGR being one of the most prominent not only in the lung but also in circulating blood.

  10. Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Goecke, Michaela; Bühler, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Even though many adolescent smokers want to quit, it is difficult to recruit them into smoking cessation interventions. Little is known about which adolescent smokers are currently reached by these measures. In this study we compare participants of a group-based, cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention with adolescent smokers who decided against participating. Within a non-randomized controlled trial, data of 1053 smokers (age 11–19) from 42 German secondary schools were analyzed. Of these smokers, 272 were recruited into 47 courses of the intervention. An in-class information session, individually addressing potential participants, and incentives were used as means of recruitment. Personal predictors of participation were analyzed using regression analyses and multivariate path analyses to test for mediation. In the path analysis model, nicotine dependence, quit motivation, and a previous quit attempt were directly positively related to participation. Heavier smoking behavior was indirectly positively associated with participation through nicotine dependence and negatively through quit motivation, yielding an overall positive indirect effect. The positive effect of a previous quit attempt on participation was partially mediated through nicotine dependence and quit motivation. The proportion of smoking friends were indirectly positively related to participation, mediated through nicotine dependence. Since adolescents with heavier smoking behavior and stronger nicotine dependence are less likely to undertake a successful unassisted quit attempt, the reach of these young smokers with professional cessation interventions is desirable. Further measures to improve the recruitment of those currently not motivated to quit have to be examined in future studies. PMID:25678303

  11. HbA1c, fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose in current-, ex-, and non-smokers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H; Lange, Celine; Lee, Crystal MY; Colagiuri, Stephen; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Magliano, Dianna; Ferreira, Sandra RS; Dong, Yanghu; Zhang, Lei; Jorgensen, Torben; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Mohan, Viswanathan; Christensen, Dirk L; Kaduka, Lydia; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Lantieri, Olivier; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Leonetti, Donna L; McNeely, Marguerite J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Boyko, Edward J; Vistisen, Dorte; Balkau, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    Aim The relations between smoking and glycaemic parameters are not well explored. We compare HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current-, ex- and never-smokers. Methods This meta-analysis used individual data from 16 886 men and 18 539 women without known diabetes, in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French D.E.S.I.R. and TELECOM studies. Means of the three glycaemic parameters in current-, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I2 statistic evaluated heterogeneity among studies. Results HbA1c was 0.10 (95%CI:0.08,0.12) % [1.1 (0.9,1.3) mmol/mol] higher in current-smokers and 0.03 (0.01,0.05) % [0.3 (0.1,0.5) mmol/l] higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current- and never-smokers: −0.004 (−0.03,0.02) mmol/l but FPG was higher in ex-smokers: 0.12 (0.09,0.14) mmol/l. In comparison to never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower: −0.44 (−0.52,−0.37) mmol/l in current-smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers: 0.02 (−0.06,0.09) mmol/l. There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I2 always higher than 50%: after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI, I2 changed little. In this study population, current-smokers had a prevalence of diabetes as screened by HbA1c, 1.30% higher and that screened by 2H-PG, 0.52% lower than in comparison to never-smokers. Conclusion Current-smokers had a higher HbA1c and a lower 2H-PG than never-smokers, across this heterogeneous group of studies; this will effect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes. PMID:24065153

  12. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    PubMed

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis.

  13. Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with diabetes who are smokers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease, premature death, and microvascular complications. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and to evaluate if the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety differ between the three groups studied (patients with T2D who smoke; patients with T2D who do not smoke; smokers without T2D), and finally determine if the degree of nicotine dependence is related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in smokers (with or without T2D). Methods Three study groups were formed: 46 T2D smokers (DS), 46 T2D non-smokers (D), and 46 smokers without diabetes (S), totaling 138 participants. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and Fagerström Test were applied. Results The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with T2D was 30.4% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.072) or depression (p = 0.657) in the DS group compared to group D or S. Among male patients with T2D, the smokers had a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (19.6%) than non-smokers (4,3%) (p = 0,025). The prevalence of high nicotine dependence among smokers with and without T2D was 39.1% and 37.1%, respectively (p = 0.999). Fagerström scores showed no significant correlation with the scores obtained on the subscale of anxiety (p = 0,735) or depression (p = 0,364). Conclusions The prevalence of depression and anxiety among smokers with and without diabetes and non-smokers T2D is similar. Among male individuals with T2D, the smokers have more symptoms of anxiety than the non-smokers. There is no difference in the prevalence of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without diabetes. The presence of symptoms of anxiety or depression is similar between patients who are dependent and not

  14. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Lynch, David A.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Austin, John H. M.; Grenier, Philippe A.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Casaburi, Richard H.; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Washko, George R.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E.; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M.; Make, Barry J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. OBJECTIVE To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. RESULTS One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping

  15. Increased cytogenetic damage in smokers deficient in glutathione S-transferase isozyme mu.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, G; de Vogel, N; van Balderen, P J; Kok, F J

    1992-02-01

    Reduced expression of the mu-isozyme of glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk. We studied the association between GST-mu expression and DNA damage as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in healthy male smokers. SCE levels were higher in the 71 GST-mu-deficient smokers compared to the 83 non-deficient smokers (5.24 versus 4.97 SCE/lymphocyte; P = 0.09). In smokers having high plasma cotinine levels (greater than median of 315 ng/ml), this mu-related difference was more pronounced (5.50 versus 4.97; P = 0.01), whereas it was absent in smokers having low cotinine levels (4.95 versus 4.97; P = 0.92). Increased cytogenetic damage in GST-mu-deficient heavy smokers may thus explain the association between GST-mu expression and lung cancer. PMID:1740022

  16. DNA methylation in nasal epithelial cells from smokers: identification of ULBP3-related effects

    PubMed Central

    Rager, Julia E.; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta L.; Smeester, Lisa; Carson, Johnny L.; Brighton, Luisa E.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that, in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from smokers, methylation of an antiviral gene was associated with impaired antiviral defense responses. To expand these findings and better understand biological mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke (CS)-induced modifications of host defense responses, we aimed to compare DNA methylation of genes that may play a role in antiviral response. We used a two-tiered analytical approach, where we first implemented a genome-wide strategy. NECs from smokers differed in the methylation levels of 390 genes, the majority (84%) of which showed decreased methylation in smokers. Secondly, we generated an a priori set of 161 antiviral response-related genes, of which five were differentially methylated in NEC from smokers (CCL2, FDPS, GSK3B, SOCS3, and ULBP3). Assessing these genes at the systems biology level revealed a protein interaction network associated with CS-induced epigenetic modifications involving SOCS3 and ULBP3 signaling, among others. Subsequent confirmation studies focused on SOCS3 and ULBP3, which were hypomethylated and hypermethylated, respectively. Expression of SOCS3 was increased, whereas ULBP3 expression was decreased in NECs from smokers. Addition of the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced ULBP3 expression in NECs from smokers. Furthermore, infection of differentiated NECs with influenza virus resulted in significantly lower levels of ULBP3 in cells from smokers. Taken together, our findings show that genomic DNA methylation profiles are altered in NECs from smokers and that these changes are associated with decreased antiviral host defense responses, indicating that epigenenic dysregulation of genes such as SOCS3 and ULBP3 likely impacts immune responses in the epithelium. PMID:23831618

  17. DNA methylation in nasal epithelial cells from smokers: identification of ULBP3-related effects.

    PubMed

    Rager, Julia E; Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta L; Smeester, Lisa; Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2013-09-15

    We previously demonstrated that, in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from smokers, methylation of an antiviral gene was associated with impaired antiviral defense responses. To expand these findings and better understand biological mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke (CS)-induced modifications of host defense responses, we aimed to compare DNA methylation of genes that may play a role in antiviral response. We used a two-tiered analytical approach, where we first implemented a genome-wide strategy. NECs from smokers differed in the methylation levels of 390 genes, the majority (84%) of which showed decreased methylation in smokers. Secondly, we generated an a priori set of 161 antiviral response-related genes, of which five were differentially methylated in NEC from smokers (CCL2, FDPS, GSK3B, SOCS3, and ULBP3). Assessing these genes at the systems biology level revealed a protein interaction network associated with CS-induced epigenetic modifications involving SOCS3 and ULBP3 signaling, among others. Subsequent confirmation studies focused on SOCS3 and ULBP3, which were hypomethylated and hypermethylated, respectively. Expression of SOCS3 was increased, whereas ULBP3 expression was decreased in NECs from smokers. Addition of the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced ULBP3 expression in NECs from smokers. Furthermore, infection of differentiated NECs with influenza virus resulted in significantly lower levels of ULBP3 in cells from smokers. Taken together, our findings show that genomic DNA methylation profiles are altered in NECs from smokers and that these changes are associated with decreased antiviral host defense responses, indicating that epigenenic dysregulation of genes such as SOCS3 and ULBP3 likely impacts immune responses in the epithelium.

  18. DNA damage and repair capacity by comet assay in lymphocytes of white-collar active smokers and passive smokers (non- and ex-smokers) at workplace.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Doria, Denise; Franceschetti, Paola; Perbellini, Luigi; Romeo, Luciano

    2006-12-01

    The comet assay has been widely used to quantify DNA damage in isolated lymphocytes from subjects exposed to several environmental or occupational substances, especially for estimation of oxidative damage in the DNA, which is well-known to be induced by tobacco smoke. Passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been included among those substances that cause cancer with sufficient evidence in humans. In this study, we analyzed, by the alkaline version of comet assay, the lymphocyte DNA damage of white-collar active smokers and non- and ex-smokers exposed to ETS at the workplace. We investigated basal DNA damage, DNA oxidation by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), the repair capacity H2O2-induced DNA damage by kinetics studies and lymphocyte GSH levels, the major intracellular defense against exogenous oxidative stress imposed by cigarette smoking. Our results indicated high basal DNA damage with clear significant correlations with urinary nicotine and cotinine, number of cigarettes/day, and an inverse significant correlation with GSH cellular content in active smokers. Significant Fpg-sensitive sites were found in smokers (> 85%), considerably high but not significant in passive non- and ex-smokers (> 51% and 37%, respectively). The DNA repair capacity had seriously decreased in non-smokers > smokers > ex-smokers, while the same damage was repaired in a short time in never smokers. PMID:17027201

  19. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, P<.001). Of those who met initial screening

  20. Impulsivity and Cigarette Craving among Adolescent Daily and Occasional Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Burris, Jessica L.; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. Methods 106 smokers (ages 16–20) completed questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Results Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p’s>.16). Conclusions Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. PMID:25665916

  1. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  2. Genome-wide association study of genetic predictors of overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xifeng; Wang, Liang; Ye, Yuanqing; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Pu, Xia; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Roth, Jack A.; Marks, Randolph S.; Lippman, Scott M.; Chang, Joe Y.; Lu, Charles; Deschamps, Claude; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Wen-Chang; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chang, David W.; Li, Yan; Pankratz, V. Shane; Minna, John D.; Hong, Waun Ki; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    To identify the genetic factors that influence overall survival in never smokers who have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a consistency meta-analysis study utilizing genome-wide association approaches for overall survival in 327 never smoker NSCLC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center and 293 cases from the Mayo Clinic. We then performed a two-pronged validation of the top 25 variants that included additional validation in 1,256 NSCLC patients from Taiwan and assessment of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression of genes surrounding the top loci in 70 tumors and matched normal tissues. A total of 94 loci were significant for overall survival in both MD Anderson and Mayo studies in the consistency meta-analysis phase, with the top 25 variants reaching a p-value of 10−6. Two variants of these 25 were also significant in the Taiwanese population: rs6901416 (HR:1.44, 95%CI:1.01-2.06) and rs10766739 (HR:1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.51). These loci resulted in a reduction in median survival time of at least 8 and 5 months in three populations, respectively. An additional six variants (rs4237904, rs7976914, rs4970833, rs954785, rs485411, and rs10906104) were validated through eQTL analysis that identified significant correlations with expression levels of six genes (LEMD3, TMBIM, ATXN7L2, SHE, ITIH2, and NUDT5, respectively) in normal lung tissue. These genes were also significantly differentially expressed between the tumor and normal lung. These findings identify several novel, candidate prognostic markers for NSCLC in never smokers, with eQTL analysis suggesting a potential biological mechanism for a subset of these observed associations. PMID:23704207

  3. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  4. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  5. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  6. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  7. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A.; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Dodd, Michael D.; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  8. ITC “spit and butts” pilot study: The feasibility of collecting saliva and cigarette butt samples from smokers to evaluate policy

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard; Hammond, David; King, Bill; McNeill, Ann; Thrasher, James; Boado, Marcelo; Cummings, K. Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E.; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Large-scale epidemiological surveys have frequently relied upon clinic-based sample collection to incorporate biological data, which can be costly and result in nonrepresentative data. Collecting samples in a nonclinical setting (i.e., through postal mail or at the subject’s home) offers an alternative option that is minimally invasive and can be incorporated into large population-based studies. Objectives: (a) To assess the feasibility of collecting biological data from a cohort of smokers in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) study, through the mail and in the home; (b) to examine whether participants are representative of the population under consideration; and (c) to evaluate how the added burden of providing biomarker samples might impact subsequent participation in a follow-up survey. Methods: Participants were asked to provide a saliva sample and five cigarette butts from cigarettes smoked on a single day, using standardized procedures. Sample collection kits were mailed to a random sample of 400 daily cigarette smokers who were involved in the 2006 annual ITC Four Country (United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia) telephone survey and agreed to participate in sample collection. A random sample of 179 daily smokers who participated in a face-to-face ITC survey in Mexico and Uruguay and agreed to participate in sample collection were also asked to provide samples. Results: Samples were collected from 96% of invited participants in the face-to-face surveys and 52% of participants in the telephone survey. The added burden of the sample collection did not reduce survey retention rates. Participants who initially agreed to participate in the sample collection were more likely to participate in the subsequent survey than participants who were not asked or declined to participate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.01–1.62, p = .021). Further, those who provided samples were also more likely to participate in the subsequent survey

  9. Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Nollen, Nicole L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Methods: Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Results: Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed. PMID:24420329

  10. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Karagas, Margaret R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality.

  11. Tobacco Dependence Among Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Stuart G.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intermittent smokers (ITS) are an increasingly prevalent segment of smokers, yet it is unknown whether or how dependence severity may vary across ITS. Methods: Participants were 217 ITS (70 never daily ITS [NITS], 138 converted ITS [CITS], and 9 unknown), who smoked 4–27 days per month, and 197 daily smokers (DS), recruited for a study on smoking patterns. Participants completed questionnaires on dependence (time to first cigarette after waking, Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence [FTND], Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale [NDSS], Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives [WISDM], and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist [HONC]) and recorded each cigarette in real time over 3 weeks using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Logistic regression assessed differences in dependence between groups (DS vs. ITS; CITS vs. NITS), and least squares regression examined associations between dependence and smoking behavior (mean, maximum cigarettes per day; proportion of days smoked; longest period of abstinence) within ITS. Results: As expected, DS were significantly more dependent than ITS: FTND, NDSS, and WISDM discriminated between ITS and DS with greater than 90% accuracy. Similarly, among ITS, NITS demonstrated lower dependence than CITS. Within ITS, dependence measures also correlated with observed smoking rate and duration of abstinence. Conclusions: The study confirmed that DS are more dependent than ITS and that CITS are more dependent than NITS. Importantly, ITS exhibit features of dependence, and there is meaningful variation in dependence within ITS, suggesting that some aspects of dependence may appear with very infrequent smoking. Future work should examine implications for ITS’ potential progression to daily smoking and cessation outcome. PMID:22529224

  12. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Preethanath, R. S.; Mokeem, Sameer A.; AlMoharib, Hani S.; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity. PMID:25389376

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor levels in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in smokers with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Preethanath, R S; Mokeem, Sameer A; AlMoharib, Hani S; Patil, Shankargouda; Chalisserry, Elna P; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  14. A randomized, controlled exposure study in adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro cigarettes switching to Marlboro Lights or Marlboro Ultra Lights cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paul; Kapur, Sunil; Wang, Jingzhu; Feng, Shixia; Roethig, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Rationale. To date no state-of-the-art clinical study has been conducted to address the question as to whether switching to lower tar cigarettes reduces exposure to smoke constituents in humans. Methods. Randomized, controlled, forced switching study in 225 adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro (MFF) cigarettes for 8 days with a 24-week follow-up. Subjects smoked MFF (a 15-mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar cigarette) at baseline and were randomized to smoke 11-mg Marlboro Lights (ML) or 6-mg Marlboro Ultra Lights (MUL) cigarettes. Biomarkers of exposure to nicotine, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene, CO, benzene, acrolein, and mutagenic substances were measured. Results. In the short-term phase, switching from MFF to ML showed statistically significant decreases in nicotine exposure (-13%) and non-significant increases in CO exposure (+6%), while switching from MFF to MUL showed statistically significant decreases in nicotine (-27%) and CO (-13%) exposure. Both nicotine and CO biomarkers trended similarly in the 24-week follow-up as in the short-term phase. The other biomarkers of cigarette smoke constituents followed the same trend as nicotine at the end of the 24-week follow-up. Conclusions. Switching smokers to lower FTC tar yield cigarettes, on average, reduces nicotine and other biomarkers considered surrogates of tar exposure. PMID:18565634

  15. [Evaluation test of cadmium concentration influence on selected lipid metabolism parameters in smokers with stable coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)].

    PubMed

    Kleszczewska, Ewa; Lisowski, Piotr; Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Adamczuk, Anna; Trzciński, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The influence of cadium from cigarette intoxication on selected lipid metabolism parameters in smokers with stable coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was studied. It has been shown that concentration of cadmium leads to an increase in the lipid peroxidation and changes in the lipid metabolism. In our study, there was a significant higher cadmium concentration in smokers with stable angina pectoris (20.90+/-0.18) compared to stable angina pectoris non-smokers (7.71 +/-0,45), p<0.0001. We have not found correlations between cadmium concentration in smokers and non-smokers with stable angina pectoris patients and total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglicerydes concentrations. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG concentrations in smokers scheduled for CABG were respectively: 221.60+/-10.26 mg/dl; 148.40+/-8.71 mg/dl; 41.16+/-2.12 mg/dl, 159.10+/-14.49 mg/dl. All of these lipid parameters in stable angina pectoris smokers did not differ significantly from non-smokers.

  16. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  17. Masticatory changes as a result of oral disorders in smokers.

    PubMed

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber Dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-10-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  18. Framing Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels to Motivate Young Smokers to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Monique M.; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Evans, W. Douglas; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires new pictorial warnings for U.S. cigarette packs, but enactment has been delayed by tobacco industry lawsuits. Research can inform implementation of the pictorial warning requirement and identify ways to optimize their public health impact post-implementation. This study investigated the impact of warning label message framing on young smokers’ motivation to quit, examining cessation self-efficacy, and perceived risks as moderators of message framing impact. Methods: Smokers ages 18–30 (n = 740) completed baseline measures and were randomized to view 4 images of cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings featuring gain- or loss-framed messages. Motivation to quit was assessed after participants viewed the pack images. Linear models accounting for repeated measures and adjusting for baseline covariates examined the impact of message framing and interactions with baseline self-efficacy to quit and perceived risks of smoking. Results: Loss-framed warnings prompted significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high self-efficacy compared with smokers with low self-efficacy. Among smokers with low self-efficacy, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Gain-framed warnings generated significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high perceived risks compared with smokers with low perceived risks. Among smokers with high perceived risks, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Conclusions: A combination of pictorial warnings featuring risk-based (i.e., loss-framed) and efficacy-enhancing (i.e., gain-framed) information may promote better public health outcomes. Research is needed to investigate how strategically framed warning messages impact smokers’ behaviors based on their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs in real-world settings. PMID:25143295

  19. Changes in electrogustometry thresholds, tongue tip vascularization, density and form of the fungiform papillae in smokers.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Gouveris, Charalampos; Kekes, Georgios; Maurer, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in gustatory function in smokers of both sexes and identify any differences in the shape, density and vascularisation of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of smokers' tongue. Additional aim was to investigate any relation between the age, pack years and differences in shape, density, vascularization of fPap and sex. In 166 smokers (81 males, 85 females, age range 20-80 years), divided in age groups, electrogustometry (EGM) thresholds at the chorda tympani area, at the soft palate area and at the area of the vallate papillae were recorded bilaterally. Morphology and density of the fPap and blood vessels' density and morphology at the tip of the tongue were examined using contact endoscopy (CE). EGM thresholds of all smoking subjects tended to increase compared to the non-smoking participants. Morphology, vascularization and density of fPap were found to be worse in smokers than in non-smokers. Interestingly, some participants, despite having increased number of pack years, tended to have almost similar EGM thresholds with non-smoking subjects of the same age group. Smoking tends to affect density, morphology and vascularization of the fPap. There is a correlation between the duration of smoking (pack years) and the afore-mentioned parameters. The use of τ-Kendall criterion provided useful information about the different correlation between the EGM thresholds and vascularization, the EGM thresholds and morphology of fPap and EGM thresholds and density of fPap. The majority of smokers had elevated EGM thresholds compared to non-smokers. Smoking is an important factor which can lead to decreased taste acuity. The combination of methods, such as EGM and CE, can provide useful information about the morphology and function of taste buds. Of interest, women are less affected than men, irrespective of the age group.

  20. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation.

  1. Smokers' beliefs about the relative safety of other tobacco products: findings from the ITC collaboration.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; McNeill, Ann; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; King, Bill; Boudreau, Christian; Cummings, K Michael

    2007-10-01

    Most tobacco control efforts in western countries focus on the factory-made, mass-produced (FM) cigarette, whereas other tobacco products receive relatively little attention. Noncombusted tobacco products (i.e., referred to as smokeless tobacco), particularly Swedish-style snus, carry lower disease risks, compared with combusted tobacco products such as cigarettes. In this context, it is important to know what tobacco users believe about the relative harmfulness of various types of tobacco products. Data for this study came from random-digit-dialed telephone surveys of current smokers aged 18 or older in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Three waves of data, totaling 13,322 individuals, were assessed. Items assessed use of and beliefs about the relative harms of cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and FM and roll-your-own cigarettes, as well as sociodemographics and smoking behaviors. Cigars (2.8%-12.7%) were the other tobacco products most commonly used by current cigarette smokers, followed by pipes (0.3%-2.1%) and smokeless tobacco (0.0%-2.3%). A significant minority of smokers (12%-21%) used roll-your-own cigarettes at least some of the time. About one-quarter of smokers believed that pipes, cigars, or roll-your-own cigarettes were safer than FM cigarettes, whereas only about 13% responded correctly that smokeless tobacco was less hazardous than cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that use of other tobacco products was most strongly related to beliefs about the reduced harm of these other products. Use of other tobacco products was low but may be growing among smokers in the four countries studied. Smokers are confused about the relative harms of tobacco products. Health education efforts are needed to correct smoker misperceptions.

  2. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  3. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production.

  4. Altered antigenic profiling and infectivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Iris; Hutcherson, Justin A.; Lamont, Richard J.; Demuth, Donald R.; Gumus, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and to compromise IgG generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo. Methods We examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by ELISA in biochemically-validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic (CP, n = 13) or aggressive (AP, n = 20) periodontitis. We also monitored the local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA by PCR. Results Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all p < 0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern towards increased total FimA-specific IgG in CP subjects, but not AP subjects, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (p < 0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis. Conclusions Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from non-smokers with the same disease classification. PMID:24147843

  5. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  6. Effect of a Mobile Phone Intervention on Quitting Smoking in a Young Adult Population of Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struik, Laura Louise; Hammond, David; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Norman, Cameron D; Whittaker, Robyn; Burns, Catherine M; Grindrod, Kelly A; Brown, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use remains the number one cause of preventable chronic disease and death in developed countries worldwide. In North America, smoking rates are highest among young adults. Despite that the majority of young adult smokers indicate wanting to quit, smoking rates among this age demographic have yet to decline. Helping young adults quit smoking continues to be a public health priority. Digital mobile technology presents a promising medium for reaching this population with smoking cessation interventions, especially because young adults are the heaviest users of this technology. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness of an evidence-informed mobile phone app for smoking cessation, Crush the Crave, on reducing smoking prevalence among young adult smokers. Methods A parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms will be conducted in Canada to evaluate Crush the Crave. In total, 1354 young adult smokers (19 to 29 years old) will be randomized to receive the evidence-informed mobile phone app, Crush the Crave, or an evidence-based self-help guide known as “On the Road to Quitting” (control) for a period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure is a 30-day point prevalence of abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include a 7-day point prevalence of abstinence, number of quit attempts, reduction in consumption of cigarettes, self-efficacy, satisfaction, app utilization metrics, and use of smoking cessation services. A cost-effectiveness analysis is included. Results This trial is currently open for recruitment. The anticipated completion date for the study is April 2016. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial will provide the evidence to move forward on decision making regarding the inclusion of technology-based mobile phone interventions as part of existing smoking cessation efforts made by health care providers. Evidence from the trial will also inform the development of future apps

  7. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in low-income smokers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the leading avoidable cause of death in high-income countries. The smoking-related disease burden is borne primarily by the least educated and least affluent groups. Thus, there is a need for effective smoking cessation interventions that reach to, and are effective in this group. Research suggests that modest financial incentives are not very effective in helping smokers quit. What is not known is whether large financial incentives can enhance longer-term (1 year) smoking cessation rates, outside clinical and workplace settings. Trial design A randomized, parallel groups, controlled trial. Methods Participants: Eight hundred low-income smokers in Switzerland (the less affluent third of the population, based on fiscal taxation). Intervention: A smoking cessation program including: (a) financial incentives given during 6 months; and (b) Internet-based counseling. Financial rewards will be offered for biochemically verified smoking abstinence after 1, 2, and 3 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months, for a maximum of 1,500 CHF (1,250 EUR, 1,500 USD) for those abstinent at all time-points. All participants, including controls, will receive Internet-based, individually-tailored, smoking cessation counseling and self-help booklets, but there will be no in-person or telephone counseling, and participants will not receive medications. The control group will not receive financial incentives. Objective: To increase smoking cessation rates. Outcome: Smoking abstinence after 6 and 18 months, not contradicted by biochemical tests. We will assess relapse after the end of the intervention, to test whether 6-month effects translate into sustained abstinence 12 months after the incentives are withdrawn. Randomization: Will be done using sealed envelopes drawn by participants. Blinding: Is not possible in this context. Discussion Smoking prevention policies and interventions have been least effective in the least educated, low-income groups. Combining

  8. Smoking Cessation Outcomes Among Sexual and Gender Minority and Nonminority Smokers in Extended Smoking Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Reus, Victor I.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual and gender minority individuals (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]) have a higher smoking prevalence than nonminority individuals. There is limited evidence of smoking abstinence success in nontailored smoking treatments among LGBT smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis comparing the efficacy of extended, nontailored treatments among sexual and gender minority and nonminority smokers. Data from two clinical trials were combined to increase power and generalizability of the findings. Trials began with 12 weeks of counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion, after which participants were randomized to an extended treatment. Results: Follow-up occurred at weeks 12, 24, 52, 64, and 104. Of the sample (n = 777), 17% identified as sexual and gender minority and 83% as nonminority. The sample was 75% non-Hispanic White, with 86% completing at least some college, and 68% were employed. Sexual and gender minorities were younger and indicated a greater desire to quit smoking than nonminority smokers. No other differences emerged on demographic, smoking, or mood variables. The average Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8, and mean daily cigarettes was 19.8. The generalized estimating equations model revealed no significant differences in abstinence between sexual and gender minority smokers and nonminority smokers at all follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Sexual and gender minority smokers appear as likely to quit or abstain as nonminority smokers in extended, nontailored interventions. However, these findings may not generalize to other geographic areas, where access to treatment is limited or a higher stigma of sexual orientation exists. PMID:24727483

  9. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  10. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  11. Attentional bias modification in smokers trying to quit: a longitudinal study about the effects of number of sessions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Machado; Pires, Augusto Viana; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2014-07-01

    Attentional bias modification (ABM) to avoid smoking-related cues is a potentially new intervention in addition to existing therapy to stop smoking. We examined immediate and long-term changes in attentional bias and treatment outcomes from multiple ABM sessions in 67 smokers trying to quit. After assessing attentional bias baseline, participants were randomly allocated to one of three training groups: three sessions of ABM (avoid 3); two sessions of placebo-ABM and one session of ABM (avoid 1); and three sessions of placebo-ABM (avoid 0). At baseline, all groups had similar positive attentional bias, which became negative at 24h post-training. After 1 month, avoid 1 and avoid 3 still exhibited negative attentional biases. Only avoid 3 maintained this effect at 6-month, but not at 12-month assessments. ABM produced a long-lasting automatic and maintained avoidance to smoking-related cues which depended on number of sessions; however its effects on treatment outcomes are uncertain. PMID:24666812

  12. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sebrié, Ernesto; Walsemann, Katrina M; Bottai, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change. PMID:21243195

  13. Differences in smoking expectancies in smokers with and without a history of major depression.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Andrea H; George, Tony P; McKee, Sherry A

    2011-04-01

    Adults with depression evidence higher rates of smoking and lower quit rates than adults without depression. Little is known about the relationship between depression and smoking beliefs which are associated with both smoking and smoking cessation behavior. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adult smokers with and without a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) differ in their endorsement of smoking expectancies. The secondary aim of the study was to examine whether there were interactions of depression and gender on the endorsement of expectancies. Adult cigarette smokers participating in a clinical trial of Selegiline hydrochloride for smoking cessation were classified as having a history of depression (MDD+, n=26) or no history of depression (MDD-, n=75). History of depression and smoking expectancies were assessed prior to randomization into the clinical trial. There was a main effect of depression on 7 out of 10 of the assessed beliefs. MDD+ smokers, compared to MDD- smokers, more strongly endorsed beliefs that smoking reduces negative affect, boredom, and cravings; smoking increases stimulation and social facilitation; smoking helps to manage cravings and weight; and that the taste is enjoyable. The main effect of gender and the interactive effect of depression and gender were not significant. Incorporating expectancies into cognitive-behavioral treatments for smoking cessation may be useful for smokers with a history of depression.

  14. The relation of obesity with serum resistin levels in smoker and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Gül; Eşbah, Onur; Kirnap, Nazli Gülsoy; Çetiner, Hacer; Acar, Yaşar; Demirbaş, Berrin; Öztürk, Abidin; Kiliç, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Background: The demonstration that adipose tissue produces numerous cytokines increases interest of investigators in their role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Resistin is one of those cytokines. There are conflicing reports as cigarette smoking impairs insulin secretion, augments insulin resistance, or has no effect on glucose metabolism. In our study, we intended to examine the relationship of obesity with resistin levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Patients and Methods: The study included 52 male smokers and 34 age matched nonsmoker male control subjects. We classified smoker and nonsmoker groups according to their body mass index as BMI < 27 and ≥27. As well as making physical and anthropometric examinations, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, postprandial plasma glucose, lipid profile, and resistin levels were measured in all male subjects. We compared all parameters in smoker and nonsmokers either having BMI < 27 or ≥27. Results: In both BMI levels, resistin levels were higher in smoker groups than nonsmoker ones (P<0.01 all), we did not find any difference in other parameters. Conclusion: in conclusion we may speculate that if someone smokes resistin levels increase. PMID:23264782

  15. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  16. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

  17. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. Methods We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). Conclusions These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers.

  18. Optimistic Bias and Perceived Control among Cigarette Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltenbaugh, Adam W.; Zagummy, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have shown that cigarette smokers are generally aware of increased health risks associated with smoking, but that smokers tend to underestimate their own susceptibility to disease. In general, optimistic bias has been shown to increase with greater perceived control over an event or behavior; however, this phenomenon has not been examined…

  19. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  20. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  1. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  2. Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges in American and Spanish Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Henry, Keisha; Gleaves, David H.; Fernandez, Mari Carmen

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU) across American and Spanish smokers. Using confirmatory factor analyses, the fits of one-, two-, and four-factor models of smoking craving in American and Spanish data sets were compared. The two-factor model provided the best fit in both samples. However,…

  3. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  4. Estimation of major immunoglobulins in smokers and gutkha chewers

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Ketankumar Jayantilal; Chawda, Jyoti G

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the level of IgG and IgA major immunoglobulins in patients having the habit of smoking, gutkha chewing and in patients without any tobacco habit as control. Materials and Methods: Estimation of major immunoglobulins IgG and IgA was carried out by automated Nephelometry method in ten patients (control group), forty patients who had habit of smoking either bidi or cigarette and forty patients who had the habit of gutkha chewing. Among forty patients who smoked, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had homogenous leukoplakia. Among the forty patients who had habit of gutkha chewing, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The obtained data were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results: IgG and IgA levels were higher in smokers and gutkha chewers as compared to control group and were higher in gutkha chewers as compared to smokers. IgG and IgA levels of non- lesional smokers and gutkha chewers showed no change as compared to the controls while it was increased in patients with homogenous leukoplakia and patients with OSMF as compared to control group. IgG and IgA levels were also significantly higher in patients with OSMF as compared to that of homogenous leukoplakia. IgG and IgA levels were higher in all the grades of OSMF as compared to the controls and both IgG and IgA levels were directly correlated with the grades of OSMF. Conclusion: Higher major immunoglobulins levels in present study among the study groups indicate the use of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis and would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of the lesions. PMID:27601812

  5. How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2005-08-01

    When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

  6. Tax, price, and cigarette brand preferences: A longitudinal study of adult smokers from the ITC Mexico Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz de Miera Juárez, Belén; Thrasher, James F; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent tax increases in Mexico differed in structure and provide an opportunity to better understand tobacco industry pricing strategies, as well as smokers’ responses to any resulting price changes. Objectives To assess if taxes were passed onto consumers of different cigarette brands, the extent of brand switching, and predictors of preference for cheaper national brands. Methods Using data from three waves of the Mexican administration of the ITC Survey, we analyzed self-reported brand and price paid at last cigarette purchase. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of price and preference for national brands. Results The average price of premium/international brands increased each year from 2008–2011; however, the price for discount/national brands increased only from 2010 to 2011. The percentage of smokers who smoked national brands remained stable between 2008 and 2010 but dropped in 2011. Factors related to smoking national as opposed to international brands included being male and having relatively older age, lower education, lower income, and higher consumption. Conclusions Tobacco industry pricing strategies in the wake of ad valorem taxes implemented in Mexico prior to 2011 had the impact of segmenting the market into discount national brands and premium international brands. The specific tax increase implemented in 2011 reduced the price gap between these two segments, by raising the price of the national brands relative to the international brands. Evidence for trading up was found after the 2011 tax increase. These results provide further evidence for the relevance of tax policy as a tobacco control strategy; in particular, they illustrate the importance of how specific rather than ad valorem taxes can reduce the potential for downward brand switching in the face of decreasing cigarette affordability. PMID:24114563

  7. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  8. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers’ responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  9. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  10. Web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Helen A.; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mercer, Laina; Wyszynski, Christopher M.; Vilardaga, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Objective Smokers with depressive symptoms have more difficulty quitting smoking than the general population of smokers. The present study examines a web-based treatment using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for smokers with depressive symptoms. The study aimed to determine participant receptivity to the intervention and its effects on smoking cessation, acceptance of internal cues, and depressive symptoms. Methods Smokers who screened positive for depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 94) were selected from a randomized controlled trial (N = 222) comparing web-based ACT for smoking cessation (Webquit.org) with Smokefree.gov. Forty-five participants (48%) completed the three-month follow-up. Results Compared to Smokefree.gov, WebQuit participants spent significantly more time on site (p = 0.001) and had higher acceptance of physical cravings (p = 0.033). While not significant, WebQuit participants were more engaged and satisfied with their program and were more accepting of internal cues overall. There was preliminary evidence that WebQuit participants had higher quit rates (20% vs. 12%) and lower depressive symptoms at follow-up (45% vs. 56%) than those in Smokefree.gov. Conclusions This was the first study of web-based ACT for smoking cessation among smokers with depressive symptoms, with promising evidence of receptivity, efficacy, impact on a theory-based change process, and possible secondary effects on depression. A fully powered trial of the ACT Webquit.org intervention specifically for depressed smokers is needed. This was part of a clinical trial registered as NCT#01166334, at www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25671683

  11. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  12. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods In fall 2005, a random sample of 4,100 students completed an online survey. Results 29% reported current smoking, of which 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were younger, African American (compared to White), had mothers with higher education, belonged to Greek organizations, and attended private (vs. public) schools. Nondaily smokers were less likely to have used illicit drugs. Conclusions Nondaily and daily smokers differed on several demographic and contextual factors, but reported mostly similar health risk behaviors. PMID:22370259

  13. Success of dental implants in smokers and non-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E dS Porto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in marginal bone loss and implant failure rates between smokers and non-smokers with respect to the follow-up period. An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant articles published up to February 2015. The eligibility criteria included randomized and non-randomized clinical studies. After an exhaustive selection process, 15 articles were included. The meta-analysis was expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. There was a statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss favouring the non-smoking group (SMD 0.49, 95% CI 0.07-0.90; P=0.02). An independent analysis revealed an increase in marginal bone loss in the maxilla of smokers, compared to the mandible (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.55; P<0.00001). A statistically significant difference in implant failure in favour of the non-smoking group was also observed (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68-2.30; P<0.00001). However, the subgroup analysis for follow-up time revealed no significant increase in implant failure proportional to the increase in follow-up time (P=0.26).

  14. Are quitting-related cognitions and behaviours predicted by proximal responses to plain packaging with larger health warnings? Findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation of tobacco plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) in Australia had positive effects on responses reflecting the specific objectives of the PP policy and on follow-up quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relationships between these proximal and distal outcomes. Methods A nationally representative sample of Australian adult cigarette smokers completed a baseline survey and a 1-month follow-up survey within the first year of policy implementation (n(weighted)=3125). Logistic regression analyses tested whether baseline measures of cigarette appeal, GHW effectiveness, perceived harm and concern/enjoyment predicted each of seven follow-up measures of quitting-related cognitions and behaviours, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results In multivariable models, we found consistent evidence that several baseline measures of GHW effectiveness positively and significantly predicted the likelihood that smokers at follow-up reported thinking about quitting at least daily, intending to quit, having a firm date to quit, stubbing out cigarettes prematurely, stopping oneself from smoking and having attempted to quit. Two of the quitting-related outcomes were also predicted by feeling more smoking-related concern than enjoyment. A smaller number of the appeal variables were prospectively associated with quitting-related outcomes, while believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness did not positively predict any outcomes. Conclusions These findings provide an initial insight into the pathways through which PP with larger GHWs may lead to changes in smoking behaviour. Future research should examine whether the effects are conditional on individual demographic and smoking characteristics.

  15. Characteristics associated with self-identification as a regular smoker and desire to quit among college students who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Schwartz, Stephen M; Thompson, Beti

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use among college students increased substantially during the 1990s. Better understanding of college smokers is warranted to develop interventions specific to the needs of this population. We examined sociodemographic and tobacco-use characteristics associated with self-identification as a regular smoker and intentions to quit smoking among college students who smoke cigarettes. We conducted logistic regression analysis on baseline survey data from the Campus Health Action on Tobacco study, a 4-year group-randomized trial at 30 four-year colleges in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Students who self-identified as a regular smoker smoked more cigarettes before starting college, smoked a greater number of cigarettes the prior 30 days, smoked more cigarettes per day, and were more likely to smoke within 30 min of waking up, compared with students who were current smokers but did not consider themselves regular smokers. Females, older students, and those who had decreased the amount they smoked since coming to college were more likely to want to quit "very much." Females and students in early college years were more likely to be planning to quit before graduation, as were students who had decreased the amount they smoked since coming to college. Interventions should target students who are in their early college years, given that habits prior to college, changes in smoking habits while in college, and year in college are associated with students' self-identification as a regular smoker, desire to quit smoking, or plan to quit smoking while in college. PMID:18188747

  16. Simultaneous Vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2014-08-30

    Background: Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. Methods: A Cross-Sectional Study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (p>0.05). Conclusion: No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technologies teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years.

  18. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups. PMID:25721074

  19. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  20. Successful smoking cessation is associated with prefrontal cortical function during a Stroop task: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Wolff, Max; Benz, Annika; Goschke, Thomas

    2015-10-30

    Although many smokers try to quit, relatively few are successful in their attempts. Here we investigated whether the ability to quit smoking is related to behavioral and neural measures of cognitive control. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a counting Stroop task was used to measure cognitive control in ex-smokers (N=10) who had successfully quit smoking and smokers (N=10) who continuously failed to quit smoking. Behavioral results showed a significant Stroop effect in ex-smokers and smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited less Stroop interference, indicating superior cognitive control compared with smokers. Furthermore, when incongruent trials were contrasted with congruent trials, ex-smokers showed stronger BOLD activity than smokers in the right superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. Although the present study does not permit us to draw strong conclusions regarding causality, the results suggest that successful smoking cessation may be mediated by superior cognitive control. PMID:26321462

  1. Successful smoking cessation is associated with prefrontal cortical function during a Stroop task: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Wolff, Max; Benz, Annika; Goschke, Thomas

    2015-10-30

    Although many smokers try to quit, relatively few are successful in their attempts. Here we investigated whether the ability to quit smoking is related to behavioral and neural measures of cognitive control. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a counting Stroop task was used to measure cognitive control in ex-smokers (N=10) who had successfully quit smoking and smokers (N=10) who continuously failed to quit smoking. Behavioral results showed a significant Stroop effect in ex-smokers and smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited less Stroop interference, indicating superior cognitive control compared with smokers. Furthermore, when incongruent trials were contrasted with congruent trials, ex-smokers showed stronger BOLD activity than smokers in the right superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. Although the present study does not permit us to draw strong conclusions regarding causality, the results suggest that successful smoking cessation may be mediated by superior cognitive control.

  2. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  3. Physical work-induced oxidative stress is exacerbated in young cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Creasy, Andrea K; Smith, Webb A

    2007-02-01

    Both cigarette smoking and strenuous physical work are associated with increased oxidative stress, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. No study to date has measured oxidative stress in response to graded exercise in cigarette smokers. We compared oxidative stress biomarkers before and after strenuous exercise (Bruce treadmill protocol) in 14 cigarette smokers and 15 nonsmokers of similar age (24+/-6 years) and fitness status. Plasma protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured pre- and postexercise. Smoking status (p<.01) and time (p<.01) effects were noted for PC with values higher for smokers than nonsmokers and increasing from pre- to postexercise (52% vs. 25%, respectively). The smoking statusxtime interaction for PC approached statistical significance (p=.07). The change in PC from pre- to postexercise was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=.5782, p=.03). A smoking statusxtime interaction was noted for MDA (p<.01), with values increasing 37% from pre- (0.6140+/-0.0708 micromol/L) to postexercise (0.8440+/-0.0687 micromol/L) for smokers and remaining relatively unchanged for nonsmokers (from 0.7664+/-0.0901 to 0.7419+/-0.0776 micromol/L). 8-OHdG was unaffected by smoking status (p=.43) or exercise (p=.40). These findings indicate that young cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated oxidative stress response to strenuous physical work, compared with nonsmokers of similar age. These results highlight yet another detrimental impact of cigarette smoking on human health. Future investigations should focus on older, more established smokers. PMID:17365751

  4. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers, and coal miners.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rajiv K; McClure, Michael E; Hays, Michael D; Green, Francis H Y; McPhee, Laura J; Vallyathan, V; Gilmour, M Ian

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 ± 24.86 (SD) μg/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 ± 320.3 μg/g and 6678.2 ± 6162 μg/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease.

  5. μ suppression as an indicator of activation of the perceptual-motor system by smoking-related cues in smokers.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kieffaber, Paul D; Kittel, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether activation of the mirror neuron system, as measured by mu rhythm desynchronization, varied as a function of image content in smokers compared with nonsmokers. EEG activity was recorded while participants passively viewed images depicting smoking-related and nonsmoking-related stimuli. In half of the images, cues were depicted alone (inactive), while for the remaining images, cues were depicted with humans interacting with them (active). For the nonsmoking stimuli, smokers and nonsmokers showed greater mu suppression to the active cues compared to the inactive cues. However, for the smoking-related stimuli, smokers showed greater perception-action coupling for the active cues as reflected in their enhanced mu suppression, compared to nonsmokers. The results of the current study support the involvement of the perceptual-motor system in the activation of motivated drug use behaviors.

  6. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    PubMed Central

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  7. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  8. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status. PMID:24671729

  9. Development of a Culturally Targeted Smoking Cessation Intervention for African American Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; King, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development a culturally targeted (CT) smoking cessation intervention for low-to-middle income African–American smokers. Based on theoretically based guidelines, modifications were made to a standard treatment manual for group-based smoking cessation counseling that incorporates cognitive-behavioral, motivational, and twelve step skills. Approximately 41% of the standard treatment materials were modified, and four new modules were developed. A pilot study was conducted to compare acceptability, feasibility and early outcome indicates in African American smokers randomized to the CT intervention compared with existing data from African American smokers treated using a non-targeted standard approach (ST). Outcomes from the CT pilot study were promising: results showed high levels of feasibility, acceptability and better adherence to nicotine replacement therapy, higher quit rates, and better retention and follow-up compared with the ST. Findings suggest that a culturally targeted and intensive group based smoking cessation treatment is plausibly effective in improving smoking cessation outcomes in African American smokers, warranting a larger randomized trial. PMID:19728056

  10. Who smokes in Hollywood? Characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, W D; Bazzini, D G; Smith, S M; Wayne, S M

    1998-01-01

    We examined how smokers were depicted in 100 popular films spanning 5 decades. Smokers were depicted as more romantically and sexually active than nonsmokers and as marginally more intelligent than nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in terms of attractiveness, goodness, socioeconomic status, aggression, friendliness, or outcome at film's end. Thus, if anything, smokers are depicted a bit more positively than nonsmokers. We compared Hollywood's depiction of smokers to real-world demographics on smoking and found that Hollywood's depiction of smoking tends to ignore the negative consequences and correlates (e.g., ill health, low socioeconomic status, aggressive behavior) of smoking. PMID:9668937

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV-POSITIVE CIGARETTE SMOKERS: A SAMPLE OF SMOKERS FACING MULTIPLE CHALLENGES

    PubMed Central

    Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelley, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M.; Dilley, James; Harrison, George

    2009-01-01

    HIV-positive populations have high smoking rates and smoking puts HIV-positive individuals at higher risk for HIV-related health problems. Little information is available on the characteristics of HIV-positive smokers. The present study examines the baseline psychosocial characteristics of 184 HIV-positive cigarette smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The sample was 82% male, and 53% Caucasian. Over half were unemployed and 43.8% reported an income of less than $10,000. Mean cigarettes per day was 19.2 and the mean Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8. The majority reported a strong desire to quit however, only 45% endorsed a goal of complete abstinence. On average, 43.2% of the smokers' social support was made up of other smokers. Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group. PMID:19537954

  12. Characteristics of HIV-positive cigarette smokers: a sample of smokers facing multiple challenges.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, Gary L; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelley, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M; Dilley, James; Harrison, George

    2009-06-01

    HIV-positive populations have high smoking rates and smoking puts HIV-positive individuals at higher risk for HIV-related health problems. Little information is available on the characteristics of HIV-positive smokers. The present study examines the baseline psychosocial characteristics of 184 HIV-positive cigarette smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The sample was 82% male, and 53% Caucasian. Over half were unemployed and 43.8% reported an income of less than $10,000. Mean cigarettes per day was 19.2 and the mean Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8. The majority reported a strong desire to quit however, only 45% endorsed a goal of complete abstinence. On average, 43.2% of the smokers' social support was made up of other smokers. Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group. PMID:19537954

  13. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  14. Predictors of Cessation Pharmacotherapy Use Among Black and Non-Hispanic White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Katherine K.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J.; Cartmell, Kathleen B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. Methods: The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Results: Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p < .01), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (OR = 1.52, p < .001) were predictive of pharmacotherapy use. Conclusions: These findings replicate and build upon previous research demonstrating underutilization of pharmacotherapy and enduring misconceptions about pharmacotherapy, particularly among Black smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates. PMID:21464200

  15. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ≥ 1 μg/L, in addition to CBD ≥ 1 μg/L or CBN ≥ 1 μg/L suggested recent cannabis intake (≤13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ≥ 1 μg/L or THC ≥ 2 μg/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (≥30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers.

  16. The role of nicotine replacement therapy for temporary abstinence in the home to protect children from environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a qualitative study with disadvantaged smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has recently been licensed to help smokers to abstain from smoking for short time periods and recent studies have shown that 8-14% of smokers are regularly using NRT to cope when they cannot or are not allowed to smoke. These data suggest that, potentially, NRT for temporary abstinence might be an acceptable method to help smoking caregivers, who are not able to stop smoking completely, to avoid smoking whilst inside their home in order to protect their children from the harms of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of this study was therefore to explore the concept of using NRT for temporary abstinence in the home, to protect children from exposure to ETS. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with thirty six disadvantaged smoking parents who were currently, or had recently stopped smoking in the home with at least one child under the age of five. Parents were recruited from Children’s Centres and Health Visitor Clinics in Nottingham, UK. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analysed thematically to identify emergent main and subthemes. Results Overall, participants responded negatively to the concept of attempting temporary abstinence in the home in general and more specifically to the use of NRT whilst at home to reduce children’s exposure to ETS. Many parents would prefer to either attempt cutting down or quitting completely to make a substantial effort to change their smoking behaviour. There was limited interest in the use of NRT for temporary abstinence in the home as a first step to quitting, although some parents did express a willingness to use NRT to cut down as a first step to quitting. Conclusion Disadvantaged smoking parents were reluctant to initiate and maintain temporary abstinence with or without NRT as a way of making their homes smoke free to protect their children’s health. More education about the specific risks of ETS to their

  17. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1+ Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1+ smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1+ smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1− smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1+ smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1− healthy nonsmokers, HIV1− healthy smokers, HIV1− smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1+ nonsmokers, and HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1− smokers with low DLCO and HIV1+ smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1+ individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1+ smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  18. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  19. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers.

  20. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1(+) Smokers.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z; Crystal, Ronald G; Kaner, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1(+) smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1(+) smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1(-) smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1(+) smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1(-) healthy nonsmokers, HIV1(-) healthy smokers, HIV1(-) smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1(+) nonsmokers, and HIV1(+) smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1(-) smokers with low DLCO and HIV1(+) smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1(+) individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1(+) smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1(+) smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  1. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  2. Smoking on school property as a risk factor for substance use among adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Carl D; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Matsumura, Scott H; Hess, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine if smoking on high-school property was associated with increased risk for other substance use among U.S. adolescents. Secondary analyses were carried out with data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, N = 15,503). Only adolescents who reported smoking at least one cigarette in the last 30 days were selected for analyses (n = 2531, 44% female). Alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use was assessed among participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between smoking on school property (yes versus no) with each of the substance use variables. Adolescent smokers who reported smoking on school property were significantly more likely to report substance use across all substances examined compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. For example, campus smokers were 3.91 times more likely to use marijuana in their lifetime and 3.85 times more likely to have used crack or cocaine in their lifetime compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. Health care providers who provide services to adolescents should screen for smoking on school property to help identify adolescents at increased risk for substance use.

  3. Changes in the profiles of smokers seeking cessation treatment and in its effectiveness in Galicia (Spain) 2001–10

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, the prevalence of daily smokers has decreased in all developed countries due to a great variety of factors. Despite this decrease, the effectiveness of clinical treatments has decreased and several studies report a change in smokers’ characteristics. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the changes in the characteristics of Spanish smokers who seek smoking cessation treatment between 2001 and 2010 and the changes in the effectiveness of such treatment. Methods The sample was made up of 870 smokers who sought psychological treatment for giving up smoking at the Smoking Cessation Unit in the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) during the period 2001 to 2010. Results Smokers in the 2006–2010 group, compared to those in the 2001–2005 group, were older, smoked fewer cigarettes per day and of a brand with fewer mg/nicotine, had been smoking longer, were less motivated to give up smoking, and had more antecedents of depression. Quit rates were validated by testing smokers' carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Percentages of abstinence were higher in the 2001–2005 group than in the 2006–2010 group (58.7% vs. 52.15 at the end of treatment, p = 0.05); 30.8% vs. 24.2% at 6 months follow-up, p = 0.031; 27.5% vs. 22% at 12 months follow-up, p = 0.059). Although abstinence decreased more than 5% in the 2006–2010 group there were no differences between the two groups in nicotine dependence. Those participants who did not assist to the follow-up were considered smokers at pretreatment level. Conclusions In Spain there has been a qualitative change in the profile of the smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. Treatment effectiveness has decreased, and the variables predicting intervention outcome have changed. PMID:24938635

  4. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  5. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  6. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible

  7. Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children.

    PubMed

    Hassanzad, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Eslampanah Nobari, Shabnam; Bloursaz, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Tashayoie Nejad, Sabereh; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma environmental triggers play important roles in severity of disease. Passive smoking could exacerbate asthma symptoms and enhance the decrease in lung function. Cotinine levels could be a reflection of passive exposure to the cigarette both in adults and pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine degree of association of asthma severity and cotinine level as a marker of passive smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 100 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) with asthma were enrolled, 50 of whom, had been exposed to passive smoking and 50 others included as controls. A complete clinical history, lab exam, and spirometry were performed. A sample of urine, serum and saliva was collected from all attendant patients and controls in the study after confirmation of diagnosis and determination of severity of asthma. The results revealed that age, sex, age of onset of asthma, family history and allergic history were not significantly different between two groups of patients. According to GINA classification, percentage of patients with severe asthma was significantly higher in passive smoker group (p=0.001). Cotinine was significantly higher in passive smoker group compared to control group in serum (p=001), saliva (p=0.001), and urine (p=0.0014). In passive smoker group, cotinine levels were significantly higher in serum (p=0.001), urine (p=0.007), and saliva (p=0.01) of patients with severe asthma than moderate and mild asthma. Serum cotinine (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.32, p=0.024), urine cotinine (OR: 3.56,95% CI = 1.29-5.53, p=0.01) and saliva cotinine (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.23-1.98, p=0.031) were also significantly associated with higher risk of severe asthma. Cotinine levels were higher in passive smokers compared to non-passive smokers. Besides, cotinine was a predictive risk factor for severe asthma.

  8. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7 mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years) and non-smokers 28–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years, plus minimum 5 years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and

  9. Double-strand break damage and associated DNA repair genes predispose smokers to gene methylation

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Willink, Randy; Bernauer, Amanda; Do, Kieu; Picchi, Maria A.; Sheng, Xin; Frasco, Melissa, A.; Berg, David Van Den; Gilliland, Frank D.; Zima, Christopher; Crowell, Richard E.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising biomarker for predicting lung cancer. Identifying factors that predispose smokers to methylation of multiple gene promoters in the lung could impact strategies for early detection and chemoprevention. This study evaluated the hypothesis that double-strand break repair capacity and sequence variation in genes in this pathway are associated with a high methylation index in a cohort of current and former cancer-free smokers. A 50% reduction in the mean level of double-strand break repair capacity was seen in lymphocytes from smokers with a high methylation index, defined as ≥ 3 of 8 genes methylated in sputum, compared to smokers with no genes methylated. The classification accuracy for predicting risk for methylation was 88%. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within the MRE11A, CHEK2, XRCC3, DNA-Pkc, and NBN DNA repair genes were highly associated with the methylation index. A 14.5-fold increased odds for high methylation was seen for persons with ≥ 7 risk alleles of these genes. Promoter activity of the MRE11A gene that plays a critical role in recognition of DNA damage and activation of ATM was reduced in persons with the risk allele. Collectively, ours is the first population-based study to identify double-strand break DNA repair capacity and specific genes within this pathway as critical determinants for gene methylation in sputum, that is, in turn, associated with elevated risk for lung cancer. PMID:18413776

  10. Effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in stop smoking service in reaching and supporting disadvantaged UK smokers to quit

    PubMed Central

    Venn, Andrea; Dickinson, Anne; Murray, Rachael; Jones, Laura; Li, Jinshuo; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background In countries where there are large disparities in smoking with persistent high rates among disadvantaged groups, there is a need to ensure that stop smoking services (SSS) reach such smokers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in, community-based SSS in reaching more disadvantaged smokers, particularly those from routine and manual (RM) occupation groups, than standard services; secondary aims were to evaluate effectiveness in reaching those who had not previously accessed SSS, triggering unplanned quit behaviour, helping people quit and cost-effectiveness. Methods Following a 4-week pilot period, a mobile drop-in SSS was delivered across various public locations in Nottingham City, UK for 6 months, offering behavioural and pharmacological support via one-to-one consultations with trained cessation advisors. Detailed demographic and smoking behaviour data were collected from all clients accessing the mobile SSS, and Nottingham's standard SSS for comparison. Results Compared with smokers accessing the standard SSS (n=1856), mobile SSS smokers (n=811) were significantly more likely to be from the RM group (33.3% vs 27.2%, p=0.002), and to be first-time SSS users (67.8% vs 59.3%, p<0.001). Nearly 1 in 10 smokers setting a quit date through the mobile SSS had no prior quit intentions. The cost per smoker setting a quit date for the mobile SSS was only slightly higher than the standard SSS (£224 vs £202). Conclusions A mobile drop-in SSS is an effective way of reaching more disadvantaged smokers from RM occupations, as well as those who have not previously accessed standard SSS and those without prior quit intentions. PMID:25260749

  11. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  12. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other

  13. Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juliana Da Rocha; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Henry, Kimberly L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about how to categorize different types of smokers, especially occasional smokers. Because of the prevalence of occasional smoking among college students, the current study aimed to gain an understanding of the different typologies of smokers on campus. To accomplish this, a latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using 17 motives for smoking items (N = 327). The LCA revealed that four smoker groups were present: (1) addicted smokers who endorsed smoking due to pleasure and habit/addiction; (2) stress smokers, who endorsed smoking to relax, to reduce levels of stress, and to regulate mood; (3) social smokers, who endorsed smoking because of social factors such as to fit in or because friends smoke; and (4) nonendorsing smokers, who had a low endorsement for all the items. An additional LCA with covariates revealed that age of initiation, current smoking patterns, smoker self-classification, and quit likelihood differentiated these groups of smokers whereas current age and alcohol use did not. These typologies should be considered when designing interventions for occasional smokers.

  14. E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Insights and Cautions From a Secondary Analysis of Data From a Study of Online Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Cha, Sarah; Niaura, Raymond S.; Luta, George; Graham, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from observational studies regarding the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cessation is mixed and difficult to interpret. Utilizing 2 analytic methods, this study illustrates challenges common in analyses of observational data, highlights measurement challenges, and reports associations between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. Methods: Data were drawn from an ongoing web-based smoking cessation trial. The sample was comprised of 2,123 participants with complete 3-month follow-up data. Logistic regression models with and without entropy balancing to control for confounds were conducted to evaluate the association between e-cigarette use and 30-day cigarette smoking abstinence. Results: At follow-up, 31.7% of participants reported using e-cigarettes to quit in the past 3 months. E-cigarette users differed from nonusers on baseline characteristics including cigarettes per day, Fagerström score, quit attempt in the past year, and previous use of e-cigarettes to quit. At follow-up, e-cigarette users made more quit attempts and employed more cessation aids than smokers who did not use e-cigarettes to quit. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with abstinence after adjustment for baseline characteristics; however, the association was not significant after additional adjustment for use of other cessation aids at 3 months. Conclusions: The magnitude and significance of the estimated association between e-cigarette use and cessation in this study were dependent upon the analytical approach. Observational studies should employ multiple analytic approaches to address threats to validity. Future research should employ better measures of patterns of and reasons for e-cigarette use, frequency of e-cigarette use, and concurrent use of cessation aids. PMID:25542911

  15. Spontaneous action representation in smokers when watching movie characters smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dylan D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-01-19

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontoparietal network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan, or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and 17 nonsmokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowed us to keep both smoking and nonsmoking participants naive to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by movie scenes of smoking was contrasted with nonsmoking control scenes that were matched for frequency and duration. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking versus control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking.

  16. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking.

  17. Pituitary and adrenal hormone responses to pharmacological, physical, and psychological stimulation in habitual smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, C; Scherer, G; Strasburger, C J

    1994-10-01

    Hormone responses to injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone following bicycle ergometry and psychological stress were studied in ten habitual smokers and ten nonsmokers. Compared to injection of saline, significant increases were found in adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, total serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol under all three stimulations except for salivary cortisol under ergometry. Furthermore, the smokers showed significant elevations of all five hormones investigated following the smoking of two cigarettes of the subject's preferred brand. Comparisons of hormone responses between smokers and nonsmokers revealed a general trend towards stronger responses in nonsmokers. However, due to the small number of subjects investigated and considerable variation in the individual hormone responses these differences reached statistical significance only for growth hormone responses following ergometry and salivary cortisol responses after psychological stress. In addition, the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol was measured on two occasions between 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. in the subject's natural environment. The typical circadian pattern of decreasing cortisol levels was observed, with no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that chronic nicotine consumption may lead to lower responses of multiple hormones not only to nicotine but to a variety of stimuli, and that these alterations do not necessarily affect unstimulated circadian profiles of free cortisol. PMID:7865987

  18. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue; Yin, Zhihua; Li, Xuelian; Xia, Lingzi; Zhou, Baosen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961) in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1) and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk. PMID:27669275

  19. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xue; Yin, Zhihua; Li, Xuelian; Xia, Lingzi; Zhou, Baosen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961) in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1) and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk. PMID:27669275

  20. Olfactory Cue-reactivity in Nicotine-Dependent Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Stein, Sarah V.; Freeman, W. Connor; McClernon, F. Joseph; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-elicited reactivity is a significant factor in relapse during smoking quit attempts. Previous research has focused primarily on visual smoking cues, with very limited research examining reactivity to olfactory triggers. Twenty-six adult, non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent smokers were exposed to seven odorants during a cue-reactivity session measuring heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective craving. Cues included 2 cigarette odors (fresh tobacco and cigarette smoke), 2 odors previously identified as smoking-related (freshly mowed grass and coffee), 2 odors previously identified as unrelated to smoking (lavender and burned rubber), and 1 odorless control (propylene glycol). Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that subjective intensity of craving was significantly higher following exposure to the fresh tobacco odor compared to the odorless control (p<.01). A significant main effect for cue type on a physiological measure of arousal was also revealed, with a fresh tobacco odor-elicited significant increase in skin conductance level compared to the odorless control. No main effect of cue type on heart rate, however, was found (p=.25). The results of the present study indicate that cigarette odor is an effective olfactory cue that heightens both subjective craving and increases skin conductance in smokers. Future research is needed to evaluate whether avoidance of these odors, or extinction of responses to them, can reduce relapse risk during smoking quit attempts. PMID:25180553

  1. Smokers' expectancies for abstinence: preliminary results from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Wood, Sabrina B; Hall, Sharon M

    2009-06-01

    Smokers' expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers' expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved nicotine replacement therapy effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and "political process" implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers' expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  2. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  3. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before–after study with parallel group comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Design Before–after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Setting Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Participants Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Intervention In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. Results In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (p<0.001). Median duration of counselling was 50 min. During the intervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). Conclusions A proactive strategy offering

  4. Differences Between Daily Smokers, Chippers, and Nonsmokers With Co-occurring Anxiety and Alcohol-Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Kamholz, Barbara W.; Duade, James; Farchione, Todd; Devine, Eric; Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use is disproportionately represented among both alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders (ANX) compared to the general population (Kalman et al., 2005). Despite this common overlap, little is known about how smokers with co-occurring AUD-ANX differ from their nonsmoking counterparts. Seventy-two patients participated in a larger clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of venlafaxine and cognitive-behavioral therapy for AUD-ANX. Differences between daily smokers (n = 23), chippers (n = 12) and nonsmokers (n = 37) with AUD-ANX were examined with respect to intensity and frequency of alcohol use, anxiety symptoms, depressed mood, and stress. Point prevalence of current daily smoking was 31.9%, which is considerably lower than traditionally reported in AUD studies. Consistent with predictions, daily smokers reported higher levels of alcohol dependence, average drinks per drinking occasion, and peak blood concentration levels in a day than nonsmokers during the 90 days prior to assessment. Chippers were nonsignificantly different from either smokers or nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ with respect to percent heavy drinking days or emotional symptoms. PMID:18656314

  5. A correlation study applied to biomarkers of internal and effective dose for acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Gerhard; Newland, Kirk; Papadopoulou, Ermioni

    2014-01-01

    The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts. PMID:24754403

  6. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Sugimoto, M; Nishi, R; Suga, M; Horio, S; Kohrogi, H; Shimazu, K; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by saline lavage from 23 healthy male volunteers--10 non-smokers and 13 cigarette smokers. Lavage produced three times as many alveolar macrophages in smokers than in non-smokers. When macrophages from smokers and from non-smokers were incubated in vitro, more cells from smokers adhered to glass, spread out, and showed enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. The surface morphology of alveolar macrophages from smokers showed more with a plate like appearance and ridge like membrane surface, while the macrophages from non-smokers were predominantly spherical with ruffles. The proportions of cells which stained highly for beta galactosidase were 55% in smokers and 11% in non-smokers. Thus, in a resting state in vitro, alveolar macrophages from smokers were more active than those from non-smokers. When, however, macrophages from smokers and non-smokers were incubated with immunobeads and with opsonised or non-opsonised BCG, the phagocytic activity and stimulated NBT reduction of alveolar macrophages from smokers were similar to or somewhat less than those of non-smokers. Images PMID:6438822

  7. Depression Symptoms among Homeless Smokers: Effect of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cendrine; Rogers, Charles R.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is higher among homeless individuals than the general population. Homeless individuals are also more likely to have symptoms of depression. Depression symptoms may add to the burden of homelessness by increasing psychological distress and serve as a barrier to quitting smoking. Objectives The primary goal of this study was to assess the impact of depression symptoms on psychological distress in homeless smokers. The effect of depression symptoms on abstinence and the effect of Motivational Interviewing (MI) on cessation among smokers was also explored. Methods Homeless smokers (N=430) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were randomized to Motivational Interviewing (MI) or standard care (SC). Participants received nicotine replacement therapy and were followed for 26 weeks. Participants were categorized into a depression symptoms (DS) group or control group using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Between group differences of perceived stress, hopelessness, confidence, craving and abstinence were assessed at weeks 8 and 26. The interaction between depression symptoms (levels: DS and control) and the intervention (levels: MI and SC) was also assessed. Results Homeless smokers in the DS group reported higher levels of hopelessness, perceived stress, and craving. There was no effect of DS status on abstinence at week 8 or week 26. There was no significant interaction between depression symptoms (DS vs. Control) and the intervention (MI vs. SC). Conclusion Despite reporting greater psychological distress, homeless smokers with depression symptoms in this sample had abstinence levels similar to the control group. Future research should explore protective factors among depressed smokers. PMID:27267588

  8. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in symptomatic smokers without COPD.

    PubMed

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Guenette, Jordan A; Faisal, Azmy; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Webb, Katherine A; Jensen, Dennis; Ramsook, Andrew H; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-09-01

    Dyspnoea and activity limitation can occur in smokers who do not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Detailed pulmonary function tests and sensory-mechanical relationships during incremental exercise with respiratory pressure measurements and diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi) were compared in 20 smokers without spirometric COPD and 20 age-matched healthy controls.Smokers (mean±sd post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 75±4%, mean±sd FEV1 104±14% predicted) had greater activity-related dyspnoea, poorer health status and lower physical activity than controls. Smokers had peripheral airway dysfunction: higher phase-III nitrogen slopes (3.8±1.8 versus 2.6±1.1%·L(-1)) and airway resistance (difference between airway resistance measured at 5 Hz and 20 Hz 19±11 versus 12±7% at 5 Hz) than controls (p<0.05). Smokers had significantly (p<0.05) lower peak oxygen uptake (78±40 versus 107±45% predicted) and ventilation (61±26 versus 97±29 L·min(-1)). Exercise ventilatory requirements, operating lung volumes and cardio-circulatory responses were similar. However, submaximal dyspnoea ratings, resistive and total work of breathing were increased in smokers compared with controls (p<0.05); diaphragmatic effort (transdiaphragmatic pressure/maximumal transdiaphragmatic pressure) and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm (EMGdi/maximal EMGdi) were also increased (p<0.05) mainly reflecting the reduced denominator.Symptomatic smokers at risk for COPD had greater exertional dyspnoea and lower exercise tolerance compared with healthy controls in association with greater airways resistance, contractile diaphragmatic effort and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm. PMID:27492828

  9. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  10. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H R

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  11. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Bin Mohd Samin, Ahmad Shalihin

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  12. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to varying types of emotional and cigarette stimuli in smokers: a content comparison.

    PubMed

    Minnix, Jennifer A; Versace, Francesco; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Cui, Yong; Brown, Victoria L; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Identifying neural mechanisms associated with addiction has substantially improved the overall understanding of addictive processes. Indeed, research suggests that drug-associated cues may take advantage of neural mechanisms originally intended for emotional processing of stimuli relevant to survival. In this study, we investigated cortical responses to several categories of emotional cues (erotic, romance, pleasant objects, mutilation, sadness, and unpleasant objects) as well as two types of smoking-related cues (people smoking and cigarette-related objects). We recorded ERPs from 180 smokers prior to their participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial and assessed emotional salience by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP; 400 to 600 ms after picture onset). As expected, emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted a significantly larger LPP than neutral pictures. The amplitude of the LPP increased as a function of picture arousal level, with high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures showing the largest response in contrast to low-arousing pleasant and unpleasant objects, which showed the smallest response (other than neutral). Compared to females, male participants showed larger LPPs for high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures. However, unlike emotional pictures, no difference was noted for the LPP between cigarette stimuli containing people versus those containing only objects, suggesting that in contrast to emotional objects, cigarette-related objects are highly relevant for smokers. We also compared the smokers to a small (N=40), convenience sample of never-smokers. We found that never-smokers had significantly smaller LPPs in response to erotic and cigarette stimuli containing only objects compared to smokers. PMID:23643564

  13. Lifestyle and dietary differences in smokers and non-smokers from an Italian employee population.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, A; Cannella, C; Del Balzo, V

    1997-05-01

    In a sample of 200 subjects, representative of a population of 1936 civil servants, we tested differences in life style, dietary habits and distribution of risk factors for CHD between smokers and nonsmokers. The two groups (79 smokers) and (121 non-smokers) did not differ significantly by age or sex. The percentage of sedentary subjects, of hypercholesterolaemics and of hypertensives was found to be particularly high among smokers: 67%, 33% and 30% respectively (vs 59%, 27% and 19% in non-smokers). More smokers were obese (11% vs 5%) but mean BMI was the same in smokers/non-smokers but showed a higher fat mass; the association of CHD risk factors indicates only one significant correlation (P < 0.05) between obesity and hypertension. In male smokers, higher values of LDL and triglycerides and lower intake of energy, vitamins C and A are observed and these values are significantly different than those for non-smokers. In women HDL values are higher in non-smokers whereas, in female smokers, the food cholesterol intake is particularly high 271 +/- 295 mg. There are also correlations both for the anthropometric and clinical parameters and for energy and nutrients, indicating that the lifestyle of smokers is less healthy than that of non-smokers. Smokers cat vegetables and fruits less frequently and consume more alcohol than non-smokers, who prefer sweet foods.

  14. Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers.

    PubMed

    Peuker, Ana Carolina; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2014-02-01

    It has been speculated that attentional bias (AB) to smoking cues is a permanent feature of addiction. The objective of the present study was to investigate if abstinence duration has an influence on AB. Performance on a visual probe task of three groups (recent, intermediate and prolonged) of ex-smokers (n=62, mean age 50±11 years) with different abstinence durations was compared. Target/Control images were presented at three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200, 500, and 2000 ms) on a 17-inch monitor. Former smokers avoided target images (TIs). Mean reaction time to control images was shorter than to TIs, confirming the attentional avoidance of TIs. Attentional avoidance of TIs and the lower emotional valence of these stimuli may have been a strategy to avoid relapse. Sustained avoidance to smoking-related cues may be a predictor of long-term abstinence. Direct training of AB away from drug cues may improve the results of smoking cessation therapy. PMID:24074848

  15. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ≥30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  16. Culturally specific interventions for African American smokers: an efficacy experiment.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study sought to dismantle the efficacy of culturally specific print materials for smoking cessation. Two-hundred sixty-one African American smokers were randomized into 1 of 2 conditions: standard booklet or culturally specific booklet. The content and length of the interventions were identical yet varied in their degree of cultural specificity. Three-month follow-up assessments were completed by 70% (N = 183) of participants. Dependent variables included content evaluation, readiness to quit smoking, and actual behavior change. Evidence suggested that the culturally specific material was more effective at capturing attention, providing encouragement and gaining interest compared to standard materials; however, greater credibility was found for standard materials. In addition, greater readiness to quit and more 24-hour quit attempts were found in the standard condition. No differences were found in abstinence rates. In conclusion, culturally specific interventions may be preferred over standard approaches among African American smokers. Culturally specific approaches, however, may not result in greater behavior change. Implications for written interventions and cultural specificity are discussed. PMID:19806851

  17. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  18. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  19. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  20. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  1. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  2. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.

    PubMed

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  4. The influence of smokers' degree of dependence on the effectiveness of message framing for capturing smokers for a Quitline.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2010-06-01

    Smoking is a worldwide public health problem, and various communication strategies aimed at its cessation have been used. The objective of this paper was to explore differences over time of two communication strategies (gain-framed versus loss-framed) in encouraging calls to a Quitline, according to smoker's degree of dependence. A study was conducted for four weeks among passengers of two selected subway stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (N(average) = 12,500 passengers a day per station). The interventions - large posters with images and text based on central theme "shortness-of-breath" - also contained the Quitline number. Call rate differences between the strategies, overall and specific per study week, were calculated. Light smokers exposed to the positive-content message called on average 2.2 times more often than those exposed to the negative-content message (p < 0.001). The absolute difference in call rates decreased after the first week of the study (p for the additive interaction between intervention and study week, 0.02). For heavy smokers, no differences between the two stations were observed. Additive interaction was found between type of smoker - light or heavy - and intervention (p = 0.02). The results suggest that short-term positive-content campaigns based on issues pertaining to individuals' daily routine could be effective in capturing light smokers. These results may have considerable public health impact, as the prevalence of less dependent smokers is much higher than that of heavier smokers. PMID:20163919

  5. Increased expression of CD4+IL-17+ cells in the lung tissue of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smokers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianquan; Chu, Shuyuan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Lao, Qifang; He, Zhiyi; Liang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells have an important role in controlling immune and inflammatory reactions. The authors of the present study hypothesize that these cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To characterize the frequency of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in the lung alveolar walls, small airways and muscular pulmonary arteries of nonsmokers, smokers with normal lung function and COPD patients, CD4(+)IL-17(+) cell number was assessed using double immunofluorescence staining, and IL-17 and IL-21 expression were measured using real-time quantitative PCR in the peripheral lung tissues of 10 nonsmokers, 10 smokers with normal lung function and 10 smokers with stable COPD. In the lung alveolar walls, the number of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells was increased in COPD patients compared with nonsmokers and in normal smokers compared with nonsmokers. In the small airways, the CD4(+)IL-17(+) cell numbers were higher in COPD patients than in normal smokers and nonsmokers. A positive correlation was observed between CD4(+)IL-17(+) cell expression and pathological changes in the lung tissue. In the small airways, the number of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells was positively correlated with airflow limitations. The IL-17 mRNA levels in lung tissues were increased in COPD patients and normal smokers compared with nonsmokers. Increased CD4(+)IL-17(+) cell number in lung tissue is involved in chronic inflammation of the lungs and parallels lung injury aggravation in COPD patients and in smokers without airway limitations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of CD4(+) cell-related pathogenesis in COPD.

  6. Cigarette-smoke-induced priming of neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers for increased oxidative burst response is mediated by TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Bärbel; Neumann, Ute; Schüller, Jutta; Peck, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers with an aqueous cigarette smoke (CS) extract resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in surface expression of CD11b and CD66b and a corresponding decrease of CD62L, together with a concentration-dependent release of MMP-8, MMP-9, and lactoferrin, indicating considerable activation and degranulation. However, the burst response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was unchanged in CS-stimulated neutrophils from both smokers and non-smokers. When supernatants from CS-treated monocytic MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells were used for activation of neutrophils, concentration-dependent changes in surface marker expression, granule protein release, and the oxidative burst response to fMLP were observed, again with no major differences between smokers and non-smokers. CS-treated MM6 cells released significant amounts of IL-8 and TNF-α into the culture supernatant. However, antibody blocking experiments showed that only TNF-α mediated the increased burst response in neutrophils. These data show that, in the presence of secondary cells, CS is able to prime neutrophils for an increased burst response to fMLP which is mediated by TNF-α, released from the secondary cells in response to CS. Following stimulation with priming agents, peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy smokers show an equal burst response compared to those from non-smokers.

  7. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenstrup, S.; Donà dalle Rose, L. F.; Jones, W. G.; Tugulea, L.; van Steenwijk, F. J.

    2002-09-01

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a survey. During 1997 and 1998 the working groups of EUPEN sent out a number of questionnaires to a number of institutions and to individual students. In this report we focus on issues relating to the workload to obtain a degree in physics as expressed in contact hours - lectures, problem solving, laboratory work - and private study time. The different teaching/learning styles are also considered. Some of the results have already been presented at conferences.

  8. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  9. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  10. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of thoracic CT screening for lung cancer in non-smokers and smokers of <30 pack-years aged 50-64 years (JECS study): research design.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Motoyasu; Nakayama, Tomio; Tanaka, Makoto; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of lung cancer screening using low-dose thoracic computed tomography, compared with chest roentgenography, in people aged 50-64 years with a smoking history of <30 pack-years, a randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Japan. The screening methods are randomly assigned individually. The duration of this trial is 10 years. In the intervention arm, low-dose thoracic computed tomography is performed for each participant in the first and the sixth years. In the control arm, chest roentgenography is performed for each participant in the first year. The participants in both arms are also encouraged to receive routine lung cancer screening using chest roentgenography annually. The interpretation of radiological findings and the follow-up of undiagnosed nodules are to be carried out according to the guidelines published in Japan. The required sample size is calculated to be 17 500 subjects for each arm.

  11. The "smoker's paradox" in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Smokers have been shown to have lower mortality after acute coronary syndrome than non-smokers. This has been attributed to the younger age, lower co-morbidity, more aggressive treatment and lower risk profile of the smoker. Some studies, however, have used multivariate analyses to show a residual survival benefit for smokers; that is, the "smoker's paradox". The aim of this study was, therefore, to perform a systematic review of the literature and evidence surrounding the existence of the "smoker's paradox". Methods Relevant studies published by September 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE (from 1980), MEDLINE (from 1963) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, with a combination of text words and subject headings used. English-language original articles were included if they presented data on hospitalised patients with defined acute coronary syndrome, reported at least in-hospital mortality, had a clear definition of smoking status (including ex-smokers), presented crude and adjusted mortality data with effect estimates, and had a study sample of > 100 smokers and > 100 non-smokers. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts in order to identify potentially relevant articles, with any discrepancies resolved by repeated review and discussion. Results A total of 978 citations were identified, with 18 citations from 17 studies included thereafter. Six studies (one observational study, three registries and two randomised controlled trials on thrombolytic treatment) observed a "smoker's paradox". Between the 1980s and 1990s these studies enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to criteria similar to the World Health Organisation criteria from 1979. Among the remaining 11 studies not supporting the existence of the paradox, five studies represented patients undergoing contemporary management. Conclusion The "smoker's paradox" was observed in some studies of AMI

  12. [Select parameters of renal function in smokers in correlation with the exposure to cadmium].

    PubMed

    Roszczenko, Alicja; Gałazyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata; Brzóska, Małgorzata Michalina; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains about 4000 chemical substances, including toxic metals such as cadmium. Smoking of 20 cigarettes a day results in inhalation an average 3.6-6.0 microg of cadmium. Due to nephrotoxic action of some components of tobacco smoke, and especially cadmium, the present study was aimed to evaluate of chosen parameters of kidney status in cigarette smokers in connection with estimation of cadmium concentration. The study was conducted in eighty-nine health and unexposed occupationally to cadmium inhabitants of Bialystok, smoking and non-smoking men and women at age 35-50. The smokers consumed 20 and more cigarettes per day for longer period than 10 years. Blood and morning urine were collected for analysis. In the urine samples, cadmium concentration (by atomic absorption spectrometry) and cotinine concentration (by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry), as an indicator of exposure to cigarette smoke, were determined. The kidney status was evaluated based on the urinary activities of lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzyme B (by colourimetrical method modified by Zwierz et al.) and concentrations of creatinine and urea in the serum (using diagnostic laboratory tests by POCh). The percentage reabsorption of phosphates was evaluated as well (TRP). Cadmium concentration in the urine of smoking women and men was higher compared to non-smokers, but there was no correlation between cadmium and cotinine concentrations in urine. In the smoking women, the urinary activity of NAG and TRP were higher than in non-smoking ones. In smokers, the activities of NAG and NAG-B in men and the activity of NAG-B in women were in the range of values noted in non-smokers, however the frequency of appearance of NAG and NAG-B activities above the limit of detection was higher compared to non-smokers. Cigarette smoking had no influence on the serum concentrations of creatinine and urea in both men and women and TRP in men. The results of

  13. Sessile serrated adenomas in the proximal colon are likely to be flat, large and occur in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Rangasamy, Priya; Myers, Matthew; Sanders, Melinda; Vaziri, Haleh; Wu, George Y; Birk, John W; Protiva, Petr; Anderson, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the epidemiology and the morphology of the proximal sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to identify patients with SSAs using a university-based hospital pathology database query from January 2007 to April 2011. Data collected included: age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, aspirin, and statin use. We collected data on morphology of SSAs including site (proximal or distal), size, and endoscopic appearance (flat or protuberant). We also compared proximal SSAs to proximal tubular adenomas detected during same time period. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients with SSAs were identified: 61% were distal and 39% were proximal SSAs. Proximal SSAs were more likely to be flat than distal (100% vs 78% respectively; P = 0.0001). Proximal SSAs were more likely to occur in smokers (OR = 2.63; 95%CI: 1.17-5.90; P = 0.02) and in patients with family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 4.72; 95%CI: 1.43-15.55; P = 0.01) compared to distal. Proximal SSAs were statistically more likely to be ≥ 6 mm in size (OR = 2.94; P = 0.008), and also more likely to be large (≥ 1 cm) (OR = 4.55; P = 0.0005) compared to the distal lesions. Smokers were more likely to have proximal (P = 0.02), flat (P = 0.01) and large (P = 0.007) SSAs compared to non-smokers. Compared to proximal tubular adenomas, proximal SSAs were more likely to be large and occur in smokers. CONCLUSION: Proximal SSAs which accounted for two-fifths of all SSAs were more likely to present as flat lesions, larger SSAs, and were more likely to occur in smokers and in patients with family history of colorectal cancer. Our data has implications for colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23983429

  14. Comparative study of frequency of micronuclei in normal, potentially malignant diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Varsha Ajit; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Shah, Nishat; Kangane, Suresh; Ghule, Hrishikesh M.; Rani, SR Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Context: The assessment of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated oral epithelial cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aims: To detect MN in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms and also to detect frequency of MN in premalignant lesions and conditions (potentially malignant diseases [PMD's]) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To correlate frequency of MN in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC followed by a histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects (30 smokeless tobacco users, 30 smokers and 30 nontobacco users) consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of PMD's and OSCC were selected for the study. Cytosmears from the groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN was identified according to the Tolbert et al. criteria. Results: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in PMD's (P < 0.0001). The frequency of MN correlated with the histopathological grade was statistically significant. Conclusion: MN index can be used as a biomarker/screening test among the high-risk groups particularly the smokeless tobacco users and PMD's. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC. PMID:27003966

  15. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  16. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  17. Recruiting African American smokers into intervention research: Relationships between recruitment strategies and participant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S; Seigers, Danielle; Wood, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) to describe an 8-month recruitment campaign to enroll African American smokers (N = 249) into a randomized controlled trial and (b) examine characteristics of participants recruited through proactive (face-to-face), reactive (television, radio, or newspaper ads inviting participants), and combination (both reactive and proactive) approaches. Reactive recruitment was most successful (43%), followed by proactive (31%), and combination (26%) recruitment. Compared to proactive recruitment, reactive recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence, and greater readiness to quit, processes of change engagement, and acculturation. Combination recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence and greater readiness to quit. The differences according to recruitment strategy could be used to tailor recruitment strategies for African American smokers. PMID:18767129

  18. Recruiting African American smokers into intervention research: Relationships between recruitment strategies and participant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S; Seigers, Danielle; Wood, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) to describe an 8-month recruitment campaign to enroll African American smokers (N = 249) into a randomized controlled trial and (b) examine characteristics of participants recruited through proactive (face-to-face), reactive (television, radio, or newspaper ads inviting participants), and combination (both reactive and proactive) approaches. Reactive recruitment was most successful (43%), followed by proactive (31%), and combination (26%) recruitment. Compared to proactive recruitment, reactive recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence, and greater readiness to quit, processes of change engagement, and acculturation. Combination recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence and greater readiness to quit. The differences according to recruitment strategy could be used to tailor recruitment strategies for African American smokers.

  19. Pharmacologically, are smokers the same as non-smokers?

    PubMed

    Bani, Massimo; Andorn, Anne; Heidbreder, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that there are subpopulations of daily smokers ranging from light infrequent users to heavy daily users. In the present review we will investigate whether these differences can be explained by factors such as social context, responsiveness to environmental cues, personality traits, neurochemical and pharmacogenetic differences. We will also assess how controlled abstinence and free choice smoking paradigms in a human laboratory setting may help identify and characterize these differences and what can be learned from these models to accurately predict clinical efficacy in the later phase testing of new chemical entities for the treatment of smoking dependence. PMID:24565011

  20. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  1. Modafinil and nicotine interactions in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Waters, Andrew J; Mooney, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a wakefulness-promoting medication, modafinil, alone and with the nicotine lozenge, on subjective, physiological and cognitive measures as well as on nicotine withdrawal in overnight abstinent cigarette smokers. Nineteen smokers, 13 male and 6 female, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In each of three experimental sessions, subjects were treated orally with a single 200 mg or 400 mg dose of modafinil or placebo. Two hours and 10 min following the medication treatment, subjects received a single 2 mg nicotine lozenge. Both doses of modafinil alone increased the rating of elated-depressed on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale in the direction of depressed and increased ratings of negative affect on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In contrast, the 200 mg modafinil dose combined with a 2 mg nicotine lozenge, increased the rating of energetic-tired in the direction of energetic on the POMS subscale. Modafinil attenuated self-reported rating of 'drug strength' in response to the nicotine lozenge. Modafinil, alone or in combination with the nicotine lozenge, did not affect tobacco withdrawal symptoms. There was an increase in baseline heart rate and systolic blood pressure under modafinil treatment. In addition, modafinil speeded reaction times on a modified Stroop task. The clinical utility of modafinil for smoking cessation needs to be determined in future studies. PMID:17868195

  2. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  3. Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A

    2012-10-17

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of US residents who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (ie, counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quit lines. Smokers who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, or nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs' benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  4. [Reasons that make individuals in a higher education institution to become or not to become smokers].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephani Amanda Lukasewicz; Teixeiraa, Carolina de Castilhos; Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Echerc, Isabel Cristina

    2011-06-01

    This is a cross-sectional study that aims to identify reasons that make individuals in a higher education institution to become or not to become smokers. The data were collected in 2009, with specific questionnaires analyzed statistically. The sample was of 426 subjects, of which 21 (5%) smokers, 26 (6.1%) ex-smokers and 376 (88.9%) non-smokers. The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking are the health problems that arise from it. Nicotine addiction is among the factors that make this process difficult. Ex-smokers say that emotional issues and the pleasure of smoking can make them smoke again, but they remain abstinent because they are determined not to smoke. Non-smokers report they don't like the cigarette, its smell and its smoke. The reasons to be a smoker or a non-smoker can help implementing health education actions that prevent people from starting to smoke and that help them stop.

  5. Reaching young adult smokers through the Internet: Comparison of three recruitment mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: While young adults have the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking of any adult age group, studies of tobacco and other substance use have reported challenges in recruiting this age group. The Internet may be a useful tool for reaching young adult smokers. The present study compared three Internet-based recruitment methods for young adult smokers to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use: Craigslist advertisements, other Internet advertisements, and E-mail invitations through a survey sampling service. Methods: Recruitment campaigns invited young adults aged 18–25 years who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days to complete an online survey. Recruitment methods were compared across recruitment numbers, costeffectiveness, and demographic and smoking characteristics of recruited participants. Results: In 6 months, 920 people gave online consent to determine eligibility to complete the survey, of which 336 (36.5%) were eligible, and 201 (59.8%) completed the survey. While Internet advertisements yielded the largest proportion of recruited participants and completed surveys overall, Craigslist and sampling strategies were more successful at targeting young adult smokers who went on to complete the survey and were more costeffective. Participants differed in demographic and substance use characteristics across the three recruitment mechanisms. Discussion: We identified success at reaching young adults who have smoked cigarettes recently through the Internet, though costs, participant eligibility, proportion of completed surveys, and respondent characteristics differed among the three methods. A multipronged approach to Internet recruitment is most likely to generate a broad diverse sample of young adult smokers. PMID:20530194

  6. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  7. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  8. Teaching the Comparative Approach to American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Stanley

    The rationale behind this book of five suggested or sample comparative units contains several elements: 1) an interdisciplinary social science approach to studying the American past, present, and future; and 2) a view of our country's history in terms of a world setting and in the light on contemporary concerns. The global comparative method…

  9. Comparative Rhetoric: Applications in African Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neher, William W.

    Comparative rhetoric studies the mode of public address among a specified group of people and the theories and values governing their public address in specific cultural contexts. Two ways to consider the subject of values in comparative rhetoric involve values as norms and values as appeals. Values assumed to be held by the audience are the bases…

  10. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  11. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  12. Differences in reasons for smoking between younger and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Oei, T P; Tilley, D; Gow, K

    1991-01-01

    The reasons why older people smoke have not been examined in the literature. This paper attempted to examine the differences in motivation and maintenance factors of elderly and young smokers using the Horn-Waingrow Why do you smoke questionnaire. One hundred and thirteen clinical patients and 112 non-patient controls were used in this study. The clinical group was divided into an elderly group (n = 58) and a younger group (n = 55). The results of a discriminant analysis showed that patients significantly differed from non-patients on 'automatic habit and stimulation', and 'crutch/tension reduction' factors. Elderly patients were found to be significantly differentiated from both younger patients and the control group on the 'pleasurable relaxation' factor. These findings offer support for the US Surgeon Generals' report that elderly smokers do have different motivating factors for their smoking behaviours from younger smokers.

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  14. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  15. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside. PMID:22921198

  16. Aberrant methylation of hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 and exocyclic DNA adducts in tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco E M; Munnia, Armelle; Bollati, Valentina; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ceppi, Marcello; Giese, Roger W; Boffetta, Paolo; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has been shown to produce both DNA damage and epigenetic alterations. However, the potential role of DNA damage in generating epigenetic changes is largely underinvestigated in human studies. We examined the effects of smoking on the levels of DNA methylation in genes for tumor protein p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor2A, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), interleukin-6, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element type1, and Alu retrotransposons in blood of 177 residents in Thailand using bisulfite-PCR andpyrosequencing. Then, we analyzed the relationship of this methylation with the oxidative DNA adduct, M₁dG (a malondialdehyde adduct), measured by ³²P-postlabeling. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that HIC1 methylation levels were significantly increased in smokers compared with nonsmokers (p ≤ .05). A dose response was observed, with the highest HIC1 methylation levels in smokers of ≥ 10 cigarettes/day relative to nonsmokers and intermediate values in smokers of 1-9 cigarettes/day (p for trend ≤ .001). No additional relationships were observed. We also evaluated correlations between M₁dG and the methylation changes at each HIC1 CpG site individually. The levels of this adduct in smokers showed a significant linear correlation with methylation at one of the 3 CpGs evaluated in HIC1: hypermethylation at position 1904864340 was significantly correlated with the adduct M₁dG (covariate-adjusted regression coefficient (β) = .224 ± .101 [SE], p ≤ .05). No other correlations were detected. Our study extends prior work by others associating hypermethylation of HIC1 with smoking; shows that a very specific hypermethylation event can arise from smoking; and encourages future studies that explore a possible role for M₁dG in connecting smoking to this latter hypermethylation. PMID:24154486

  17. Comparative Review of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Barbara A.

    Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world history, and…

  18. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  19. Chapter 6: Lung cancer in never smokers: epidemiology and risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, William J; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model.

  20. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9–52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0–6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6–29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  1. A comparison of diabetic smokers and non-smokers who undergo lower extremity amputation: a retrospective review of 112 patients

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. Joseph; Boone, Joshua; Hansen, Myron; Spencer, Loren; Fowler, Zflan

    2012-01-01

    Background A diabetic foot or lower extremity amputation may be exacerbated by or related to the smoking habits and history of the patient. Patients and methods Of the 112 diabetic patients in this retrospective study, 46 were non-smokers and 66 were smokers. The smokers were further categorized into patients who: 1) did not cease smoking; 2) ceased in the immediate post-operative period but resumed within 3 months; and 3) ceased up to and at the 3-month post-operative period. The patients were also divided by their amputation level of forefoot, midfoot/rearfoot, and proximal leg. Results Smoking diabetic patients underwent more amputations, as well as more proximal amputations than those who did not smoke. The higher amount of smoking in pack years followed an increasing trend of more proximal amputations as well. Conclusion Neither the amputation level nor the amputation itself was enough motivation for the patients to participate in smoking cessation. PMID:23082237

  2. Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

  3. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  4. CHRNA5/CHRNA3 Locus Associates with Increased Mortality among Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kupiainen, Henna; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kontto, Jukka; Virtamo, Jarmo; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindqvist, Ari; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene (CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus) have been associated with several smoking related traits such as nicotine dependence, cigarette consumption, smoking cessation, lung cancer, and COPD. The aim of this candidate gene study was to study the locus among the Finnish COPD patients and long-term smokers with regard to COPD risk, smoking behavior, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Genotyping of rs1051730, the locus tagging SNP was done in two longitudinal cohorts: Finnish COPD patients (N = 575, 74% men) and long-term smokers, all men (N = 1911). Finnish population sample (N = 1730) was used as controls. The analyses were done using logistic and Cox regression. The main findings were that the minor allele increased the risk of COPD when compared to the Finnish population at large (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p = 3.2 × 10-5). Homozygosity for the risk allele was associated in both cohorts with all-cause mortality (crude HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.8 and 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, respectively), with any type of cancer (crude OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1) among the COPD patients and with the number of pack-years (crude OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) among the male smokers. CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus tagged by rs1051730, which has been previously associated with several smoking related diseases was now shown to be associated also with increased all-cause mortality among long-term smokers with or without clinical COPD further emphasizing the clinical importance of the finding. PMID:26751916

  5. Distinct Quantitative Computed Tomography Emphysema Patterns Are Associated with Physiology and Function in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    San José Estépar, Raúl; Mendoza, Carlos S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Laird, Nan; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Washko, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Emphysema occurs in distinct pathologic patterns, but little is known about the epidemiologic associations of these patterns. Standard quantitative measures of emphysema from computed tomography (CT) do not distinguish between distinct patterns of parenchymal destruction. Objectives: To study the epidemiologic associations of distinct emphysema patterns with measures of lung-related physiology, function, and health care use in smokers. Methods: Using a local histogram-based assessment of lung density, we quantified distinct patterns of low attenuation in 9,313 smokers in the COPDGene Study. To determine if such patterns provide novel insights into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology, we tested for their association with measures of physiology, function, and health care use. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with percentage of low-attenuation area less than −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA-950), local histogram-based measures of distinct CT low-attenuation patterns are more predictive of measures of lung function, dyspnea, quality of life, and health care use. These patterns are strongly associated with a wide array of measures of respiratory physiology and function, and most of these associations remain highly significant (P < 0.005) after adjusting for %LAA-950. In smokers without evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the mild centrilobular disease pattern is associated with lower FEV1 and worse functional status (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Measures of distinct CT emphysema patterns provide novel information about the relationship between emphysema and key measures of physiology, physical function, and health care use. Measures of mild emphysema in smokers with preserved lung function can be extracted from CT scans and are significantly associated with functional measures. PMID:23980521

  6. Serum, saliva, and GCF concentration of RANKL and osteoprotegerin in smokers versus nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Saied-Moallemi, Zahra; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Naseri, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of host response in periodontitis pathogenesis is confirmed, and it is well established that immune response plays a major role in the alveolar bone destruction. In the investigation of these responses, the role of receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is the most promising. Smoking can affect the RANKL-OPG system in a manner that will further enhance bone loss in periodontitis. The aim of this study is to assess the serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentration of RANKL and OPG in smoker versus nonsmoker untreated chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine subjects were included in the present cross-sectional study: 29 systemically healthy CP male patients (15 smokers, 14 nonsmokers) and 10 systemically and periodontally healthy nonsmoker male subjects. Serum, GCF, and whole saliva samples were obtained from the subjects. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used for assaying the concentrations of RANKL and OPG in the samples. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test were utilized to compare differences between the groups. Results: RANKL and OPG concentrations in saliva, serum, and GCF did not show any significant difference among all groups (P > 0.05). Salivary RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the nonsmoker CP group than in the healthy control group (P > 0.05) but they were not statistically significant among smoker periodontitis patients. Conclusions: The salivary RANKL/OPG ratio was higher in nonsmokers with periodontitis in comparison with smoker periodontitis patients. PMID:27195253

  7. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  8. Cigarette brand preference among middle and high school students who are established smokers - United States, 2004 and 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-02-13

    Studies have suggested a link between exposure to tobacco advertising and cigarette brand preference. Knowing the brand preferences of young established smokers can provide insight into what influences young smokers to start and continue to smoke. A report of 2005 data indicated that the three most heavily advertised brands, Marlboro, Newport, and Camel, were preferred by 81% of U.S. youths aged 12-17 years. To assess the cigarette brand preferences among middle school and high school students who were established smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 and 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among established student smokers in middle and high school, Marlboro was the preferred brand (43.3% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by Newport (26.4% and 21.4%, respectively). The use of Newport was significantly higher among blacks in middle school (59.7%) and high school (78.6%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Information on brand preferences and tobacco marketing strategies that are attractive to students can be used by tobacco control programs and community initiatives in the design of tobacco countermarketing campaigns. These countermarketing campaigns have been shown to be effective as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program to decrease the initiation of tobacco use among youths and young adults. PMID:19214160

  9. Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed.

  10. A Preliminary Exploration of Former Smokers Enrolled in an Internet Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M; Elmasry, Hoda; Graham, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    quitting more than a week prior to website registration and 43.9% (97/221) had quit within 7 days of registration. The website features most likely to be used were an interactive Quit Date tool (166/221, 75.1%) and the Community (134/221, 60.6%). Univariate regression models showed that recent quitters, those with higher motivation to remain abstinent, and those who used cessation medication in the past year were more likely to use the Community. Older age, longer duration of abstinence at registration, better health status, and health care provider advice to quit were associated with 1-month abstinence. Website utilization metrics did not predict abstinence, though odds ratios suggested higher utilization was associated with greater odds of abstinence. Conclusions This exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility of recruiting former smokers to a research study and documented the uptake of an Internet cessation intervention among this group of self-quitters. Results also showed higher levels of website utilization and greater likelihood of community use among smokers early in their quit attempt compared to those with a longer period of abstinence at enrollment. Important areas for future research include identifying former smokers who may be more susceptible to relapse and determining which components of an Internet intervention are most helpful to prevent relapse in the early and later stages of a quit attempt. PMID:27302500

  11. Single versus Recurrent Depression History: Differentiating risk-factors among current U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Strong, David R.; Cameron, Amy; Feuer, Shelley; Cohn, Amy; Abrantes, Ana M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The strong relationship between persistent tobacco use and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has motivated clinical trials of specialized treatments targeting smokers with a history of MDD. Meta-analyses suggest positive responses to specialized treatments have been observed consistently among smokers with history of recurrent rather than a single episode of MDD. Approximately 15% of current US smokers have a history of recurrent MDD. Little is known about the risk factors that contribute to persistent smoking and differentiate these at-risk smokers. US. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey – Replication (NCS-R) included a survey of 1560 smokers participants aged 18 and older in the United States. Lifetime history of MDD was categorized according to chronicity: No History (No MDD), single episode (MDD-S) and recurrent depression (MDD-R). The relationship between the chronicity of MDD, smoking characteristics, cessation history, nicotine dependence, comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, and current functional impairments were examined. Results MDD-R smokers reported fewer lifetime cessation efforts, smoked more cigarettes, had higher levels of nicotine dependence, had higher rates of co-morbid psychiatric disorders and greater functional impairment than smokers with No MDD. MDD-S smokers were not consistently distinguished from No MDD smokers on cessation attempts, level of daily smoking, nicotine dependence or functional impairment indices. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of chronicity when characterizing depression related risk of persistent smoking behavior. Although, clinical trials suggest MDD-R smokers specifically benefit from specialized behavioral treatments, these services are not widely available and more efforts are needed to engage MDD-R smokers in efficacious treatments. Abstract Word Count: 249 PMID:20074868

  12. Decreased delay discounting in former cigarette smokers at one year after treatment.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Yoon, Jin Ho

    2014-06-01

    Current cigarette smokers exhibit greater delay discounting relative to ex-smokers. However, few studies have assessed longitudinal changes in delay discounting and cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers (N=80) at baseline, after 6 weeks of behavioral treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Results showed no changes in delay discounting in either smokers or abstainers at the end-of-treatment. In contrast, at 12-month follow-up, significant decreases in delay discounting were observed in abstainers while delay discounting remained the same for smokers. To our knowledge, this is the first study to observe significant decreases in delay discounting following prolonged smoking abstinence. Such findings provide evidence that delay discounting may have more state-like characteristics than previously believed.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  14. TP53 Mutation Spectrum in Smokers and Never Smoking Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Ann R.; Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Vodak, Daniel; Vu, Phuong; Sagerup, Camilla; Hovig, Eivind; Myklebost, Ola; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brustugun, Odd T.; Helland, Åslaug

    2016-01-01

    Background: TP53 mutations are among the most common mutations found in lung cancers, identified as an independent prognostic factor in many types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and prognostic impact of TP53 mutations in never-smokers and in different histological subtypes of lung cancer. Methods: We analyzed tumor tissue from 394 non-small cell carcinomas including adenocarcinomas (n = 229), squamous cell carcinomas (n = 112), large cell carcinomas (n = 30), and others (n = 23) for mutations in TP53 by the use of Sanger sequencing (n = 394) and next generation sequencing (n = 100). Results: TP53 mutations were identified in 47.2% of the samples, with the highest frequency (65%) of mutations among squamous cell carcinomas. Among never-smokers, 36% carried a TP53 mutation, identified as a significant independent negative prognostic factor in this subgroup. For large cell carcinomas, a significantly prolonged progression free survival was found for those carrying a TP53 mutation. In addition, the frequency of frameshift mutations was doubled in squamous cell carcinomas (20.3%) compared to adenocarcinomas (9.1%). Conclusion: TP53 mutation patterns differ between the histological subgroups of lung cancers, and are also influenced by smoking history. This indicates that the histological subtypes in lung cancer are genetically different, and that smoking-induced TP53 mutations may have a different biological impact than TP53 mutations occurring in never-smokers. PMID:27242894

  15. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Airflow Obstruction and Quality of Life in Asthmatic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jang, An-Soo; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Do-Jin; Uh, SooTaek; Kim, Young Hoon; Whang, Hun Gyu; Lim, Gun Il

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Smoking elicits airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, even after smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of smoking cessation on lung function and quality of life (QOL) in asthmatic patients. Methods Thirty-two patients with asthma who were active smokers were recruited. After education on the effects of smoking on asthma, 22 patients continued to smoke, and 10 quit smoking. All patients were treated with inhaled fluticasone propionate (1 mg/day) for 3 months. We compared forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% FVC (FEF25-75%), and scores on a QOL questionnaire at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months. Results Quitters showed a greater percent change in FEV1 (19.1±6.3 vs. 7.9±2.4%, P=0.024) and FEV1/FVC (6.5±4.14 vs. 3.5±1.5%, P=0.05) than smokers. Both quitters and smokers showed improved QOL scores after 1, 2, and 3 months of fluticasone treatment. Conclusions Patients with asthma who quit smoking showed less airway obstruction, suggesting that smoking cessation is crucial in the management of asthma. PMID:20885910

  16. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe) Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-01-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  17. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2) and nutritional status (measured by body mass index) data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15) and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11). In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045) between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002) and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010). There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2. PMID:21040562

  18. A Self-Determination Multiple Risk Intervention Trial to Improve Smokers' Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey C; McGregor, Holly; Sharp, Daryl; Kouides, Ruth W; Lévesque, Chantal S; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about how interventions motivate individuals to change multiple health risk behaviors. Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that patient autonomy is an essential factor for motivating change. OBJECTIVE An SDT-based intervention to enhance autonomous motivation for tobacco abstinence and improving cholesterol was tested. DESIGN The Smokers' Health Study is a randomized multiple risk behavior change intervention trial. SETTING Smokers were recruited to a tobacco treatment center. PATIENTS A total of 1,006 adult smokers were recruited between 1999 and 2002 from physician offices and by newspaper advertisements. INTERVENTIONS A 6-month clinical intervention (4 contacts) to facilitate internalization of autonomy and perceived competence for tobacco abstinence and reduced percent calories from fat was compared with community care. Clinicians elicited patient perspectives and life strivings, provided absolute coronary artery disease risk estimates, enumerated effective treatment options, supported patient initiatives, minimized clinician control, assessed motivation for change, and developed a plan for change. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Twelve-month prolonged tobacco abstinence, and change in percent calories from fat and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline to 18 months. RESULTS Intention to treat analyses revealed that the intervention significantly increased 12-month prolonged tobacco abstinence (6.2% vs 2.4%; odds ratio [OR]=2.7, P=.01, number needed to treat [NNT]=26), and reduced LDL-C (−8.9 vs −4.1 mg/dL; P=.05). There was no effect on percent calories from fat. CONCLUSIONS An intervention focused on supporting smokers' autonomy was effective in increasing prolonged tobacco abstinence and lowering LDL-C. Clinical interventions for behavior change may be improved by increasing patient autonomy and perceived competence. PMID:16995893

  19. Beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer screening among smokers.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Bergamo, Cara; Lin, Jenny J; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Diefenbach, Michael; Smith, Cardinale; Nelson, Judith E; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2012-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently reported that annual computed tomography (CT) screening is associated with decreased lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. Beliefs about lung cancer and screening, particularly across race and ethnicity, and their influence on CT screening utilization are largely unexamined. Our study recruited asymptomatic, high-risk smokers, 55-74 years of age from primary care clinics in an academic urban hospital. Guided by the self-regulation theory, we evaluated cognitive and affective beliefs about lung cancer. Intention to screen for lung cancer with a CT scan was assessed by self-report. We used univariate and logistic regression analyses to compare beliefs about screening and intention to screen among minority (Blacks and Hispanics) and non-minority participants. Overall, we enrolled 108 participants, of which 40% were Black and 34% were Hispanic; the mean age was 62.3 years, and median pack-years of smoking was 26. We found that intention to screen was similar among minorities and non-minorities (p=0.19); however, Hispanics were less likely to report intention to screen if they had to pay for the test (p=0.02). Fatalistic beliefs, fear of radiation exposure, and anxiety related to CT scans were significantly associated with decreased intention to screen (p<0.05). Several differences were observed in minority versus non-minority participants' beliefs toward lung cancer and screening. In conclusion, we found that concerns about cost, which were particularly prominent among Hispanics, as well as fatalism and radiation exposure fears may constitute barriers to lung cancer screening. Lung cancer screening programs should address these factors to ensure broad participation, particularly among minorities.

  20. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  1. Whole-genome sequencing of asian lung cancers: second-hand smoke unlikely to be responsible for higher incidence of lung cancer among Asian never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vidhya G; Ebert, Philip J; Ting, Jason C; Lim, Elaine; Wong, Swee-Seong; Teo, Audrey S M; Yue, Yong G; Chua, Hui-Hoon; Ma, Xiwen; Loh, Gary S L; Lin, Yuhao; Tan, Joanna H J; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Shenli; Reinhard, Christoph; Tan, Daniel S W; Peters, Brock A; Lincoln, Stephen E; Ballinger, Dennis G; Laramie, Jason M; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Barber, Thomas D; Tan, Patrick; Hillmer, Axel M; Ng, Pauline C

    2014-11-01

    Asian nonsmoking populations have a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with their European counterparts. There is a long-standing hypothesis that the increase of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers is due to environmental factors such as second-hand smoke. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing of 30 Asian lung cancers. Unsupervised clustering of mutational signatures separated the patients into two categories of either all the never-smokers or all the smokers or ex-smokers. In addition, nearly one third of the ex-smokers and smokers classified with the never-smoker-like cluster. The somatic variant profiles of Asian lung cancers were similar to that of European origin with G.C>T.A being predominant in smokers. We found EGFR and TP53 to be the most frequently mutated genes with mutations in 50% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Among the 16 never-smokers, 69% had an EGFR mutation compared with 29% of 14 smokers/ex-smokers. Asian never-smokers had lung cancer signatures distinct from the smoker signature and their mutation profiles were similar to European never-smokers. The profiles of Asian and European smokers are also similar. Taken together, these results suggested that the same mutational mechanisms underlie the etiology for both ethnic groups. Thus, the high incidence of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers seems unlikely to be due to second-hand smoke or other carcinogens that cause oxidative DNA damage, implying that routine EGFR testing is warranted in the Asian population regardless of smoking status. PMID:25189529

  2. The structures and evolution of Smoker in an ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lixin; Ying, Chongfu; Li, Chao; Deng, Jingjun

    2012-07-01

    The structures and evolution of Smoker in a 20 kHz ultrasonic field were investigated experimentally with high-speed photography. The spine-plume structure of Smoker was discovered. A few large bubbles align themselves along the central line and form the spine of Smoker. Numerous small bubbles move towards the spine and form the plume structures. The size of large bubbles differs almost by an order of magnitude from that of small bubbles. The evolution of cavitation structure from Flare to Smoker was found. When a Flare appears near a Smoker, the Flare may merge into the plume structures of the Smoker, or form a double-tipped Smoker. A double-tipped Smoker seldom splits into two Smokers, while two separate Smokers tend to merge as one. The large bubbles (or dense plume structures) in the middle part of the two separate Smokers attract each other, driving the two Smokers to bend towards each other and merge.

  3. College Student Smokers' Cognitive Appraisal of High-Risk Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Amy L.; Kulesza, Magdalena; Patterson, Scott M.; Terlecki, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Students who smoke are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as binge drinking and unprotected sex (Schnieder and Morris, "Environ Behav." 1999; 23:575-591). The goals of the present study were to determine whether smokers assess these behaviors as lower risk than nonsmokers, and if smoking rate influences risk perceptions.…

  4. Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

  5. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  6. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy-Drinking Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Mirbaba, Michael M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco use and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the US. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability-adjusted life-years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than nonsmokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors, including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD, and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy-drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies, including varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation, and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizeable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily.

  7. Smokers and non‐smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non‐smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi‐structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de‐legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self‐evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:16998175

  8. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  9. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow.

  10. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  11. Are college student smokers really a homogeneous group? A latent class analysis of college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wolfson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: College smokers are often considered to be one homogenous group, those reporting smoking on at least one of the past 30 days. However, considerable heterogeneity exists among college students who report current smoking. The aim of this paper is to characterize disparate patterns of smoking among college students using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods: The sample consisted of 1,102 past-month smokers from 10 colleges in North Carolina who completed a Web-based survey. LCA was used to create homogeneous groups of smokers with similar patterns defined by multiple indicators of smoking behavior, including quantity and frequency of smoking, smoking contexts, and weekly patterns of smoking. Results: Five subclasses of smokers were identified: “heavy smokers” (28%), moderate smokers (22%), social smokers (19%), puffers (26%), and no-context smokers (4%). Demographic characteristics that varied among these subgroups were year in school, Greek membership, and residence location. Puffers were more likely to be younger students than heavy and social smokers, suggesting a transition from experimentation to regular use over time. Social smokers and puffers were more likely to be involved in Greek organizations than were heavy and moderate smokers. Moderate and social smokers were more likely to be current drinkers and to have engaged in binge drinking in the past month than were heavy smokers. This finding suggests that, for moderate and social smokers, a strong relationship exists between alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion: The results highlight the heterogeneity of college student smokers and underscore the need for targeted interventions. PMID:19264866

  12. The expression of Foxp3 and ROR gamma t in lung tissues from normal smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shuyuan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jianquan; Lao, Qifang; He, Zhiyi; Bai, Jing

    2011-11-01

    Foxp3- and ROR gamma t-expressing cells are involved in acquired immune responses. The change in Foxp3 and ROR gamma t expression in lung tissue and their role in emphysema has not been studied for COPD patients and normal smokers. In the present study, Foxp3 and ROR gamma t were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and the expression and distribution of Foxp3, IL-17, IL-23R and CCR6 were measured by immunohistochemistry in peripheral lung tissue (10 smokers with COPD, 10 smokers and 10 nonsmokers with normal lung function). Foxp3 expression was lower and ROR gamma t expression was higher in COPD patients when compared with smokers and nonsmokers (all P values were less than 0.001). The ratios of Foxp3/ROR gamma t mRNA and protein were positively correlated to FEV1%pred and negatively correlated to the mean alveoli area. Foxp3(+) cell numbers were decreased, while the number of IL-17(+) cells, IL-23R(+) cells and CCR6(+) cells were increased in the lung alveolar walls of COPD patients compared with normal smokers and nonsmokers (all P values were less than 0.001). The IL-17(+) cell numbers were positively correlated to both CCR6(+) and IL-23R(+) cells. Our data show a decreased Foxp3 expression and an increased ROR gamma t expression in COPD patients and normal smokers that parallels the aggravation of the disease. The IL-17(+)-cell-related cytokines receptors CCR6 and IL-23R had an association with the mechanism of IL-17(+) cell number increasing, which will provide a new immuno-therapeutic target for COPD.

  13. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  14. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  15. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  16. Smokers' accounts on the health risks of smoking: why is smoking not dangerous for me?

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Hanne; Patja, Kristiina; Jallinoja, Piia

    2010-09-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with forty smokers, aged 24-58 years, in Finland, this study aimed to identify key accounts that smokers used to respond to the hegemonic claim that smoking is harmful to health. While the smokers defended themselves in the face of the presumed health risk argument, they both agreed with and challenged the predominant medical and epidemiological discourses. The five most frequently observed account types that the smokers used were: health risk perspective, moderate use is not harmful, counter-evidence, compensatory behaviour, and smoking as the lesser evil. The accounts seemed to have two purposes. First, they served to protect the smokers from self-blame as well as blame from others. The smokers presented themselves as risk-aware and calculating actors, who have nevertheless made their choice to smoke. Second, the smokers tried to convince the interviewers and themselves of the harmlessness and acceptability of their own smoking. The results of the study with respect to smoking further the understanding about the way laypeople make sense of information about health risks that relates directly to their own 'unhealthy' behaviours and how they use this knowledge to justify their behaviour. Based on the findings of our study, we recommend that future anti-smoking campaigns and interventions should take into account and target lay epidemiological health accounts that are applied by smokers themselves. Rather than trying to motivate and persuade smokers to quit with information translated from epidemiological and medical research, the anti-smoking advocates and health promotion specialists should provide answers to the questions that smokers themselves are pondering and answering, too. Consequently, the results can be used in relation to other pleasurable but 'unhealthy' activities, such as unhealthy eating or drinking, by offering insights into how individuals manage to rationalise and maintain activities which the hegemonic public

  17. Comparative studies on serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keizo; Ishizaka, Kimishige

    1954-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken by the authors to determine the most reliable of the serodiagnostic tests for syphilis in current use in Japan. The criteria for the selection of sera, the way in which the standard tests were chosen, and the statistical method used for evaluating the results are described, and some of the detailed results are given. Five tests—the VDRL test, the agglutination test, Ogata's test, the Kahn test (with cardiolipin antigen), and Browning's test modified by Taniguchi (with cardiolipin antigen)—were found to be comparable in reliability to the Kolmer (Lederle) and VDRL (Lederle) tests employed in the USA. PMID:14364183

  18. Smoked Cannabis' Psychomotor and Neurocognitive Effects in Occasional and Frequent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at −1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. PMID:25745105

  19. Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. PMID:25745105

  20. Evaluation of the level of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, D; Zachovalová, L; Fiala, J; Kyasová, M

    2003-09-01

    The questionnaire containing ten items evaluated the degree of dependence in students-volunteers from Brno secondary and vocational schools (ages ranging from 15 to 17 years) and the anamnestic data were compared with the specific (urinary cotinine) and non-specific (CO in the air exhaled) biological tests of exposure to smoking. The sample of 147 students examined contained 42% non-smokers, 25% occasional smokers and almost 33% of those who smoked every day. Almost 10% children smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day, and more than 20% children stated that they smoked 60 and more cigarettes a week. In accordance with the pre-developed degrees of dependence, compiled by the scores of the individual responses, 59% of the respondents (including the non-smokers) were ranked among the non-dependent. The second most frequent group contained the "strongly dependent" (almost 17% of all persons, e.g. 30% of smokers), 3.4% of examined persons (6% of smokers) were ranked in the sub-group of persons with a very high degree of dependence. Highly positive correlations were found between the evaluation of the dependence degree according to the anamnestic data and the exposure bio-markers (urinary cotinine/creatinine and CO in the air exhaled): the values of correlation coefficients were 0.615 and 0.764, resp. Both bio-markers also correlated negatively with the time of the last exposure to both active and passive smoking. The individual items in the dependence questionnaire had positive correlations with the objective exposure indicators which had statistical significance. The strongest relationship was observed in the question about the first morning cigarette--the highest correlation coefficients, being followed by signs evaluating the smoking frequency and the usual number of cigarettes smoked per day and in a week. The lowest relationships concerned the occasions for smoking and the unpleasant symptoms associated with the withdrawal. The anamnestic questionnaire could explain

  1. Intention to Switch to Smokeless Tobacco Use among South African Smokers: Results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Agaku, Israel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT) have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers’ interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. Methods The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. Results About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7%) among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5%) among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19–0.91). Conclusion About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking. PMID:24743334

  2. Quit smoking advice from health professionals in Taiwan: the role of funding policy and smoker socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lo, Shu-ying; Yu, Po-tswen; Chao, Kun-yu; Hsiao, Mei-ling

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In 2002, Taiwan launched a program to encourage doctors to provide brief cessation counselling to their patients during routine outpatient visits. This study is to compare and analyse the annual prevalence rate of receiving advice to quit smoking from health professionals before (2004) and after (2005, 2006) the increase in funding and the withdrawal of additional funding (2007). Methods We analysed pooled data from 2004 to 2007 Taiwan Adult Tobacco Survey, an annual random digit dialling telephone survey, to estimate the prevalence of receiving quit advice among ever smokers across these years. Smoking characteristics and the socioeconomic factors of smokers associated with receipt of advice to quit smoking were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of receiving quit advice increased from 21.1% in 2004 to 28.2% in 2006, and then decreased slightly to 27.6% in 2007 after the funds were cut. Multivariate analyses results indicated that increasing financing for smoking cessation services in 2005, being male, older, a daily cigarette user, having previously attempted to quit, perceiving oneself as having poor health and being aware of the benefits of smoking cessation services were significantly positively associated with receiving quit advice from health professionals. In contrast, smokers who were younger, female and occasional cigarette users were less likely to receive quit advice. Also, smokers with socioeconomic disadvantages were not less likely to receive quit advice. Conclusions During the period of increased funding for smoking cessation services, the rates of receiving quit advice increased among all smokers and across different socioeconomic groups. PMID:19965797

  3. Reward and Affective Regulation in Depression-Prone Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ashare, Rebecca; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a disproportionately high smoking prevalence among individuals who are prone to depression. While depression has been conceptualized as a disorder of dysregulated positive affect and disrupted reward processing, little research has been conducted to determine the role of smoking in these processes among depression-prone smokers. Methods Depression-prone smokers (DP+; n = 34) and smokers not depression-prone (DP-; n=49) underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad-libitum, to assess the relative reinforcing value of smoking and reward sensitivity. Using experience sampling methods, participants completed self-report measures of subjective reward, positive affect, and negative affect across three days while smoking as usual and three days while smoking abstinent. Results DP+ were two times more likely to work for cigarette puffs versus money in a progressive ratio, choice task (OR 2.05; CI 95% 1.04 to 4.06, p=0.039) compared to DP-. Reward sensitivity as measured by the signal detection task did not yield any significant findings. Mixed models regressions revealed a 3-way interaction (depression group, smoking phase, and time) for subjective reward, negative affect and positive affect. For all three of these outcomes, the slopes for DP- and DP+ differed significantly from each other (p's < 0.05), and the effect of smoking (vs. abstinence) over time was greater for DP+ than DP- smokers (p's <0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that the effects of smoking on reward and positive affect regulation are specific to DP+ smokers and highlight novel targets for smoking cessation treatment in this population. PMID:24947541

  4. Benign and time-limited visual disturbances (flashbacks) in recent abstinent high-potency heavy cannabis smokers: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Arturo G; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Bleich, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Eight high-potency heavy cannabis smokers who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence sought treatment for outpatient detoxification. During routine psychiatric interview they reported the presence of visual disturbances when intoxicated and no prior history of LSD use. They all communicated the persistence of visual disturbances after ceasing cannabis use. Seven categories of visual disturbances were described when staring at stationary and moving objects: visual distortions, distorted perception of distance, illusions of movement of stationary and moving objects, color intensification of objects,dimmed color, dimensional distortion and blending of patterns and objects. Patients reported having 2-5 different categories of flashbacks up to 3-6 months after cessation of cannabis use. The described phenomena may be interpreted as a time-limited benign side effect of high-potency cannabis use in some individuals. A combination of vulnerability and use of large amounts of high potency cannabis seem to contribute to the appearance of this condition. Conclusions from uncontrolled case series should be taken with appropriate caution. PMID:21572239

  5. Benign and time-limited visual disturbances (flashbacks) in recent abstinent high-potency heavy cannabis smokers: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Arturo G; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Bleich, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Eight high-potency heavy cannabis smokers who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence sought treatment for outpatient detoxification. During routine psychiatric interview they reported the presence of visual disturbances when intoxicated and no prior history of LSD use. They all communicated the persistence of visual disturbances after ceasing cannabis use. Seven categories of visual disturbances were described when staring at stationary and moving objects: visual distortions, distorted perception of distance, illusions of movement of stationary and moving objects, color intensification of objects,dimmed color, dimensional distortion and blending of patterns and objects. Patients reported having 2-5 different categories of flashbacks up to 3-6 months after cessation of cannabis use. The described phenomena may be interpreted as a time-limited benign side effect of high-potency cannabis use in some individuals. A combination of vulnerability and use of large amounts of high potency cannabis seem to contribute to the appearance of this condition. Conclusions from uncontrolled case series should be taken with appropriate caution.

  6. Experimental study on the effects of anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification on the response to the 35% CO₂ challenge in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Ibrahim, Hussein Mohamed Hussein; Nannini, Alice; Schruers, Koen

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between nicotine abstinence and panic onset is still not well understood and the role of catastrophic misinterpretation, as possible moderator or mediator of this relationship, is unknown. We tested whether nicotine abstinence influences the response to a CO₂ panic challenge and whether catastrophic misinterpretation (measured via the Anxiety Sensitivity [ASI] and the SomatoSensory Amplification Scale [SSAS]) exerts a moderating or mediating effect on the relationship between nicotine abstinence and panic. Eighty regular smokers underwent a 35% CO₂ challenge after the transdermal administration of nicotine or placebo. Physiological and psychological variables were measured at baseline, directly before and after the challenge. Fear reactivity to the challenge was similar in both conditions. ASI (post-Test Visual Analogous Scale of Fear: ΔR² = 0.043, p < .05) and SSAS (post-Test Visual Analogous Scale of Anxiety: ΔR² = 0.036, p < .05; post-Test Panic Symptom List: ΔR² = 0.035, p < .05) influenced anxiety as response to the challenge. We found no support for the moderational and the mediational hypotheses. The findings regarding fear reactivity when group status is considered partly confirm the literature. The positive findings observed for ASI and SSAS as factors influencing the response to the challenge, together with the lack of evidence for a moderational and a mediational hypothesis, confirm that anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification are independent constructs and suggest that they directly influence the response to the challenge.

  7. Do Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes Find It Harder to Quit Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Monica Webb; Pletcher, Mark J.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Menthol cigarette smokers may find it harder to quit smoking than smokers of nonmenthol cigarettes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published studies examining the association between menthol cigarette smoking and cessation. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to identify studies published through May 2010, and results were tabulated. Results: Ten studies were located that reported cessation outcomes for menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Half of the studies found evidence that menthol smoking is associated with lower odds of cessation, while the other half found no such effects. The pattern of results in these studies suggest that the association between smoking menthol cigarettes and difficulty quitting is stronger in (a) racial/ethnic minority populations, (b) younger smokers, and (c) studies carried out after1999. This pattern is consistent with an effect that relies on menthol to facilitate increased nicotine intake from fewer cigarettes where economic pressure restricts the number of cigarettes smokers can afford to purchase. Conclusions: There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers find it harder to quit menthol versus nonmenthol cigarettes. There is a need for additional research, and particularly for studies including adequately powered and diverse samples of menthol and nonmenthol smokers, with reliable measurement of cigarette brands, socioeconomic status, and biomarkers of nicotine intake. PMID:21177366

  8. Utility and cutoff value of hair nicotine as a biomarker of long-term tobacco smoke exposure, compared to salivary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungroul; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Hepp, Lisa; Yun, Dongmin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-08-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore (Maryland, USA). A subset of the study participants (n = 52) were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:25153466

  9. Cigarette smokers discount past and future rewards symmetrically and more than controls: is discounting a measure of impulsivity?

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Yi, Richard; Kowal, Benjamin P; Gatchalian, Kirstin M

    2008-08-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates that consideration of the future and past are related. Future discounting studies indicate that cigarette smokers discount future outcomes more than non-smokers. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a similar profile of results could be obtained with a novel procedure evaluating the discounting of past outcomes, providing further support for future/past symmetry. Thirty cigarette smokers and 29 non-smokers participated in a computerized assessment of discounting of hypothetical future and past outcomes. Symmetry was supported, with a similar profile of results in future and past discounting procedures. These included: hyperbolic discounting, greater discounting of small-magnitude outcomes than large-magnitude outcomes, and greater discounting by cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers.

  10. Self-monitoring effects of ecological momentary assessment on smokers' perceived risk and worry.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D; Dillard, Amanda J

    2013-06-01

    Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we sought to determine whether differences in reporting would exist for smokers who self-monitored their smoking-related negative thoughts five times daily in comparison to a non-EMA control group. One hundred seventeen smokers were randomly assigned to two conditions. Eighty-eight smokers carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) for 2 weeks and monitored negative thoughts each day, and 29 smokers did not self-monitor their negative thoughts. All smokers completed pretest and posttest assessments reporting their perceived risk and worry associated with smoking consequences. The data revealed evidence of self-monitoring effects, as smokers in the EMA condition reported less worry after 2 weeks of self-monitoring compared to smokers in the control condition. The two conditions did not differ in their reports of perceived risk of smoking consequences. These data suggest that EMA procedures asking respondents to self-monitor their thoughts about smoking may influence feelings about their smoking behavior.

  11. No impact of passive smoke on the somatic profile of lung cancers in never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Couraud, Sébastien; Debieuvre, Didier; Moreau, Lionel; Dumont, Patrick; Margery, Jacques; Quoix, Elisabeth; Duvert, Bernard; Cellerin, Laurent; Baize, Nathalie; Taviot, Bruno; Coudurier, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Missy, Pascale; Morin, Franck; Mornex, Jean-François; Zalcman, Gérard; Souquet, Pierre-Jean

    2015-05-01

    EGFR and HER2 mutations and ALK rearrangement are known to be related to lung cancer in never-smokers, while KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are typically observed among smokers. There is still debate surrounding whether never-smokers exposed to passive smoke exhibit a "smoker-like" somatic profile compared with unexposed never-smokers. Passive smoke exposure was assessed in the French BioCAST/IFCT-1002 never-smoker lung cancer cohort and routine molecular profiles analyses were compiled. Of the 384 patients recruited into BioCAST, 319 were tested for at least one biomarker and provided data relating to passive smoking. Overall, 219 (66%) reported having been exposed to passive smoking. No significant difference was observed between mutation frequency and passive smoke exposure (EGFR mutation: 46% in never exposed versus 41% in ever exposed; KRAS: 7% versus 7%; ALK: 13% versus 11%; HER2: 4% versus 5%; BRAF: 6% versus 5%; PIK3CA: 4% versus 2%). We observed a nonsignificant trend for a negative association between EGFR mutation and cumulative duration of passive smoke exposure. No association was found for other biomarkers. There is no clear association between passive smoke exposure and somatic profile in lifelong, never-smoker lung cancer.

  12. A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Haight, John; Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers (n=34) to smoking-related and neutral cues. Half of the cues depicted a human interacting with an object (i.e., active), whereas the remaining cues depicted objects alone (i.e., inactive). Results indicated that for the active cues, daily smokers responded more positively to smoking-related than to neutral cues, whereas occasional smokers showed no difference in their implicit responses. In addition to smoking frequency, relative differences in implicit responses to active cues were related to cognitive enhancement motivation. For inactive cues, implicit responses were related to cognitive enhancement as well as reinforcement. Because daily smokers have more positive implicit responses to active smoking-related cues than occasional smokers, these cues may play an important role in maintaining smoking behavior in daily smokers. PMID:22078800

  13. Comparative studies of atherosclerosis in swine

    PubMed Central

    Bijlenga, G.; Dahme, E.; Detweiler, D. K.; Gresham, G. A.; Grünberg, W.; Howard, A. N.; Kagan, A. R.; Kaplan, M. M.; van Nie, C. J.; Rubarth, S.; Sternby, N. H.; Stünzi, H.; Uemura, K.; Whitney, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    A survey of spontaneously occurring fatty streaks and fibrous plaques, considered as atherosclerosis, in 1637 swine in different European countries and the USA, using a standardized procedure, was undertaken to determine whether significant differences exist in the occurrence and extent of the disease in various groups of animals. At the same time a preliminary study on the possible relation of any differences observed in atherosclerosis to certain environmental and constitutional factors was carried out with the ultimate goal of contributing to the understanding of analogous problems in man. Statistically significant increases of fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in relation to: (a) increasing age, starting at 6 to 7 months, the earliest age period studied; (b) geographical locality; and (c) considerable as compared with moderate or slight physical activity at 1 year of age. Although not statistically significant, there was also a suggestive trend towards more atherosclerosis in pigs consuming soft water as compared with those consuming hard water. While these correlations may represent contributory factors to the increases of the changes noted in the abdominal aortas, it is not possible to pinpoint the importance of individual components because of the limited data and the large number of variables involved in this preliminary study. Studies in swine and other animals are being encouraged in which all variables but one are being kept constant to determine their possible role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:5299676

  14. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  15. Proactive tobacco cessation outreach to smokers of low socioeconomic status: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jennifer S.; Linder, Jeffrey A.; Park, Elyse R.; Gonzalez, Irina; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Klinger, Elissa V.; Kontos, Emily Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Marinacci, Lucas X.; Hubert, Stella St.; Fleegler, Eric W.; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Widening socioeconomic disparities in mortality in the United States are largely explained by slower declines in tobacco use between low- and high-socioeconomic status (SES) groups, suggesting the need for targeted tobacco cessation interventions. Documentation of smoking status in electronic health records (EHRs), provides health systems with an opportunity to proactively offer tobacco treatment to disadvantaged smokers. Objective To evaluate a proactive strategy to provide tobacco treatment that addresses socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use for low-SES smokers. Design, Setting, Participants Prospective, randomized controlled trial for low-SES adult smokers who described their race/ethnicity as black, Hispanic or white and received primary care at one of 13 practices in greater-Boston (intervention n=399, control n=308). Intervention We used interactive voice response (IVR)-facilitated outreach to eligible individuals using EHR-coded smoking status. Consenting patients were randomized to a control group which received usual care from their health care team or to an intervention group that included a treatment program of: (1) telephone-based motivational counseling, (2) 6-weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), (3) access to community-based referrals to address socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use, and (4) integration of this program with an individual’s care team through the EHR. Main Outcome Self-reported past 7-day tobacco abstinence 9-months after randomization (“quitting”), assessed by automated caller or blinded study staff. Results The intervention group had a higher quit rate than the usual care group (17.8% vs. 8.1%, odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.0, number-needed-to-treat=10). We examined whether use of intervention components was associated with quitting among individuals in the intervention group; individuals who participated in the telephone counseling were more likely to quit compared to those who

  16. Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of Recruitment Methods for Male Latino Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Amanda L.; Lopez-Class, Maria; Mueller, Noel T.; Mota, Guadalupe; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the most effective strategies to recruit male Latino smokers to cessation research studies. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and cost-effective research recruitment strategies for this priority population. (Contains 4 tables.)

  17. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Guđbjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  18. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  19. Comparative study of hydrogenated and lithiated superhalogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Na; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Sun, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-09-01

    The structural features, properties and stability of two kinds of representative superhalogen compounds, namely hydrogenated superhalogens and lithiated superhalogens, are theoretically studied in detail, providing further insight into the behavior of superhalogens. According to topological analysis of the electron localization function, most of superhalogen clusters as a whole combine with Li atom through ionic bond(s). In contrast, the H atom tends to bind with superhalogen by covalent bond although a portion of superhalogens are broken upon hydrogenation. In addition, the electric properties of these superhalogen compounds are also obtained and compared with those of traditional acid and salt molecules.

  20. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  1. Disparities in the Population Distribution of African American and Non-Hispanic White Smokers along the Quitting Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Dennis R.; Xie, Bin; Fagan, Pebbles; Pulvers, Kim; Romero, Devan R.; Blanco, Lyzette; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed,…

  2. UCLA population studies of chronic obstructive respiratory disease. 9. Lung function changes associated with chronic exposure to photochemical oxidants; a cohort study among never-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Detels, R.; Tashkin, D.P.; Sayre, J.W.; Rokaw, S.N.; Coulson, A.H.; Massey, F.J. Jr.; Wegman, D.H.

    1987-10-01

    Two cohorts of never-smoking residents of Los Angeles were studied on two occasions five years apart. One cohort (N = 1099) lived in a community with moderate levels of photochemical pollution and low levels of other pollutants, and the second (N = 1117) lived in a community with very high levels of photochemical oxidant and relatively high levels of sulfates and particulates. Studies included measurement of forced expiratory volumes and flow rates and single-breath nitrogen washout, as well as use of a standardized questionnaire. The data represent 47 percent of 2340 and 58 percent of 1935 residents, respectively, of the original community samples. Mean baseline spirometry and nitrogen washout for those who were and those who were not retested were similar, reflecting the fact that loss to follow-up was primarily due to changes of residence. In the more polluted area there were significantly worse lung function test results for both men and women at baseline and significantly more rapid deterioration at follow-up. Mean changes in nitrogen washout were significantly greater in the more polluted community for both sexes and for all age groups including children. Most of the spirometric test results showed significantly more rapid decline among adults in the more polluted community. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic exposures to a mix of photochemical oxidants, sulfates and particulates are associated with increased loss of lung function, which is especially marked among tests that reflect function of the small airways.

  3. Withdrawal Symptoms and Nicotine Dependence Severity Predict Virtual Reality Craving in Cigarette-Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Kim N.; Mahoney, James J.; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Salas, Ramiro; Kosten, Thomas R.; Dani, John A.; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in eliciting responses to nicotine cues in cigarette smokers. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether cigarette-deprived smokers would exhibit increased craving and changes in heart rate when viewing cigarette related cues as compared to non-smoking cues in a VR environment, and the secondary aim was to assess the extent to which self-assessed measures of withdrawal and dependence correlated with VR craving. Methods: Nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were recruited for a 2 day study. On Day 1, participants smoked as usual and on Day 2 were deprived from smoking overnight. On both days, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires on withdrawal, craving, and nicotine-dependence. Participants completed a VR session during the cigarette deprivation condition only (Day 2). During this session, they were exposed to active smoking and placebo (non-smoking) cues. Results: The data show that self-reported levels of “craving” (p < .01) and “thinking about cigarettes” (p < .0001) were significantly greater after exposure to the active cues versus non-smoking cues. Significant increases in heart rate were found for 3 of 4 active cues when compared to non-smoking cues (p < .05). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between self-reported craving prior to the VR session and craving induced by active VR cues (p < .01). Conclusions: In this report, active VR cues elicited craving during cigarette deprivation. This is the first study to demonstrate that self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, and nicotine dependence severity predict cue-induced craving in the VR setting. PMID:25475087

  4. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. Objective The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Methods A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted adver