Science.gov

Sample records for study comparing smokers

  1. A comparative study of systemic carcinogen exposure in waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Ibrahim, Iman; Bazzi, Asma; Fayad, Sanaa; Shihadeh, Alan L; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, waterpipe smoking-also known as hookah, shisha, narghileh-has increased among youth. The scarcity of rigorous studies linking waterpipe smoking to smoking-related diseases has hindered policy and regulatory efforts to confront the waterpipe epidemic. This study compares systemic carcinogen exposure between independent groups of exclusive waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and non-smokers. This study was conducted at the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) in Aleppo, Syria, between 2010 and 2011. First morning urinary samples were collected from three groups of subjects; exclusive daily waterpipe smokers (n=24), exclusive daily cigarette smokers (n=23), and non-smokers (n=28). These samples were analysed for carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results show that waterpipe smokers are exposed to about 5-10 times greater NNAL than non-smokers. Mean (95% CI) free and total NNAL was 0.7 (0.3 to 1. 4) and 3.9 (1.6 to 9.5) pg/mL urine for non-smokers, 8.4 (4.8 to 14.8) and 33.0 (21.6 to 50.6) pg/mL urine for waterpipe smokers, and 10.7 (5.0 to 22.6) and 46.8 (27.6 to 79.3) pg/mL urine for cigarette smokers (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Daily waterpipe smokers were less exposed to NNAL than daily cigarette smokers, although the difference did not reach statistical significance for all measurements. These results provide the clearest indication to date about systemic exposure to harmful carcinogens associated with long-term waterpipe smoking. Such evidence can support policy and regulatory efforts designed to confront the emerging global waterpipe epidemic, as well as drive interventions aimed at increasing the public awareness about the cancer risk associated with waterpipe smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  3. Increased risk of suicidal ideation in smokers and former smokers compared to never smokers: evidence from the Baltimore ECA follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Diana E; Eaton, William W; Petronis, Kenneth R; Ko, Jean Y; Chatterjee, Anjan; Anthony, James C

    2010-08-01

    The incidence rate of suicidal ideation among current and former smokers versus never smokers is not known. In this study, the age-adjusted incidence of suicidal ideation was highest among current smokers, followed by former, then never smokers. The adjusted hazard for suicide ideation was 2.22 (95%CI = 1.48, 3.33) and 1.19 (95%CI = 0.78, 1.82) for current and former smokers, respectively, compared to never smokers. Results indicate that current smokers have increased risks of suicidal ideation above and beyond the risk for never and former smokers regardless of age, gender, history of depressive disorder or anxiety symptoms, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Smoking cessation might be beneficial for some suicide prevention efforts.

  4. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Meβgreräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and χ2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  5. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity.

  6. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Dwarakanath, Chini Doraswamy; Divya, Bheemavarapu; Sruthima, Gottumukkala Naga Venkata Satya; Penmetsa, Gautami Subadra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) in nonsmokers and smokers. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA), depth of recession (RD), width of recession (RW), and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60%) and 3 smokers (30%) showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  7. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers. PMID:27625444

  8. The social context of smoking: A qualitative study comparing smokers of high versus low socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Paul, Christine L; Ross, Samantha; Bryant, Jamie; Hill, Wesley; Bonevski, Billie; Keevy, Nichola

    2010-04-27

    The reductions in smoking prevalence in a number of industrialised countries are accompanied by a strong social gap and associated health inequality. Groups such as the World Health Organisation emphasise the importance of exploring potential causal factors for smoking such as socio-economic context & position. There has been little effort to compare the social context of smoking for smokers of high versus lower socio-economic position (SEP) to consider how tobacco control efforts might reduce smoking-related health inequality. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants for eight focus groups. The groups were segregated by age, gender and SEP. Samples were selected from suburbs within the Sydney metropolitan area defined as either high or low SEP based on the Socio Economic Index for Areas. Emergent themes were analysed according to Poland's six dimensions of the social context of smoking. Differences according to SEP, age group and gender were explored. While there was commonality in social experiences for smokers across groups, some important aspects of the social context of smoking varied. Smokers of high SEP appeared to be aware of particular social pressures not to smoke on five of the six social context dimensions (power, body, identity, consumption and place). Not only were some of those pressures absent for low SEP participants, there were additional influences within the social context which were pro-smoking. In order to narrow the health inequality gap associated with smoking, it is important to take account of the more pro-smoking social context experienced by low SEP smokers. Suggestions are made regarding social marketing campaigns, support for quit assistance and approaches to the regulation of smoking which may assist in minimising smoking-related health inequality.

  9. Open-Label Study of Craving in Smokers With Schizophrenia Using Nicotine Nasal Spray Compared to Nicotine Patch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Steinberg, Marc L.; Lu, Shou-En; Foulds, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine nasal spray (NNS) may be better for relieving acute cigarette cravings than other nicotine replacement and it may help smokers with schizophrenia because of its rapid onset of action. Objectives: We tested whether NNS was more effective than a nicotine patch (NP; 21 mg) in reducing cue-induced craving during a 3-day abstinence. Methods: Twenty-five smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SA) were randomized to open-label NNS or NP treatment after baseline measures of craving were assessed. NNS users were instructed to dose at a minimum of 1/hour and up to a maximum of 40/day. Averages from a 4-item visual analogue scale (need, urge, want to smoke, crave a cigarette) measured craving. Results: Five subjects who smoked (4 NP, 1 NNS) were excluded, leaving 21 (11 NP, 10 NNS) for analyses. No differences were detected between groups on baseline craving. On day 3, NNS users reported significantly less craving in response to smoking cues compared to NP users (mean craving scores: NNS, 7.0; NP, 20.3; p = .014). A repeated measure ANCOVA demonstrated significantly reduced craving in the NNS group compared to the NP group from baseline to day 3 (F = 5.09; p = .037). NNS users took an average of 20 doses/day, and NNS was rated as being as easy to use as NP. Conclusions: The potential utility of NNS in smokers with schizophrenia supports the need for placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19763279

  10. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  11. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  12. Lower task persistence in smokers with schizophrenia as compared to non-psychiatric control smokers.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Foulds, Jonathan; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-12-01

    One contributing factor to difficulty in quitting smoking may be task persistence, which can be viewed as a behavioral manifestation of distress tolerance, and describes the act of persisting in a difficult or effortful task. Task persistence was assessed in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA; N = 71) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 78) before a quit attempt. These data support the hypothesis that smokers with SZ/SA display less task persistence than do non-psychiatric controls when persistence is measured via mirror tracing and a 2-item persistence measure. Lower persistence may partially explain the reduced smoking cessation successes of smokers with SZ/SA as compared to the general population. These data also replicate findings regarding relationships between histories of ability to quit smoking and task persistence and expand them to a new population of smokers. The absence of a diagnostic status by length of previous abstinence interaction suggests that the contribution of task persistence to smoking cessation is similar for smokers with and without schizophrenia. Future studies should evaluate the ability of task persistence to predict abstinence from cigarettes prospectively among smokers with schizophrenia.

  13. Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, M; Isacsson, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in snuff consumption, sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics between baseline intermittent smokers that had become daily smokers, stopped smoking or remained intermittent smokers at the one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: A population of 12 507 individuals interviewed at baseline in 1992-94 and at a one year follow up, aged 45–69 years, was investigated in a longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline intermittent smokers were compared to the reference population (all others) according to sociodemographic, psychosocial, and snuff consumption characteristics. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in psychosocial conditions, adjusting for age, sex, country of origin, marital status, education, and snuff consumption. Results: 60% of all baseline intermittent smokers had remained intermittent smokers, 16% had become daily smokers, and 24% had stopped smoking at the one year follow up. The long term intermittent smokers and those who had stopped smoking were young, unmarried, highly educated, and snuff consumers to a higher extent than the reference population. They also had more psychosocial resources than the reference population, while the psychosocial resources of those who had become daily smokers were poorer. Conclusions: The majority of intermittent smokers are long term intermittent smokers. The results suggest that long term intermittent smokers have other psychosocial characteristics than daily smokers. PMID:11891370

  14. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  16. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study.

    PubMed

    Bernert, John T; Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B; Benowitz, Neal L; Sosnoff, Connie S; Doig, Mira V; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D; Langman, Loralie J

    2009-12-01

    Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range.

  17. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  18. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  19. Does Moralization Motivate Smokers to Quit? A Longitudinal Study of Representative Samples of Smokers in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with moralized sentiments about smoking are more willing to quit or reduce their smoking. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived personal risk has not been examined. Methods: In this study, representative samples of smokers in Denmark (a smoking lenient country; N = 429) and the United States (a smoking prohibitive country; N = 431) completed surveys 6 months apart. Results: As expected, Danish smokers (compared to U.S. smokers) moralized less and estimated that their personal risk of lung cancer was smaller. Furthermore, moralization at T1 predicted an increase in perceived personal risk at T2 (for Danish smokers and marginally for U.S. smokers), a decrease in smoking behaviors (for Danish smokers only), and an increase in quitting intentions (marginally for Danish smokers only). For Danish smokers, perceived personal risk mediated the relationship between moralization and quitting intentions. Conclusions: Moralization predicted an increase in perceived personal risk, an increase in quitting intentions, and a reduction in smoking behaviors, especially for the Danish sample. Future research should examine the effects of moralization in different cultural contexts. PMID:24907242

  20. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  1. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  2. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    P Kolte, Abhay; A Kolte, Rajashri; N Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  3. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    P. Kolte, Abhay; A. Kolte, Rajashri; N. Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association. PMID:28096949

  4. Salivary-soluble CD44 levels in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ghallab, Noha; Shaker, Olfat

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor for periodontal disease. Elevated levels of serum-soluble CD44 (sCD44) have been detected in smokers and also have been recognized as a diagnostic marker in some smoking-induced diseases. The present study investigates the salivary sCD44 profiles of smokers and non-smokers with and without chronic periodontitis in response to scaling and root planing (SRP). The study included 44 subjects divided into two groups: 22 patients with chronic periodontitis and 22 periodontally healthy subjects. Both groups were equally subdivided into smokers (n = 11) and non-smokers (n = 11). Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded only for chronic periodontitis patients. Salivary samples were collected from all 44 patients at baseline and after 1 month of SRP from the 22 chronic periodontitis patients. Assay for salivary sCD44 was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Baseline salivary sCD44 profiles were significantly higher when smokers were compared to non-smokers in both chronic periodontitis patients and the control subjects (P <0.001) with the highest levels recorded in smokers within the chronic periodontitis group. There was a significant decline in salivary sCD44 levels after treatment in the chronic periodontitis group for both smokers and non-smokers (P <0.01); however, the difference between groups was insignificant. Salivary sCD44 might be considered a biomarker of periodontal destruction in smokers and non-smokers. The research opens the door to further research into a role for CD44 as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis.

  5. Comparing stage of change measures in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Steve; Cellucci, Tony; Gregory, Jeff

    2004-06-01

    This study compared stage of change measures among adolescent smokers. Participants were 56 adolescents who had received smoking tickets. They filled out an assessment packet including readiness to change measures [i.e., algorithm, Crittenden's measure, University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), and Ladder], smoking history, a 30-day calendar, Fagerstrom, self-efficacy measures, locus of control, and a problem screen. The Crittenden algorithm was correlated with the Ladder and URICA motivation scores as well as with decreased frequency/amount of smoking and past quit attempts. Ladder scores were correlated with less cigarettes smoked, self-efficacy, and fewer adolescent problems. Readiness to change was unrelated to nicotine dependence and locus of control. The classification of participants into stages by the Crittenden algorithm was associated with a significant MANOVA (Wilks' Lambda F=1.56, P<.025), with group differences on reported quit attempts, abstinence self-efficacy, and adolescent problems. The Crittenden measure and the URICA motivation score were sensitive to a MET intervention.

  6. Anticipated motivation for genetic testing among smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers: an exploratory qualitative study of decision making.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the public's interest in genetic testing related to cigarette smoking, comparing the public's motivations with researchers' intentions for this technology. Adult nonsmokers (n=463), former smokers (n=163), and current smokers (n=129) completed an online survey. Within a hypothetical scenario, respondents decided whether they desired genetic testing related to smoking and explained their decision making. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the interest in genetic testing by smoking history group. Inductive content analysis was used to investigate respondents' explanations for their testing decisions. Most nonsmokers (64%) and former smokers (58%) did not want genetic testing. While most current daily smokers were interested in testing (56%), most current occasional smokers were not (52%). Respondents' decision-making explanations were categorized into 3 major themes: Causality, Relevancy and Utility (e.g. personal benefits or harms). The use of causality, relevancy and utility explanations varied by smoking history. Notable perceived benefits of testing included recreation and altruism. Notable perceived harms included fear of fatalistic thoughts and concern about genetic discrimination. Interest in genetic testing was highest among current daily smokers, despite potential utility in other groups. Although respondents' motivations for testing paralleled researchers' intentions of tailoring smoking cessation therapies and increasing motivation to quit or abstain, respondents also raised alternative motivations and fears that healthcare providers would need to address. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  8. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations - lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count - both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α - higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 - higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products.

  9. Increased bone resorption in moderate smokers with low body weight: the Minos study.

    PubMed

    Szulc, P; Garnero, P; Claustrat, B; Marchand, F; Duboeuf, F; Delmas, P D

    2002-02-01

    Tobacco was found to be a risk factor for osteoporosis, mainly in postmenopausal women. We studied the effect of smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in a cohort of 719 men, aged 51-85 yr, composed of 83 current smokers, 405 former smokers, and 231 men who never smoked. Most current and former smokers were moderate smokers (median, 10 cigarettes/d). Current smokers were younger, thinner, and drank more coffee and more alcoholic beverages. After adjustment for age, body weight, alcohol intake, and caffeine intake, current and former smokers had similar BMD, except at the forearm. Former smokers had lower BMD compared with never-smokers at most skeletal sites. Men who had smoked more than 7120 packs (third quartile) had lower BMD of total hip (P < 0.01) and distal forearm (P = 0.03) compared with men in the 2 lower tertiles. In the 3 groups, levels of bone formation markers did not differ. After adjustment for confounding variables, levels of urinary markers of bone resorption (beta-isomerized C-terminal telopeptide, free and total deoxypyridinoline) were higher in the current smokers than in former smokers and never-smokers. Concentrations of T, total 17beta-E2, and androstenedione were higher, whereas that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower, in current smokers. When men were divided according to tertiles of body weight, increased bone resorption, decreased BMD and biochemical indexes of secondary hyperparathyroidism were observed in current smokers in the lowest tertile of body weight (<75 kg) compared with the never-smokers, but not in men in the two highest tertiles of body weight. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of vertebral deformities after adjustment for age and body weight (13% vs. 5%; P < 0.005). In summary, in moderate smokers with low body weight (<75 kg), increased bone resorption, not matched by increased bone formation, results in decreased BMD and an increased prevalence of vertebral deformities. In this group, low serum 25

  10. Quantitative changes of extravillous trophoblast cells in heavy smoker mothers compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Sheibak, Nadia

    2017-07-20

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy can induce structural and functional changes in the placenta. Placentas from heavy smoker (>20 cigarettes per day) mothers and non-smoker healthy controls (n=10 in each group) were enrolled in the present case-control study. Sample selection and sectioning were performed by systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Selected sections were stained using Masson's trichrome to estimate quantitative parameters of placental extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) and the number of EVTs. Differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, with significance set at P<0.05. There was a significant difference in placental weight and the total volume of the placenta between the heavy smoker and control groups (P<0.05). The total volume of EVTs, nucleus diameter, cytoplasm diameter, the volume of the nucleus and cytoplasm and the nucleus to cytoplasm ratio of EVTs were significantly greater in the heavy smoker compared with control group (P<0.05 for all). In placentas from heavy smokers, the total number of EVTs per unit volume of placental bed were significantly greater than in the control group (P<0.05 for both). In conclusion, the findings suggest that maternal smoking could affect fetal health by changing the quantitative parameters of the placenta, and likely the invasive properties of EVTs.

  11. Comparing socially disadvantaged smokers who agree and decline to participate in a randomised smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Paul, Chris; D'Este, Catherine; West, Robert; Siahpush, Mohammad; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Palazzi, Kerrin; Bryant, Jamie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics associated with consent to participate in a smoking cessation trial for socially disadvantaged smokers. Design Baseline data were collected prior to seeking consent for the Call it Quits, a randomised controlled trial. Setting An Australian social and community service organisation. Sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics were compared between smokers who agreed or declined to participate. Participants Of the 584 smokers invited to participate, 431 (74%) consented and 153 (26%) declined. Results Logistic regression modelling indicates the ORs of participation were twice as high for those reporting ‘high’ motivation to quit compared to the ‘moderate’ motivation group, and five times higher than the ‘low’ motivation group (p=0.007). The ORs of consenting were higher for those with a preference for gradual reduction in cigarettes in quit attempts compared with ‘no preference’. The ORs were lower for those reporting ‘don't know’ regarding their enjoyment of smoking compared to ‘not at all’ enjoying smoking, and reporting that fewer of their family or friends smoked compared to ‘most or all’. Conclusions This study is the first to examine the characteristics of socially disadvantaged smokers who consent or decline to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Low-income smokers who are motivated to quit, are not enjoying smoking, had family or friends who smoked, and who are interested in gradual cessation approaches may be more likely to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85202510. PMID:26369799

  12. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2017-03-13

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  13. Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Victor, J. Charles; Diemert, Lori M.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Chaiton, Michael; Brown, K. Stephen; Cohen, Joanna E.; McDonald, Paul W.; Ferrence, Roberta; Garcia, John M.; Selby, Peter; Schwartz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence. PMID:23231826

  14. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  15. Dopamine function in cigarette smokers: an [¹⁸F]-DOPA PET study.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Pepper, Fiona; Egerton, Alice; Demjaha, Arsime; Tomasi, Gianpaolo; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Maximen, Levi; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers. We sought to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity was elevated in a larger sample of cigarette smokers that included females. Dopamine synthesis capacity was measured in 15 daily moderate smokers with 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects who had never smoked tobacco. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant K(i)(cer)) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine. There was no significant group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity between smokers and non-smoker controls in the whole striatum (t28=0.64, p=0.53) or any of its functional subdivisions. In smokers, there were no significant relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and dopamine synthesis capacity in the whole striatum (r=-0.23, p=0.41) or any striatal subdivision. These findings indicate that moderate smoking is not associated with altered striatal dopamine synthesis capacity.

  16. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  17. Short-term effects of a nicotine-free e-cigarette compared to a traditional cigarette in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marco; Zanasi, Alessandro; Nardi, Elena; Morselli Labate, Antonio Maria; Ceriana, Piero; Balestrino, Antonella; Pisani, Lara; Corcione, Nadia; Nava, Stefano

    2015-10-12

    A few studies have assessed the short-term effects of low-dose nicotine e-cigarettes, while data about nicotine-free e-cigarettes (NF e-cigarettes) are scanty. Concerns have been expressed about the use of NF e-cigarettes, because of the high concentrations of propylene glycol and other compounds in the e-cigarette vapor. This laboratory-based study was aimed to compare the effects of ad libitum use of a NF e-cigarette or and a traditional cigarette for 5 min in healthy adult smokers (n = 10) and non-smokers (n = 10). The main outcome measures were pulmonary function tests, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and fractional concentration of carbon monoxide (FeCO) in exhaled breath. The traditional cigarette induced statistically significant increases in FeCO in both smokers and non-smokers, while no significant changes were observed in FeNO. In non-smokers, the traditional cigarette induced a significant decrease from baseline in FEF75 (81 % ± 35 % vs 70.2 % ± 28.2 %, P = 0.013), while in smokers significant decreases were observed in FEF25 (101.3 % ± 16.4 % vs 93.5 % ± 31.7 %, P = 0.037), FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 98.3 % ± 10 %, P = 0.037) and PEF (109.5 % ± 14.6 % vs 99.2 % ± 17.5 %, P = 0.009). In contrast, the only statistically significant effects induced by the NF e-cigarette in smokers were reductions in FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 99.5 ± 7.6 %, P = 0.041) and FEF25 (103.4 % ± 16.4 % vs 94.2 % ± 16.2 %, P =  .014). The present study demonstrated that the specific brand of NF e-cigarette utilized did not induce any majoracute effects. In contrast, several studies have shown that both traditional cigarettes and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes have acute effects on lung function. Our study expands on previous observations on the effects of NF e-cigarettes, but also for the first time describes the changes induced by smoking one traditional cigarette in a group of never smokers. The short-term use of the specific brand of NF e-cigarette assessed

  18. Comparison of clinical features between non-smokers with COPD and smokers with COPD: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xin-feng; Bai, Chun-xue

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the similarities and differences in clinical presentation between smokers and nonsmokers are not fully described in patients with COPD. This study was designed to address this issue in a general teaching hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Methods The medical records of patients hospitalized with a lung mass for further evaluation at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, from January 2006 to December 2010 were reviewed and the data of interest were collected. The definition of COPD was according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria. Participants who had a previous exacerbation within 4 weeks of admission, airflow limitation due to abnormalities in the large airways, or with other pulmonary diseases were excluded. Included subjects were divided into nonsmokers with COPD and smokers with COPD by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Results A total of 605 subjects were included in the final analysis. The average age was 64.8±8.5 years and 62.0% (375/605) were smokers. Eighty percent of the patients had mild to moderate disease (GOLD grade 1–2). Age and years with COPD were comparable between the two groups. Compared with smokers with COPD, nonsmokers with COPD were more likely to be female, reported less chronic cough and sputum, have less emphysema on radiologic examination, and higher measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second percent predicted (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) percent predicted, maximal voluntary ventilation percent predicted, diffusing capacity of lung (DLCO) percent predicted, and DLCO/alveolar volume percent predicted, with lower levels of residual volume percent predicted and residual volume/total lung capacity percent predicted. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to distribution

  19. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  20. Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Maga, Mikołaj; Janik, Maciej K; Wachsmann, Agnieszka; Chrząstek-Janik, Olga; Koziej, Mateusz; Bajkowski, Mateusz; Maga, Paweł; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits. Subsequently, the CO level in their exhaled air was measured. Air quality data, obtained from the Regional Inspectorates of Environmental Protection, revealed the differences in atmospheric CO concentration between locations. 1226 subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their declared smoking status and place of living. The average CO level in exhaled air was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.0001) as well as in non-smokers from big cities than non-smokers from small ones (p<0.0001). Created model showed that non-smokers from big cities have odds ratio of 125.3 for exceeding CO cutoff level of 4ppm compared to non-smokers from small towns. The average CO level in exhaled air is significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, the average exhaled CO level is significantly higher in big city than small town citizens. These results suggest that permanent exposure to an increased concentration of air pollution and cigarette smoking affect the level of exhaled CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of deterioration of pulmonary function parameters among smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, B Sudha; Sunitha, M S; Nataraj, S M; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has deleterious effects on Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) parameters; however, evidences about recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Therefore present study was conducted to quantify relative deterioration of PFT parameters and to assess reversibility of the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. PFT observations were obtained using Medspiror following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among three groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. There were substantial effects of smoking on PFT parameters (deterioration was up-to half). Partial recovery was found in all the parameters of ex-smokers. Frequency and duration of smoking were negatively correlated with some of the parameters. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated considerable deterioration of PFT parameters in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size and stricter definition of ex-smokers is recommended.

  2. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. Objective This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Methods Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Results Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel

  3. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  4. Different profiles of carcinogen exposure in Chinese compared with US cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Gan, Quan; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jiying; Li, Xinjian; Jacob, Peyton; Glantz, Stanton

    2015-12-01

    Differences in carcinogen exposure from different cigarette products could contribute to differences in smoking-associated cancer incidence among Chinese compared with US smokers. Urine concentrations of metabolites of nicotine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (PAHs) were compared in 238 Chinese and 203 US daily smokers. Comparing Chinese versus US smokers, daily nicotine intake and nicotine intake per cigarette smoked were found to be similar. When normalised for cigarettes per day, urine NNAL excretion was fourfold higher in US smokers, while the excretion of urine metabolites of the PAHs fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites was 50% to fourfold higher in Chinese smokers (all, p<0.0001). Similar results were seen when NNAL and PAHs excretion was normalised for daily nicotine intake. Patterns of carcinogen exposure differ, with lower exposure to TSNA and higher exposure to PAHs in Chinese compared with US smokers. These results most likely reflect country differences in cigarette tobacco blends and manufacturing processes, as well as different environmental exposures. NCT00264342. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. White matter integrity in young smokers: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Baohua; Liu, Jixin; Dong, Minghao; Jin, Chenwang; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Ying; Gu, Yu; Xue, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies revealed contradictory effects of smoking on fractional anisotropy (FA). Multiple DTI-derived indices may help to deduce the pathophysiological type of white matter (WM) changes and provide more specific biomarkers of WM neuropathology in the whole brain of young smokers. Twenty-three young smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy non-smoking controls participated in this study. Tract-based spatial statistics was employed to investigate the WM microstructure in young smokers by integrating multiple indices, including FA, mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). Compared with healthy non-smoking controls, young smokers showed significantly increased FA with increased AD and decreased RD in several brain regions, while no difference in MD was observed. Specifically, the overlapped WM regions with increased FA, increased AD and decreased RD were found in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, the right external capsule and the right superior corona radiata. Additionally, average FA and RD values in the WM regions mentioned earlier were significantly correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, while no correlation in AD was found. The WM tracts with increased FA may be more associated with RD, rather than AD in young smokers. We suggested that WM properties of several fibres in young smokers may be the biomarker as the cumulative effect and severity of nicotine dependence. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers.

    PubMed

    Pompe, E; Bartstra, J; Verhaar, H J; de Koning, H J; van der Aalst, C M; Oudkerk, M; Vliegenthart, R; Lammers, J-W J; de Jong, P A; Mohamed Hoesein, F A A

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. 408 participants were included with median (25th-75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9-63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4-8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109±34 HU vs. 108±32 HU, p=0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of -3±13 HU (p=0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1±13 HU, p=0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (-3.8 HU, p=0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  8. Decreased expression of intelectin 1 in the human airway epithelium of smokers compared to nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Brendan J; Harvey, Ben-Gary; De, Bishnu P; Vanni, Holly; Crystal, Ronald G

    2008-10-15

    Lectins are innate immune defense proteins that recognize bacterial cell wall components. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of infections, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking may modulate the expression of lectin genes in airway epithelium. Affymetrix microarrays were used to survey the expression of lectin genes in large airway epithelium from nine nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers and in small airway epithelium from 13 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers. There were no changes (>2-fold change; p < 0.05) in lectin gene expression among healthy smokers compared with nonsmokers except for down-regulation of intelectin 1, a lectin that binds to galactofuranosyl residues in bacterial cell walls (large airway epithelium, p < 0.01; small airway epithelium, p < 0.01). This was confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR in both large (p < 0.05) and small airway epithelium (p < 0.02). Immunohistochemistry assessment of airway biopsies demonstrated that intelectin 1 was expressed in secretory cells, while Western analysis confirmed the decreased expression of intelectin 1 in airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared with healthy nonsmokers (p < 0.02). Finally, compared with healthy nonsmokers, intelectin 1 expression was also decreased in small airway epithelium of smokers with lone emphysema and normal spirometry (n = 13, p < 0.01) and smokers with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 14, p < 0.01). In the context that intelectin 1 plays a role in defense against bacteria, its down-regulation in response to cigarette smoking is another example of the immunomodulatory effects of smoking on the immune system and may contribute to the increase in susceptibility to infections observed in smokers.

  9. Decreased Expression of Intelectin 1 in the Human Airway Epithelium of Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers*

    PubMed Central

    Carolan, Brendan J.; Harvey, Ben-Gary; De, Bishnu P.; Vanni, Holly; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lectins are innate immune defense proteins that recognize specific bacterial cell wall components. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of bacterial infections, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking may modulate the expression of lectin genes in airway epithelium. Affymetrix microarrays were used to survey expression of lectin genes in large airway epithelium from 9 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers and in small airway epithelium from 13 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers. There were no changes (>2-fold change, p<0.05) in lectin gene expression among healthy smokers compared to nonsmokers except for a striking down regulation of intelectin 1, a lectin that binds to galactofuranosyl residues in the cell walls of bacteria (large airway epithelium, p<0.01; small airway epithelium, p<0.01). This was confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR in both large (p<0.05) and small airway epithelium (p<0.02). Immunohistochemistry assessment of airway biopsies demonstrated that intelectin 1 was expressed in secretory cells, while Western analysis confirmed the decreased expression of intelectin 1 in airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared to healthy nonsmokers (p<0.02). Finally, compared to healthy nonsmokers, intelectin 1 expression was also decreased in small airway epithelium of smokers with lone emphysema with normal spirometry (n= 13, p<0.01) and smokers with established COPD (n= 14, p<0.01). In the context that intelectin 1 is an epithelial molecule that likely plays a role in defense against bacteria, its down regulation in response to cigarette smoking is another example of the immunomodulatory effects of smoking on the immune system and may contribute to the increase in susceptibility to infections observed in smokers, including those with COPD. PMID:18832735

  10. Impact of different aspects of social participation and social capital on smoking cessation among daily smokers: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, M; Isacsson, S; Elmstahl, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital among baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers, become intermittent smokers, or stopped smoking at one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: 12 507 individuals, aged 45–69 years, interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994 and at a one year follow up were investigated in this longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline daily smokers were compared to the reference population (baseline intermittent smokers and non-smokers) according to different aspects of social participation and social capital. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation and social capital. Results: The baseline daily smokers that remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in study circles in other places than at work, meeting of organisations other than unions, theatre/cinema, arts exhibition, church, sports events, large gatherings of relatives, and private parties compared to the reference population. The baseline daily smokers that had become intermittent smokers at the one year follow up had significantly increased odds ratios of non-participation in church services. The baseline daily smokers that had stopped smoking had increased odds ratios of non-participation in having attended a meeting of organisations other than labour unions during the past year, having been to a theatre or cinema, and of having visited an arts exhibition during the past year. All three categories of baseline daily smokers had significantly decreased odds ratios of non-participation in night club/entertainment. Conclusions: The baseline daily smokers that had remained daily smokers at the one year follow up had particularly high rates of non-participation compared to the reference population in both activities specifically related to

  11. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  12. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  13. Adolescent smokers show decreased brain responses to pleasurable food images compared with nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Luks, Tracy L; Dryden, Wendy Y; Rait, Michelle A; Simpson, Gregory V

    2011-08-01

    Nicotine acts on the mesocorticolimbic circuits of the brain leading to the release of dopamine. Repeated elevations of dopamine in the brain may cause smokers to become less sensitive to "natural reinforcers." To test the theory that adolescents with low nicotine exposure may already have decreased activation when exposed to a natural reinforcer, we looked at the effect of visual cues representing "pleasurable" food on light adolescent smokers compared with nonsmokers. Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13-17 years, smoked 1-5 cigarettes/day) and 12 nonsmokers (aged 13-17 years, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During scanning, they viewed blocks of photographic images representing pleasurable foods (sweet, high fat, and salty foods) and control cues. Smokers reported smoking a mean of 3.6 cigarettes/day. There was no difference in body mass index between groups (24.1 vs. 24.0, respectively, p = .99). Food images elicited greater activations in nonsmokers in multiple areas including the insula (T = 4.38, p < .001), inferior frontal region (T = 5.12, p < .001), and rolandic operculum (T = 6.18, p < .001). There were no regions where smokers demonstrated greater blood oxygenation level-dependent activations compared with nonsmokers when viewing food versus neutral images. The finding of decreased activation to pleasurable food among adolescent light smokers supports the theory that these adolescents are displaying decreased sensitivity to at least one natural reinforcer. This also supports the theory that nicotine may affect the brain early in the trajectory of smoking, thus underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers.

  14. Unpacking Smokers' Beliefs About Addiction and Nicotine: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-10-05

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mental health status of varenicline and bupropion users during a quit attempt compared to current smokers, other quitters, and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Anand R; Borse, Mrudula S; Brown, Joshua D; Li, Chenghui

    2015-09-01

    Varenicline and bupropion are commonly prescribed non-nicotine containing smoking cessation agents. Post-marketing reports suggest an increased incidence of psychiatric disturbances associated with varenicline and bupropion. However, pre-existing psychiatric disorders may confound the association between these smoking cessation agents and psychiatric disturbances. We compared the mental health status of individuals using varenicline or bupropion to that of people quitting without medication, current smokers, and non-smokers while controlling for pre-existing conditions. A cross-sectional design was used. Data were from 2006-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Mental health status was assessed using the mental component summary (MCS) from the 12-item Short Form survey (SF-12v2), 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), and Kessler 6 Scale (K6). Differences in MCS score were compared using linear regression. Logistic regressions were used to compare positive screenings for depression using PHQ-2 and for psychological distress using K6. Of 578 use episodes, 453 (78.38%) were bupropion and 125 (21.62%) were varenicline. After adjusting for potential confounders, mental health status of varenicline users was not different from current smokers or people who quit smoking without medication, but worse than non-smokers; bupropion was strongly associated with lower mental health status relative to all groups across all three measures. Varenicline was not associated with worse mental health compared to smokers or those who quit without medication, after adjusting for pre-existing psychiatric disorders. Bupropion was associated with worse mental health status than smokers, former smokers who quit without medication, and nonsmokers, even after adjusting for pre-existing psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  17. Neural Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Smokers - A Systematic Review of Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michele de Oliveira; Goudriaan, Anna E; Périco, Cíntia de Azevedo-Marques; Waisman Campos, Marcela; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Bhugra, Dinesh; Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio

    2017-07-25

    This review aims to summarize neuroimaging studies in order to better understand the neural correlates of depressive symptoms in tobacco smokers. Using the keywords "depressive OR depression" AND "tobacco OR nicotine OR smok(*) OR cigarette" AND "neuroimage OR magnetic resonance OR smri OR structural magnetic resonance OR fmri OR functional magnetic resonance OR pet OR positron emission tomography", literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases. The first and the last author read the abstracts of all the studies found in the search (n = 179). The inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and 150 articles were excluded. Then, both authors assessed the remaining 29 studies for eligibility and 16 studies were included in the present review. In the phase of active/chronic smoking, depressive symptoms are characterized as comorbidity related to an enhancement of dopamine release, and smokers have decreased Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Stimuli-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (Stimuli-fMRI) studies also show that there is a positive correlation between the level of depressive symptoms and a greater response to general negative stimuli in active/chronic smokers. In the withdrawal phase, depressive symptoms are related to the withdrawal syndrome and increased MAO-A. Stimuli-fMRI studies show that there is a negative correlation between level of depressive symptoms and reactivity to negative stimuli in recent abstinent smokers. Major areas of the reward system such as the striatum and areas related to impulse control are activated to a greater extent in depressive smokers compared to non-depressed smokers.

  18. Abnormal white matter microstructure among early adulthood smokers: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangkun; Zuo, Long; Jiang, Tao; Peng, Peng; Chu, Shuilian; Xiao, Dan

    2017-09-21

    Objectives Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor of central nervous system diseases. However, the white matter (WM) integrity of early adulthood chronic smokers has not been attached enough importance to as it deserves, and the relationship between the chronic smoking effect and the WM is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whole - brain WM microstructure of early adulthood smokers and explore the structural correlates of behaviorally relevant features of the disorder. Methods We compared multiple DTI-derived indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), between early adulthood smokers (n = 19) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 23) using a whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics approach. We also explored the correlations of the mean DTI index values with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results The smokers showed increased FA in left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), left anterior corona radiate, left superior corona radiate, left posterior corona radiate, left external capsule (EC), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and sagittal stratum (SS), and decreased RD in left SLF. There were significant negative correlations among the average FA in the left external capsule and pack-years in smokers. In addition, significant positive correlation was found between RD values in the left SLF and pack-years. Discussion These findings indicate that smokers show microstructural changes in several white-matter regions. The correlation between the cumulative effect and microstructural WM alternations suggests that WM properties may become the new biomarkers in practice.

  19. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  20. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  1. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-04-30

    When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28-68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Community, Australia. Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the 'right' or 'better' choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers' beliefs and decisions about quitting. The reasons for smokers' rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers' reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference

  2. C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in smokers and nonsmokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study.

    PubMed

    Kleber, M E; Siekmeier, R; Delgado, G; Grammer, T B; Winkelmann, B R; Scharnagl, H; Boehm, B O; März, W

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) provides information on systemic inflammation and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Data analyzing the effect of smoking on these parameters are sparse. The aim of our study was the analysis of these parameters in active smokers and never-smokers. The study included 777 smokers and 1,178 never-smokers, of whom 221 and 302 died during a follow-up, respectively. The values of LpPLA2 and hsCRP were significantly higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Mortality was highest in smokers and never-smokers with elevation of both biomarkers. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for patients in the highest tertile of both hsCRP and LpPLA2 compared with patients in the lowest tertile of both markers were 1.85 (1.04-3.28) in never-smokers and 1.94 (1.10-3.45) in smokers. Our data confirmed the predictive value of hsCRP and LpPLA2. However, there were a relevant number of patients with an increase of only one of these parameters. Therefore, beside other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, both parameters should be determined at least in high risk patients.

  3. Doppler study and evidences of perfusion changes in the ophthalmic artery of pregnant smokers.

    PubMed

    Paes, Maria Marta Bini Martins; Diniz, Angélica Lemos Debs; Jorge, Ana Paula Lino

    2013-12-01

    To compare the ophthalmic artery (OA) perfusion of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers by Doppler indexes. Correlate these with the interval of last cigarette, cigarettes per day, years smoking and carbon monoxide expired (COex). Transversal study involving 70 pregnant smokers divided into 33 pregnant who smoked until 2 h: A group (AG) and B group (BG): 37, who smoked between 2 and 24 h before test. Control group (CG) was composed of 51 pregnant nonsmokers. Doppler indexes were assessed: PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), PI (Pulsatility Index), RI (Resistance Index) and PR (Peak Ratio). Groups were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney and Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereas p < 0.05. RI and PI were higher (p < 0.01) and PSV and EDV were lower (p < 0.05) in B group compared to other groups. A group presented higher PR (p < 0.01) compared to control. AG presented years of smoking, cigarettes per day, COex greater than BG and lower interval of last cigarette than BG. The OA in pregnant smokers shows a biphasic pattern of perfusion correlated with the time of consumption of the last cigarette. There are signs of vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion to tobacco exposure between 2 and 24 and hyperperfusion in A Group compared to B Group.

  4. A six-month crossover chemoprevention clinical trial of tea in smokers and non-smokers: methodological issues in a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown. Methods Attrition (dropouts) and compliance with treatment were assessed in a 25-week randomized, placebo controlled, crossover, feasibility clinical trial of four tea treatments to investigate the effect of tea on oral cancer biomarkers. Each treatment lasted 4 weeks with 2 weeks of washout in between. Participants were 32 smokers and 33 non-smokers without any evidence of premalignant oral lesions. The interventions consisted of packets of green tea, black tea, caffeinated water, or placebo. Participants were assigned to each treatment for four weeks, and were instructed to drink five packets per day while on the treatment. Dropout from the trial and compliance (consumption of ≥ 85% of the prescribed treatment packets) are the main outcome measures reported. Results There was a high rate of dropout (51%) from the study, and the rates were significantly higher among smokers (64%) than non-smokers (36%). Among participants who completed the study the rate of compliance was 72%. The highest rates of dropouts occurred between the first and second treatment visits in both smokers (38% dropout) and non-smokers (18% dropout). Throughout the study smokers were more likely to dropout than non-smokers. Black tea treatment was associated with the highest rates of dropout among smokers (37%), but was associated with the lowest rate of dropout among non-smokers (4%). Conclusions In a study conducted to test the feasibility of a four-treatment crossover tea trial, a high rate of dropout among smokers and non-smokers was observed. Multi-arm crossover tea trials might pose a higher burden on participants and research is needed to improve adherence and treatment compliance in such trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN70410203 PMID:22800470

  5. [Contribution to the study of the phagocytosing ability of broncho-alveolar macrophages in smokers and non-smokers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kleisbauer, J P; Poirier, R; Colonna, J; Laval, P

    1980-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchial washing from 20 pairs of matched smokers and non-smokers. The following parameters were studied: phagocytosing ability of macrophages on silica in cell culture in the presence or absence of cotinin, a biocompound of nicotin; migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin in sera of patients. The results are reported as a function of absolute number of macrophages obtained, their viability, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the action of cotinin. MIF was stronger in the smokers. There was no difference between the groups as far as power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin are concerned. Cotinin provokes important lesions in the macrophages. The phagocytic power was not significantly different in smokers and non smokers, but the results were better in non-smokers.

  6. High levels of heavy metal accumulation in dental calculus of smokers: a pilot inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Yaprak, E; Yolcubal, I; Sinanoğlu, A; Doğrul-Demiray, A; Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, E; Marakoğlu, I

    2017-02-01

    Various trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, may exist in dental calculus. However, the effect of environmental factors on heavy metal composition of dental calculus is unknown. Smoking is a major environmental source for chronic toxic heavy metal exposition. The aim of this study is to compare toxic heavy metal accumulation levels in supragingival dental calculus of smokers and non-smokers. A total of 29 supragingival dental calculus samples were obtained from non-smoker (n = 14) and smoker (n = 15) individuals. Subjects with a probability of occupational exposure were excluded from the study. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in terms of 26 metals and metalloids, including toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals, arsenic (p < 0.05), cadmium (p < 0.05), lead (p < 0.01), manganese (p < 0.01) and vanadium (p < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. The levels of other examined elements were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the elementary composition of dental calculus may be affected by environmental factors such as tobacco smoke. Therefore, dental calculus may be utilized as a non-invasive diagnostic biological material for monitoring chronic oral heavy metal exposition. However, further studies are required to evaluate its diagnostic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be

  8. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  9. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  10. Electronic Cigarette Use among Current Smokers: A Pilot Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ban A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Dube, Shanta R; Sterling, Kymberle L; Burns, Joy D; Eriksen, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine craving, social image, and convenience were reasons for initial and regular dual use. Two patterns of use emerged - (1) using e-cigarettes to supplement combustible cigarettes; and (2) to replace combustible cigarettes. Reasons for dual use were related to nicotine dependence, social influence, product appeal, and perception of reduced harm. Understanding contextual nuances of dual use can inform policy and communication.

  11. Electronic Cigarette Use among Current Smokers: A Pilot Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Ban A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Sterling, Kymberle L.; Burns, Joy D.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Results Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine craving, social image, and convenience were reasons for initial and regular dual use. Two patterns of use emerged – (1) using e-cigarettes to supplement combustible cigarettes; and (2) to replace combustible cigarettes. Conclusions Reasons for dual use were related to nicotine dependence, social influence, product appeal, and perception of reduced harm. Understanding contextual nuances of dual use can inform policy and communication.

  12. Feasibility of a telephone-based intervention for support persons to help smokers quit: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Larra R.; Hughes, Christine A.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Morgenthaler Bonnema, Sarah; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Decker, Paul A.; Anderson, Kari J.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Boness, Jeannie; Pyan, Karin; Beddow, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nonsmokers have a potentially supportive role in tobacco cessation efforts. The present study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for nonsmoking support persons. Methods: A total of 59 support persons (mean age = 36 years, 92% female, 95% White) were randomly assigned to a control condition (N = 30; written materials only) or to a social cognitive theory–based intervention (N = 29; written materials and 5 weekly, 20- to 30-min telephone counseling sessions). Both support persons and smokers completed assessments separately by mail at baseline and at weeks 6 (end of treatment) and 26. Results: Two thirds of the smokers reported low–moderate levels of motivation to quit at baseline as assessed by the contemplation ladder. Study retention rates were excellent, with 95% of both support persons and smokers completing the week 26 assessment. Moreover, 86% of support persons in the intervention group completed all five telephone sessions. Treatment acceptability was high for both support persons and smokers. Compared with the control condition, the intervention was associated with a significant increase in support person self-efficacy to help their smoker (p = .034) and outcome expectancies (p = .025) from baseline to week 6. However, the intervention was not associated with higher smoking abstinence rates or quit attempts. Discussion: The program was successful in reaching smokers with lower levels of readiness to quit. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to both support persons and smokers. Although support persons and smokers can be engaged in this type of outreach program, refinements in the intervention approach are needed to improve the smoking outcomes. PMID:19357315

  13. Safety of nicotine replacement therapy in critically ill smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A; McVey, J T; Wood, A M; Van Haren, Fmp

    2016-11-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a common first-line treatment to prevent nicotine withdrawal in smokers. However, available literature reports conflicting results regarding its efficacy and safety in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NRT in smokers in the intensive care unit (ICU) and outcomes. This case-control study was conducted in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital ICU. Over a period of five years, 126 active smokers who received transdermal NRT were matched to 126 active smokers who did not receive NRT. The groups were case-matched for sex, age and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. The primary outcome was administration of antipsychotic medication. Secondary outcomes included use of physical restraints, 30-day mortality, and ventilation requirements. Antipsychotic medication was prescribed in 43 (34.1%) patients who received NRT compared to 14 (11.1%) in controls (P <0.01). Physical restraints were used in 37 (29.4%) patients who received NRT, compared to 12 (9.5%) of controls (P <0.01). The 30-day mortality and number of patients intubated was not statistically different between groups. Average length of intubation time was greater in the NRT group (2.56 days; standard deviation 4.16) compared to the control group (1.44 days; standard deviation 2.68) (P=0.012). The use of NRT to prevent nicotine withdrawal in ICU patients is associated with increased use of antipsychotic medication and physical restraint, and with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

  14. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight Concerns Among Finnish Ever-Smokers: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Concern over weight gain after smoking cessation has been hypothesized to discourage quit attempts and consequently reduce smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns among a population-based sample of Finnish ever-smokers. Methods: Data were collected in conjunction with the National FINRISK 2007 Study from a population-based sample of 25- to 74-yearold Finns. These analyses were based on a subsample of 1,614 ever-smokers. Participants were divided into 4 groups (daily smokers, occasional smokers, recent quitters, and former smokers) based on the self-reported smoking status. Weight concerns were analyzed as a sum score including 6 items (range 0–24). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns, while adjusting for multiple confounders. Results: Smoking status was significantly associated with weight concerns, current daily smokers reporting the highest levels of weight concerns. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and health behavior), the weight concerns of daily smokers remained significantly higher in comparison with all other groups. Although women were more concerned about their weight than men, no gender-specific associations were found between weight concerns and smoking status. Conclusions: Current daily smokers are more concerned about their weight than recent quitters, as well as former and occasional smokers. Weight concerns should be taken into account in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:23547276

  16. Proactive tobacco treatment for low income smokers: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; van Ryn, Michelle; Burgess, Diana J; Nelson, David; Clothier, Barbara; Thomas, Janet L; Nyman, John A; Joseph, Anne M

    2014-04-09

    There is a high prevalence of smoking and high burden of tobacco-related diseases among low-income populations. Effective, evidenced-based smoking cessation treatments are available, but low-income smokers are less likely than higher-income smokers to use these treatments, especially the most comprehensive forms that include a combination of pharmacotherapy and intensive behavioral counseling. The primary objectives of this randomized controlled trial are to compare the effects of a proactive tobacco treatment intervention compared to usual care on population-level smoking abstinence rates and tobacco treatment utilization rates among a diverse population of low-income smokers, and to determine the cost-effectiveness of proactive tobacco treatment intervention. The proactive care intervention systematically offers low-income smokers free and easy access to evidence-based treatments and has two primary components: (1) proactive outreach to current smokers in the form of mailed invitation materials and telephone calls containing targeted health messages, and (2) facilitated access to free, comprehensive, evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments in the form of NRT and intensive, telephone-based behavioral counseling. The study aims to include a population-based sample (N = 2500) of adult smokers enrolled in the Minnesota Health Care Programs (MHCP), a state-funded health insurance plan for low-income persons. Baseline data is obtained from MHCP administrative databases and a participant survey that is conducted prior to randomization. Outcome data is collected from a follow-up survey conducted 12 months after randomization and MHCP administrative data. The primary outcome is six-month prolonged smoking abstinence at one year and is assessed at the population level. All randomized individuals are asked to complete the follow-up survey, regardless of whether they participated in tobacco treatment. Data analysis of the primary aims will follow intent

  17. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  18. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M.; Manley, Alison R.; Goldberg, Simon B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized Midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were Mindfulness = 25.0%, Control= 17.9% (p = 0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes. PMID:24957302

  19. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  20. A pilot study of the gingival response when smokers switch from smoking to vaping.

    PubMed

    Wadia, R; Booth, V; Yap, H F; Moyes, D L

    2016-12-09

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for periodontitis as it alters the host response to plaque. Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has declined in recent years, the use of electronic-cigarettes (vaping) has increased. The effect of vaping on the gingiva is unknown and an evidence-base needs to be established before providing dental advice about the use of these products.Objective To compare the gingival health of a group of established smokers before and after substituting vaping for smoking tobacco.Design Pilot.Setting Guy's Dental Hospital (England) from April-December 2015.Materials and methods Twenty established smokers (all staff members at Guy's Hospital) with mild periodontal disease replaced their regular smoking habits with the use of e-cigarettes for two weeks.Main outcome measure The primary outcome measure of gingival inflammation was bleeding on probing. Levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in GCF, saliva and serum samples were also determined.Results and conclusions There was a statistically significant increase in gingival inflammation when tobacco smokers switched from smoking to vaping for two weeks. However, this result must be interpreted with extreme caution since this is only a pilot study. Nonetheless, this study should provide a stepping stone to encourage further investigation of the effects of vaping on periodontal health.

  1. Risk and protective factors of adolescent exclusive snus users compared to non-users of tobacco, exclusive smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E; Rise, J; Lund, K E

    2013-07-01

    The use of snus is increasing in Norway. In this study we examined differences between adolescents who were exclusive snus users, and adolescent non-users, smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes on a number of psychosocial factors, categorized as risk variables and protective variables associated with involvement in health compromising behavior. We applied separate logistic regression models, where exclusive snus users (n=740) were compared with non-users (n=904), smokers (n=219), and dual users (n=367). Compared to non-users, the group of exclusive snus users was associated with variables traditionally predicting health risk behavior, such as smoking friends (OR=1.74, SD 1.27-2.38) and truancy (OR=2.12, SD 1.65-2.78). Compared to smokers, exclusive snus users were related to variables traditionally associated with protection against involvement in health risk behavior, e.g. higher academic orientation (OR=1.66, SD 1.12-2.45). Associations with protective factors were also observed when exclusive snus users were compared with dual users. While the group of exclusive snus users was associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk compared to non-users, they showed a more conventional pattern when compared to smokers and dual users. The group of exclusive snus users may be described on a continuum varying from psychosocial risk factors to protective factors of risk involvement depending on the group of comparison. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  3. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  4. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  5. Clinical and Radiographic Predictors of GOLD–Unclassified Smokers in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Hokanson, John E.; Murphy, James R.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: A significant proportion of smokers have lung function impairment characterized by a reduced FEV1 with a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio. These smokers are a poorly characterized group due to their systematic exclusion from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) studies. Objectives: To characterize the clinical, functional, and radiographic features of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-Unclassified (FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) and lower limits of normal (LLN)-unclassified (FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN and FEV1 < LLN) subjects compared to smokers with normal lung function and subjects with COPD. Methods: Data from the first 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were analyzed. All subjects had 10 or more pack-years of smoking and were between the ages of 45 and 80 years. Multivariate regression models were constructed to determine the clinical and radiological variables associated with GOLD-Unclassified (GOLD-U) and LLN-Unclassified status. Separate multivariate regressions were performed in the subgroups of subjects with complete radiologic measurement variables available. Measurements and Main Results: GOLD-U smokers account for 9% of smokers in COPDGene and have increased body mass index (BMI), a disproportionately reduced total lung capacity, and a higher proportion of nonwhite subjects and subjects with diabetes. GOLD-U subjects exhibit increased airway wall thickness compared to smoking control subjects and decreased gas trapping and bronchodilator responsiveness compared to subjects with COPD. When LLN criteria were used to define the “unclassified” group, African American subjects were no longer overrepresented. Both GOLD-U and LLN-Unclassified subjects demonstrated a wide range of lung function impairment, BMI, and percentage of total lung emphysema. Conclusions: Subjects with reduced FEV1 and a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio are a heterogeneous group with significant symptoms and functional limitation who

  6. Differences in the activation of abdominal muscles during trunk extension between smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-05-13

    Many studies reported that the morbidity of the respiratory and circulatory diseases is higher among smokers than non-smokers. Some recent studies reported the effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system. However, it is difficult to generalize the experimental environment because it is different from activities of daily living environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the activation of abdominal muscles during trunk extension between smokers and non-smokers. The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers). The percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) values of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique and transversus abdominis(IO&TrA) were measured using the surface electromyography System. The results showed no significant differences in the %MVIC of RA and EO between smokers and non-smokers. However, the %MVIC of IO&TrA showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. The %MVIC of IO&TrA of non-smokers was higher. The non-smokers showed greater activation of deep abdominal muscles than smokers did.

  7. Retention of Homeless Smokers in the Power to Quit Study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christina M; Sharif, Faduma; Eischen, Sara; Thomas, Janet; Wang, Qi; Guo, Hongfei; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about retention are a major barrier to conducting studies enrolling homeless individuals. Since smoking is a major problem in homeless communities and research on effective methods of promoting smoking cessation is needed, we describe strategies used to increase retention and participant characteristics associated with retention in smoking cessation study enrolling homeless adults. The parent study was a 2-group randomized controlled trial with 26-week follow-up enrolling 430 homeless smokers from emergency shelters and transitional housing units in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN, USA. Multiple strategies were used to increase retention, including conducting visits at convenient locations for participants, collecting several forms of contact information from participants, using a schedule that was flexible and included frequent low-intensity visits, and providing incentives. Participant demographics as well as characteristics related to tobacco and drug use and health status were analyzed for associations with retention using univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall retention was 75% at 26 weeks. Factors associated with increased retention included greater age; having healthcare coverage; history of multiple homeless episodes, lower stress level; and higher PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) score. A history of excessive drinking and drug use were associated with decreased retention. It is possible to successfully retain homeless individuals in a smoking cessation study if the study is designed with participants' needs in mind. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. MEASURING NICOTINE INTAKE AMONG HIGHLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENT SMOKERS: COMPARABILITY OF SALIVA AND PLASMA COTININE CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Parzynski, Craig S.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Franken, Frederick H.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    Cotinine is the most common biomarker used to assess nicotine exposure and abstinence. It can be measured in various matrices including saliva, plasma, and urine. Previous research with adults has shown high correlations between saliva and plasma cotinine concentrations. However, research has not examined this relationship in adolescents. Additionally, variability in saliva flow and metabolism across gender, ethnicity, and age may impact the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration. Our aim was to examine the relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration in a group of nicotine-dependent adolescent smokers. Additionally, we examined these correlations across gender, ethnicity and age. The sample consisted of 66 adolescent smokers (age 15.1 ± 1.3, 63.6% girls, 66.7% European American, CPD 18.3 ± 8.5, FTND 7.1 ± 1.3). Saliva and plasma specimens were collected before the treatment phase of a nicotine replacement therapy trial and analyzed. The relationship between saliva and plasma cotinine concentration was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. We performed a secondary analysis using multiple regression to compare correlations across race, gender and age. Results indicated a positive correlation between saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine concentration (r = .84, p < .001). Differences in correlations across age were significant (t = 3.03, p < .01). Differences across ethnicity approached significance (t = −1.93, p = .058). Future research should seek to further validate saliva-to-plasma cotinine concentration ratios in adolescents as well as characterize saliva-to-plasma concentration differences and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:18199474

  9. Health care costs and work absenteeism in smokers: study in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonel, María Pilar; Villaverde-Royo, María Victoria; Nerín, Isabel; Sanz-Andrés, Concepción; Mezquida-Arno, Julia; Córdoba-García, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Higher morbidity caused by smoking-related diseases could increase health costs. We analyzed differences in the use of healthcare resources, healthcare costs and days of work absenteeism among smokers and non-smokers. Cross-sectional study in smokers and non-smokers, aged between 45 and 74 years, from one urban health area. The variables studied were: age, sex, alcohol intake, physical activity, obesity, diseases, attendance at primary care clinics and hospital emergency rooms, days of hospitalization, prescription drug consumption and work absenteeism (in days). Annual cost according to the unit cost of each service (direct costs), and indirect costs according to the number of days missed from work was calculated. Crude and adjusted risks were calculated using logistic regression. Five hundred patients were included: 50% were smokers, 74% (372) men and 26% (128) women. Smokers used more healthcare resources, consumed more prescription drugs and had more days off work than non-smokers. Respective direct and indirect costs in smokers were 848.64 euros (IQ 25-75: 332.65-1517.10) and 2253.90 euros (IQ 25-75: 1024.50-13113.60), and in non-smokers were 474.71 euros (IQ 25-75: 172.88-979.59) and 1434.30 euros (IQ 25-75: 614.70-4712.70). The likelihood of generating high healthcare costs was more than double for smokers (OR=2.14; 95% CI: 1.44-3.19). More investment in programs for the prevention and treatment of smoking, as a health policy priority, could help to reduce the health and social costs of smoking. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking and the bandit: A preliminary study of smoker and non-smoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multi-armed bandit task

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multi-armed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from non-smokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and non-smokers (n = 17) completed a six-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e. made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than non-smokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making. PMID:23245198

  11. Increased risk of oncogenic human papillomavirus infections and incident high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among smokers: experience from the Latin American screening study.

    PubMed

    Sarian, Luis Otavio; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Guarisi, Renata; Derchain, Sophie F M; Roteli-Martins, Cecília; Naud, Paulo; Erzen, Mojca; Branca, Margherita; Tatti, Sílvio; de Matos, Jean Carlos; Gontijo, Renata; Maeda, Marina Y S; Lima, Temístocles; Costa, Silvano; Syrjänen, Stina; Syrjänen, Kari

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of smoking on the prevalence and incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in a large sample of Latin American women. The study examines baseline data on over 12,000 women included in the Latin American Screening Study (Brazil and Argentina), and over 1000 women followed-up for a period of 36 months. Three groups were formed: never smokers, current, and past smokers. The prevalence of hr-HPV infection and CIN were compared between the study groups. In the prospective analysis, women were controlled at 6-month intervals to assess the cumulative risk of incident hr-HPV infection, smear abnormalities, and CIN. A higher prevalence (21.7%) of hr-HPV infection was found among current smokers as compared to never smokers (16.5%) or past smokers (13.5%). Being current smoker was significantly (P <0.01) associated with hr-HPV detection (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2-2.1). Being a current smoker was a significant predictor of incident hr-HPV during the follow-up [Hazards ratio (HR) = 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.9]. For incident CIN2+, being a past smoker (HR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.6-9.8) or current smoker (HR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.5-8.6) were the significant independent predictors. Current and past smokers had a significantly increased risk of incident CIN2+ (P <0.01). Smoking increases the risk of contracting hr-HPV infection and modifies the effect of a persistent hr-HPV infection by further increasing the risk of developing CIN2+. It seems that this effect modification persists over several years after smoking cessation.

  12. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Poles, Antônio A; Balcão, Victor M; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Aranha, Norberto; Yoshida, Valquíria M H; Oliveira, José M

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  13. Psychological and hormonal features of smokers at risk to gain weight after smoking cessation--results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Anne; Dinter, Christina; Grosshans, Martin; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hentschel, Rahel; Dahmen, Norbert; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wagner, Michael; Gründer, Gerd; Thürauf, Norbert; Wienker, Thomas; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Mobascher, Arian; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Clepce, Marion; de Millas, Walter; Wiedemann, Klaus; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest modulating effects of appetite-regulating hormones and stress perception on food intake. Nicotine intake also interferes with regulation of body weight. Especially following smoking cessation gaining weight is a common but only partially understood consequence. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between smoking habits, the appetite regulating hormone leptin, negative affectivity, and stress vulnerability on eating behavior in a clinical case-control study under standardized conditions. In a large population-based study sample, we compared leptin and cortisol plasma concentrations (radioimmunoassay) between current tobacco smokers with high cognitive restraint and disinhibition in eating behavior and smokers scoring low in both categories as assessed with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ; Stunkard & Messick, 1985). As a measure for smoking effects on the stress axis, the saliva cortisol concentrations were compared before and after nicotine smoking. Additionally, stress perception was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), symptoms of depression and anxiety with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition we found significantly higher leptin concentrations than in the group of smokers scoring low in both categories. Furthermore there was a significant group difference in saliva cortisol concentrations after nicotine intake. Smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition were also characterized by significantly higher scores in the STAI, the PSS and the BDI. Our results suggest that smokers with a pathological eating behavior show an impaired neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and are prone to experience higher levels of stress and negative affectivity. This interaction of behavioral and neuroendocrinological factors may constitute a high risk condition for gaining weight

  14. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Lucinara Ignez Tavares; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir; Sant'ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Cestari, Tânia Mary

    2007-01-01

    Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) for arches (upper and lower) and teeth (anterior and posterior). Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05) in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect. PMID:19089190

  15. Re-training Automatic Action Tendencies to Approach Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Larsen, Helle; Cavallo, Dana; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Salemink, Elske; D'Escury-Koenigs, Annemat L. Collot; Morean, Meghan; Wiers, Reinout; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Background This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli, (1) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (2) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Methods Sixty adolescent smokers received four weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, with CBM (90% avoidance/10% approach for smoking stimuli and 10% avoidance/90% approach for neutral stimuli) or sham (50% avoidance/50% approach for smoking and neutral stimuli) training in the Netherlands (n = 42) and the United States (n = 18). Results While we did not observe changes in action tendencies related to CBM, adolescents with higher smoking approach biases at baseline had greater decreases in approach biases at follow up, compared to adolescents with smoking avoidance biases, regardless of treatment condition (p = 0.01). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed that CBM, when compared with sham trended toward higher end-of-treatment, biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point prevalence abstinence, (17.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.071). ITT analysis also showed that regardless of treatment condition, cotinine level (p = 0.045) and average number of cigarette smoked (p ≤ 0.001) significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggests that re-training approach biases toward cigarettes shows promise for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. Future research should utilize larger samples and increased distinction between CBM and sham conditions, and examine mechanisms underlying the CBM approach. PMID:26186485

  16. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P <0.05). Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P <0.05). Periodontal parameters were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P <0.05], AL [P <0.05], PD ≥4 mm [P <0.05], and MBL [P <0.05]) were significantly higher in smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P <0.05). Periodontal inflammatory conditions are comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  17. [Body mass index and the risk of lung cancer incidence in smokers: a prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xie, S H; Wang, G; Su, K; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Guo, L W; Chen, S H; Chang, S; Chen, Y H; Ren, J S; Shi, J F; Yang, W J; Cui, H; Wu, S L; Dai, M; Li, N; He, J

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of baseline body mass index (BMI) on the risk of lung cancer incidence in male smokers. All the male employees and retirees of the Kailuan Group were recruited in the Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort Study, and they had been experienced routine physical examinations every two years since May, 2006. Up to 31st December 2011, a total of 3 rounds physical examinations had been completed. A total of 42 718 male smokers candidates from the Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort Study were enrolled in the present study. The date of entering this study was defined as that of taking first check-up, and the date of end-of-observation was defined as that of cancer diagnosis, death or end of follow-up (31 December 2011). Information on demographics, lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol consumption, anthropometries such as height and weight, as well as the information of newly-diagnosed cancer cases, were collected at the baseline investigation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between levels of the baseline BMI and risk of lung cancer. Of the 42 718 male smokers, there were 181 998.09 person-years of follow-up, taking 4.26 years of average follow-up period. During follow-up, 234 new lung cancer cases were identified among the 42 718 male smokers and the crude incidence density was 128.57/100 000. After the factors adjustment for age, education level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, work environment and cumulative smoking levels (pack-years), compared with subjects of normal BMI group, hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals of lung cancer for subjects of underweight, overweight, and obesity were 1.63 (0.79-3.37), 0.79 (0.57-1.09) and 0.50 (0.27-0.91), respectively. After the facotors adjustment for age, education level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, work environment and cumulative smoking levels (pack-years), compared with subjects of normal BMI, hazard ratio and 95% confidence

  18. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  19. Rate of progression of CT-quantified emphysema in male current and ex-smokers: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the factors associated with CT-quantified emphysema progression in heavy smokers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of length of smoking cessation and clinical / demographical factors on the rate of emphysema progression and FEV1-decline in male heavy smokers. Methods 3,670 male smokers with mean (SD) 40.8 (17.9) packyears underwent chest CT scans and pulmonary function tests at baseline and after 1 and 3 years follow-up. Smoking status (quitted ≥5, ≥1-<5, <1 years or current smoker) was noted. Rate of progression of emphysema and FEV1-decline after follow-up were assessed by analysis of variance adjusting for age, height, baseline pulmonary function and emphysema severity, packyears, years in study and respiratory symptoms. The quitted ≥5 group was used as reference. Results Median (Q1-Q3) emphysema severity,<-950 HU, was 8.8 (5.1 – 14.1) and mean (SD) FEV1 was 3.4 (0.73) L or 98.5 (18.5) % of predicted. The group quitted ‘>5 years’ showed significantly lower rates of progression of emphysema compared to current smokers, 1.07% and 1.12% per year, respectively (p<0.001). Current smokers had a yearly FEV1-decline of 69 ml, while subjects quit smoking >5 years had a yearly decline of 57.5 ml (p<0.001). Conclusion Quit smoking >5 years significantly slows the rate of emphysema progression and lung function decline. Trial registration Registered at http://www.trialregister.nl with trial number ISRCTN63545820. PMID:23688060

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  1. Likelihood of Unemployed Smokers vs Nonsmokers Attaining Reemployment in a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Michalek, Anne K.; Brown-Johnson, Catherine; Daza, Eric J.; Baiocchi, Michael; Anzai, Nicole; Rogers, Amy; Grigg, Mia; Chieng, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Studies in the United States and Europe have found higher smoking prevalence among unemployed job seekers relative to employed workers. While consistent, the extant epidemiologic investigations of smoking and work status have been cross-sectional, leaving it underdetermined whether tobacco use is a cause or effect of unemployment. Objective To examine differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period. Design, Setting, and Participants An observational 2-group study was conducted from September 10, 2013, to August 15, 2015, in employment service settings in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). Participants were 131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers, all of whom were unemployed job seekers. Owing to the study's observational design, a propensity score analysis was conducted using inverse probability weighting with trimmed observations. Including covariates of time out of work, age, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived health status as predictors of smoking status. Mainoutcomes and measures Reemployment at 12-month follow-up. Results Of the 251 study participants, 165 (65.7) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (11) years; 96 participants were white (38.2%), 90 were black (35.9%), 24 were Hispanic (9.6%), 18 were Asian (7.2%), and 23 were multiracial or other race (9.2%); 78 had a college degree (31.1%), 99 were unstably housed (39.4%), 70 lacked reliable transportation (27.9%), 52 had a criminal history (20.7%), and 72 had received prior treatment for alcohol or drug use (28.7%). Smokers consumed a mean (SD) of 13.5 (8.2) cigarettes per day at baseline. At 12-month follow-up (217 participants retained [86.5%]), 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6%) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6%) (unadjusted risk difference, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42). With 6% of analysis sample observations trimmed, the estimated risk difference indicated that nonsmokers were 30% (95% CI, 12%-48%) more likely on average to be reemployed at 1 year

  2. Likelihood of Unemployed Smokers vs Nonsmokers Attaining Reemployment in a One-Year Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Michalek, Anne K; Brown-Johnson, Catherine; Daza, Eric J; Baiocchi, Michael; Anzai, Nicole; Rogers, Amy; Grigg, Mia; Chieng, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Studies in the United States and Europe have found higher smoking prevalence among unemployed job seekers relative to employed workers. While consistent, the extant epidemiologic investigations of smoking and work status have been cross-sectional, leaving it underdetermined whether tobacco use is a cause or effect of unemployment. To examine differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period. An observational 2-group study was conducted from September 10, 2013, to August 15, 2015, in employment service settings in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). Participants were 131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers, all of whom were unemployed job seekers. Owing to the study's observational design, a propensity score analysis was conducted using inverse probability weighting with trimmed observations. Including covariates of time out of work, age, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived health status as predictors of smoking status. Reemployment at 12-month follow-up. Of the 251 study participants, 165 (65.7) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (11) years; 96 participants were white (38.2%), 90 were black (35.9%), 24 were Hispanic (9.6%), 18 were Asian (7.2%), and 23 were multiracial or other race (9.2%); 78 had a college degree (31.1%), 99 were unstably housed (39.4%), 70 lacked reliable transportation (27.9%), 52 had a criminal history (20.7%), and 72 had received prior treatment for alcohol or drug use (28.7%). Smokers consumed a mean (SD) of 13.5 (8.2) cigarettes per day at baseline. At 12-month follow-up (217 participants retained [86.5%]), 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6%) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6%) (unadjusted risk difference, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42). With 6% of analysis sample observations trimmed, the estimated risk difference indicated that nonsmokers were 30% (95% CI, 12%-48%) more likely on average to be reemployed at 1 year relative to smokers. Results of a sensitivity analysis with additional covariates of sex

  3. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  5. Elevated levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine in smokers with head and neck cancer: A matched control study.

    PubMed

    Khariwala, Samir S; Carmella, Steven G; Stepanov, Irina; Fernandes, Patricia; Lassig, Amy Anne; Yueh, Bevan; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with tobacco use. Still, most smokers do not develop HNSCC. The mechanisms of varying susceptibility to HNSCC are poorly studied to date. Tobacco metabolite research provides insight regarding the innate metabolism and excretion of carcinogens. Smokers with HNSCC (cases) were compared with smokers without HNSCC (controls) in a matched cohort. The tobacco metabolites studied were: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). In 33 subjects, mean 1-HOP was 1.82 pmol/mg creatinine versus 1.08 pmol/mg creatinine (p = .004) and mean NNN was 0.10 pmol/mg creatinine versus 0.04 pmol/mg creatinine (p = .01) in cases and controls, respectively. NNAL did not differ between groups. Smokers with HNSCC have elevated urinary levels of 1-HOP and total NNN compared with matched controls, suggesting an increased effective exposure to these carcinogens. Tobacco constituent metabolites may be useful in understanding tobacco-related carcinogenesis in HNSCC. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Elevated levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and N′-nitrosonornicotine in smokers with head and neck cancer: A matched control study

    PubMed Central

    Khariwala, Samir S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Fernandes, Patricia; Lassig, Amy Anne; Yueh, Bevan; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with tobacco use. Still, most smokers do not develop HNSCC. The mechanisms of varying susceptibility to HNSCC are poorly studied to date. Tobacco metabolite research provides insight regarding the innate metabolism and excretion of carcinogens. Methods Smokers with HNSCC (cases) were compared with smokers without HNSCC (controls) in a matched cohort. The tobacco metabolites studied were: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). Results In 33 subjects, mean 1-HOP was 1.82 pmol/mg creatinine versus 1.08 pmol/mg creatinine (p = .004) and mean NNN was 0.10 pmol/mg creatinine versus 0.04 pmol/mg creatinine (p = .01) in cases and controls, respectively. NNAL did not differ between groups. Conclusions Smokers with HNSCC have elevated urinary levels of 1-HOP and total NNN compared with matched controls, suggesting an increased effective exposure to these carcinogens. Tobacco constituent metabolites may be useful in understanding tobacco-related carcinogenesis in HNSCC. PMID:22807150

  7. EFFECTS OF THE NICOTINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST MECAMYLAMINE ON AD-LIB SMOKING BEHAVIOR, TOPOGRAPHY, AND NICOTINE LEVELS IN SMOKERS WITH AND WITHOUT SCHIZOPHRENIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Harrison, Emily L. R.; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well-studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-hr deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia. PMID:19700263

  8. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  9. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Virtual reality cue reactivity assessment: a case study in a teen smoker.

    PubMed

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Traylor, Amy C; Graap, Ken M; Copp, Hilary L; Brooks, Jeremy

    2005-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in adolescents is a major public health problem. To address the increasing need for efficacious assessment and treatment methods, we developed and tested a novel virtual reality cue reactivity assessment system. A case study of a controlled virtual reality cue reactivity trial with a 17-year-old adolescent cigarette smoker is presented. During the trial, the participant was exposed to virtual reality (VR) smoking cues and VR neutral cues and assessments of subjective craving and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded. Upon exposure to VR smoking cues, craving increased. A novel methodology for collecting and analyzing SCR in VR was developed and explored to expand the role of physiological variables in VR research. SCR data indicated specific reactions to smoking cue stimuli, with the subject experiencing increased reactivity to smoking cues (i.e., cigarettes) compared to food or drinks. Based on this case study, further research using VR cue reactivity assessment in adolescent smokers is warranted. The impact of VR in drug research and future applications in research are also discussed.

  11. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Welty, Christopher J; Wright, Jonathan L; Hotaling, James M; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n =385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71-5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55-2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5-37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17-3.11) for the distant quitters (≥ 23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26-2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated>32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: Results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Christopher J.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Hotaling, James M.; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Materials and methods Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n = 385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. Results and limitations The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71–5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55–2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5–37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17–3.11) for the distant quitters (≥23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26–2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. Conclusions The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated >32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. PMID:23506963

  13. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers in a Nigerian fishing settlement: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Dienye, Paul; Akani, Alex; Okokon, Ita

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assess the lung function of fish smokers in Nigeria. A case control study was done among fish smokers in Nigeria. Women aged 15 years or older (n=210) involved in fish smoking and equal number of matched controls were interviewed on respiratory symptoms and their peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measured. Data was analysed using chi square test, student's t-test and odd ratios. Both groups were similar in their personal characteristics. The test group had significantly increased occurrence of sneezing (153; 72.86%), catarrh (159; 75.71%), cough (138; 65.71%) and chest pain (59; 28.10%) compared with the control group, odds ratio (OR) 2.49, 95% confidence interval CI (1.62-3.82), P < 0.001), OR 3.77,95% CI (2.44- 5.85), P < 0.001, OR 3.38, 95% CI (2.22-5.15), P < 0.001, and OR 6.45,95% CI (3.22-13.15), P < 0.001, respectively. The mean PEFR of 321±58.93 L/min among the fish smokers was significantly lower than 400±42.92 L/min among the controls (p = 0.0001). Fish smokers have increased risk of respiratory symptoms and reduced pulmonary function. There is a need for protective equipment and periodic evaluation.

  15. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1-2 weeks before the December implementation date. The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers.

  16. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  17. A pilot study on genotype announcement to induce smoking cessation by Japanese smokers.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hidemi

    2004-01-01

    Genotype announcements related to susceptibility to hazardous effects of smoking may be effective to induce smoking cessation. Subjects were municipal government employees, 63 young smokers employed in the previous year and 59 smokers with more than 45 pack-years, who were invited to educational sessions against smoking held in December 2003 and February 2004, respectively. In the session, those who wished genetic susceptibility tests (GSTM1, GSTT1, and NQO1 C609T) were enrolled in the study. The smoking habit was ascertained three times: at the session, one month later, just before the genotype announcement, and at the follow-up three months after the announcement. Fifty eight (92.1%) and 49 (83.1%) smokers participated in the study, respectively. One out of 58 smokers was not a habitual smoker, so was not included in the analysis. The smoking cessation rates were 15.8% (9 participants) and 6.1% (3 participants) just before the genotype announcement, and 7.0% (4 participants) and 10.2% (5 participants) at the follow-up, respectively. All subjects were satisfied with the genotype testing except for two who rather regretted participating, but one of whom actually quit smoking. The present pilot study without controls indicated that the effects of genotype announcements in this framework on smoking cessation were less than might have been expected. The temporary effect of the session on younger smokers may have been due to the participation per se. The potential effects of genotype announcements for heavy smokers should now be examined in studies with adequate controls.

  18. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  19. Trial design: blood pressure control and weight gain prevention in prehypertensive and hypertensive smokers: the treatment and prevention study.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Klesges, Robert C; Ebbert, Jon O; Lichty, Ellen J; DeBon, Margaret; North, Frederick; Schroeder, Darrell R; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smokers with elevated blood pressure (BP) are at substantially higher risk for cardiovascular events compared to normotensive smokers. Although smoking cessation should be a primary treatment goal for these patients, increases in body weight accompanying smoking abstinence may further increase BP. Intervention strategies that facilitate smoking cessation and modify adverse changes in body weight and BP are needed. We describe an ongoing multi-site, two-phase, five-year randomized clinical trial. Participants are cigarette smokers with Prehypertension or Stage I Hypertension. In the first phase, participants receive a smoking cessation intervention combining behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement in an open-label fashion. In the second phase, participants who successfully quit smoking are randomly assigned to one of three lifestyle interventions: 1) weight gain prevention, 2) blood pressure control, or 3) usual lifestyle. Participants are followed for one year to assess changes in blood pressure, body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity. Results from the proposed study will provide important insights into the efficacy of various approaches to lifestyle modification in smokers at increased risk for cardiovascular events.

  20. Current and Former Smokers' Use of Electronic Cigarettes for Quitting Smoking: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-09-23

    This exploratory study examines the prevalence and predictors of current and former smokers' use of electronic (e-) cigarettes for smoking cessation among a sample of adolescent and young adult established smokers. We conducted school-wide surveys in two middle (n = 1166) and four high schools (n = 3614) in fall 2013 and one public college (n = 625) in spring 2014. We analyzed data from 189 established smokers (reported smoking 100 cigarettes in their lifetime) who also reported ever-use of e-cigarettes (50.7% female, 89.4% White race, M age 18.3 [SD = 2.8]). We further classified participants as current smokers (reported past-month cigarette smoking) and former smokers (no past-month smoking). Adjusted logistic regression assessed associations of using e-cigarettes to quit smoking with demographic, cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns, e-cigarette flavor preference, and risk perception variables. Overall, 41.8% of the sample reported that they "have used an e-cigarette to quit smoking." In adjusted models, older age, White race, higher e-cigarette frequency, and preference for using a combination of e-cigarette flavors predicted increased odds of having used e-cigarettes to quit smoking (p < .05). Using e-cigarettes to quit smoking was not associated with current or former cigarette smoking status or perceptions that "e-cigarettes help people quit smoking" or "e-cigarettes are safer than quit smoking medications." Adolescents and young adults who report more frequent e-cigarette use and preference for using flavor combinations are more likely to use e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Future studies are needed to determine whether e-cigarette use leads to tobacco abstinence in youth smokers. Among young established smokers, more frequent e-cigarette use and preference for using flavors mixed together, but not perceptions of harmfulness of e-cigarettes or comparative safety of e-cigarettes compared with cigarettes or other smoking cessation medications or

  1. Plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings on cigarette packs in non-smokers and weekly smokers but not daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Munafò, Marcus R; Roberts, Nicole; Bauld, Linda; Leonards, Ute

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging on visual attention towards health warning information on cigarette packs. Mixed-model experimental design, comprising smoking status as a between-subjects factor, and package type (branded versus plain) as a within-subjects factor. University laboratory. Convenience sample of young adults, comprising non-smokers (n = 15), weekly smokers (n = 14) and daily smokers (n = 14). Number of saccades (eye movements) towards health warnings on cigarette packs, to directly index visual attention. Analysis of variance indicated more eye movements (i.e. greater visual attention) towards health warnings compared to brand information on plain packs versus branded packs. This effect was observed among non-smokers and weekly smokers, but not daily smokers. Among non-smokers and non-daily cigarette smokers, plain packaging appears to increase visual attention towards health warning information and away from brand information. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Comparative analysis of the effects of hubble-bubble (Sheesha) and cigarette smoking on respiratory and metabolic parameters in hubble-bubble and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Al Mutairi, Sana S; Shihab-Eldeen, Aida A; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A; Anwar, Alia Aisha

    2006-07-01

    Hazard of smoking tobacco is believed to be minimized by smoking hubble-bubble (HB) instead of cigarettes. Our aims were to (i) develop an assay for estimating nicotine and cotinine; and (ii) evaluate the effect of smoking on respiratory and metabolic parameters in cigarette and HB smokers. Urine samples were collected from 152 volunteer smokers (75 cigarette and 77 HB) as well as from 16 healthy controls. We optimized an HPLC method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine. Subjects were asked to complete a chronic respiratory symptoms questionnaire and to undergo spirometry. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of their lipid profile. The intra-assay coefficients of variation for nicotine and cotinine were 16.6% and 6.6%, respectively. The mean of cotinine in cigarette smokers (1321.4 ng/mL) was significantly (P = 0.008) higher than the mean cotinine (677.6 ng/mL) in HB smokers. The mean nicotine level in cigarette smokers (1487.3 ng/mL) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than the mean nicotine (440.5 ng/mL) in HB smoker. The urinary cotinine and nicotine levels of the control subjects were lower than the detection levels of the assay. The mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in cigarette smokers (0.99 mmol/L) compared with HB smoker smokers (1.02 mmol/L) but this was not significant (P = 0.28). Spirometric values were comparable among the three groups but the chronic respiratory symptoms in the smoking groups appeared at an earlier age in the HB smokers compared with the cigarettes smokers (P < 0.05). Smoking HB does not reduce the risk of tobacco exposure and it's potentially harmful metabolites on health.

  3. Airflow limitation in smokers is associated with arterial stiffness: the Nagahama Study.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Muro, Shigeo; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Terao, Chikashi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of associations between airflow limitation (AL) and arterial stiffness remain unclear. One factor that might affect both AL and arterial stiffness is habitual smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible interaction of smoking on the association between AL and arterial stiffness. Study subjects consisted of 8790 apparently healthy community residents. Airflow limitation was defined as a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity of less than 70%. Brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Smoking habit was investigated using a structured questionnaire. Subjects with AL had significantly higher baPWV (AL 1381 ± 334, control 1261 ± 227 cm/s, p < 0.001). In a separate analysis by smoking habit, advanced arterial stiffness in AL was observed only in smokers (non-smokers: AL 1300 ± 220, control 1260 ± 218; smokers: AL 1436 ± 384, control 1264 ± 243 cm/s). Other clinical features of subjects with AL were older age; increased plasma hsCRP levels; and a high prevalence of male sex, hypertension, and smoking experience. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for these covariates identified the smoking × AL interaction as an independent determinant of baPWV (β = 0.066, p < 0.001). Conversely, baPWV was an independent determinant of AL in current and past smokers, but not in never smokers. AL arising from cigarette smoking, but not AL in non-smokers, was associated with arterial stiffness in a general population independently of established risk factors. Measurement of subclinical arterial change in smokers may be useful in identifying persons at risk for AL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (p<0.001), 'positive smoker characteristics' (p=0.003) and 'positive taste characteristics' (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for 'negative smoker characteristics' (p=0.427) or 'negative harm characteristics' (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  5. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  6. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864

  7. Differences in risk perception and quit rates among hospitalized veteran pipe smokers, cigarette smokers, and dual users.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Duffy, Sonia A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in perception of risk, hospitalization quit rates, and 6-month quit rates between pipe smokers, cigarettes smokers, and those who smoke both in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Before implementing the Tobacco Tactics intervention (among 811 smokers), smoking quit rates were determined (among N = 465 patients with 6-month follow-up data available) in three Midwestern hospitals during 2006-2010. Pipe smokers were less likely to believe that they needed to quit tobacco, that quitting would be difficult, and that quitting tobacco was important to their health. Eighty-five percent of pipe smokers remained tobacco free throughout their hospital stay compared with 59% of dual smokers and 60% of cigarette smokers (p < .10). Twenty-three percent of pipe smokers remained tobacco free at 6 months compared with 19% of dual users and 7% of cigarette smokers (p < .10). Although pipe smokers had higher spontaneous quit rates than dual smokers and cigarette smokers, the perception of the risk of smoking was less among pipe smokers suggesting a need to expel the myths surrounding pipe smoking and increase cessation efforts.

  8. Acupuncture for smokers: lack of long-term therapeutic effect in a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Y.; Annable, L.; Gagnon, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of acupuncture therapy, one aimed specifically at smoking withdrawal and the other aimed at enhancing relaxation, were compared with self-monitoring in 75 healthy men that wished to stop smoking. During the 2 weeks following treatment there was no significant difference in the adjusted mean daily smoking rates of the subjects receiving acupuncture therapy of the two types, but their combined rate was significantly lower than the rate of the subjects in the self-monitoring group. However, at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment there were no longer statistically significant differences between the three treatment groups in the adjusted mean smoking rates. At no time were there significant differences between the three treatment groups in the proportion of subjects that stopped smoking during the study. Although acupuncture appears to have become a popular treatment for cigarette smokers, its effectiveness remains to be proven in the treatment of tobacco addiction. PMID:6988071

  9. Prospective study of physical activity and lung cancer by histologic type in current, former, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Michael F; Koebnick, Corinna; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Increased physical activity has been associated with decreased lung cancer risk. However, no previous investigation has examined physical activity in relation to lung cancer histologic types by smoking status. The authors investigated these relations in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study among 501,148 men and women aged 50-71 years at baseline in 1995-1996. During follow-up to 2003, 6,745 lung carcinomas occurred (14.8% small cell, 40.3% adenocarcinoma, 19.7% squamous cell, 6.1% undifferentiated large cell, 7.2% non-small cell not otherwise specified, and 11.8% carcinoma not otherwise specified). Among former smokers, the multivariate relative risks of small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and undifferentiated large cell carcinomas comparing the highest with the lowest activity level (> or =5 times/week vs. inactive) were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.28), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.93), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.98), respectively. Among current smokers, corresponding values were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.02), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.95), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.11), and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.78). In contrast, physical activity was unrelated to lung carcinoma among never smokers (P(interaction) between physical activity and smoking for total lung carcinomas = 0.002). The inverse findings among former and current smokers in combination with the null results for physical activity among never smokers may point toward residual confounding by cigarette smoking as an explanation for the relations observed.

  10. A qualitative study of how young Scottish smokers living in disadvantaged communities get their cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Edward; Bauld, Linda; Eadie, Douglas; McKell, Jennifer; Pringle, Brian; Amos, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14-16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Participants' main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers.

  11. A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

  12. Assessment of Periodontal Health Status in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Chintagunta, Chaitanya; Tadiboina, Nagarjuna; Borugadda, Ravithej; Loya, Mitali; Marella, Yamuna; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral smokeless tobacco consumption has been considered as a major risk factor for oral cancer, its role as a risk factor for periodontal disease is less well documented when compared to that of relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of various forms of tobacco consumption i.e., smoking and smokeless tobacco forms on periodontal status. Materials and Methods The study population included 120 subjects with the habit of tobacco consumption, based on form of tobacco use they were divided into Group 1 (smoking), Group 2 (Smokeless tobacco), and Group 3 (smokers and smokeless tobacco users). The periodontal status for each group was evaluated by measuring Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) for Probing Depth (CPI-PD) and Attachment Loss (CPI-AL). Results OHI-S mean scores in Group 1 (3.53±1.03), Group 2 (3.06±0.92) and Group 3 (3.45±0.96) were similar, which were not statistically significant (p>0.076). The mean values of CPI-PD were 3.75±0.44 in Group 1, 3.65±0.48 in Group 2, 3.80±0.41 in Group 3 with no significant difference between the three Groups (p> 0.309). When the mean values of CPI-AL (0.95±0.75 in Group 1, 1.40±0.74 in group 2, and 1.55±0.60 in Group 3) were compared in between the Groups, a statistically significant difference was observed in Group 3 (p<0.001). Conclusion The results showed that tobacco consumption in both forms caused poor periodontal status, with smokeless tobacco users having more amount of attachment loss than smokers. PMID:27891477

  13. Respiratory response to cigarette smoking among adolescent smokers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, A V; Emmons, K M; Pallonen, U E; Tsoh, J Y

    1996-01-01

    Because cigarette smoking affects the respiratory system earlier than many other systems of the human body, an attempt was made to identify objective and subjective respiratory problems among adolescent smokers. Two studies based on a pulmonary function test (PFT), respiratory symptom assessment, and other smoking-related variables were undertaken. Study 1 involved cigarette smokers (N = 18, 22% males, mean age 18.7 years) from a freshman college class who participated in an acute smoking experiment that involved performing a PFT before and after smoking a single cigarette. Study 2 was performed on a combined group of vocational-technical high school students and freshman college students (N = 44, 48% males, mean age 17.8 years) where PFT parameters, respiratory symptoms, and smoking-related health vulnerability were assessed among smokers vs nonsmokers. In Study 1, the average reduction across PFT parameters was 4.4% and the mean estimated lung age increased from 27.15 to 29.84 years. In Study 2, a consistent trend toward reduction of PFT values among smokers vs nonsmokers was observed; the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity ratio (90.51% vs 94.59%), peak expiratory flow rate (80.32% vs 92.06%), and flow rate of 50% of forced vital capacity (88.39% vs 102.81%) differed significantly. Significant differences in respiratory symptoms were also observed among smokers vs nonsmokers. The beginning of respiratory health disorders can be identified among adolescent smokers. These findings might provide important clues on how to improve outcomes from health care provider-based adolescent smoking cessation counseling.

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients – positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa – negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P < 0.05. Results: OSCC, Individual cell modifications, intercellular relationships and surface characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues. PMID:28182055

  15. Patterns of airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Babusyte, Agne; Stravinskaite, Kristina; Jeroch, Jolanta; Lötvall, Jan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking activates and recruits inflammatory cells and proteases to the airways. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 may be a key mediator in smoke induced emphysema. However, the influence of smoking and its cessation on airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression during COPD is still unknown. We aimed to analyse airway inflammatory cell patterns in induced sputum (IS) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from COPD patients who are active smokers and who have ceased smoking >2 years ago. Methods 39 COPD outpatients – smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 17) were studied. 8 'healthy' smokers and 11 healthy never-smokers were tested as the control groups. IS and BAL samples were obtained for differential and MMP-12+-macrophages count analysis. Results The number of IS neutrophils was higher in both COPD groups compared to both controls. The amount of BAL neutrophils was higher in COPD smokers compared to healthy never-smokers. The number of BAL MMP-12+-macrophages was higher in COPD smokers (1.6 ± 0.3 × 106/ml) compared to COPD ex-smokers, 'healthy' smokers and healthy never-smokers (0.9 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.1 × 106/ml respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The lower amount of BAL neutrophils in COPD ex-smokers, compared to COPD smokers, suggests positive alterations in alveolar compartment after smoking cessation. Smoking and disease itself may stimulate MMP-12 expression in airway compartments (IS and BAL) from COPD patients. PMID:18001475

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Motivation Phase Intervention Components for Use with Smokers Unwilling to Quit: A Factorial Screening Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jessica W.; Collins, Linda M.; Fiore, Michael C.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fraser, David; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Jorenby, Douglas; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Aims To screen promising intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence in smokers initially unwilling to quit. Design A balanced, 4-factor, randomized factorial experiment. Setting Eleven primary care clinics in southern Wisconsin, USA. Participants 517 adult smokers (63% women, 91% White) recruited during primary care visits who were willing to reduce their smoking but not quit. Interventions Four factors contrasted intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence: 1) nicotine patch vs. none; 2) nicotine gum vs. none; 3) motivational interviewing (MI) vs. none; and 4) behavioral reduction counseling (BR) vs. none. Participants could request cessation treatment at any point during the study. Measurements The primary outcome was percent change in cigarettes smoked per day at 26 weeks post-study enrollment; the secondary outcomes were percent change at 12 weeks and point-prevalence abstinence at 12 and 26 weeks post-study enrollment. Findings There were few main effects, but a significant 4-way interaction at 26-weeks post-study enrollment (p=.01, β = .12) revealed relatively large smoking reductions by two component combinations: nicotine gum combined with BR and BR combined with MI. Further, BR improved 12-week abstinence rates (p=.04), and nicotine gum, when used without MI, increased abstinence after a subsequent aided quit attempt (p=.01). Conclusions Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit. PMID:26582140

  17. Genetic variants and risk of lung cancer in never smokers: a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yafei; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Ye, Yuanqing; de Andrade, Mariza; Wang, Liang; Chang, Shen-Chih; Aubry, Marie C; Aakre, Jeremiah A; Allen, Mark S; Chen, Feng; Cunningham, Julie M; Deschamps, Claude; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Lin, Jie; Marks, Randolph S; Pankratz, V Shane; Su, Li; Li, Yan; Sun, Zhifu; Tang, Hui; Vasmatzis, George; Harris, Curtis C; Spitz, Margaret R; Jen, Jin; Wang, Renyi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Christiani, David C; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Lung cancer in individuals who have never smoked tobacco products is an increasing medical and public-health issue. We aimed to unravel the genetic basis of lung cancer in never smokers. Methods We did a four-stage investigation. First, a genome-wide association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was done with 754 never smokers (377 matched case-control pairs at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA). Second, the top candidate SNPs from the first study were validated in two independent studies among 735 (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA) and 253 (Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA) never smokers. Third, further replication of the top SNP was done in 530 never smokers (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Fourth, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and gene-expression differences were analysed to further elucidate the causal relation between the validated SNPs and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers. Findings 44 top candidate SNPs were identified that might alter the risk of lung cancer in never smokers. rs2352028 at chromosome 13q31.3 was subsequently replicated with an additive genetic model in the four independent studies, with a combined odds ratio of 1·46 (95% CI 1·26–1·70, p=5·94×10−6). A cis eQTL analysis showed there was a strong correlation between genotypes of the replicated SNPs and the transcription level of the gene GPC5 in normal lung tissues (p=1·96×10−4), with the high-risk allele linked with lower expression. Additionally, the transcription level of GPC5 in normal lung tissue was twice that detected in matched lung adenocarcinoma tissue (p=6·75×10−11). Interpretation Genetic variants at 13q31.3 alter the expression of GPC5, and are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer in never smokers. Downregulation of GPC5 might contribute to the development of lung cancer in never smokers. PMID:20304703

  18. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-09-05

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  19. Smokers' beliefs about the tobacco control potential of "a gene for smoking": a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Ball, Linda; Carter, Kimberly; Gehlert, Sarah

    2014-11-25

    Several genetic variations associated with nicotine dependence and lung cancer exist. Translating this knowledge into tobacco control policy relies on smokers' perceptions of the implications of the research. This study explored smokers' beliefs about the tobacco control uses for research examining genomics, smoking, and addiction. Smokers (N = 85) participated in one of thirteen focus groups and one interview, stratified by race (eight black, six white) and education (seven < Bachelor's degree, seven ≥ Bachelor's degree). Data were analyzed by two independent coders using standard analysis and validation techniques. Nearly all groups suggested using genetic information for youth-oriented tobacco prevention education. Beliefs about the effectiveness of such actions varied. Many participants believed that providing smokers personalized genetic testing results or informing them about the existence of a gene would not motivate people to quit. All smokers emphasized the need for improved smoking cessation treatment options. Using genomics research to develop gene therapies and personalized drug treatments were also mentioned, yet perceptions of such treatments were mixed. Whereas some participants viewed the possibility positively, others expressed concern about cost and access. Participants who were skeptical of the effectiveness of using genetic information for tobacco control noted that the harms of tobacco use are widely known and genetic information does not add much of a deterrent. Participants generated several possible tobacco control uses for genomics research findings. Our findings suggest that tobacco control experts should consult with smokers prior to implementing tobacco control measures. The potential public health benefits of genetics and genomics research related to tobacco use cannot be realized until communication strategies that are most likely to encourage and support tobacco avoidance decisions, and minimize mistrust and backlash, are

  20. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  1. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches). This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640) tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1) nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program) dispensed at discharge and (2) proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions) against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial) mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted for with hospital

  2. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2016-11-02

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P < .05). Spirometry results, including post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s, were comparable between the two groups. More smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P < .001), but after accounting the potential confounders in model analysis, the difference was borderline significance (P = .051). In the subgroup of biomass smoke-exposed subjects, MWA% was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  4. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  5. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  6. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  7. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  8. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    PubMed

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy

    2017-04-08

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (<97.37% of predicted), women presented mucociliary transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual Assessment of CT Findings in Smokers With Nonobstructed Spirometric Abnormalities in The COPDGene® Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Stinson, Douglas S.; Zach, Jordan A.; McKenzie, Alexander S.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wan, Emily S.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in the COPDGene® study (200 GOLDU, 200 smokers with normal lung function) were retrospectively evaluated in a blinded fashion. Visual CT assessment included lobar analysis of emphysema (type, extent), presence of paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, expiratory air trapping, centrilobular nodules, atelectasis, non-fibrotic and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), pleural thickening, diaphragmatic eventration, vertebral body changes and internal thoracic diameters (in mm). Univariate comparisons of groups for each CT parameter and multiple logistic regression were performed to determine the imaging features associated with GOLDU. When compared with the control group, GOLDU participants had a significantly higher prevalence of unilateral diaphragm eventration (30% vs. 16%), airway wall thickening, centrilobular nodules, reticular abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (33% vs. 17%), linear atelectasis (60% vs. 35.6%), kyphosis (12% vs. 4%), and a smaller internal transverse thoracic diameter (255 ± 22.5 [standard deviation] vs. 264.8 ± 22.4, mm) (all p<0.05). With multiple logistic regression, all of these CT parameters, except non-fibrotic ILD and kyphosis, remained significantly associated with GOLDU status (p<0.05). In cigarette smokers, chest wall abnormalities and parenchymal lung disease, which contribute to restrictive physiologic impairment, are associated with GOLD-nonobstructed status. PMID:25197723

  10. Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Pena-Álvarez, Carolina; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were recruited from individuals undergoing minor, non-oncological surgery. Residential radon was measured using alpha track detectors. We included 521 individuals, 192 cases and 329 controls, 21% were males. We observed an odds ratio of 2.42 (95% CI 1.45-4.06) for individuals exposed to ≥200 Bq·m(-3) compared with those exposed to <100 Bq·m(-3). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home increased lung cancer risk in individuals with radon exposure>200 Bq·m(-3). Individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and to radon concentrations>200 Bq·m(-3) had higher lung cancer risk than those exposed to lower radon concentrations and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Residential radon increases lung cancer risk in never-smokers. An association between residential radon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of lung cancer might exist.

  11. Lung cancer in never smokers in the UK Million Women Study

    PubMed Central

    Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    To assess directly the effects of various risk factors on lung cancer incidence among never smokers, large prospective studies are needed. In a cohort of 1.2 million UK women without prior cancer, half (634,039) reported that they had never smoked. Mean age at recruitment was 55 (SD5) years, and during 14 (SD3) years of follow‐up, 0.2% (1,469) of these never smokers developed lung cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for 34 potential risk factors, of which 31 were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The remaining three risk factors were associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers: non‐white vs. white ethnicity (RR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.55–3.52, p < 0.001), asthma requiring treatment vs. not (RR = 1.32, 1.10–1.58, p = 0.003) and taller stature (height ≥ 165 cm vs. <160 cm: RR = 1.16, 1.03–1.32, p = 0.02). There was little association with other sociodemographic, anthropometric or hormonal factors, or with dietary intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and fiber. The findings were not materially affected by restricting the analyses to adenocarcinomas, the most common histological type among never smokers. PMID:26954623

  12. Comparative effectiveness of motivation phase intervention components for use with smokers unwilling to quit: a factorial screening experiment.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jessica W; Collins, Linda M; Fiore, Michael C; Smith, Stevens S; Fraser, David; Bolt, Daniel M; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Schlam, Tanya R; Jorenby, Douglas; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    To screen promising intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence in smokers initially unwilling to quit. A balanced, four-factor, randomized factorial experiment. Eleven primary care clinics in southern Wisconsin, USA. A total of 517 adult smokers (63.4% women, 91.1% white) recruited during primary care visits who were willing to reduce their smoking but not quit. Four factors contrasted intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence: (1) nicotine patch versus none; (2) nicotine gum versus none; (3) motivational interviewing (MI) versus none; and (4) behavioral reduction counseling (BR) versus none. Participants could request cessation treatment at any point during the study. The primary outcome was percentage change in cigarettes smoked per day at 26 weeks post-study enrollment; the secondary outcomes were percentage change at 12 weeks and point-prevalence abstinence at 12 and 26 weeks post-study enrollment. There were few main effects, but a significant four-way interaction at 26 weeks post-study enrollment (P = 0.01, β = 0.12) revealed relatively large smoking reductions by two component combinations: nicotine gum combined with BR and BR combined with MI. Further, BR improved 12-week abstinence rates (P = 0.04), and nicotine gum, when used without MI, increased 26-week abstinence after a subsequent aided quit attempt (P = 0.01). Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  14. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  15. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  16. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing

  17. Profile of Maternal Smokers Who Quit During Pregnancy: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Tasmanian Women, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-05-01

    Smoking remains the single-most significant preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, yet around 12% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Many women are motivated to quit when they find out they are pregnant, yet few are successful. While previous studies have examined the profile of the maternal smoker compared to her nonsmoking counterpart (Aim 1), little is known about what differentiates women who quit during pregnancy to those who do not (Aim 2). Here, we present results from a study investigating the characteristics of women who were able to quit during pregnancy. Data were drawn from the Tasmanian Population Health database of women who had received antenatal care between 2011 and 2013 (n = 14300). Data collected included age, relationship status and ethnicity of expectant mothers, antenatal details, mental health conditions, and drug use. Independent samples t tests were used to compare differences between women who had, and those who had not, quit during pregnancy. The 19.4% of women who self-reported as smoking in the first half (first 20 weeks) of their pregnancy were further grouped and analyzed comparing those who reported still smoking in the second half of their pregnancy (smokers: n = 2570, 92.4%) to those who quit (quitters: n = 211, 7.6%). Quitters (57.8%) were more likely to be in a relationship than their non-quitting counterparts (49.6%, p = .022) and were less likely to suffer from postnatal depression (2.4% vs. 6.0%, p = .029). No other differences between quitters and smokers were observed. Determining the profile of women who are able to quit during pregnancy may be important to improve the relatively poor cessation rates among maternal smokers and may assist in more effectively targeting at-risk women. Smoking cessation interventions have traditionally targeted socially disadvantaged women, for good reason: the majority of smoking pregnant women fall into this category. However, despite the significant attention and resources

  18. Coronally positioned flap for root coverage: poorer outcomes in smokers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson Oliveira; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; de Lima, Antônio Fernando Martorelli; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2006-01-01

    Gingival recession is significantly more common among smokers, while the relative outcome of various root coverage procedures in smokers, compared to non-smokers, is debatable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on the outcome of coronally positioned flap (CPF) in the treatment of Miller Class I gingival recession defects. Ten current smokers (> or = 10 cigarettes daily for at least 5 years) and 10 non-smokers (never smokers), each with one 2- to 3-mm Miller Class I recession defect in an upper canine or bicuspid, were treated with CPF. At baseline and 6 months, clinical parameters, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession depth (RD), and apico-coronal width of keratinized tissue (KT) were determined. Intragroup analysis showed that CPF was able to reduce RD and improve CAL in both groups (P <0.05). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that smokers presented greater residual RD at 6 months and lower percentage of root coverage (69.3% versus 91.3%; P <0.05). No smokers obtained complete root coverage compared to 50% of non-smokers (P <0.05). Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that CPF provides benefits for both smokers and non-smokers in terms of root coverage of shallow Miller Class I recession defects. However, cigarette smoking negatively impacts the clinical outcomes, specifically residual recession, percent root coverage, and frequency of complete root coverage.

  19. Smoking reduction practices among African American smokers.

    PubMed

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Richter, Kimber P; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Mosier, Michael C; Nazir, Niaman; Resnicow, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day than Caucasians, African Americans bear a disproportionate share of health consequences of smoking. Because the risk of many tobacco-related diseases is dose-dependent, smoking reduction has been suggested as a method to reduce harm for smokers. Little information exists about behavioral smoking-reduction strategies and whether such strategies result in smoking fewer cigarettes. We conducted a survey of 484 African American smokers classified as occasional, light, moderate, and heavy smokers. The survey examined sociodemography, smoking characteristics, and eight smoking reduction strategies, including intentional limiting of smoking, smoking less than half of a cigarette, setting a daily limit for smoking, changing cigarette brand, reducing number of cigarettes, smoking only on some days, switching to a lighter tar cigarette, and not inhaling deeply. Compared to moderate and heavy smokers, occasional and light smokers were more likely to have engaged in most of these strategies. Smokers who used >or= 4 strategies on average smoked 11 cigarettes per day (cpd), compared to 14 cpd and 18 cpd for those who used 1 to 3 strategies and no strategies respectively (p <.0001). After analyses controlled for age, gender, and education, the number of smoking reduction strategies utilized was a significant predictor of smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes per day. This study provides evidence that African American smokers who engaged in multiple smoking reduction strategies smoked fewer cigarettes per day. Smokers not interested in quitting but willing to reduce their smoking should be encouraged to utilize a variety of smoking reduction strategies.

  20. [A cohort study on the relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers].

    PubMed

    Fan, Z; Li, F; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Yi, Y; Zhang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Ma, Y; Zen, X

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers in Shifang County was studied. The results indicated that the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases in the male groups of cigarette-smokers older than 65 and cigar-smokers older than 55 was significantly higher than that of the nonsmokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.68-3.22. Also, the mortality in the female groups of cigarette-smokers older than 55 and cigar-smokers older than 65 was significantly higher than that of the non-smokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.99-3.19. The sex-specific mortalities of the other age groups revealed no significant differences in spite of some inequalities in smoking (P < 0.05). Age should be one of the risk factors for the death of cerebro-vascular diseases regardless of the sex. The mortality rose with the increasing accumulated amount of smoking. The relationship was not significant between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and short-term smokers with small dose (P > 0.05). However, when the accumulated amount reached certain degree, i.e. the smoker consumed cigar more than 270 kg or consumed cigarette more than 10,000 packs, the relationship between the behavior of cigar-smoking and cigarette-smoking and the mortality became apparent, the RR being 2.53-3.91 (P < 0.01).

  1. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  2. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  3. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Hastings, Gerard; Ford, Allison

    2011-09-01

    To explore the impact, if any, that using plain (non-branded) cigarette packs in real-life settings has on young adult smokers. Naturalistic-type research was employed, where smokers used brown 'plain' packs for 2 weeks and their regular packs for 2 weeks, in real-life settings. Participants were recruited in Glasgow, Scotland. Of the 140 smokers aged 18-35 years who participated in the naturalistic study, 48 correctly completed and returned all questionnaires. Over the 4-week study period, participants completed a questionnaire twice a week assessing pack perceptions and feelings, feelings about smoking, salience of health warnings and smoking-related behaviours. A subsample of 18 participated in a post-study interview, which employed a semistructured topic guide to assess perceptions and experiences of using plain packs. Trends in the data show that in comparison with branded packaging, plain packaging increased negative perceptions and feelings about the pack and about smoking. Plain packaging also increased avoidant behaviour (hiding the pack, covering the pack), certain smoking cessation behaviours, such as smoking less around others and forgoing cigarettes, and thinking about quitting. Almost half (n=8) of those in the post-study interview, predominantly women (n=6), reported that the use of plain packs had either increased avoidant behaviour or reduced consumption. This pilot naturalistic study suggests that plain packaging could potentially help reduce tobacco consumption among some young adult smokers, and women in particular. Employing an innovative research methodology, the findings of this study are consistent with, and indeed support, past plain packaging research.

  4. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances (‘toxicants’) by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the ‘waterpipe’ antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  5. Community-Based Study Recruitment of American Indian Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Brame, Lacy S; Stephens, Lancer D; Wagener, Theodore L; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2017-07-07

    Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later. Screened, eligible, participated and costs and time spent were compared with Chi square tests. To understand AI descent, the relationship between number of AI grandparents and AI blood quantum was examined. Number of participants screened via the proactive strategy was similar to the reactive strategy (n = 84 vs. n = 82; p-value = 0.8766). A significantly greater proportion of individuals screened via the proactive than the reactive strategy were eligible (77 vs. 50%; p-value = 0.0002) and participated (75 vs. 39%; p-value = < 0.0001). Per participant cost and time estimated for the proactive strategy was $89 and 87 min compared to $79 and 56 min for the reactive strategy. Proportion at least half AI blood quantum was 32, 33, and 70% among those with 2, 3, and 4 AI grandparents, respectively (p = 0.0017). Proactive strategies resulted in two-thirds of the sample, but required more resources than reactive strategies. Overall, we found both strategies were feasible and resulted in the ability to reach sample goals. Lastly, number of AI biological grandparents may be a good, non-invasive indicator of AI blood quantum.

  6. Effects of nicotine on novelty detection and memory recognition performance: double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Froeliger, Brett; Gilbert, David G; McClernon, F Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Dependent smokers exhibit deficits in attentional and memory processes when smoking abstinent as compared to when satiated. While nicotine replacement therapy improves attention during abstinence, it is unclear whether this is due to the alleviation of withdrawal-related deficits or inherent beneficial effects of nicotine. The primary aim of these studies was to test whether nicotine exerts a beneficial effect on novelty detection and whether such effects occur in nonsmokers as well as habitual smokers. In two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, 24 smokers (study 1) and 24 nonsmokers (study 2) were tested in two counterbalanced sessions: once while wearing a nicotine patch (smokers = 14 mg; nonsmokers = 7 mg) and once while wearing a placebo patch. On each day, participants performed three content-specific oddball tasks (perceptual, semantic, and emotional) that required them to press a button whenever they saw a novel target (20% of stimuli) embedded in a stream of common nontarget stimuli (80% of stimuli). Recognition memory for targets was subsequently tested. Reports of mood, smoking withdrawal, patch side effects, and blind success were collected in each session. Among smokers, compared to placebo, nicotine decreased target reaction time during all oddball tasks. Among nonsmokers, nicotine increased target detection accuracy and subsequent memory recognition. Nicotine's enhancement on each respective measure was not task-content specific in either sample. These data suggest that acute nicotine administration may exert direct beneficial effects on novelty detection and subsequent memory recognition in both smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, these effects are not content-specific.

  7. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jessica L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Alberg, Anthony J; Cummings, K Michael; Gray, Kevin M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    To refine public health policy amidst a changing landscape of tobacco products in the United States, it is first necessary to describe fully the nature of smokers' alternative product use. Little research addresses smokers' snus use, and most studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional designs, and crude outcome measurement. This study sample includes 626 adult US smokers who denied intention to quit in the next month and were randomized to receive free snus during a 6-week sampling period, after which no snus was provided. Participants were then followed for one year. Outcome data were collected via phone. Participants (mean age: 48.7years) were predominately female, White non-Hispanic. Eighty-four percent reported trial of snus. Eleven percent reported purchase (i.e., adoption). Current use declined from 47.1% at the end of the sampling period to 6.5% at the end of follow-up. Frequency and quantity of snus use among current users was low. Among snus users, 79.3% said it functioned as an alternative to smoking and 58.4% said it provided a means of coping with smoking restrictions; options not mutually exclusive. In logistic regressions, men were more likely to report trial (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p<0.01) and adoption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) than women. Baseline expectations about the nature of snus use also predicted snus outcomes (OR=1.28-1.78, p<0.05). Smokers showed willingness to try snus, but product interest waned over time. Snus as currently marketed is unlikely to play a prominent role in US tobacco control efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  9. Samoan Smokers Talk about Smoking and Quitting: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Tanielu, Helen; McCool, Judith; Umali, Elaine; Whittaker, Robyn

    2017-06-29

    Samoa, like other Pacific Island countries, faces a persistent challenge to reduce smoking use with relatively limited resources. As a signatory to the WHO FCTC, Samoa is obligated to introduce measures to reduce tobacco use and is currently trialling a text message smoking cessation programme (mCessation) to achieve this outcome. Cigarettes remain relatively cheap and are widely available, but little is known about how smoking is initiated or why and how people quit smoking in the Samoa. Six focus groups with smokers and ex-smokers were conducted in Apia, Samoa. Groups were homogenous according to age, gender and smoking status. Focus groups were conducted in Samoan and transcribed and translated to English for analysis. Smoking is initiated most commonly in late teens and early twenties and most frequently in (non-family) social contexts. Smoking reflects a widely held (mis)perceptions of tangible benefits, including aiding feelings of strength and energy, relief from indigestion and as a means to accelerate the effects of alcohol. Smoking was deeply connected to social life in Samoa among friends and for some, with family members. Drivers to quit originate out of concern regarding health effects, concern for family and the costs of purchasing tobacco. Smoking is well entrenched in Samoan society; efforts to reduce smoking need to be based on implicit understanding of Samoan cultural norms and priorities around family, social networks and culture. Efforts to support quitting are important, alongside other well validated measures to reverse the trajectory of smoking related disease. This study offers an insight into smoking as a behaviour and as cultural practice perceived by smokers and non-smokers in Samoa. A thorough understanding of smoking behaviours and cessation patterns is critical in efforts to reduce smoking especially in resource-limited settings. The results from this study was used to inform the development of a Samoan mHealth smoking cessation

  10. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and COPD Risk in Smokers: A COPDGene Study Cohort Subgroup Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Koeverden, Ian; Blanc, Paul D.; Bowler, Russell P.; Arjomandi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) can be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its role among relatively heavy smokers with potential co-exposure to workplace vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) has not been studied. Methods To estimate the contribution of SHS exposure to COPD risk, taking into account smoking effects and work-related exposures to VGDF, we quantified SHS based on survey responses for 1400 ever-employed subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study, all current or former smokers with or without COPD. Occupational exposures to VGDF were quantified based on a job exposure matrix. The associations between SHS and COPD were tested in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, VGDF exposure, and cumulative smoking. Results and Discussion Exposures to SHS at work and at home during adulthood were associated with increased COPD risk: odds ratio (OR) = 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.23; p = 0.01) and OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00–1.18; p = 0.04) per 10 years of exposure adjusted for smoking and other covariates, respectively. In addition, subjects with employment histories likely to entail exposure to VGDF were more likely to have COPD: OR = 1.52 (95%CI: 1.16–1.98; p < 0.01) (adjusted for other covariates). While adult home SHS COPD risk was attenuated among the heaviest smokers within the cohort, workplace SHS and job VGDF risks persisted in that stratum. Conclusion Among smokers all with at least 10 pack-years, adult home and work SHS exposures and occupational VGDF exposure are all associated with COPD. PMID:24983136

  11. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and COPD Risk in Smokers: A COPDGene Study Cohort Subgroup Analysis.

    PubMed

    Koeverden, Ian van; Blanc, Paul D; Bowler, Russell P; Arjomandi, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) can be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its role among relatively heavy smokers with potential co-exposure to workplace vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) has not been studied. To estimate the contribution of SHS exposure to COPD risk, taking into account smoking effects and work-related exposures to VGDF, we quantified SHS based on survey responses for 1400 ever-employed subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study, all current or former smokers with or without COPD. Occupational exposures to VGDF were quantified based on a job exposure matrix. The associations between SHS and COPD were tested in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, VGDF exposure, and cumulative smoking. Exposures to SHS at work and at home during adulthood were associated with increased COPD risk: odds ratio (OR) = 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.23; p = 0.01) and OR = 1.09 (95%CI: 1.00-1.18; p = 0.04) per 10 years of exposure adjusted for smoking and other covariates, respectively. In addition, subjects with employment histories likely to entail exposure to VGDF were more likely to have COPD: OR = 1.52 (95%CI: 1.16-1.98; p < 0.01) (adjusted for other covariates). While adult home SHS COPD risk was attenuated among the heaviest smokers within the cohort, workplace SHS and job VGDF risks persisted in that stratum. Among smokers all with at least 10 pack-years, adult home and work SHS exposures and occupational VGDF exposure are all associated with COPD.

  12. Intranasal oxytocin dampens cue-elicited cigarette craving in daily smokers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Bershad, Anya; King, Andrea C; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Despite moderate success with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, smoking relapse rates remain high, and many smokers report that smoking cues lead to relapse. Therefore, treatments that target cue reactivity are needed. One candidate for reducing craving is the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal OT on two types of craving for cigarettes: craving following overnight abstinence and craving elicited by smoking-related cues. In this within-subject, placebo-controlled pilot study, smokers (N=17) abstained from smoking for 12 h before attending two sessions randomized to intranasal OT or placebo (i.e. saline nasal spray). On each session, participants received two doses of OT (20 IU) or placebo at 1-h intervals, and rated craving before and after each dose. Spontaneous cigarette craving was assessed after the first spray, and cue-elicited craving was assessed following the second spray. OT did not reduce levels of spontaneous craving after the first spray, but significantly dampened cue-induced smoking craving. These results provide preliminary evidence that OT can reduce cue-induced smoking craving in smokers. These findings provide an important link between preclinical and clinical studies aimed at examining the effectiveness of OT as a novel treatment for drug craving.

  13. Emphysema Predicts Hospitalisation and Incident Airflow Obstruction among Older Smokers: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Ahmed, Firas S.; Austin, John H. M.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Keller, Brad M.; Lemeshow, Adina; Reeves, Anthony P.; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Pearson, G. D. N.; Shiau, Maria C.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers. Materials and Methods Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001–02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ −910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted. Results Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01–3.52) adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19–21.1). Conclusion Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers. PMID:24699215

  14. Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164137.html Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement: Study Cessation programs help reduce the rate ... that smokers do worse than non-smokers after joint replacements, and now this research shows there's good ...

  15. Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure in Smokers Switching to a Carbon-Heated Tobacco Product: A Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label 5-Day Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Haziza, Christelle; Weitkunat, Rolf; Magnette, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco harm reduction aims to provide reduced risk alternatives to adult smokers who would otherwise continue smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, single-center, short-term confinement study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of cigarette smoke in adult smokers who switched to a carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) compared with adult smokers who continued to smoke CCs and those who abstained from smoking for 5 days. Methods: Biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, including nicotine and urinary excretion of mutagenic material, were measured in 24-hour urine and blood samples in 112 male and female Caucasian smokers switching from CCs to the CHTP ad libitum use. Puffing topography was assessed during product use. Results: Switching to the CHTP or smoking abstinence (SA) resulted in marked decreases from baseline to Day 5 in all biomarkers of exposure measured, including carboxyhemoglobin (43% and 55% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). The urinary excretion of mutagenic material was also markedly decreased on Day 5 compared with baseline (89% and 87% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). No changes in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs or urinary mutagenic material were observed between baseline and Day 5 in the CC group. Conclusions: Our results provide clear evidence supporting a reduction in the level of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in smokers who switch to CHTP under controlled conditions, similar to that observed in SA. Implications: The reductions observed in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in this short-term study could potentially also reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in those smokers who switch to a heated tobacco product. PMID:26817490

  16. In Vivo Autofluorescence Spectroscopic Study and Evaluation of DNA Damage By Comet Assay in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, M; Thamaraiselvi, D; M, Deepasree

    2015-01-01

    Context Tobacco is known environmental factor to alter the chemical composition of cells and the structure of DNA. Cellular level changes of smoker’s mucosa are assessed by autofluorescence spectroscopy and the DNA damage can be evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Aim To substantiate the changes in the autofluorescence due to smoking with that of early DNA damage without any clinical change. Materials and Methods Group I consists of 20 individuals with normal mucosa and Group II consists of 40 individuals with smoking habit. Only males were included in this study and their age ranging from 25 to 35 years. In vivo fluorescence spectra from both groups were obtained by using hand held fiber optic probe attached to Varian Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer and comet assay was carried out for normal and smokers by their peripheral blood. Statistical Analysis Used Independent-Samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. P-value was obtained to discriminate the statistical differences between the two groups. Results The averaged excitation and emission spectra of normal and smoker’s mucosa showed significant differences statistically. In comet assay, the mean tail length of smoker group was higher than the normal group. The results showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion These techniques will be very useful for monitoring of very early changes of mucosa before clinical manifestation of the lesion in high risk smokers and thus prevents the occurrence of premalignant disorders and early invasive carcinoma. PMID:26155555

  17. Isolated and skeptical: social engagement and trust in information sources among smokers.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W; Ackerson, Leland K

    2011-09-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08) and former smokers (OR = 2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR = 4.59) and former smokers (OR = 1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR = 1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR = 1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR = 1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers.

  18. Modulation of smoking and decision-making behaviors with transcranial direct current stimulation in tobacco smokers: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Agosta, Sara; Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fregni, Felipe; Boggio, Paulo; Ciraulo, Domenic; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Most tobacco smokers who wish to quit fail to reach their goal. One important, insufficiently emphasized aspect of addiction relates to the decision-making system, often characterized by dysfunctional cognitive control and a powerful drive for reward. Recent proof-of-principle studies indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can transiently modulate processes involved in decision-making, and reduce substance intake and craving for various addictions. We previously proposed that this beneficial effect of stimulation for reducing addictive behaviors is in part mediated by more reflective decision-making. The goal of this study was to test whether nicotine intake and decision-making behaviors are modulated by tDCS over the DLPFC in tobacco smokers who wished to quit smoking. Methods Subjects received two five-day tDCS regimens (active or sham). Stimulation was delivered over the right DLPFC at a 2mA during 30 minutes. Nicotine cravings, cigarette consumption and decision-making were assessed before and after each session. Results Main findings include a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked when participants received active as compared to sham stimulation. This effect lasted up to four days after the end of the stimulation regimen. In regards to decision-making, smokers rejected more often offers of cigarettes, but not offers of money, after they received active as compared to sham stimulation at the Ultimatum Game. No significant change was observed at the Risk Task with cigarettes or money as rewards. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that tDCS over the DLPFC may be beneficial for smoking reduction and induce reward sensitive effects. PMID:24814566

  19. Effect of Oral Snus and Medicinal Nicotine in Smokers on Toxicant Exposure and Withdrawal Symptoms: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Jensen, Joni A; Carmella, Steven G; Stepanov, Irina; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokeless, spitless tobacco products are being introduced and marketed as cigarette substitutes. Data are needed regarding how smokers interested in cessation would use these products, the levels of resultant toxicant exposure and the feasibility of using these products as aids for tobacco cessation. Methods Smokers were randomized to receive Camel Snus (n=51), Taboka (n=52) or medicinal nicotine (n=27) and required to quit smoking for 4 weeks. Measures of toxicant exposure and symptoms of craving and withdrawal were assessed prior to and during product use. Results Concentrations of exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary cotinine, urinary total NNAL and urinary total NNN were significantly (p values <0.05) lower at the end of treatment in each group except for total NNN in those receiving Camel Snus (p=0.066). A significant group × time effect was observed for total NNAL concentrations (p=0.002) with the decrease greatest in the medicinal nicotine group and smallest decrease in the Camel Snus group. No significant differences between groups were found in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions Enrolling smokers into a cessation study utilizing newer smokeless tobacco products is feasible. Camel Snus and Taboka use was not found to be superior to medicinal nicotine in reducing withdrawal symptoms but decreases in NNAL were smaller in users of Camel Snus. Impact This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study utilizing these newer tobacco products. An appropriately powered study is needed assessing smoking cessation rates using these newer products compared with established, safer products such as medicinal nicotine. PMID:21068204

  20. [Sensitivity of cough with capsaicin in smokers].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Celik, Pinar; Havlucu, Yavuz; Coşkun, Evşen; Yorgancioğlu, Arzu; Sakar, Ayşin; Dinç, Gönül

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effect of long term smoking on sensitivity of cough reflex was investigated. Healthy, current smoker male and female was evaluated by capsaicin cough challenge test and they were compared with healthy, non-smoker persons with similar age and gender, prospectively. In current smokers, there were 50 male and 39 female, in non-smoker control group, there were 20 male and 21 female. Mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker and non-smoker groups and mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker according to gender were calculated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results of capsaicin cough challenge test in current and non-smoker groups were evaluated by using Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test. In current smokers comparison of results of capsaicin cough challenge test with smoking history (age with first smoking, duration, pocket year and smoking per day) was evaluated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in current smokers when they were compared to control group (p< 0.00). In current smoker group mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in male (p< 0.002). When the results of capsaicin cough challenge test were compared between current smoker and control groups, sensitivity of cough reflex in concentration with 0.49, 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6 microM was significantly decreased in current smoker group. Also there was a significant correlation between concentration with 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2 microM, and duration of smoking and pocket year of smoking. Also there was a correlation between concentration with 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125 microM and smoking per day. This results were correlated with hypothesis about inhibition of C-fibers with nicotin or decrease of C-fibers' sensitivity due to induction of neuropeptide wasting.

  1. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  2. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  3. Chronic perfusion changes and reduction in preeclampsia incidence in pregnant smokers: an ophthalmic artery Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Paes, Maria Marta B M; Diniz, Angélica L D

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the hemodynamic profile of the ophthalmic artery in preeclamptic women, pregnant smokers and pregnant controls with no known diseases. A prospective cross-sectional study using the performed ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography in 20 mild preeclamptic women and 20 severe preeclamptic women, 37 pregnant smokers and 51 controls. Data evaluated by using Doppler ultrasonography were as follows: resistance index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, second peak systolic velocity and peak ratio. The Doppler results, gestational age, patient age and systolic and diastolic pressure of groups were subjected to analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Both groups of preeclamptic women presented significant orbital hyperperfusion (resistance index: 0.64 ± 0.07 and 0.64 ± 0.13, pulsatility index:1.10 ± 0.26 and 1.02 ± 0.30, end diastolic velocity:14.13 ± 4.44 and 15.66 ± 4.17), whereas pregnant smokers showed vasospasm (0.84 ± 0.04, 2.27 ± 0.43, 4.78 ± 1.28, respectively) indicating divergent vascular pattern between these two groups (p < 0.01) and differences between each group and controls (0.78 ± 0.06, 1.89 ± 0.36, 7.43 ± 2.71), respectively, p < 0.01. Peak systolic velocity mean values for severe preeclamptic women was 40.36 ± 5.61 cm/s, significantly higher than in all groups (34.53 ± 6.82 cm/s, 31.03 ± 4.72 cm/s and 34.35 ± 6.43 cm/s). Preeclamptic women have presented hyperperfusion whereas chronic smokers have shown hypoperfusion in ophthalmic artery. Thus, chronic flow changes in pregnant smokers might reduce the number of sudden and catastrophic events in preeclampsia.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  5. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  6. Lung Cancer Occurrence in Never-Smokers: An Analysis of 13 Cohorts and 22 Cancer Registry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thun, Michael J; Hannan, Lindsay M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E; Feskanich, Diane; Flanders, W. Dana; Jee, Sun Ha; Katanoda, Kota; Kolonel, Laurence N; Lee, I-Min; Marugame, Tomomi; Palmer, Julie R; Riboli, Elio; Sobue, Tomotaka; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wilkens, Lynne R; Samet, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Background Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. Methods and Findings We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million persons for incidence and mortality, respectively. We also abstracted population-based data for women from 22 cancer registries and ten countries in time periods and geographic regions where few women smoked. Our main findings were: (1) Men had higher death rates from lung cancer than women in all age and racial groups studied; (2) male and female incidence rates were similar when standardized across all ages 40+ y, albeit with some variation by age; (3) African Americans and Asians living in Korea and Japan (but not in the US) had higher death rates from lung cancer than individuals of European descent; (4) no temporal trends were seen when comparing incidence and death rates among US women age 40–69 y during the 1930s to contemporary populations where few women smoke, or in temporal comparisons of never-smokers in two large American Cancer Society cohorts from 1959 to 2004; and (5) lung cancer incidence rates were higher and more variable among women in East Asia than in other geographic areas with low female smoking. Conclusions These comprehensive analyses support claims that the death rate from lung cancer among never-smokers is higher in men than in women, and in African Americans and Asians residing in Asia than in individuals of European descent, but contradict assertions that risk is increasing or that women have a higher incidence rate than men. Further research is needed on the high and variable lung cancer rates among women in Pacific Rim countries. PMID:18788891

  7. Observational study of safety and efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation among Filipino smokers.

    PubMed

    Park, Peter W; Casiano, Errol M; Escoto, Laarni; Claveria, Angelica M

    2011-10-01

    Varenicline, an α4β2 receptor nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is known to be an effective aid for smoking cessation. To date, few observational studies of varenicline have been conducted. This prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00794365) was designed to monitor the efficacy and safety of varenicline for 12 weeks in Filipino smokers who were motivated to quit. This study was conducted between July 2, 2008, and November 23, 2009, in 70 centers throughout the Philippines. Participants were adult smokers who were prescribed varenicline (0.5 mg orally once daily, days 1 to 3; 0.5 mg twice daily, days 4 to 7; 1 mg twice daily for the remainder of a 12-week treatment period) for the first time. Participants made five clinic visits (weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each clinic visit and up to 28 days after administration of the last study treatment. Seven-day point prevalence of smoking cessation was measured at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 330 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 251 (76.1%) completed the study. At the end of week 12, 57.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 63.0) of participants had been abstinent for the previous 7 days. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (5.5%), dizziness (3.9%), and nausea (3.6%). Ten participants (3.0%) permanently discontinued varenicline treatment due to AEs, and 13 (3.9%) reduced their varenicline dose or discontinued treatment temporarily due to AEs. There were no reports of any serious AEs, deaths, suicidal ideation, or behavior. The results of this study in adult Filipino smokers prescribed varenicline for the first time during routine clinical practice demonstrate that varenicline was well tolerated and efficacious as an aid for smoking cessation.

  8. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Information and communication technologies for approaching smokers: a descriptive study in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Puigdomènech, Elisa; Trujillo-Gómez, Jose-Manuel; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Díaz-Gete, Laura; Manzano-Montero, Mónica; Sánchez-Fondevila, Jessica; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Yolanda; Garcia-Rueda, Beatriz; Briones-Carrió, Elena-Mercedes; Clemente-Jiménez, Ma-Lourdes; Castaño, Carmen; Birulés-Muntané, Joan

    2015-02-13

    Common interventions for smoking cessation are based on medical advice and pharmacological aid. Information and communication technologies may be helpful as interventions by themselves or as complementary tools to quit smoking. The objective of the study was to determine the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the smoking population attended in primary care, and describe the major factors associated with its use. Descriptive observational study in 84 health centres in Cataluña, Aragon and Salamanca. We included by simple random sampling 1725 primary healthcare smokers (any amount of tobacco) aged 18-85. Through personal interview professionals collected Socio-demographic data and variables related with tobacco consumption and ICTs use were collected through face to face interviews Factors associated with the use of ICTs were analyzed by logistic regression. Users of at least one ICT were predominantly male, young (18-45 years), from most favoured social classes and of higher education. Compared with non-ICTs users, users declared lower consumption of tobacco, younger onset age, and lower nicotine dependence. The percentages of use of email, text messages and web pages were 65.3%, 74.0% and 71.5%, respectively. Factors associated with the use of ICTs were age, social class, educational level and nicotine dependence level. The factor most closely associated with the use of all three ICTs was age; mainly individuals aged 18-24. The use of ICTs to quit smoking is promising, with the technology of mobile phones having a broader potential. Younger and more educated subjects are good targets for ICTs interventions on smoking cessation.

  10. Hookah's new popularity among US college students: a pilot study of the characteristics of hookah smokers and their Facebook displays

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N; Pumper, Megan A; Christakis, Dimitri A; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To confirm the prevalence of hookah use among US college students. (2) To identify substances commonly smoked in hookahs and other substance use characteristics of hookah smokers. (3) Given the powerful influence of Facebook and its potential role in promoting behaviours, to assess the prevalence of hookah references on Facebook profiles. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two large US universities; www.Facebook.com. Participants 307 Facebook profiles were coded and 216 of these profile owners completed an online survey. On average, participants were 18.8 years old (SD=0.7), women (54%), Caucasian (70.4%) and approximately half were from each university. Outcome measures Lifetime and frequency of hookah use, substance smoked in hookah, cigarette and marijuana use, hookah references displayed on Facebook. Results 27.8% of participants endorsed hookah use; there were no significant differences between age, gender, race or university for hookah use. Hookah users reported smoking tobacco (78%), hash (12%) and both tobacco and marijuana/hash (10%) in their hookah. Compared with non-hookah smokers, hookah smokers were more likely to report using cigarettes (OR=3.41, 95%CI=1.2 to 9.64) and marijuana (OR=15.01, 95%CI=6.5 to 34.65). Hookah references were present on 5% of Facebook profiles. Conclusions More than one quarter of college students smoke hookah. Most smoke tobacco in their hookah, and hookah smoking is associated with polysubstance use. Hookah may present new risks for nicotine addiction in this population. PMID:23242241

  11. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Naga Sirisha, Chundru Venkata; Manohar, Ram M

    2013-01-01

    Free radical associated damages play a major role in causation of cancer in tobacco habituates. The free radicals released by tobacco bring about alterations in antioxidant levels in humans and these free radical associated damages are reflected through antioxidant enzyme activities in blood. To evaluate the effects of tobacco consumption on the erythrocyte Antioxidant enzymes-Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as they act as first line of defense antioxidants. A case control study comprising of 4 study groups of healthy controls (n = 27), smokers (n = 27), tobacco chewers (n = 30) and combination habit (n = 22) were included. Erythrocyte SOD and GPx enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometry. The results were statistically analyzed using one way-Anova and Mann Whitney test. The data analysis revealed an alteration in mean SOD levels as it was decreased in cases compared to control group where as mean GPx was seen to be increased in cases compared to controls. When SOD and GPx were compared for the frequency and duration of habit, GPx showed a significant decrease in chewers with increase in frequency and duration of habit. The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  12. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  13. Smokers still underestimate the risks posed by secondhand smoke: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Bernie J; Meaney, Sarah; Perry, Ivan J; Comber, Harry; Power, Bernadette; Bradley, Colin; Greiner, Birgit A

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about risk perception of secondhand smoke (SHS) and its changes over time. The aim of the study was to examine the role of smoking status and demographics on perceiving a range of health risks of SHS exposure and their trends over time among a representative sample of the Irish general population. This study included 2 repeated cross-sectional samples of Irish adults in 1999 (n = 1,240) and 2006 (n = 1,000), in addition to a representative sample of General Practitioners (2006: n = 248), sampled as a health care professional's view on SHS risk. Participants were asked to consider whether a nonsmoker, exposed to SHS, is at an increased risk of asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, bronchitis, diabetes, and ear infections in children. There was a significant increase in the general population's risk perception of SHS for asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, and bronchitis from 1999 to 2006. Not even half of the general population in 1999 and in 2006 perceived a risk for the development of ear infections in children with SHS exposure (45% in 1999, 46% in 2006). With the exception of ear infections in children in 2006, the risk perception of all diseases differed significantly by smoking status; smokers' risk perception of SHS was significantly lower. Encouraging results suggest that the differences in risk perception between smokers and nonsmokers have decreased. Risk perception of SHS exposure has improved as has the gap in perception between smokers and nonsmokers. This research points to a lack of awareness among the general population of the risk perception of SHS exposure to children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Periodontal Status and Whole Salivary Cytokine Profile Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Alshehri, Mohammed; Vohra, Fahim; Al-Askar, Mansour; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    Whole salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess the periodontal status and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes (controls). Ninety-five males (45 with prediabetes and 50 systemically healthy controls) were included. Twenty-seven controls and 29 patients with prediabetes were smokers. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and marginal bone loss) were measured, and the number of missing teeth were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) was determined, and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FBG (P <0.05) and HbA1c (P <0.05) levels were higher among patients with prediabetes than controls. All patients with prediabetes were hyperglycemic. UWSFR was significantly higher among controls than among patients with prediabetes (P <0.05). Periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes. Among controls, periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher among smokers than never-smokers (P <0.05). Among controls, periodontal inflammation was worse, and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels are higher in smokers than never-smokers. Among patients with prediabetes, periodontal inflammation and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable between smokers and never-smokers.

  15. Cardiovascular risks in smokers treated with nicotine replacement therapy: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dollerup, Jens; Vestbo, Jørgen; Murray-Thomas, Tarita; Kaplan, Alan; Martin, Richard J; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia M M; Burden, Anne; Martin, Jessica; Price, David B

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests exposure to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using data from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, this study aimed to evaluate CVD events and survival among individuals who attempted smoking cessation with the support of NRT compared with those aided by smoking cessation advice only. We studied CVD outcomes over 4 and 52 weeks in 50,214 smokers attempting to quit - 33,476 supported by smoking cessation advice and 16,738 with the support of NRT prescribed by their primary care physician. Patients were matched (2 smoking cessation advice patients:1 NRT patient) on demographic and clinical characteristics during a baseline year preceding their quit attempt. Cox proportional hazard regression, conditional negative binomial regression model, and conditional logistic regression were used to analyze data. Mean (standard deviation) population age was 47 (11.2) years; 51% were females. Time to first diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) among NRT and smoking cessation advice patients was similar within the first 4 weeks, but shorter for NRT patients over 52 weeks (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.77). A similar trend was observed for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.08-2.19). NRT patients with a prior diagnosis of IHD or cerebrovascular disease had a higher rate of primary or secondary care consultations for IHD or cerebrovascular disease by 52 weeks (rate ratio: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.14-1.99). Patients prescribed NRT had a shorter survival time over 52 weeks, compared with those receiving advice only (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76). Our findings suggest that treatment with NRT over 4 weeks does not appear to have an impact on cardiovascular risks. However, a longer follow-up period of 52 weeks resulted in an increase in cardiovascular events for patients prescribed NRT, compared with those receiving smoking

  16. Profiling of smokers and snuffers among young Finnish men - cross-sectional epidemiological study().

    PubMed

    Päkkilä, Jari; Anttonen, Vuokko; Patinen, Pertti; Nyman, Kai; Valkeapää, Kirsi; Birkhed, Dowen; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tanner, Tarja

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of this study was to get new information from several sources about the background factors of Finnish smokers, snuffers, and dual users. Profiles of young smokers and snuffers were investigated in association with restorative treatment need, oral hygiene, eating habits, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), psychological and socioeconomic factors. The study group comprised 3420 conscripts. The data were collected from four different sources: a health examination including an oral health screening, a computer-based questionnaire for investigating individual background factors, a psychological test assessing cognitive skills, and the Cooper test. Statistical analyses comprised cross tabulation and binary logistic regression modelling. The odds for smoking were the greatest among those who had DT (Decayed teeth) > 0, used energy drinks or alcohol regularly, or whose parents were divorced. A score of ≥2900 m in the Cooper test, a higher physical exercise level, a higher own education level, and using sports drinks decreased the odds for smoking. The odds for snuffing were higher among those who ran >2500 m in the Cooper test, had a BMI of ≥25, used sports/energy drinks, or exercised regularly, and lower among those who achieved good results in the cognitive test. Using energy/sports drinks or alcohol was positively and a higher education level was negatively associated with dual use. Along with increasing prevalence of snuffing, heterogeneity is likely among snuffers. Good cognitive skills may prevent from smoking and snuffing.

  17. [What determines smoking habits in pregnancy? A qualitative study among pregnant smokers].

    PubMed

    Haugland, S; Haug, K; Wold, B

    1995-06-30

    In this article we present results from a qualitative study among 33 pregnant smokers, who took part in an in-depth interview in the 27th-35th weeks of pregnancy. The aim was to obtain insight into pregnant women's own experience of smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women interviewed were concerned about their smoking habits. In spite of this, they still expressed positive attitudes towards smoking, and many did not experience pregnancy as a favourable time to stop. The study shows that pregnant women still lack important knowledge about the dangers of smoking. Pregnant smokers' attitudes towards scientific facts, and the role cigarettes play in their everyday lives, are considered to be important variables in determining smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women experienced that their partner and health-personnel played a minor role in changing smoking behaviour. The reasons the women gave for smoking in pregnancy are discussed in the light of current theories on changing health behaviour. Four key questions are proposed which can be used by doctor and midwife to obtain knowledge of pregnant women's perception of the seriousness of smoking and the associated risks, and of the gains and barriers connected with quitting.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 as a possible marker of COPD in smokers and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, R; Nogueira, DL; Oliveira, MRM; Francisqueti, FV; Tanni, SE; Corrêa, CR; Godoy, I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are higher in smokers and patients with COPD; however, markers that may help differentiate between smokers and patients with COPD have not yet been identified. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (TNFR) and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) can be indicators of COPD in asymptomatic patients. Patients and methods We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack-years), 32 patients with mild/moderate COPD (smokers and ex-smokers), and 32 never smokers. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, TNFR1 and TNFR2, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the sRAGE were measured in serum. Results There were higher CRP and AGEs concentrations in smokers and in patients with COPD (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively) compared to controls, without statistical difference between smokers and patients with COPD. Concentrations of sRAGE, IL-6, and TNFR1 did not differ between study groups. TNFR2 was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in smokers (P=0.004) and controls (P=0.004), and the presence of COPD (P=0.02) and CRP (P=0.001) showed a positive association with TNFR2. Positive associations for smoking (P=0.04), CRP (P=0.03), and IL-6 (P=0.03) with AGEs were also found. The interaction variable (smoking × COPD) showed a positive association with IL-6. Conclusion Our data suggest that TNFR2 may be a possible marker of COPD in asymptomatic smokers and ex-smokers. Although smokers and patients with early COPD presented other increased systemic inflammation markers (eg, CRP) and oxidative stress (measured by AGEs), they did not differentiate smokers from COPD. PMID:28744116

  19. Mood management intervention for college smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Holly E; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G; Harrar, Solomon W

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were randomized to 6 sessions of CBT (n = 29) or a nutrition-focused attention-matched control group (CG; n = 29). Relative to CG participants, significantly more CBT participants reduced smoking intensity by 50% (χ(2)[1, N = 58] = 4.86, p = .028) at end of treatment. Although CBT participants maintained smoking reductions at 3- and 6-month follow-up, group differences were no longer significant. No group differences in cessation emerged. Finally, participants in both groups evidenced increased motivation to reduce smoking at end of treatment (F[1, 44] = 11.717, p = .001, η(p)(2) = .207). Findings demonstrate the utility of this intervention for smoking reduction and maintenance of reductions over time among a population of college students with elevated depressive symptomatology.

  20. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  1. Decline of lung function and development of chronic airflow limitation: a longitudinal study of non-smokers and smokers in Busselton, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, J K; Woolcock, A J; Cullen, K

    1990-01-01

    Data collected during seven population health surveys over 18 years in Busselton, Western Australia, were examined to determine the effect of smoking on lung function and to investigate the development of chronic airflow limitation. Lung function was measured and details of respiratory illness and smoking histories were collected from subjects attending surveys at three year intervals from 1966 to 1984. Data from ex-smokers and asthmatic patients (diagnosis based on answer to questionnaire) were excluded. Regression of height adjusted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on age was calculated individually for 759 non-smokers and 225 regular smokers with four or more observations. Decline in height adjusted FEV1 was similar for men and women. In smokers the rate of decline in FEV1 was greater than in non-smokers and was related to the amount smoked, to the extent that a smoker could expect a 20-30% greater rate of decline than a non-smoker of the same age. Chronic airflow limitation (defined as FEV1/FEV less than 65% or FEV1 less than 65% predicted on at least two occasions) was common, occurring in 24% of men and 18% of women who were regular smokers and in 5% of male and 8% of female non-smokers. These figures are higher than those reported in other populations, especially for women and for non-smokers. Not all chronic airflow limitation was associated with respiratory symptoms, confirming that the condition may be unrecognised until it is advanced. PMID:2321175

  2. Mixed methods pilot study of sharing behaviors among waterpipe smokers of rural Lao PDR: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn; Safaee, Sahar D; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Bansal, Shweta; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-05-24

    To date, the sharing behaviors associated with the homemade tobacco waterpipe used in rural areas of the Western Pacific Region have not been studied. Evidence from studies of manufactured waterpipes raises the possibility of infectious disease transmission due to waterpipe sharing. The objective of our pilot study in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) was to identify and measure the prevalence of waterpipe sharing behaviors. We first conducted ethnographic studies to investigate waterpipe-smoking behaviors. These findings were then used to develop an interviewer-administered household survey that was used in a sampling of waterpipe smokers from three villages of the Luang Namtha province of Lao PDR (n = 43). Sampled waterpipe smokers were predominantly male (90.7%), older (mean age 49, SD 13.79), married (95.4%), farmers (78.6%), and had completed no primary education. Pipes were primarily made from bamboo (92.9%). Almost all (97.6%) smokers were willing to share their pipe with others. At the last time they smoked, smokers shared a pipe with at least one other person (1.2 ± 0.5 persons). During the past week, they had shared a pipe with five other persons (5.2 ± 3.8 persons). The high prevalence of sharing behaviors among waterpipe smokers in rural Southeast Asia raises the possibility that this behavior provides important and unmeasured social network pathways for the transmission of infectious agents.

  3. From rest to stressed: endothelin-1 levels in young healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Alexandra B; Toli, Eirini; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Mutter, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Mark J; Mantzoros, Christos S; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2015-09-01

    , respiratory frequency, inspired minute ventilation and peak inspiratory flow. An acute decrease of circulating ET-1 in response to acute maximal exercise in young healthy individuals was noted. Chronic smokers had a significantly diminished decrease in ET-1 compared with non-smokers, however there were no significant differences in the ET-1 response between smokers under the three smoking conditions. Smokers were not able to achieve the same exercise-induced changes in cardiorespiratory parameters as non-smokers. By incorporating exercise as a vascular stressor in our study, we have taken a novel approach to provide evidence of an altered ET-1 and cardiorespiratory response that would not otherwise be observed at rest in young active healthy smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does e-cigarette use predict cigarette escalation? A longitudinal study of young adult non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Delucchi, Kevin; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Luczak, Susan; Myers, Mark; Strong, David

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that e-cigarette use among youth may be associated with increased risk of cigarette initiation. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of e-cigarettes among young adult non-daily cigarette smokers would be associated with increased cigarette consumption. Participants (n=391; 52% male) were 18-24year-old non-daily cigarette smokers recruited from across California. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were assessed online or via mobile phone every three months for one year between March 2015 and December 2016. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models showed that, adjusted for propensity for baseline e-cigarette use, non-daily smokers who reported more frequent use of e-cigarettes upon study entry reported greater quantity and frequency of cigarette smoking at baseline and greater increases in cigarette quantity over 12months than non-daily cigarette only smokers (ps<0.01). During the 12months of assessment, more consistent consumption of e-cigarettes was associated with greater quantity and frequency of cigarette use (ps<0.01); these effects did not vary over time. Findings suggest that among non-daily smokers, young adults who use e-cigarettes tend to smoke more cigarettes and to do so more frequently. Such individuals may be at greater risk for chronic tobacco use and dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  6. A retrospective study on the use of a dental dressing to reduce dry socket incidence in smokers.

    PubMed

    Murph, James T; Jaques, Susan H; Knoell, Alexander N; Archibald, Geoffrey D; Yang, Stan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of using an oxidized cellulose dental dressing in order to reduce the rate of alveolar osteitis after posterior tooth extraction in smokers. Dry socket incidences of heavy smokers from 4 independent dental clinics, which routinely used oxidized cellulose dental dressings to mitigate dry socket formation between March 2011 and December 2012, were compiled and evaluated. All extraction sites healed uneventfully except for those cases that developed dry sockets. Overall, 1.7% of male patients and 2.2% of female patients developed dry sockets. No conclusive relationship was found between the number of cigarettes smoked and dry socket formation among patients in this study. The results of this study were consistent with the view that gender, age, postextraction regimen, and multiple extractions affect dry socket formation. The results indicate that an oxidized cellulose dental dressing postextraction is a safe and effective method for mitigating dry socket formation among smokers.

  7. Characteristics of American Indian light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Niaman; Bevil, Bambi; Pacheco, Christina M.; Faseru, Babalola; McCloskey, Charlotte; Greiner, K. Allen; Choi, Won S.; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2013-01-01

    Introduction American Indians (AI) have the highest smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the U.S. and have more difficulty quitting smoking. Little is known about the smoking characteristics of AI smokers. The present study compared the demographic and smoking characteristics of light (≤10 cigarettes per day; N = 206) and moderate/heavy (11+ cigarettes per day; N = 86) AI smokers participating in a cross-sectional survey about smoking and health. Methods Multiple methods were used to recruit participants in attendance at powwows, health and career fairs, and conferences. A total of 998 AI (76% cooperation rate) completed a survey assessing general health, sociodemographics, traditional and commercial tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes related to cancer, source of health information and care and other health-related behaviors. Results AI light smokers were younger and less likely to be married or living with a partner compared to moderate/heavy smokers. AI light smokers were less dependent on smoking and more likely to have home smoking restrictions. There were no differences with respect to number of quit attempts in the past year or the average length of their most recent quit attempt by light vs. moderate/heavy smoking. In addition, a similar proportion of light and heavy smokers reported using tobacco for traditional purposes such as ceremonial, spiritual and prayer. Conclusions These findings highlight important differences between AI light and heavier smokers. Differences related to smoking characteristics such as level of dependence and home smoking restrictions have important implications for the treatment of AI smokers. PMID:24157425

  8. Effect of Adjunctive Systemic Azithromycin With Periodontal Surgery in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis in Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dastoor, Sarosh F.; Travan, Suncica; Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Rayburn, Lindsay A.; Giannobile, William V.; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2008-01-01

    Background Along with conventional surgical therapy, systemic antibiotics may provide more effective treatment in smokers by targeting tissue- invasive bacteria. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial was to evaluate the adjunctive effects of systemic azithromycin (AZM) in combination with periodontal pocket reduction surgery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers. Methods Thirty patients with a greater than one pack/day smoking habit and generalized moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were randomized to the test (surgery plus 3 days of AZM, 500 mg) or control group (surgery plus 3 days of placebo). Full-mouth probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), plaque index, and wound healing indices (WHI) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months following surgical intervention. Plaque and gingival crevicular fluid were collected for trypsin-like enzyme activity (benzoyl-dl-arginine naphthylamine) and bone biomarker (cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [ICTP]) analyses, respectively, at baseline, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months. Results Surgical treatment of moderate (PD = 4 to 6 mm) and deep (PD >6 mm) pockets significantly improved clinical parameters of treated and untreated teeth (CAL gain, PD reduction, and reduction of BOP). The additional use of AZM did not enhance this improvement nor did it promote reduction of ICTP levels. Compared to the control group, the test group had significantly better WHI scores at 1 month, significantly less GI at 2 weeks, and sustained reductions of red-complex bacteria with trypsin-like enzyme activity at 3 months. For non-surgery teeth, only the test group showed significant gains in overall CAL compared to baseline. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study demonstrated that in heavy smokers, adjunctive systemic AZM in combination with pocket reduction surgery did not significantly

  9. Worsening Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors Do Not Readily Explain Why Smokers Gain Weight After Cessation: A Cohort Study in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Gall, Seana L; Smith, Kylie J; Dwyer, Terry; Venn, Alison J

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain is well established but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether postcessation weight gain was mediated by changing health behaviors. A total of 281 smokers self-reported their demographic, smoking, and lifestyle characteristics in 2004-2006 (aged 26-36) and 2009-2011 (aged 31-41). Behaviors considered as potential mediators of weight gain were changes in consumption of breakfast, discretionary foods (servings/d), fruit and vegetables (servings/d), alcohol (g/d), takeaway food (times/wk), Diet Guideline Index score, leisure time physical activity (PA, min/wk), total PA (min/wk), time spent sitting (min/d), and TV viewing (h/d). In total, 124 smokers quit smoking during 5 years follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, baseline body mass index, education, and follow-up length, smoking cessation was associated with average excess weight gain of 2.09kg (95% CI = 0.35-3.83). Compared with continuing smokers, quitters reported a higher Diet Guideline Index score and less consumption of alcohol at baseline and follow-up (all p < .05). In addition, there was a tendency towards healthier dietary and PA behaviors over 5 years among quitters than continuing smokers except for time spent sitting, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for changes in these behaviors made little difference to the magnitude of postcessation weight gain (β: 2.32kg, 95% CI = 0.54-4.10). The weight gain associated with smoking cessation was not explained by worsening dietary and PA behaviors. Future research is needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms and particularly ways it may be prevented. Fear of weight gain often discourages smokers from trying to quit but guidance on ways to most effectively avoid weight gain is lacking. It is important to identify what causes postcessation weight gain and the ways it may be prevented. The current study explored the

  10. A qualitative study of smokers' responses to messages discouraging dual tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried smokeless tobacco were unaware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, perceived scary messages as effective and acknowledged the addictive nature of nicotine. Smokers who had tried smokeless tobacco shared their personal (mainly negative) experiences with smokeless tobacco, were aware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but denied personal addiction, and misinterpreted or disregarded more threatening messages. Portraying women as smokeless tobacco users was perceived as unbelievable, and emphasizing the lack of appeal of novel smokeless tobacco products was perceived as encouraging continued smoking. Future ads should educate smokers about risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but past users and never users may require different message strategies.

  11. Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult non-smokers, abstinent smokers, and non-abstinent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian; Avenevoli, Shelli; Daurignac, Elsa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the transition from experimental to regular smoking is facilitated by the influence of tobacco on affective and attentional mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine affective and attentional responses in young adult smokers using fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition. Methods Participants were 56 college non smokers, non-abstinent smokers, and overnight-abstinent smokers. The fear-potentiated startle test examined phasic responses to imminent threat cues and more sustained responses to unpredictable aversive events. Prepulse inhibition investigated responses to attended and ignored prepulse stimuli. Results Abstinent and non-abstinent smokers showed increased sustained potentiation of startle to contextual cues, compared to controls. Abstinent smokers showed increased fear-potentiated startle to threat cues, compared to non-smokers. PPI did not discriminate between abstinent or non-abstinent smokers and controls. Conclusion These findings suggest that negative affectivity or anxiety is associated with smoking, particularly during withdrawal. Potentiated startle may provide a valuable tool in understanding the biologic mechanisms underlying nicotine withdrawal and inform cessation and prevention efforts. PMID:17543892

  12. Extent and prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic non-obstructive bronchitis, and in asymptomatic smokers, compared to normal reference values.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Bonadiman, Luca; Tognella, Silvia; Bricolo, Fernanda P; Turco, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can affect cognition. The effects of other less severe chronic airway disorders on cognition remain to be clarified. This study aimed to measure and compare cognitive deterioration in subjects with COPD, subjects with chronic non-obstructive bronchitis (CNOB), and asymptomatic smokers (AS), and to relate the corresponding prevalence to several demographic and clinical variables and to normal reference values. Four hundred and two subjects (COPD n=229, CNOB n=127, and AS n=46) of comparable age were included in the study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini Mental Status test, the Clock Drawing test, and the Trail Making test A and B. The extent and prevalence of cognitive deterioration was greater in COPD subjects, followed by CNOB subjects and AS (P<0.001). The Medical Research Council and COPD Assessment test scores, forced expiratory volume in the first second predicted, and arterial partial pressure of O2 and of CO2 were related to the extent and the prevalence of cognitive deterioration. COPD subjects, CNOB subjects, and AS aged 40-69 years showed the greatest cognitive impairment (P<0.01 compared to normal values). This was particularly clear in COPD subjects. Cognitive impairment may start at the early stages of chronic airway damage and progress with a worsening of the respiratory condition. Indeed, the greatest cognitive deterioration was seen in COPD subjects. Cognition impairment may contribute to explaining the insufficient adherence to therapeutic plans and strategies, and the increasing social costs in respiratory subjects.

  13. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  14. Brief advice and active referral for smoking cessation services among community smokers: a study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suen, Yi Nam; Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Kwong, Antonio Cho Shing; Lai, Vienna Wai Yin; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-05-11

    Most smokers do not use smoking cessation (SC) services although it increases successful quits. Passive referral providing SC information to smokers is commonly used in SC studies. Little was known about active referral in the community setting. This study aims to motivate community smokers to quit by brief SC advice using a validated AWARD model (Ask, Warn, Advise, Refer and Do-it-again) that adjunct with active referral of smokers to various SC services in Hong Kong. This is a single-blinded, parallel three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two treatment groups of (1) brief SC advice using the AWARD model, active referral to SC services plus a referral card and a health warning leaflet (active referral group) and (2) brief SC advice using AWARD model and health warning leaflet (brief advice group) and a control group receives general very brief advice with a self-help booklet. A total of 1291 smokers will be recruited from 66 clusters (recruitment sessions) with 22 will be allocated to each of the two intervention and one control groups. SC ambassadors will be trained for delivering the interventions and conducting telephone follow-up. The primary outcomes are self-reported 7-days point prevalence (PP) abstinence at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Intention-to-treat principle and multi-level regressions will be used for data analysis. This is the first RCT on assessing a model combining brief advice and active referral to SC services among community smokers. The results will inform the practices of SC services and intervention studies. NCT02539875 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry; registered retrospectively on 22 July 2015).

  15. Reducing risk in smokers.

    PubMed

    Westmaas, J Lee; Brandon, Thomas H

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For smokers who want to quit, nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion are frequently recommended. Currently, disagreement surrounds the extent of risk reduction from quitting, the consequences of the change of nicotine replacement therapy to over-the-counter status, and the safety and efficacy of new tobacco products being marketed by tobacco companies. This article reviews the current evidence relevant to these and other developments in smoking interventions and describes the most effective strategies that smokers can use to reduce their risk. Although it may take approximately 10 to 30 years of abstinence for former smokers' risk of lung cancer to reach that of never smokers, quitting at any time is substantially less risky than continuing to smoke. Quitting after diagnosis also prolongs survival. Bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy are effective pharmacotherapies, doubling quit rates compared with self-quitting. However, many users of over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy are using it inappropriately. More research is needed to determine the long-term health effects of modified tobacco products and their efficacy in helping smokers quit. Switching to "low tar" filter cigarettes to reduce lung cancer risk, however, is clearly ineffective. The most effective interventions for quitting continue to be a combination of behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. Health care practitioners should encourage all smokers to attempt cessation and emphasize pharmacotherapy as an important aid to quitting. Professionals who educate patients on the appropriate use of pharmacotherapy and follow-up on smokers' attempts to quit will help reduce the societal burden and personal risks of smoking.

  16. Minnesota smokers' perceived helpfulness of 2009 federal tobacco tax increase in assisting smoking cessation: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2013-10-18

    The cost of cigarettes has been cited as a motivating factor for smokers to quit smoking, and a cigarette tax increase is an effective way to increase the cost of cigarettes. Scholars have suggested that smokers may see cigarette tax increases as commitment devices to help them quit smoking. Little is known about whether smokers actually think cigarette tax increases help them quit, and whether this perception predicts subsequent smoking cessation behaviors. We used data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study collected after the 2009 federal tobacco tax increase to answer these questions. In 2009, 727 smokers were asked whether they thought the federal tobacco tax increase helped them to: (1) think about quitting, (2) cut down on cigarettes, and (3) make a quit attempt. We also collected data on demographics, number of cigarette price-minimizing strategies used, and cigarette consumption. In 2010, we assessed if these smokers had made a quit attempt, had cut down on their cigarette consumption, and had stopped smoking. Logistic regression models were used to assess the characteristics associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation, and the association between these perceptions in 2009 and cessation behaviors in 2010. Overall, 65% of the sample thought that the 2009 tax increase helped them think about quitting, 47% thought it helped them cut down on cigarettes, and 29% thought it helped them make a quit attempt. Lower education, lower income, lower cigarette consumption, and using more cigarette price-minimizing strategies were associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation (p < 0.05). Smokers who perceived the tax increase as helpful in assisting smoking cessation were more likely than those who did not perceive the tax increase as helpful to report making a quit attempt in 2010 (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of smokers in our sample thought the

  17. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  18. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  19. Nondaily Smokers: Who Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hassmiller, Kristen M.; Warner, Kenneth E.; Mendez, David; Levy, David T.; Romano, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We sought to understand who constitutes the sizable population of nondaily, or some-day (SD), smokers. Methods. We analyzed descriptive statistics and regression results using the 1998–1999 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement to determine the prevalence of SD smokers, their sociodemographic characteristics, and the smoking patterns and histories of groups differentiated by the length and stability of their SD smoking. Results. SD smokers make up 19.2% of all current smokers. Among SD smokers, 44.6% have smoked less than daily for at least 1 year, no more than 14.4% are just starting to smoke, and the rest are likely in transition. Overall, SD smokers smoked a mean of 102 cigarettes per month (compared to 566.4 for daily smokers), on an average of 14.5 days out of the past 30. Conclusions. SD smokers make up a substantial segment of the smoking population. They are not just beginning to smoke nor trying to quit. Many have developed a long-standing pattern of nondaily smoking, smoking relatively few cigarettes on the days when they do smoke. They are not substantially younger than daily smokers, as one might expect. PMID:12893622

  20. Urinary metabolites of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer development in lifelong never smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M; Gao, Yu-Tang; Murphy, Sharon E; Carmella, Steven G; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather H; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various environmental and occupational sources are considered a primary risk factor for lung cancer among lifelong never smokers, based largely on results from epidemiologic studies utilizing self-reported exposure information. Prospective, biomarker-based human studies on the role of PAH and other airborne carcinogens in the development of lung cancer among lifelong non-smokers have been lacking. We prospectively investigated levels of urinary metabolites of a PAH and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 82 cases and 83 controls among lifelong never smokers of the Shanghai Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men aged 45-64 years at enrollment. We quantified three PAH metabolites: r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-Phe) and total hydroxyphenanthrenes (total OH-Phe, the sum of 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-OH-Phe), as well as metabolites of the volatile organic compounds acrolein (3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), benzene (S-phenyl mercapturic acid), crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid) and ethylene oxide (2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid). Urinary cotinine was also quantified to confirm non-smoking status. Compared with the lowest quartile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for lung cancer risk for the highest quartile levels of PheT, 3-OH-Phe and total OH-Phe were 2.98 (1.13-7.87), 3.10 (1.12-7.75) and 2.59 (1.01-6.65) (all P trend < 0.05), respectively. None of the metabolites of the volatile organic compounds were associated with overall lung cancer risk. This study demonstrates a potentially important role of exposure to PAH in the development of lung cancer among lifelong never smokers.

  1. Urinary metabolites of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer development in lifelong never smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various environmental and occupational sources are considered a primary risk factor for lung cancer among lifelong never smokers, based largely on results from epidemiologic studies utilizing self-reported exposure information. Prospective, biomarker-based human studies on the role of PAH and other airborne carcinogens in the development of lung cancer among lifelong non-smokers have been lacking. We prospectively investigated levels of urinary metabolites of a PAH and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer risk in a nested case–control study of 82 cases and 83 controls among lifelong never smokers of the Shanghai Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men aged 45–64 years at enrollment. We quantified three PAH metabolites: r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-Phe) and total hydroxyphenanthrenes (total OH-Phe, the sum of 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-OH-Phe), as well as metabolites of the volatile organic compounds acrolein (3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), benzene (S-phenyl mercapturic acid), crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid) and ethylene oxide (2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid). Urinary cotinine was also quantified to confirm non-smoking status. Compared with the lowest quartile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for lung cancer risk for the highest quartile levels of PheT, 3-OH-Phe and total OH-Phe were 2.98 (1.13–7.87), 3.10 (1.12–7.75) and 2.59 (1.01–6.65) (all P trend < 0.05), respectively. None of the metabolites of the volatile organic compounds were associated with overall lung cancer risk. This study demonstrates a potentially important role of exposure to PAH in the development of lung cancer among lifelong never smokers. PMID:24148823

  2. Functional small airways defence in symptomless cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Pavia, D; Clarke, S W

    1986-01-01

    Smoking induced changes in the secretory cells of bronchiolar epithelium by facilitating secretion of cross linked glycoprotein mucus may influence the efficiency of mucus-cilia coupling. The functional impact on mucociliary transport in small (peripheral) airways has been studied by comparing data on aerosol deposition and clearance from symptomless cigarette smokers (30 tests, 18 subjects) with data from age matched non-smokers (30 tests, 19 subjects). Gamma camera images, assessed in terms of a penetration index comparing peripheral with inner zone deposition, indicated closely similar initial deposition in the two groups. Alveolar deposition, however, assessed in terms of particle retention at 24 hours, was significantly (p less than 0.01) less in the smokers. Given the similarity of initial deposition, this implies that an increased proportion of small conducting airways are protected by mucociliary defence in the smokers' lungs. Clearance from conducting airways of the peripheral zone in tests with relatively high peripheral deposition (14 tests on smokers, and 12 on non-smokers) nevertheless proceeded at the same rate in smokers as in non-smokers. PMID:3787532

  3. Nicotine Metabolism in Young Adult Daily Menthol and Nonmenthol Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian S.; Franke, Adrian A.; Clanton, Mark S.; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Johnson, Carl A.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Menthol cigarette smoking may increase the risk for tobacco smoke exposure and inhibit nicotine metabolism in the liver. Nicotine metabolism is primarily mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6 and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR = trans 3′ hydroxycotinine/cotinine) is a phenotypic proxy for CYP2A6 activity. No studies have examined differences in this biomarker among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. This study compares biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Methods: Saliva cotinine and carbon monoxide were measured in a multiethnic sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 186). Nicotine, cotinine, the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the NMR, and expired carbon monoxide were compared. Results: The geometric means for nicotine, cotinine, and the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio did not significantly differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. The NMR was significantly lower among menthol compared with nonmenthol smokers after adjusting for race/ethnicity, gender, body mass index, and cigarette smoked per day (0.19 vs. 0.24, P = .03). White menthol smokers had significantly higher cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio than white nonmenthol smokers in the adjusted model. White menthol smokers had a lower NMR in the unadjusted model (0.24 vs. 0.31, P = .05) and the differences remained marginally significant in the adjusted model (0.28 vs. 0.34, P = .06). We did not observe these differences in Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. Conclusions: Young adult daily menthol smokers have slower rates of nicotine metabolism than nonmenthol smokers. Studies are needed to determine the utility of this biomarker for smoking cessation treatment assignments. PMID:25995160

  4. Nicotine Metabolism in Young Adult Daily Menthol and Nonmenthol Smokers.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A; Clanton, Mark S; Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Johnson, Carl A; Moolchan, Eric T

    2016-04-01

    Menthol cigarette smoking may increase the risk for tobacco smoke exposure and inhibit nicotine metabolism in the liver. Nicotine metabolism is primarily mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6 and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR = trans 3' hydroxycotinine/cotinine) is a phenotypic proxy for CYP2A6 activity. No studies have examined differences in this biomarker among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. This study compares biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Saliva cotinine and carbon monoxide were measured in a multiethnic sample of daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 186). Nicotine, cotinine, the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio, trans 3' hydroxycotinine, the NMR, and expired carbon monoxide were compared. The geometric means for nicotine, cotinine, and the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio did not significantly differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. The NMR was significantly lower among menthol compared with nonmenthol smokers after adjusting for race/ethnicity, gender, body mass index, and cigarette smoked per day (0.19 vs. 0.24, P = .03). White menthol smokers had significantly higher cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio than white nonmenthol smokers in the adjusted model. White menthol smokers had a lower NMR in the unadjusted model (0.24 vs. 0.31, P = .05) and the differences remained marginally significant in the adjusted model (0.28 vs. 0.34, P = .06). We did not observe these differences in Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. Young adult daily menthol smokers have slower rates of nicotine metabolism than nonmenthol smokers. Studies are needed to determine the utility of this biomarker for smoking cessation treatment assignments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on tobacco craving in cigarette smokers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress with subsequent polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) peroxidation. Low concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs can affect neurotransmission, resulting in hypofunctioning of the mesocortical systems associated with reward and dependence mechanisms and thus may increase cigarette craving, hampering smoking cessation efforts. PUFA deficiency, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), has also been linked to reduced psychological health and ability to cope with stress. Although stress is well linked to smoking urges and behavior, no research to date has examined the effects of PUFA supplementation on tobacco craving. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, performed in regular cigarette smokers (n=48), administration of 2710 mg EPA/day and 2040 mg DHA/day for one month was accompanied by a significant decrease in reported daily smoking and in tobacco craving following cigarette cue exposure. Craving did not return to baseline values in the month that followed treatment discontinuation. This is the first study demonstrating that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces tobacco craving in regular smokers, compared to placebo treatment. Thus, omega-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in managing tobacco consumption. Further studies are needed on larger samples to explore the possible therapeutic implications for heavy cigarette smokers.

  7. Coronally positioned flap for root coverage in smokers and non-smokers: stability of outcomes between 6 months and 2 years.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; de Lima, Antônio Fernando Martorelli; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-09-01

    Smoking adversely affects the short-term outcomes of coronally positioned flap (CPF) root coverage procedures, but the long-term stability of this procedure in smokers has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on the long-term outcomes of CPF in recession treatment. CPF was used to treat a Miller Class I defect in a maxillary canine or premolar in 10 current smokers (> or =10 cigarettes daily for > or =5 years) and 10 non-smokers (never smokers). At baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months, clinical parameters, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession depth (RD), and width of keratinized tissue (KT), were determined. Intragroup analysis showed that CPF failed to maintain the gingival margin at the initially achieved position. RD significantly increased in smokers (from 0.84 +/- 0.49 to 1.28 +/- 0.58 mm) and in non-smokers (from 0.22 +/- 0.29 to 0.50 +/- 0.41 mm) between 6 and 24 months. Further analysis showed that 50% of smokers and 10% of non-smokers lost between 0.5 and 1.0 mm of root coverage in the same period. Intergroup analysis showed that smokers had significantly greater residual recession (P = 0.001) at 24 months. Both smokers and non-smokers lost CAL and experienced decreases in KT. The long-term stability of CPF outcomes is less than desirable, particularly in smokers. Two years after a CPF procedure, smokers have significantly greater residual recession compared to non-smokers both statistically and clinically.

  8. Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Lion; Gilchrist, Gail; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Shankar, Aparna; West, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation. To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers. Across four waves, covering six years (2002-2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (n = 2375) in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. In latent growth curve analysis, smoking at baseline predicted depression caseness longitudinally and vice versa. When both processes were modelled concurrently, depression predicted continued smoking longitudinally (B(β) = 0.21 (0.27); 95% CI = 0.08-0.35) but not the other way round. This was the case irrespective of mental health history and adjusting for a range of covariates. In older smokers, depression appears to act as an important barrier to quitting, although quitting has no long-term impact on depression. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  10. Profiles of smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes: initial visit at a diabetes education centers.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Enza; Mathew, Rebecca; Demelo, Margaret; Bondy, Susan J

    2011-10-01

    This study explores differences in psychosocial, behavioral and clinical characteristics among smoking and non-smoking individuals with diabetes attending diabetes education centers (DEC). A questionnaire was administered to 275 individuals with type 2 diabetes attending two DECs between October 2003 and 2005. The participants' characteristics were analyzed and multivariable linear and ordinal regressions were performed to adjust for variables correlated with smoking. Findings revealed that smokers, compared to non-smokers, had lower outcome expectations of the benefits of self-management, lower diastolic blood pressure, and followed their recommended diet and tested blood glucose levels less often than non-smokers. Smokers also had lower intentions to use resources outside and within the DEC. Results demonstrate poorer self-care behaviors among smokers compared to non-smokers and further suggest cognitive and behavioral differences between smokers and non-smokers regarding participation and attitudes toward self-management practices. These findings identify issues that need to be addressed in diabetes self-management programs to allow for more effective interventions tailored to the healthcare needs of this specific population. Copyright © 2011 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Additive and subtractive resilience strategies as enablers of biographical reinvention: a qualitative study of ex-smokers and never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul Russell; Muller, Robert; Tsourtos, George; Hersh, Deborah; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Coveney, John

    2011-04-01

    The notion of developing resilience is becoming increasingly important as a way of responding to the social determinants of poor health, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It is hypothesized that resilient individuals and communities are able to 'bounce back' from the adversities they face. This paper explores the processes involved in building resilience as an outcome in relation to both quitting smoking and never smoking. The study involved 93 qualitative, oral-history interviews with participants from population groups with high and enduring smoking rates in Adelaide, Australia, and was essentially interested in how some people in these groups managed to quit or never start smoking in the face of adversities, in comparison to a group of smokers. Our key findings relate to what we call additive and subtractive resilience strategies, which focus on the practices, roles and activities that individuals either 'took on' or 'left behind' in order to quit smoking or remain abstinent. The theoretical lenses we use to understand these resilience strategies relate to biographical reinforcement and biographical reinvention, which situate the resilience strategies in a broader 'project of the self', often in relation to attempting to develop 'healthy bodies' and 'healthy biographies'.

  12. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jin; Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.

  14. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend < 0.05). Interestingly, significant associations were observed for intake of fruits and total vegetables with lung cancer among never smokers. Conversely, significant inverse associations with cruciferous vegetable intake were observed primarily among smokers, in particular former smokers, although significant interactions were not detected between smoking and intake of any food group. Of four lung cancer histological subtypes, significant inverse associations were observed primarily among patients with squamous or small cell carcinoma - the two subtypes more strongly associated with heavy smoking. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers. PMID:20423504

  15. A Pilot Study of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) in Non-Treatment Seeking Smokers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cropsey, Karen L.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Jardin, Bianca; Clark, C. Brendan; Katiyar, Nandan; Willig, James; Mugavero, Michael; Raper, James L.; Saag, Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction PLHIV have higher rates of smoking and lower motivation to quit smoking; thus to impact smoking rates, cessation interventions need to be acceptable to a wider range of PLHIV smokers as well as feasible to implement in a busy clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and effects of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) model in an HIV/AIDS clinic among a sample of PLHIV. Methods PLHIV smokers (N = 40) were randomized at baseline, irrespective of their self-reported discrete smoking cessation motivation status, to receive either 8-weeks of combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in conjunction with brief counseling (SBIRT framework) (n = 23) or usual care (n = 17). Smoking outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms. Results The SBIRT intervention appeared to be acceptable and feasible, and produced medium to large reductions in cigarettes smoked per day, physical nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms, even for smokers not ready to quit within 6 months. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for the integration of an SBIRT model in an HIV/AIDS clinic setting to screen and provide active treatment to all smokers, regardless of readiness to quit smoking. Given the high prevalence and incredible health burden of continued smoking in this population, identifying brief and effective interventions that are easily translated into clinical practice represents an enormous challenge that if met, will yield significant improvements to overall patient outcomes. PMID:23787030

  16. Putamen functional connectivity during inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, Sophie E A; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Daan; Franken, Ingmar H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-12-05

    The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted on fMRI data from a Go-NoGo study, using the generalized form of psychophysiological interaction with anterior and posterior putamen seed regions. In the context of inhibition, the anterior putamen exhibited connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus (pFWE  < .05), which was in line with previous literature. Conversely, the posterior putamen showed connectivity with regions implicated in sensorimotor processing. When we compared smokers to non-smokers, we did not observe the expected weaker connectivity between the anterior putamen and ACC during inhibition in smokers. Instead, our study revealed stronger inhibition-related connectivity between the anterior putamen and right insula in smokers. This finding highlights the involvement of putamen - insula interactions in addiction and impulse control.

  17. Oral Mucosal Lesions Associated with Smokers and Chewers – A Case-Control Study in Chennai Population

    PubMed Central

    Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To determine the association of oral mucosal lesions in a group of Chennai population aged 15 years and above with smoking and chewing habits. To also determine the dose-response relationship of these habits associated with the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Materiala and Methods The study was undertaken with 450 subjects with smoking and/or chewing habits aged 15 years and over gathered through random selection in Chennai, India. Subjects with alcohol intake were excluded from the study. Based on the habits the study group was categorized into smokers, chewers and mixed (smoking+chewing). One hundred and fifty subjects diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions designated as “cases” and 300 lesion-free “controls”, frequency matched for age, sex, habit and family income were assessed during the study. The study protocol included a visual oral soft tissue examination and a questionnaire-based interview. In addition, those requiring further examination, scalpel biopsies were performed to establish a definitive diagnosis. Results Irrespective of the type of habit, 78% of cases smoked and/or chewed for more than 10 years as compared to 37.4% of the control group. Similarly, 71.3% of cases smoked and/or chewed more than 5 times per day as compared to 25.6% of the control group. Eleven habits related mucosal lesions of the oral cavity were encountered. Smoker’s melanosis was the most common oral mucosal lesion followed by Oral submucous fibrosis and Leukoplakia. Dose-response relationships were observed for both duration and frequency of habits on the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Conclusion The result of the present study provides information on the association of oral mucosal lesions in smokers, chewers and patients with mixed habits. The mucosal lesions encountered included a few potentially malignant conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Habits were more prevalent in men thus more lesions were encountered in males than in females

  18. Comparative analyses between the smoking habit frequency and the nucleolar organizer region associated proteins in exfoliative cytology of smokers' normal buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Renata Pittella; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; Filho, Manoel Sant'anna

    2004-03-15

    An evaluation of the cellular alterations in the smoker's oral mucosal cells was performed. Exfoliative Citology technique were applied and the cytologic smears stained with silver for quantitative analyses of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions. (AgNORs). Cytologic smears were collected from two anatomic sites, mouth floor and tongue border with the purpose of relating the frequency of smoking with the quantitative analyses of the AgNORs. This study showed that the average number of AgNORs/nucleus is related with the number of cigarettes per day in the mouth floor of smoker's. These results suggest a possible relation between the number of cigarettes per day and an increase rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells.

  19. Comparative Analyses Between the Smoking Habit Frequency and the Nucleolar Organizer Region Associated Proteins in Exfoliative Cytology of Smokers' Normal Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Renata Pittella; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; Filho, Manoel Sant'Anna

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the cellular alterations in the smoker's oral mucosal cells was performed. Exfoliative Citology technique were applied and the cytologic smears stained with silver for quantitative analyses of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions. (AgNORs). Cytologic smears were collected from two anatomic sites, mouth floor and tongue border with the purpose of relating the frequency of smoking with the quantitative analyses of the AgNORs. This study showed that the average number of AgNORs/nucleus is related with the number of cigarettes per day in the mouth floor of smoker's. These results suggest a possible relation between the number of cigarettes per day and an increase rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells. PMID:19570270

  20. Comparative Analyses Between the Smoking Habit Frequency and the Nucleolar Organizer Region Associated Proteins in Exfoliative Cytology of Smokers' Normal Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Renata Pittella; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; Filho, Manoel Sant'Anna

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the cellular alterations in the smoker's oral mucosal cells was performed. Exfoliative Citology technique were applied and the cytologic smears stained with silver for quantitative analyses of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions. (AgNORs). Cytologic smears were collected from two anatomic sites, mouth floor and tongue border with the purpose of relating the frequency of smoking with the quantitative analyses of the AgNORs. This study showed that the average number of AgNORs/nucleus is related with the number of cigarettes per day in the mouth floor of smoker's. These results suggest a possible relation between the number of cigarettes per day and an increase rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells.

  1. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Gu, Youlan L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; de Smet, Bart J G L; Esposito, Giovanni; Windecker, Stephan; Thiele, Holger; Piscione, Federico

    2016-12-15

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3.6% vs 8.0%; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72, p = 0.001), but not in nonsmokers (10.2% vs 9.9%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.36, p = 0.96), with a significant interaction (p = 0.009). Furthermore, intracoronary abciximab decreased the risk of reinfarction in smokers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, p = 0.001), with no difference in nonsmokers (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.01, p = 0.50). Stent thrombosis was lowered by intracoronary abciximab in smokers (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66, p = 0.009), but was ineffective in nonsmokers (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.00, p = 0.903). Interaction testing showed heterogeneity in treatment effect for reinfarction (p = 0.002) and stent thrombosis (p = 0.018) according to smoking status. In conclusion, among patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, smoking status did not affect the adjusted risk of clinical events. Intracoronary abciximab bolus improved clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of death or reinfarction.

  2. Culturally Tailored Smoking Cessation for Arab American Male Smokers in Community Settings: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda; Corcoran, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among Arab Americans with limited English proficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop a culturally-tailored and linguistically-sensitive Arabic-language smoking cessation program. A secondary goal was to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting Arab Americans through a faith-based community organization which serves as a neighborhood social center for the city of Richmond’s Arab Americans. Eight first-generation Arab American men aged 20 years and above completed the three-month program. There was general agreement of the following: (1) each stage of the five-stage cessation program could be improved; (2) several glaring errors could be easily corrected; and (3) minor variation among the various countries-of-origin of participants could lead to a few changes in the program with respect to the use of some colloquial terms. The results suggest that it is possible to reach smokers from Arab American communities with a tailored Arabic language smoking cessation program. The findings of this report will be used as the basis for a large-scale intervention study of a culturally and linguistically sensitive cessation program for Arab American ethnic groups. PMID:25774085

  3. Metabolic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Abuse in Non-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Obianyo, Obiamaka; Liang, Yan; Burnham, Ellen L.; Mehta, Ashish; Park, Youngja; Uppal, Karan; Harris, Frank L.; Jones, Dean P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    An alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infection and injury and, upon hospitalization, higher mortality rates. Studies in model systems show effects of alcohol on mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and antioxidant systems. The present study applied high-resolution metabolomics to test for these changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of subjects with an AUD. Smokers were excluded to avoid confounding effects and compliance was verified by cotinine measurements. Statistically significant metabolic features, differentially expressed by control and AUD subjects, were identified by statistical and bioinformatic methods. The results show that fatty acid and acylcarnitine concentrations were increased in AUD subjects, consistent with perturbed mitochondrial and lipid metabolism. Decreased concentrations of methyl-donor compounds suggest altered one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. An accumulation of peptides suggests proteolytic activity, which could reflect altered epithelial barrier function. Two metabolites of possible microbial origin suggest subclinical bacterial infection. Furthermore, increased diacetylspermine suggests additional metabolic perturbations, which could contribute to dysregulated alveolar macrophage function and vulnerability to infection. Together, the results show an extended metabolic consequence of AUD in the bronchoalveolar space. PMID:26102199

  4. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. A qualitative study exploring women's journeys to becoming smokers in the social context of urban India.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Devashri; Nagarkar, Aarti

    2017-03-22

    In India, the prevalence of smoking among women is increasing, and the reasons behind this are unclear. We aimed to study the factors leading to initiation and maintenance of the smoking habit in women in Pune, India. Twenty-seven urban women smokers, ranging from 21 to 60 years of age (31.96 ± 10.70 years), were interviewed between September 2015 and February 2016. The in-depth interviews consisted of questions on pre-decided categories, including initiation, motivation to continue smoking, and risk perception. Thematic analysis revealed that peer pressure, curiosity, fascination, experimentation, and belonging to a group were factors that led to initiation, while lack of alternatives for stress relief, work environments, and lack of leisure time activities provided circumstances to continue smoking. Participants recognized a sense of liberation and independence from smoking cigarettes and perceived health risks as minor and distant. These findings can be used to develop or modify interventions to prevent and control smoking among urban Indian women.

  6. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eva Ø; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [[Formula: see text] = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity.

  7. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  8. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  9. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Charles; Geletko, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This study uses the most recent data from the nationally representative National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine the use of alternative tobacco products among U.S. cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers aged 14-17. Alternative tobacco product use is defined as use of one or more of the following products: smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipes, bidis, or kreteks. Using the results from the 2004, 2006, and 2009 NYTS, multivariate logistic regressions were used to investigate separately the extent of alternative tobacco product use in current cigarette smokers and in those who reported not smoking cigarettes controlling for demographic and other independent influences. The results indicate that for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers, the use of one type of alternative tobacco product made it much more likely the individual would use one or more of the other alternative tobacco products. Non-cigarette smokers using these tobacco products appeared to exhibit symptoms of nicotine dependence comparable to those of cigarette smokers. More information on adolescent use of alternative tobacco products is needed. Current cigarette use declined 3.4% annually over 2004-2009 for the NYTS 14- to 17-year-old population, but this cohort's use of alternative tobacco products was unchanged. The number of adolescents aged 14-17 who did not smoke cigarettes but used alternative tobacco products increased 5.9% per year over the same period. Current surveillance measures need to be expanded in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of adolescent alternative tobacco use.

  10. Response inhibition and sustained and attention in Heavy smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Dinur-Klein, Limor; Kertzman, Semion; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; N Dannon, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    Repeated nicotine administration induces neuro-adaptations associated with abnormal dopaminergic activity. These neuronal changes may contribute to impaired inhibitory control and attention deficit. However, it remains unclear whether smokers perform worse than non-smokers on tests that involve attention and control of impulsivity. The present study examined response inhibition and sustained attention capacities in a large sample of smokers and non-smokers. Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Go/ NoGo computerized tasks were used as a measure of response-inhibition ability and sustained attention. Threeway repeated measures analysis of covariance was used with response time, variability of response time, number of commission errors (inappropriate responses to stimuli) and number of omission errors (missed stimuli) as dependent measures. Main effects were: group (smokers and controls), condition (CPT and Go/NoGo), and block (in each condition); gender, education, and age were used as covariates. Smokers, as compared to the control group, made more errors of commission in the Go/ NoGo task, reflecting impaired inhibition ability. However, we found no significant differences between the groups in our measure of sustained attention. Impaired response inhibition was found to co-occur with heavy smoking and therefore may be a potential target for the development of more effective cessation programs.

  11. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    PubMed

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  12. Comparison of elastolytic activity in lung lavage from current, ex- and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Guz, A; Burton, G H; Cooke, N T; Tetley, T D

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing a wide variety of lung diseases compared to non-smokers, and there have been many studies of the possible biochemical changes underlying this increased susceptibility. However, although epidemiological and physiological studies have shown that in the ex-smoker, the risk of smoking-related lung diseases falls between that of current and non-smokers, the biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for this intermediate status have not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, the extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage fluid from current, ex- and non-smokers have been compared. Elastolytic enzyme activity was investigated, since it is significantly elevated in lung lavage from smokers, and because it has been implicated in the development of pulmonary emphysema. In the subjects studied, extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage from ex-smokers were intermediate between those from current and non-smokers. There was no correlation between the time of abstinence from smoking, or the number of pack-years smoked and the extracellular elastolytic activities in ex-smokers' lung lavage. Elastolytic activity may remain elevated in ex-smokers' lungs for a number of reasons, including the persistence of particulate matter which may activate phagocytic cells on the lung surface. The possible significance of the raised elastolytic activity remains to be fully determined.

  13. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality

  14. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions, including mood lability, sleep disruption and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in non-treatment-seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were in-patient. On the first in-patient day, active marijuana [6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week, completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, and decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Compared with placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence.

  15. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  16. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D; Lagua, Ian Joseph N; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Alexander, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  17. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  18. Impact of plain packaging of cigarettes on the risk perception of Uruguayan smokers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Ares, Gastón; Gerstenblüth, Mariana; Machin, Leandro; Triunfo, Patricia

    2017-09-08

    Uruguay, a South American country of 3.4 million inhabitants that has already banned tobacco advertising, prohibited such terms as light, mild and low-tar and required graphic warnings covering 80% of cigarette packs, is considering the imposition of plain, standardised packaging. We conducted an experimental choice-based conjoint analysis of the impact of alternative cigarette package designs on the risk perceptions of 180 adult current Uruguayan smokers. We compared plain packaging, with a standardised brand description and the dark brown background colour required on Australian cigarette packages, to two controls: the current package design with distinctive brand elements and colours; and a modified package design, with distinctive brand elements and the dark brown background colour. Graphic warnings were also varied. Plain packaging significantly reduced the probability of perceiving the stimulus cigarettes as less harmful in comparison to the current package design (OR 0.398, 95% CI 0.333 to 0.476, p<0.001) and the modified package design (OR 0.729, 95% CI 0.626 to 0.849, p<0.001). Plain packaging enhanced the perceived risk of cigarette products even in a highly regulated setting such as Uruguay. Both the elimination of distinctive brand elements and the use of Australia's dark brown background colour contributed to the observed effect. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Combination Varenicline and Lorcaserin for Tobacco Dependence Treatment and Weight Gain Prevention in Overweight and Obese Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Croghan, Ivana T; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hays, J Taylor; Choi, Doo-Sup; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-11-16

    Post-cessation weight gain (PCWG) is a major barrier to maintaining abstinence, especially in weight-concerned smokers. Varenicline is the most effective medication for smoking cessation but has minimal impact on PCWG. Lorcaserin is an FDA-approved medication for weight management in overweight or obese patients which also provides a noticeable benefit in treating drug dependence. We hypothesized that combining varenicline with lorcaserin may help prevent PCWG. We conducted an open-label, single arm, Phase II clinical pilot study to obtain preliminary data on the safety and effectiveness of combination varenicline and lorcaserin in preventing PCWG in overweight and obese smokers. Twenty overweight or obese (body mass index 27-40 kg/m(2)) cigarette smokers were enrolled. The primary outcomes were weight and waist circumference (WC) changes at 12 and 26 weeks in smokers meeting criteria for prolonged smoking abstinence. All participants received open-label varenicline (1 mg twice a day) and lorcaserin (10 mg twice a day) for 12 weeks with follow-up at 26 weeks. Ten subjects met criteria for prolonged smoking abstinence at 12 weeks (50%) and 6 at 26 weeks (30%). Among those achieving prolonged smoking abstinence at 12 weeks, WC was +0.2 ± 6.0 cm (90% CI; -2.9, +3.4) and weight gain was +1.1 ± 3.9 kg (90% CI; -0.9, +3.1). Weight gain and WC increases following prolonged smoking abstinence may be reduced among overweight and obese smokers using combination varenicline and lorcaserin. This combinatory treatment warrants further research in the obese and weight-concerned smoking population. This is the first published prospective pilot study to evaluate lorcaserin for use in reducing PCWG in overweight and obese smokers. When combined with varenicline, lorcaserin minimized PCWG and increases in WC. In addition to the benefit on PCWG reduction, lorcaserin may be a potential new pharmacological treatment for smoking cessation and warrants further larger studies. © The

  20. Design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a culturally tailored versus standard community-based smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Li, Chien-Ching; Vargas, Maria C; King, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are significantly higher than the general population. However, there is limited research on smoking cessation treatments in this group, particularly on culturally targeted interventions. Moreover, there are few interventions that address culturally specific psychosocial variables (e.g., minority stress) that may influence outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based smoking cessation program, Courage to Quit, against a culturally tailored version for LGBT smokers, and examines the role of culturally specific psychosocial variables on cessation outcomes. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally targeted versus standard smoking cessation intervention, the study utilizes a 2-arm block, randomized, control trial (RCT) design. Adult LGBT participants (n = 400) are randomized to one of the two programs each consisting of a six-session group program delivered in a community center and an eight week supply of the transdermal nicotine patch. Four individualized telephone counseling sessions occur at weeks 2, 5, 7, and 9, at times of greatest risk for relapse. Study outcome measures are collected at baseline, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post quit date. Primary outcomes are expired air carbon monoxide verified 7-day point-prevalence quit rates at each measurement period. Secondary outcomes assess changes in cravings, withdrawal symptoms, smoking cessation self-efficacy, and treatment adherence. Additionally, study staff examines the role of culturally specific psychosocial variables on cessation outcomes using path analysis. Determining the efficacy of culturally specific versus standard evidence based approaches to smoking cessation is a critical issue facing the field today. This study provides a model for the development and implementation of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for LGBT

  1. Nondaily Smokers' Characteristics and Likelihood of Prenatal Cessation and Postpartum Relapse.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Karilynn M; Tong, Van T; England, Lucinda J; D'Angelo, Denise V

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to calculate the prevalence of pre-pregnancy nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day), risk factors, and report of prenatal provider smoking education; and assess the likelihood of prenatal cessation and postpartum relapse for nondaily smokers. We analyzed data from 2009 to 2011 among women with live-born infants participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We compared characteristics of pre-pregnancy daily smokers (≥1 cigarette/day), nondaily smokers, and nonsmokers (chi-square adjusted p < .025). Between nondaily and daily smokers, we compared proportions of prenatal cessation, postpartum relapse (average 4 months postpartum), and reported provider education. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for prenatal cessation among pre-pregnancy smokers (n = 27 360) and postpartum relapse among quitters (n = 13 577). Nondaily smokers (11% of smokers) were more similar to nonsmokers and differed from daily smokers on characteristics examined (p ≤ .001 for all). Fewer nondaily smokers reported provider education than daily smokers (71.1%, 86.3%; p < .001). A higher proportion of nondaily compared to daily smokers quit during pregnancy (89.7%, 49.0%; p < .001), and a lower proportion relapsed postpartum (22.2%, 48.6%; p < .001). After adjustment, nondaily compared to daily smokers were more likely to quit (APR: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58-1.71) and less likely to relapse postpartum (APR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.48-0.62). Nondaily smokers were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy, less likely to relapse postpartum, and less likely to report provider education than daily smokers. Providers should educate all women, regardless of frequency of use, about the harms of tobacco during pregnancy, provide effective cessation interventions, and encourage women to be tobacco free postpartum and beyond. Nondaily smoking (<1 cigarette/day) is increasing among US smokers and carries a significant

  2. Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is one crop that accumulates cadmium, making smokers susceptible to higher levels of the metal in their bodies. The findings suggest that even a low-level exposure to a heavy metal like cadmium is likely to cause a change in the functions of neurons in the brain and the behavioral response to drugs of abuse.

  3. Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is one crop that accumulates cadmium, making smokers susceptible to higher levels of the metal in their bodies. The findings suggest that even a low-level exposure to a heavy metal like cadmium is likely to cause a change in the functions of neurons in the brain and the behavioral response to drugs of abuse.

  4. Real-time patterns of smoking and alcohol use: an observational study protocol of risky-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy; Brandon, Thomas; Armeli, Stephen; Ehlke, Sarah; Bowers, Molly

    2015-01-06

    Despite the strong relationship between smoking and health-related consequences, very few smokers quit. Heavy drinking is a significant risk factor for health consequences, and is implicated in persistent smoking and less success at quitting smoking. Self-efficacy (SE) to abstain from smoking is an important determinant of smoking outcomes and may link alcohol use to poor quit rates. Even though research has demonstrated a strong association between drinking and smoking, and the multiplicative effect of these substances on cancer-related, heavy-drinking smokers has been largely ignored in the literature. Further, research has not taken advantage of innovative methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, to capture the impact of daily factors on smoking cessation outcomes in this particular group. The proposed study identifies daily changing factors that impede or promote SE and future smoking cessation efforts in risky-drinking smokers. This is an observational study of 84 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day) who drink at risky levels, report a desire to quit in the next 6 months, and show no evidence of psychiatric disturbance, severe history of alcohol withdrawal or drug dependence (excluding nicotine and caffeine). Participants report on their smoking, alcohol consumption and SE related to smoking twice a day for 28 days using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. Multilevel regression and path models will examine within-person daily associations among drinking, smoking and SE, and how these variables predict the likelihood of future smoking behaviour at 1 and 6 months follow-up. This protocol was approved by an accredited Institutional Review Board. The findings will help us understand the factors that promote or impede smoking cessation among a high-risk group of smokers (heavy-drinking smokers) and will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at national conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  5. Sites of origin of oral cavity cancer in nonsmokers vs smokers: possible evidence of dental trauma carcinogenesis and its importance compared with human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brendan J; Zammit, Andrew P; Lewandowski, Andrew W; Bashford, Julia J; Dragovic, Adrian S; Perry, Emily J; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Perry, Christopher F L

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high and possibly rising incidence of mouth squamous cell carcinoma in nonsmokers, especially women, without obvious cause has been noted by previous authors. Is chronic dental trauma and irritation a carcinogen, and what is its importance compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer in nonsmokers? To determine whether oral cavity cancers occurred more commonly at sites of dental trauma and how the position of these cancers varied between nonsmokers lacking major identified carcinogens and smokers. If these cancers occurred more frequently at sites of chronic trauma, especially in nonsmokers, it would suggest chronic dental trauma as a possible carcinogen. A retrospective analysis of 881 patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancers seen through a tertiary referral hospital between 2001 and 2011 was performed. Patient medical records were analyzed to determine the location of the tumor within the oral cavity and oropharynx and how it relates to patient demographics, smoking and alcohol histories, and comorbidities. Dental histories were also sought, including use of dentures. Nonsmokers comprised 87 of 390 patients with mouth cancer (22%) and 48 of 334 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (14%). Female nonsmoking patients included 53 with oral cancer (61%) but only 12 with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (25%). Oral cancers occurred on the lateral tongue, a potential site of chronic dental trauma, in 57 nonsmokers (66%) compared with 107 smokers/ex-smokers (33%) (P < .001). Gingival and floor of mouth lesions occurred in older patients, possibly from chronic denture rubbing. Twenty-six patients had dental abnormalities recorded in close proximity to where their tumor developed. Oral cavity cancers occur predominantly at sites of potential dental and denture trauma, especially in nonsmokers without other risk factors. Recognizing teeth irritation as a potential carcinogen would have an impact on prevention and treatment

  6. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  7. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Smoking ban policies and their influence on smoking behaviors among current California smokers: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, Rong W; Edland, Steven D; Myers, Mark G; Strong, David R; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether smoking ban policies are associated with smoking reduction and quit attempts among California smokers. Data were examined for 1718 current smokers from follow-up telephone interviews conducted in 2011 of persons previously identified as smokers in a representative sample of the adult population of California. Population weighted logistic regressions controlling for demographic and other variables were used to evaluate the association between smoking ban policies (home, work, and town) and changes in tobacco use (past year quit attempt or reduction in smoking rate). Living in a home with a total ban was significantly associated with smoking reduction (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.2) and making a quit attempt (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-3.9) compared to living in a home with no home ban. Self-reported perception of an outdoor ban in one's city/town was associated with smoking reduction (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.02-2.7) and making a quit attempt (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05-2.9). These results indicate that smoking bans not only protect nonsmokers from the harms of secondhand smoke, but are also associated with smoking reduction and cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential effects of dietary supplements on metabolomic profile of smokers versus non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states. Methods In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured. Results Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers. Conclusions Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular

  10. Comparison of end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in shisha (water pipe) and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Saima; Ali Warraich, Usman; Rizvi, Nadeem; Idrees, Nusrat; Zaina, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Measuring eCo is rapid, non-invasive and inexpensive tool and correlate correctly with carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the increase in end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in exhaled breath of passive smokers and healthy smokers after cigarette and shisha smoking. In a cross sectional study eCO levels were measured in 70 subjects (24 cigarette smokers, 20 shisha smoker, 26 passive smokers) by use of portable device. Smokers were asked to smoke shisha for 30 mins in shisha cafe or to smoke 5 cigarettes in 30 mins in a restaurant. eCo levels were measured at baseline (30 mins), 35 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins in all groups after entry to the venue. The baseline mean eCO level among cigarette smokers was 3.5 +/- 0.6 ppm (part per million), passive cigarette smokers 3.7+/-1.0 ppm, shisha smokers 27.7+/-4.9 ppm and passive shisha smokers 18.3+/-8.4 ppm .The mean increase in eCO after 90 min among smokers was 9.4+/-4.6 (p < 0.005), passive cigarette smokers 3.5+/-2.5 (p < 0.05), shisha smokers 57.9+/-27.4 (p <0.005) and passive shisha smokers 13.3+/-4.6 (p = 0.03). Exposure to shisha smoke is a cause of elevated eCO in smokers and passive smokers and due to in-door pollution, sitting in shisha bar causes significant increase in eCO levels.

  11. Effects of expectancy and abstinence on the neural response to smoking cues in cigarette smokers: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dharma; Barrett, Sean P; Kelly, Jared T; Aw, Andrew; Dagher, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Cues associated with drug taking can trigger relapse, drug seeking, and craving in addicted individuals. Behavioral studies suggest that drug availability and withdrawal can affect the individual response to drug cues. Moreover, the importance of subjective craving in cue-induced relapse has been questioned and an alternative model put forward according to which drug cues trigger habitual drug-seeking behaviors independently of craving. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain response to smoking and control videotapes in 20 healthy smokers, while varying their expectancy to smoke and abstinence levels. The neural response to cigarette cues was strongly modulated by expectancy and, to a lesser extent, abstinence. In people expecting to smoke immediately after the scan, smoking cues activated brain areas implicated in arousal, attention, and cognitive control. However, when subjects knew they would not be allowed to smoke for 4 h, there was almost no brain activation in response to smoking cues, despite equivalent reported levels of craving. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the neural response was a function of both craving and expectancy. Thalamo-cingulate connectivity, thought to be an index of arousal, was greater during expectancy than nonexpectancy. Our findings confirm the importance of expectancy in the neural response to drug cues, and lend support to the theory that these cues act on brain areas involved in arousal and attention.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases -8, -9 and -12 in smokers and patients with Stage 0 COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ilumets, Helen; Rytilä, Paula; Demedts, Ingel; Brusselle, Guy G; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Sorsa, Timo; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2007-01-01

    COPD is underdiagnosed and its early assessment is problematic. It has been suggested that symptomatic smokers with normal FEV1/FVC (Stage 0 COPD, GOLD criteria) can develop COPD in the future. Potential early biomarkers in COPD include the matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs). It is not yet known, whether alterations in MMP expression are associated with smoking alone or with the risk of developing COPD. In this cross-sectional study MMP-8, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were determined from induced sputum and plasma by ELISA, immunocytochemistry, zymography, and/or Western blot in non-smokers (n = 32), smokers with symptoms (Stage 0, GOLD criteria) (n = 23) or without symptoms (n = 23). Only MMP-8 differentiated Stage 0 COPD from non-symptomatic smokers (p = 0.02). MMP-9 levels were significantly elevated in the induced sputum of non-symptomatic smokers and Stage 0 COPD (p = 0.01, p < 0.001) compared to non-smokers, but did not differ between the two subgroups of smokers. MMP-12 was higher only at Stage 0 compared to non-smokers (p = 0.04). MMP-8, MMP-9 and MMP-12 immunoreactivity was localized in macrophages and neutrophils, especially in smokers. MMP-8 levels correlated significantly with the small airway flow parameters (MEF50, MEF25) (p = 0.005 and p = 0.0004) and markers of neutrophil activation (myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin). In conclusion MMP-8 may differentiate Stage 0 from healthy smokers. PMID:18229576

  13. Cluster Analysis in the COPDGene Study Identifies Subtypes of Smokers with Distinct Patterns of Airway Disease and Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Castaldi, Peter J; Dy, Jennifer; Ross, James; Chang, Yale; Washko, George R; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Williams, Andre; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Bowler, Russ P; Regan, Elizabeth A; Hokanson, John E; Kinney, Greg L; Han, Meilan K; Soler, Xavier; Ramsdell, Joseph W; Barr, R Graham; Foreman, Marilyn; van Beek, Edwin; Casaburi, Richard; Criner, Gerald J; Lutz, Sharon M; Rennard, Steven I; Santorico, Stephanie; Sciurba, Frank C; DeMeo, Dawn L; Hersh, Craig P; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Background There is notable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of patients with COPD. To characterize this heterogeneity, we sought to identify subgroups of smokers by applying cluster analysis to data from the COPDGene Study. Methods We applied a clustering method, k-means, to data from 10,192 smokers in the COPDGene Study. After splitting the sample into a training and validation set, we evaluated three sets of input features across a range of k (user-specified number of clusters). Stable solutions were tested for association with four COPD-related measures and five genetic variants previously associated with COPD at genome-wide significance. The results were confirmed in the validation set. Findings We identified four clusters that can be characterized as 1) relatively resistant smokers (i.e. no/mild obstruction and minimal emphysema despite heavy smoking), 2) mild upper zone emphysema predominant, 3) airway disease predominant, and 4) severe emphysema. All clusters are strongly associated with COPD-related clinical characteristics, including exacerbations and dyspnea (p<0.001). We found strong genetic associations between the mild upper zone emphysema group and rs1980057 near HHIP, and between the severe emphysema group and rs8034191 in the chromosome 15q region (p<0.001). All significant associations were replicated at p<0.05 in the validation sample (12/12 associations with clinical measures and 2/2 genetic associations). Interpretation Cluster analysis identifies four subgroups of smokers that show robust associations with clinical characteristics of COPD and known COPD-associated genetic variants. PMID:24563194

  14. Cluster analysis in the COPDGene study identifies subtypes of smokers with distinct patterns of airway disease and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Peter J; Dy, Jennifer; Ross, James; Chang, Yale; Washko, George R; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Williams, Andre; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Bowler, Russ P; Regan, Elizabeth A; Hokanson, John E; Kinney, Greg L; Han, Meilan K; Soler, Xavier; Ramsdell, Joseph W; Barr, R Graham; Foreman, Marilyn; van Beek, Edwin; Casaburi, Richard; Criner, Gerald J; Lutz, Sharon M; Rennard, Steven I; Santorico, Stephanie; Sciurba, Frank C; DeMeo, Dawn L; Hersh, Craig P; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H

    2014-05-01

    There is notable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of patients with COPD. To characterise this heterogeneity, we sought to identify subgroups of smokers by applying cluster analysis to data from the COPDGene study. We applied a clustering method, k-means, to data from 10 192 smokers in the COPDGene study. After splitting the sample into a training and validation set, we evaluated three sets of input features across a range of k (user-specified number of clusters). Stable solutions were tested for association with four COPD-related measures and five genetic variants previously associated with COPD at genome-wide significance. The results were confirmed in the validation set. We identified four clusters that can be characterised as (1) relatively resistant smokers (ie, no/mild obstruction and minimal emphysema despite heavy smoking), (2) mild upper zone emphysema-predominant, (3) airway disease-predominant and (4) severe emphysema. All clusters are strongly associated with COPD-related clinical characteristics, including exacerbations and dyspnoea (p<0.001). We found strong genetic associations between the mild upper zone emphysema group and rs1980057 near HHIP, and between the severe emphysema group and rs8034191 in the chromosome 15q region (p<0.001). All significant associations were replicated at p<0.05 in the validation sample (12/12 associations with clinical measures and 2/2 genetic associations). Cluster analysis identifies four subgroups of smokers that show robust associations with clinical characteristics of COPD and known COPD-associated genetic variants.

  15. The needs and preferences of pregnant smokers regarding tailored Internet-based smoking cessation interventions: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Herbec, Aleksandra; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; Gardner, Benjamin; Tombor, Ildiko; West, Robert

    2014-10-14

    Internet-based Smoking Cessation Interventions (ISCIs) may help pregnant smokers who are unable, or unwilling, to access face-to-face stop smoking support. Targeting ISCIs to specific groups of smokers could increase their uptake and effectiveness. The current study explored the needs and preferences of pregnant women seeking online stop smoking support with an aim to identify features and components of ISCIs that might be most attractive to this population. We conducted qualitative interviews with thirteen pregnant women who completed the intervention arm of a pilot randomized controlled trial of a novel ISCI for pregnant smokers ('MumsQuit'). The interviews explored women's views towards MumsQuit and online support with quitting smoking in general, as well as their suggestions for how ISCIs could be best targeted to pregnancy. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Framework Analysis. Participants expressed preferences for an accessible, highly engaging and targeted to pregnancy smoking cessation website, tailored to individuals' circumstances as well as use of cessation medication, offering comprehensive and novel information on smoking and quitting smoking in pregnancy, ongoing support with cravings management, as well as additional support following relapse to smoking. Participants also viewed as important targeting of the feedback and progress reports to baby's health and development, offering personal support from experts, and providing a discussion forum allowing for communication with other pregnant women wanting to quit . The present study has identified a number of potential building blocks for ISCIs targeted to quitting smoking in pregnancy. Pregnant smokers willing to try using ISCI may particularly value an engaging intervention offering a high degree of targeting of comprehensive information to them as a group and tailoring support and advice to their individual needs, as well as one providing post-relapse support, peer-to-peer communication and

  16. Anthropometric measures and physical activity and the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Moore, Steve C; Brinton, Louise A; Smith, Llewellyn; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Gierach, Gretchen L; Freedman, Neal D

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer in never-smokers is ranked the seventh most common cause of cancer death; however, the etiology of lung cancer in never-smokers is unclear. We investigated associations for body mass index (BMI) at various ages, waist circumference, hip circumference, and physical activity with lung cancer in 158,415 never-smokers of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models. Over 11 years of follow-up, 532 lung cancer cases occurred. The risk estimate for obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) participants at baseline was 1.21 (95%CI = 0.95-1.53) relative to those with a normal BMI between 18.5 ≤ BMI<25.0. Overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI<30.0) at age 18 (HR(overweight-vs-normal) = 1.51;95%CI = 1.01-2.26) and time spent sitting (HR(≥ 3 hrs-vs-<3 hrs) = 1.32;95%CI = 1.00-1.73) was each associated with lung cancer after adjustment for baseline BMI, as was waist (HR(Q4-vs-Q1) = 1.75;95%CI = 1.09-2.79) and hip circumference (HRQ4-vs-Q1 = 0.62;95%CI = 0.39-0.99), after mutual adjustment for each other and baseline BMI. No associations were observed for vigorous activity or television watching. In summary, using a large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence that BMI at baseline or middle age was associated with decreased lung cancer risk in never smokers. If anything, we observed some evidence for positive associations with a larger BMI or waist circumference.

  17. Oral Iloprost Improves Endobronchial Dysplasia in Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Robert L.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Kittelson, John; Minna, John D.; Kelly, Karen; Massion, Pierre P.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Mao, Jenny; Wilson, David O.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Bunn, Paul A.; Geraci, Mark W.; Miller, York E.

    2011-01-01

    There are no established chemopreventive agents for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Prostacyclin levels are low in lung cancer and supplementation prevents lung cancer in preclinical models. We carried out a multicenter double-blind, randomized, phase II placebo-controlled trial of oral iloprost in current or former smokers with sputum cytologic atypia or endobronchial dysplasia. Bronchoscopy was performed at study entry and after completion of six months of therapy. Within each subject, the results were calculated by using the average score of all biopsies (Avg), the worst biopsy score (Max), and the dysplasia index (DI). Change in Avg was the primary end point, evaluated in all subjects, as well as in current and former smokers. The accrual goal of 152 subjects was reached and 125 completed both bronchoscopies (60/75 iloprost, 65/77 placebo). Treatment groups were well matched for age, tobacco exposure, and baseline histology. Baseline histology was significantly worse for current smokers (Avg 3.0) than former smokers (Avg 2.1). When compared with placebo, former smokers receiving oral iloprost exhibited a significantly greater improvement in Avg (0.41 units better, P = 0.010), in Max (1.10 units better, P = 0.002), and in DI (12.45%, P = 0.006). No histologic improvement occurred in current smokers. Oral iloprost significantly improves endobronchial histology in former smokers and deserves further study to determine if it can prevent the development of lung cancer. PMID:21636546

  18. A pilot study of screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in non-treatment seeking smokers with HIV.

    PubMed

    Cropsey, Karen L; Hendricks, Peter S; Jardin, Bianca; Clark, C Brendan; Katiyar, Nandan; Willig, James; Mugavero, Michael; Raper, James L; Saag, Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    PLHIV have higher rates of smoking and lower motivation to quit smoking; thus to impact smoking rates, cessation interventions need to be acceptable to a wider range of PLHIV smokers as well as feasible to implement in a busy clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and effects of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) model in an HIV/AIDS clinic among a sample of PLHIV. PLHIV smokers (N=40) were randomized at baseline, irrespective of their self-reported discrete smoking cessation motivation status, to receive either 8-weeks of combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in conjunction with brief counseling (SBIRT framework) (n=23) or usual care (n=17). Smoking outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms. The SBIRT intervention appeared to be acceptable and feasible, and produced medium to large reductions in cigarettes smoked per day, physical nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms, even for smokers not ready to quit within 6months. Findings provide preliminary support for the integration of an SBIRT model in an HIV/AIDS clinic setting to screen and provide active treatment to all smokers, regardless of readiness to quit smoking. Given the high prevalence and incredible health burden of continued smoking in this population, identifying brief and effective interventions that are easily translated into clinical practice represents an enormous challenge that if met, will yield significant improvements to overall patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  20. High expectation in non-evidence-based smoking cessation interventions among smokers--the CoLaus study.

    PubMed

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Melich-Cerveira, João; Paccaud, Fred; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    To assess the preferred methods to quit smoking among current smokers. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Lausanne between 2003 and 2006 including 988 current smokers. Preference was assessed by questionnaire. Evidence-based (EB) methods were nicotine replacement, bupropion, physician or group consultations; non-EB-based methods were acupuncture, hypnosis and autogenic training. EB methods were frequently (physician consultation: 48%, 95% confidence interval (45-51); nicotine replacement therapy: 35% (32-38)) or rarely (bupropion and group consultations: 13% (11-15)) preferred by the participants. Non-EB methods were preferred by a third (acupuncture: 33% (30-36)), a quarter (hypnosis: 26% (23-29)) or a seventh (autogenic training: 13% (11-15)) of responders. On multivariate analysis, women preferred both EB and non-EB methods more frequently than men (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.46 (1.10-1.93) and 2.26 (1.72-2.96) for any EB and non-EB method, respectively). Preference for non-EB methods was higher among highly educated participants, while no such relationship was found for EB methods. Many smokers are unaware of the full variety of methods to quit smoking. Better information regarding these methods is necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers’ social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers’ understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  2. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  3. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Huibers, Marcus JH; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group), health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1), and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2). Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A significant and relevant

  4. A qualitative study of smokers' views on brain-based explanations of tobacco dependence.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-03-01

    The role the brain plays in the creation and maintenance of tobacco dependence has become increasingly prominent in explanations of smoking that are presented to the public. The potential for brain-based explanations of smoking to influence smokers' understandings of their addiction, their sense of self-efficacy, and perhaps even their treatment preferences, has been raised by some working in the addiction field. However, little empirical evidence exists in this area. This paper reports on semi-structured interviews with 29 daily smokers. Participants were shown a brief presentation about the neuroscience of nicotine dependence. They were then queried about their awareness of the role of the brain in smoking, and the consequences of this knowledge for their understandings of smoking and their treatment preferences. Our results indicated that many participants displayed some awareness of the link between the brain and addiction. While there was a diversity of ideas about the potential impacts of neuroscience knowledge about smoking, there was an overall tendency to maintain pre-existing treatment preferences, and to assert individual responsibility for smoking. Emergent themes that arose were the brain as a special organ, the discourse of the "other" smoker, and the distinction between physical and psychological facets of addiction. While brain-based explanations of smoking are unlikely to revolutionise lay understandings of smoking, neuroscience information should be presented in a way that does not negate people's sense of agency and self-efficacy in relation to quitting smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A pilot study of home-based smoking cessation programs for rural, appalachian, pregnant smokers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Millie; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a web-based contingency management program (CM) and a phone-delivered cessation counseling program (Smoking Cessation for Healthy Births [SCHB]) with pregnant smokers in rural Appalachia who were ≤12 weeks gestation at enrollment. Two group randomized design. Home-based cessation programs in rural Appalachia Ohio and Kentucky. A community sample of pregnant smokers (N = 17). Participants completed demographic and smoking-related questionnaires and were assigned to CM (n = 7) or SCHB (n = 10) conditions. Smoking status was assessed monthly using breath carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine. For CM, two of seven (28.57%) of the participants achieved abstinence, and three of 10 (30%) of those enrolled in SCHB were abstinent by late in pregnancy. Participants in CM attained abstinence more rapidly than those in SCHB. However, those in SCHB experienced less relapse to smoking, and a greater percentage of these participants reduced their smoking by at least 50%. Based on this initial evaluation, the web-based CM and SCHB programs appeared to be feasible for use with rural pregnant smokers with acceptable program adherence for both approaches. Future researchers could explore combining these programs to capitalize on the strengths of each, for example, rapid smoking cessation based on CM incentives and better sustained cessation or reductions in smoking facilitated by the counseling support of SCHB. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(<29, 2+ full-term pregnancies), 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR

  7. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V.; Ingles, Sue A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-ovarian-pituitary axis, the few studies investigating whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have had mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women, overall, and by smoking history. Methods We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (hours/week/year) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former-light smoker, former-heavy smoker, current-light smoker, current-heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. Results In a multivariable model adjusting for body mass index at age 18, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (ptrend=0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 (ptrend=0.0003) and older age at menarche (ptrend=0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic whites, HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.26), current smokers (vs. never smokers, HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.75 for current-light smokers; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.33–1.44 for current-heavy smokers) and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies vs. <29, 2+ full-term pregnancies 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, ptrend=0.02 for former-heavy smokers; HRHighest vs. Lowest quartile 0.89, 95

  8. Psychological differences between smokers who spontaneously quit during pregnancy and those who do not: a review of observational studies and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Massey, Suena H; Compton, Michael T

    2013-02-01

    Although remarkable interindividual differences among pregnant smokers' decision/ability to quit have been documented, the psychological factors that may account for these differences have received less attention and comprised the primary aim of this review. We searched the medical and behavioral sciences literature from 1996 to November 2011 using PubMed and PsycINFO(®). Fifty-one articles were identified based on titles or abstracts. These articles were reviewed in full and searched for quantitative observational studies of population-based or clinical samples, with the main topic of comparing smokers who quit spontaneously during pregnancy with those who did not, utilizing multivariable analyses. The eight pertinent studies reviewed herein included four longitudinal studies and four cross-sectional analyses. Amidst significant variability among measures used, social support, depressive symptoms, and anxiety appeared unrelated to smoking cessation during pregnancy. Furthermore, when severity of nicotine dependence was controlled, maternal history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia all showed no independent relationship with smoking cessation during pregnancy, whereas maternal history of conduct disorder did. Secure attachment, prosocial personality, self-esteem, and perceived parenting competence were additional predictors of cessation during pregnancy. A greater understanding of psychological factors that differentiate smokers who spontaneously quit during pregnancy from those who do not is crucial to the design of more effective prenatal smoking cessation interventions and also may elucidate causal mechanisms that underlie the well-established link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring behavioral problems. Directions for future research and public health and policy implications are discussed.

  9. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    PubMed

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cognitive-behavioral treatment with behavioral activation for smokers with depressive symptomatology: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez-Vispo, Carmela; Senra, Carmen; López-Durán, Ana; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Fernández Del Río, Elena

    2017-04-08

    Smoking is an important risk factor for mental health-related problems. Numerous studies have supported a bi-directional association between cigarette smoking and depression. Despite the advances in understanding the comorbidity between both problems, the most effective psychological treatment that simultaneously targets smoking and depressive symptomatology remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for smoking cessation with components of behavioral activation for managing depressed mood. A single blind, three-arm, superiority randomized controlled trial is proposed. Participants will be smokers over 18 years old, who smoke at least 8 cigarettes per day. Participants will be randomized to one of three conditions, using a 2:2:1 allocation ratio: 1) standard cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment; 2) standard cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment plus behavioral activation; or 3) a three-month delayed treatment control group. The primary outcome measures will be biochemically verified point-prevalence abstinence (carbon monoxide in expired air) and significant change from baseline in depressive symptoms to the end of treatment, and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention with behavioral activation components for smoking cessation and depressive symptoms, compared to a standard cognitive-behavioral intervention to quit smoking. As the relation between depressive symptoms, even at subclinical levels, and quitting smoking difficulties is well known, we expect that such intervention will allow obtaining higher abstinence rates, lower relapse rates, and mood improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02844595 . Retrospectively registered 19th July, 2016. The study started in January 2016, and the recruitment is ongoing.

  11. Lung Adenocarcinoma of Never Smokers and Smokers Harbor Differential Regions of Genetic Alteration and Exhibit Different Levels of Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Kelsie L.; Vucic, Emily A.; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W.; English, John C.; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39) and NS (n = 30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

  12. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. Gender dependent accumulation of dioxins in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, S; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Bernard, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Dioxin (17 PCDD/F) concentrations in fasting blood from 251 subjects (161 never smokers, 54 past smokers, and 36 current smokers) were quantified. Results: Whereas serum dioxin concentrations of male smokers were on average 40% higher than those of non-smokers, in women, smoking was associated with significantly lower serum dioxin levels. A synergistic potentiation of dioxin metabolism by tobacco smoke in women is postulated to explain these paradoxical findings. Conclusions: Current smoking is associated with gender dependent effects on dioxin body burden and is a potential source of confounding in human studies using blood dioxins as indicators of exposure. PMID:15613611

  15. Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of peripheral arterial disease in southern Chinese non-smokers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liya; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Mackay, Danny F; Pell, Jill P; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Thomas, G Neil

    2017-06-01

    Objectives We studied the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Chinese non-smokers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study: Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort Study (GBCS-CVD). Guangzhou residents aged ≥ 50 years were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Baseline data included measurement of ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and self-reported smoking status and SHS exposure. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between SHS and PAD (defined as ABPI < 0.9). Results Of the 1507 non-smokers, 24 (1.6%) had PAD. Of these, 12 were men and 12 were women. Exposure to SHS at home of ≥25 h per week was reported by 16.7% of PAD cases compared with 3.8% of those without PAD (χ2 test, p = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, exposure to ≥25 h per week at home was still associated with PAD (adjusted OR 7.86, 95% CI 2.00-30.95, p = 0.003), with suggestion of a dose-response relationship. Conclusions Our results extend the US Surgeon General's 2006 report that SHS exposure is an independent risk factor for PAD. National smoke-free legislation is needed to protect all people from exposure.

  16. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed.

  17. A prospective nested case-control study of vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Vieth, Reinhold; Azad, Azar; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2006-10-15

    Sun exposure is associated with lower death rates for pancreatic cancer in some ecological studies. Skin exposure to UVB light induces cutaneous production of precursors to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Pancreatic islet and duct cells express 25(OH)D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase that generates the biologically active 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D form. Thus, 25(OH)D concentrations could affect pancreatic function and possibly pancreatic cancer etiology. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention cohort of male Finnish smokers, ages 50 to 69 years at baseline, to test whether more adequate vitamin D status, as determined by prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D concentrations, was associated with lower pancreatic cancer risk. Two hundred incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases that occurred between 1985 and 2001 (up to 16.7 years of follow-up) were matched by age and date of blood draw to 400 controls who were alive and free of cancer at the time the case was diagnosed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Higher vitamin D concentrations were associated with a 3-fold increased risk for pancreatic cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, >65.5 versus <32.0 nmol/L: OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.56-5.48, P(trend) = 0.001) that remained after excluding cases diagnosed early during follow-up. Contrary to expectations, subjects with higher prediagnostic vitamin D status had an increased pancreatic cancer risk compared with those with lower status. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations and caution is warranted in their interpretation and implication. Our results are intriguing and may provide clues that further the understanding of the etiology of this highly fatal cancer.

  18. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  19. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21–30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  20. Role of the self-image and smoker stereotype in smoking onset during early adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, P A; Hennigan, K M; Graham, J W

    1996-11-01

    The present study utilized a longitudinal design to assess whether self-consistency or self-enhancement motives are predictive of future smoking onset. Participants were 1,222 nonsmoking 5th through 8th graders who were followed into the next academic year. The results showed that teens who were above the median in similarity between their self-image and smoker stereotype on coolness, sociability, and intelligence were almost twice as likely to show smoking onset at the 2nd measurement. This is supportive of a self-consistency motive for adolescent smoking. The results of this study provide an important extension to previous cross-sectional research in this area.

  1. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José; and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  2. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  3. Distribution and levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the lung and plasma in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Linja-aho, Anna; Mazur, Witold; Toljamo, Tuula; Nieminen, Pentti; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Rönty, Mikko; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2013-01-01

    Our recent non-biased proteomic screening study revealed elevated SerpinA1 i.e. alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in induced sputum of smokers with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to further investigate the role of AAT in smokers and subjects with COPD. The expression/distribution of AAT was studied by immunohistochemistry/digital image morphometry in the lung, by Western blot in the lung and sputum, and by ELISA in the plasma at baseline (n = 349) and after a 2-year follow-up (n = 58). AAT was localized mainly in airway and alveolar epithelium and endothelium, especially in smokers and in those with COPD. AAT was elevated in smokers and in subjects with COPD in the lung endothelial cells. Total lung AAT immunoreactivity was elevated in subjects with moderate COPD compared with smokers and with non-smokers. AAT showed elevated tendency in sputum of smokers with COPD compared with 'healthy' smokers. Plasma AAT levels were elevated in smokers with/without COPD compared with non-smokers. In the follow-up, plasma AAT concentrations decreased significantly after quitting smoking. Chronic smoking/COPD leads to AAT elevation especially in the endothelium of the lung periphery; these changes reflect only modestly to the AAT in sputum, while plasma AAT significantly reflects smoking-related systemic manifestations, and decreases after smoking cessation.

  4. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  5. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  6. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  7. Neural effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in smokers: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner; Blais, Crystal; Scherling, Carole; Camarda, Jordan; Millar, Anne; Fisher, Derek; McIntosh, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Acute nicotine has been found to improve task performance in smokers after smoking abstinence, but the attentional processes mediating these improvements are unclear. Since scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to be sensitive indicators of selective attention, the effects of acutely administered nicotine were examined on ERPs and concomitant behavioural performance measures in an auditory selective attention task. Ten (6 males) overnight smoking-abstinent cigarette smokers received nicotine gum (4 mg) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. In a dichotic listening task [which required participants to attend and detect (target) deviant stimuli in one ear and to ignore similar stimuli in the other ear] which included ERP recordings and assessment of response speed and accuracy measures, nicotine gum failed to alter behavioural performance or amplitudes of ERP components sensitive to selective attention [reflected in the N100 and negative difference (Nd) component] or to pre-attentive detection of acoustic change [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) component]. However, nicotine did influence the speed of these voluntary selective processes, as reflected by shortened latencies of the early Nd component. The findings are discussed in relation to the stimulus filter theory of smoking, and with respect to nicotine's actions on involuntary and controlled aspects of selective attention processes. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, A. R.; McConnell, P. A.; Eichberg, C.; Saladin, M. E.; Carpenter, M. J.; Garland, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a behavioral treatment grounded in dual-process models derived from cognitive science, on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult (N = 13; mean (SD) age 49 ± 12.2) smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG). All participants underwent two fMRI scans: pre-tx and after 8-weeks of MORE. Emotion regulation (ER), smoking cue reactivity (CR), and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were assessed at each fMRI visit; smoking and mood were assessed throughout. As compared to the CG, MORE significantly reduced smoking (d = 2.06) and increased positive affect (d = 2.02). MORE participants evidenced decreased CR-BOLD response in ventral striatum (VS; d = 1.57) and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC; d = 1.7) and increased positive ER-BOLD in VS (dVS = 2.13) and vPFC (dvmPFC = 2.66). Importantly, ER was correlated with smoking reduction (r's = .68 to .91) and increased positive affect (r's = .52 to .61). These findings provide preliminary evidence that MORE may facilitate the restructuring of reward processes and play a role in treating the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. PMID:28373890

  9. One cigarette is one too many: evaluating a light smoker-targeted media campaign.

    PubMed

    Jasek, John P; Johns, Michael; Mbamalu, Ijeoma; Auer, Kari; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2015-07-01

    Light smokers represent an increasing share of adult smokers in various parts of the world including New York City (NYC). Since 2007, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has aired hard-hitting antitobacco media campaigns paired with time-limited nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) giveaways. We evaluated an original antitobacco media campaign, developed to increase awareness of smoking risks and encourage cessation service use among light smokers in NYC. We compared cessation service request volume during the campaign to historical periods without ads targeting light smokers. We used a cross-sectional online panel survey to assess the ad's perceived effectiveness and its impact on learning something new, quit intentions and concern for smoking-related health risks among non-daily, light daily and heavy daily smokers. The proportion of light smokers among smokers requesting cessation services increased 50% (from 13% to 20%) relative to previous time-limited NRT giveaways. Compared to heavy daily smokers, non-daily (aOR: 1.95, p<0.05) and light daily (aOR: 2.27, p<0.05) smokers were more likely to express increased concern about smoking-related health risks after viewing the ad. Perceived effectiveness of the ad did not differ by smoker type. This study provides evidence that light smokers were receptive to a targeted antitobacco message encouraging use of cessation services. The campaign appears to have been particularly effective in increasing smoking-related health concerns in this group. The lack of difference in perceived ad effectiveness by smoker type suggests the potential to develop such ads without sacrificing broad impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Analysis of Fifty Hotspot Mutations of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although a small number of lung SCCs occurs in never-smokers. The purpose of this study was to compare 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCCs between never-smokers and smokers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with lung SCC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in the Seoul National University Hospital. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used for analysis of hotspot mutations. Fifty cancer-related genes in never-smokers were compared to those in ever-smokers. Of 379 lung SCC patients, 19 (5.0%) were never-smokers. The median age of these 19 patients was 67 years (interquartile range 57–73 years), and 10 of these patients were women (52.5%). The incidence rates of stage I, II, III, and IV disease in this group were 26.4%, 5.3%, 31.6%, and 36.8%, respectively, and sequencing was performed successfully in 14 cases. In the 26 lung SCC tumor samples (12 from never-smokers and 14 from ever-smokers) sequenced using personal genome machine, the most common mutations were in TP53 (75.0%), RAS (66.7%), and STK11 (33.3%), but mutations were also found in EGFR, KIT, and PTEN. The distribution of hotspot mutations in never-smokers was similar to that in ever-smokers. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the 2 groups. The 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCC in never-smokers were similar to those of ever-smokers. PMID:28145643

  11. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  12. Ventral Striatum/Nucleus Accumbens Activation to Smoking-Related Pictorial Cues in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Smith, Stephen M.; Rogers, Robert D.; Matthews, Paul M.; Walton, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Converging evidence from several theories of the development of incentive-sensitization to smoking-related environmental stimuli suggests that the ventral striatum plays an important role in the processing of smoking-related cue reactivity. Methods Twenty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (14 smokers and 12 nonsmoking controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which neutral and smoking-related images were presented. Region of interest analyses were performed within the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) for the contrast between smoking-related (SR) and nonsmoking related neutral (N) cues. Results Group activation for SR versus N cues was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers in medial orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior fusiform gyrus using whole-brain corrected Z thresholds and in the ventral VS/NAc using uncorrected Z-statistics (smokers Z = 3.2). Region of interest analysis of signal change within ventral VS/NAc demonstrated significantly greater activation to SR versus N cues in smokers than controls. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of greater VS/NAc activation in addicted smokers than nonsmokers presented with smoking-related cues using fMRI. Smokers, but not controls, demonstrated activation to SR versus N cues in a distributed reward signaling network consistent with cue reactivity studies of other drugs of abuse. PMID:16023086

  13. Intervention for Smokers through New Communication Technologies: What Perceptions Do Patients and Healthcare Professionals Have? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fábregas Escurriola, Mireia; Lozano Moreno, Maribel; Burón Leandro, Raquel; Gomez Quintero, Ana María; Ballve, Jose Luis; Clemente Jiménez, María Lourdes; Puigdomènech Puig, Elisa; Casas More, Ramón; Garcia Rueda, Beatriz; Casajuana, Marc; Méndez-Aguirre, Marga; Garcia Bonias, David; Fernández Maestre, Soraya; Sánchez Fondevila, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health service is increasing. In spite of limitations, such as lack of time and experience, the deployment of ICTs in the healthcare system has advantages which include patient satisfaction with secure messaging, and time saving benefits and utility for patients and health professionals. ICTs may be helpful as either interventions on their own or as complementary tools to help patients stop smoking. Objectives To gather opinions from both medical professionals and smokers about an email-based application that had been designed by our research group to help smoking cessation, and identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with interventions based on the utilization of ICTs for this purpose. Methods A qualitative, descriptive–interpretative study with a phenomenological perspective was performed to identify and interpret the discourses of the participating smokers and primary healthcare professionals. Data were obtained through two techniques: semi-structured individual interviews and discussion groups, which were recorded and later systematically and literally transcribed together with the interviewer’s notes. Data were analyzed with the ATLAS TI 6.0 programme. Results Seven individual interviews and four focal groups were conducted. The advantages of the application based on the email intervention designed by our research group were said to be the saving of time in consultations and ease of access for patients who found work timetables and following a programme for smoking cessation incompatible. The disadvantages were thought to be a lack of personal contact with the healthcare professional, and the possibility of cheating/ self-deception, and a greater probability of relapse on the part of the smokers. Conclusions Both patients and healthcare professionals viewed the email-based application to help patients stop smoking as a complementary aid to face-to-face consultations

  14. Cognitive effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, in healthy, non-treatment seeking smokers: A pilot feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Ray, Riju; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify medications to aid in smoking cessation. Reducing withdrawal-related cognitive deficits represents a pharmacological target for new pharmacotherapies. Endogenous acetylcholine levels, which are modulated by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), play an important role in smoking behavior and cognition. This pilot feasibility study tested whether an AChEI, donepezil, enhanced cognitive performance among healthy smokers. Methods Eighteen non-treatment seeking daily smokers (6 female) received either donepezil (5mg q.d) or placebo (double-blind; 2:1 allocation ratio) for four weeks. Smoking rate, side effects, and neurocognitive measures of working memory (Letter-N-back) and sustained attention (Penn Continuous Performance Task) were assessed weekly. Results For the working memory task, there was a significant group × load × time interaction (p=0.03) indicating that the donepezil group demonstrated an increase in true positives from baseline to week 4 at the highest working memory load (3-back). The placebo group showed no change in accuracy. For the sustained attention task, there was a marginal effect in the same direction for discriminability, or d', p=0.08. There were no significant effects on reaction time during either task. There was also a reduction in cigarettes per day in the placebo group, but not the donepezil group. Conclusions AChEIs, such as donepezil, may have pro-cognitive effects among healthy smokers while they continue to smoke as usual. Given the association between cognitive deficits and relapse, AChEIs should be explored as potential therapeutics for smoking cessation. PMID:22595038

  15. Social capital, institutional (vertical) trust and smoking: a study of daily smoking and smoking cessation among ever smokers.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Janzon, Ellis

    2007-01-01

    The associations between vertical (institutional) trust in the healthcare system and the mass media (newspapers and television), and daily smoking and smoking cessation were investigated. The 2004 public-health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between institutional trust in the healthcare system and the mass media, and daily smoking and smoking cessation. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress, generalized trust in other people) on the differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation according to trust in the healthcare system and the mass media. 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were daily smokers to a significantly higher extent than the young. Respondents with low trust in the healthcare system had significantly higher odds ratios of daily smoking, 1.88 (95% CI 1.38-2.57) among men and 2.05 (95% CI 1.51-2.78) among women, while respondents with low trust in the mass media had no significant odds ratios of daily smoking, 1.01 (0.67-1.52) among men and 1.55 (0.97-2.47) among women, after multiple adjustments. Institutional (vertical) trust in the healthcare system but not the mass media was significantly associated with lower odds of daily smoking and higher odds of having quit smoking if ever smoker. The healthcare system seems to be a potent arena for tobacco prevention.

  16. Tobacco retail availability and risk of relapse among smokers who make a quit attempt: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Mecredy, Graham; Cohen, Joanna

    2017-04-21

    The availability of tobacco is thought to influence smoking behaviour, but there are few longitudinal studies examining if the location and number of tobacco outlets has a prospective impact on smoking cessation. The Ontario Tobacco Survey, a population-representative sample of Ontario adult smokers who were followed every 6 months for up to 3 years, was linked with tobacco outlet location data from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Proximity (distance), threshold (at least one outlet within 500 m) and density (number of outlets within 500 m) with respect to a smokers' home were calculated among urban and suburban current smokers (n=2414). Quit attempts and risk of relapse were assessed using logistic regression and survival analysis, adjusted for neighbourhood effects and individual characteristics. Increased density of tobacco outlets was associated with decreased odds of making a quit attempt (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.85) in high-income neighbourhoods, but not in lower income ones. There was an increased risk of relapse among those who had at least one store within 500 m (HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.88). Otherwise, there was no association of proximity with quit attempts or relapse. The existence of a tobacco retail outlet within walking distance from home was associated with difficulty in succeeding in a quit attempt, while the increased density of stores was associated with decreased attempts in higher income neighbourhoods. The availability of tobacco may influence tobacco use through multiple mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Intervention for Smokers through New Communication Technologies: What Perceptions Do Patients and Healthcare Professionals Have? A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Trujillo Gómez, Jose Manuel; Díaz-Gete, Laura; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Fábregas Escurriola, Mireia; Lozano Moreno, Maribel; Burón Leandro, Raquel; Gomez Quintero, Ana María; Ballve, Jose Luis; Clemente Jiménez, María Lourdes; Puigdomènech Puig, Elisa; Casas More, Ramón; Garcia Rueda, Beatriz; Casajuana, Marc; Méndez-Aguirre, Marga; Garcia Bonias, David; Fernández Maestre, Soraya; Sánchez Fondevila, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health service is increasing. In spite of limitations, such as lack of time and experience, the deployment of ICTs in the healthcare system has advantages which include patient satisfaction with secure messaging, and time saving benefits and utility for patients and health professionals. ICTs may be helpful as either interventions on their own or as complementary tools to help patients stop smoking. To gather opinions from both medical professionals and smokers about an email-based application that had been designed by our research group to help smoking cessation, and identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with interventions based on the utilization of ICTs for this purpose. A qualitative, descriptive-interpretative study with a phenomenological perspective was performed to identify and interpret the discourses of the participating smokers and primary healthcare professionals. Data were obtained through two techniques: semi-structured individual interviews and discussion groups, which were recorded and later systematically and literally transcribed together with the interviewer's notes. Data were analyzed with the ATLAS TI 6.0 programme. Seven individual interviews and four focal groups were conducted. The advantages of the application based on the email intervention designed by our research group were said to be the saving of time in consultations and ease of access for patients who found work timetables and following a programme for smoking cessation incompatible. The disadvantages were thought to be a lack of personal contact with the healthcare professional, and the possibility of cheating/ self-deception, and a greater probability of relapse on the part of the smokers. Both patients and healthcare professionals viewed the email-based application to help patients stop smoking as a complementary aid to face-to-face consultations. Nevertheless, ICTs could not substitute personal

  18. Association of CYP2A6 activity with lung cancer incidence in smokers: The multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungshim L; Murphy, Sharon E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Hecht, Stephen S; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    While smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, only 11-24% of smokers develop the malignancy over their lifetime. The primary addictive agent in tobacco smoke is nicotine and variation in nicotine metabolism may influence the smoking levels of an individual. Therefore, inter-individual variation in lung cancer risk among smokers may be due in part to differences in the activity of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. In most smokers, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)-catalyzed C-oxidation accounts for >75% of nicotine metabolism, and the activity of this enzyme has been shown to correlate with the amount of nicotine and carcinogens drawn from cigarettes. We prospectively evaluated the association of urinary biomarkers of nicotine uptake (total nicotine equivalents [TNE]) and CYP2A6 activity (ratio of urinary total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine) with lung cancer risk among 2,309 Multiethnic Cohort Study participants who were current smokers at time of urine collection; 92 cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 9.5 years. We found that higher CYP2A6 activity and TNE was associated with increased lung cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking duration, and urinary creatinine (p's = 0.002). The association for CYP2A6 activity remained even after adjusting for self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) (Hazard Ratio [HR] per unit increase in log-CYP2A6 activity = 1.52; p = 0.005) and after adjusting for TNE (HR = 1.46; p = 0.01). In contrast, the association between TNE and lung cancer risk was of borderline statistical significance when adjusted for CPD (HR = 1.53; p = 0.06) and not statistically significant when further adjusted for CYP2A6 activity (HR = 1.30; p = 0.22). These findings suggest that CYP2A6 activity provides information on lung cancer risk that is not captured by smoking history or a (short-term) biomarker of dose. CYP2A6 activity should be further studied as a risk biomarker for smoking

  19. Association of CYP2A6 activity with lung cancer incidence in smokers: The multiethnic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Stram, Daniel O.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    While smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, only 11–24% of smokers develop the malignancy over their lifetime. The primary addictive agent in tobacco smoke is nicotine and variation in nicotine metabolism may influence the smoking levels of an individual. Therefore, inter-individual variation in lung cancer risk among smokers may be due in part to differences in the activity of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. In most smokers, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)-catalyzed C-oxidation accounts for >75% of nicotine metabolism, and the activity of this enzyme has been shown to correlate with the amount of nicotine and carcinogens drawn from cigarettes. We prospectively evaluated the association of urinary biomarkers of nicotine uptake (total nicotine equivalents [TNE]) and CYP2A6 activity (ratio of urinary total trans-3′-hydroxycotinine to cotinine) with lung cancer risk among 2,309 Multiethnic Cohort Study participants who were current smokers at time of urine collection; 92 cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 9.5 years. We found that higher CYP2A6 activity and TNE was associated with increased lung cancer risk after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking duration, and urinary creatinine (p’s = 0.002). The association for CYP2A6 activity remained even after adjusting for self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) (Hazard Ratio [HR] per unit increase in log-CYP2A6 activity = 1.52; p = 0.005) and after adjusting for TNE (HR = 1.46; p = 0.01). In contrast, the association between TNE and lung cancer risk was of borderline statistical significance when adjusted for CPD (HR = 1.53; p = 0.06) and not statistically significant when further adjusted for CYP2A6 activity (HR = 1.30; p = 0.22). These findings suggest that CYP2A6 activity provides information on lung cancer risk that is not captured by smoking history or a (short-term) biomarker of dose. CYP2A6 activity should be further studied as a risk biomarker for smoking

  20. Mindfulness training for smokers via web-based video instruction with phone support: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Davis, James M; Manley, Alison R; Goldberg, Simon B; Stankevitz, Kristin A; Smith, Stevens S

    2015-03-29

    Many smokers are unable to access effective behavioral smoking cessation therapies due to location, financial limitations, schedule, transportation issues or other reasons. We report results from a prospective observational study in which a promising novel behavioral intervention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers was provided via web-based video instruction with telephone-based counseling support. Data were collected on 26 low socioeconomic status smokers. Participants were asked to watch eight video-based classes describing mindfulness skills and how to use these skills to overcome various core challenges in tobacco dependence. Participants received eight weekly phone calls from a smoking cessation coach who provided general support and answered questions about the videos. On the quit day, participants received two weeks of nicotine patches. Participants were a mean of 40.5 years of age, smoked 16.31 cigarettes per day for 21.88 years, with a mean of 6.81 prior failed quit attempts. Participants completed a mean of 5.55 of 8 online video classes with a mean of 23.33 minutes per login, completed a mean of 3.19 of 8 phone coach calls, and reported a mean meditation practice time of 12.17 minutes per day. Smoking abstinence was defined as self-reported abstinence on a smoking calendar with biochemical confirmation via carbon monoxide breath-test under 7 parts per million. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 4 and 6-months post-quit of 23.1% and 15.4% respectively. Participants showed a significant pre- to post-intervention increase in mindfulness as measured by the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, and a significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in the Anxiety Sub-scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results suggest that Mindfulness Training for Smokers can be provided via web-based video instruction with phone support and yield reasonable participant engagement on intervention practices and that

  1. Do brain responses to emotional images and cigarette cues differ? An fMRI study in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Jackson, Edward F.; Costa, Vincent D.; Robinson, Jason D.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic smoking is thought to cause changes in brain reward systems that result in overvaluation of cigarette-related stimuli and undervaluation of natural rewards. We tested the hypotheses that, in smokers, brain circuits involved in emotional processing 1) would be more active during exposure to cigarette-related than neutral pictures, and 2) would be less active to pleasant compared to cigarette-related pictures, suggesting a devaluation of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. We obtained whole brain blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data from 35 smokers during the presentation of pleasant (erotica and romance), unpleasant (mutilations and sad), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Whole brain analyses showed significantly larger BOLD responses during presentation of cigarette-related pictures relative to neutral ones within the secondary visual areas, the cingulate gyrus, the frontal gyrus, the dorsal striatum, and the left insula. BOLD responses to erotic pictures exceeded responses to cigarette-related pictures in all clusters except the insula. Within the left insula we observed larger BOLD responses to cigarette-related pictures than to all other picture categories. By including intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant pictures in addition to neutral ones, we were able to conclude that the presentation of cigarette-related pictures activates brain areas supporting emotional processes, but we did not find evidence of overall reduced activation of the brain reward systems in the presence of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. PMID:22097928

  2. Smoking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Dimensionality of the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives and Identify Different Typologies Among Young Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    D’Addario, Marco; Cappelletti, Erika Rosa; Greco, Andrea; Monzani, Dario; Steca, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the dimensionality of the brief version of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (B-WISDM) and identify different smoking motivational profiles among young daily smokers (N = 375). Methods: We tested 3 measurement models of the B-WISDM using confirmatory factor analysis, whereas cluster analysis was used to identify the smokers’ motivational profiles. Furthermore, we compared clusters toward dependence level and the number of cigarettes smoked per day using analysis of variance tests. Results: The results confirmed that the B-WISDM measures 11 first-order intercorrelated factors. The second-order model, originally proposed for the longer version of the questionnaire, showed adequate fit indices but fitted the data significantly worse than the first-order model. Five motivational clusters were identified and differed in terms of tobacco addiction and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although each cluster had specific features, 2 main smoker groups were distinguished: Group A (composed of 3 clusters), which was mainly characterized by high levels of secondary dependence motives, and Group B (composed of 2 clusters), in which the primary and secondary dependence motives reached similar levels. In general, the clusters of Group B were more addicted to cigarettes than Group A clusters. Conclusions: Using the B-WISDM to identify different smoking motivational profiles has important practical implications because they might help characterize addiction, which represents the first step to help an individual quit smoking. PMID:25168033

  3. Two dimensional protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, M.; Ekström, T.; Sörensen, J.; Tagesson, C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contains a large number of proteins which comprise a potential resource for studying respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. A study was undertaken to compare protein patterns of BAL fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were analysed with two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The separated proteins were detected, quantified, and pattern-matched between different individuals with a computerised imaging system designed for evaluations of 2-DE patterns. RESULTS: About 200 different protein spots were detected in each sample of BAL fluid. As is the case with blood plasma, the BAL fluid samples contained large amounts of albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins. Higher levels of basic proteins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while subjects exposed to asbestos had increased amounts of several high molecular weight proteins as well as basic proteins. Lower levels of albumin and higher levels of immunoglobulins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while higher levels of transferrin were found in asbestos exposed subjects than in unexposed subjects. Moreover, in the group exposed to asbestos differences were found between patients with pleuritis and patients with pleural plaque, and one protein spot was found only in two patients with progressive pleural disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both smokers and asbestos exposed subjects have significant changes in their airway protein expression compared with non-smokers and unexposed subjects. It is inferred that analysis of protein patterns in the BAL fluid with 2-DE may be used to detect and characterise, at a molecular level, respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. Images PMID:8977605

  4. What are the main sources of smoking cessation support used by adolescent smokers in England? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasif; Nugawela, Manjula D; Szatkowski, Lisa

    2015-06-19

    Adolescent smoking is a worldwide public health concern. Whilst various support measures are available to help young smokers quit, their utilization of cessation support remains unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2012 Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People survey to quantify the use of seven different types of cessation support by adolescents aged 11-16 in England who reported current smoking and having tried to quit, or ex-smoking. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between participant characteristics and reported use of cessation support. Amongst 617 current and ex-smokers, 67.3% (95% CI 63.0-71.2) reported use of at least one cessation support measure. Not spending time with friends who smoke was the most commonly-used measure, reported by 45.4% of participants (95% CI 41.1-49.8), followed by seeking smoking cessation advice from family or friends (27.4%, 95% CI 23.7-31.5) and using nicotine products (15.4%, 95% CI 12.6-18.7). Support services provided by the National Health Service (NHS) were infrequently utilized. Having received lessons on smoking was significantly associated with reported use of cessation support (adjusted OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.34) and not spending time with friends who smoked (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.33-2.95). Students with family members who smoked were more likely to report asking family or friends for help to quit (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.81). Respondents who smoked fewer cigarettes per week were generally less likely to report use of cessation support measures. The majority of young smokers reported supported attempts to quit, though the support they used tended to be informal rather than formal. Evidence is needed to quantify the effectiveness of cessation support mechanisms which are acceptable to and used by young smokers.

  5. Is a Price Increase Policy Enough for Adolescent Smokers?: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Increasing Cigarette Prices Among Korean Adolescent Smokers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Do; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Jang, Sung-In; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette pricing policy is one tool for controlling smoking behavior on a national scale. It is unclear, however, what effects such policy has on adolescents and which characteristic subgroups of adolescents are more or less sensitive to cigarette pricing policy. Our data came from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The dependent variable was whether or not a participant was classified as a "persistent smokers," defined as a smoker who would continue smoking despite any price increase. Other variables of interest were smoking days (quantity), previous attempts to stop smoking, and previous education on smoking cessation. The statistical analysis was performed using weighted data and the SURVEYFREQ and SURVEYLOGISTIC procedures in SAS 9.3. Among 7094 adolescent smokers (5349 males and 1745 females), 19.9% of males and 25.1% of females reported as persistent smokers. Compared with light smokers, heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers (male: odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-2.95, P value < .001; female: OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 2.44-4.27, P value < .001). When we stratified the data by household income, previous attempts to stop smoking, and previous education on smoking cessation, that trend remained statistically significant. Because heavier smokers with higher risk of health-related consequences were less sensitive to pricing policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional cessation policy is needed along with pricing policy for adolescents with heavier smoking behavior in Korea. This study shows that heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers despite the cigarette price increase policy, compared with light smokers in Korean adolescents. Because heavier smokers were less sensitive to pricing policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest

  6. Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult nonsmokers, abstinent smokers, and nonabstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Avenevoli, Shelli; Daurignac, Elsa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-11-15

    Evidence suggests that the transition from experimental to regular smoking is facilitated by the influence of tobacco on affective and attentional mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine affective and attentional responses in young adult smokers using fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition. Participants were 56 college nonsmokers, nonabstinent smokers, and overnight-abstinent smokers. The fear-potentiated startle test examined phasic responses to imminent threat cues and more sustained responses to unpredictable aversive events. Prepulse inhibition investigated responses to attended and ignored prepulse stimuli. Abstinent and nonabstinent smokers showed increased sustained potentiation of startle to contextual cues, compared to controls. Abstinent smokers showed increased fear-potentiated startle to threat cues, compared to nonsmokers. PPI did not discriminate between abstinent or nonabstinent smokers and controls. These findings suggest that negative affectivity or anxiety is associated with smoking, particularly during short withdrawal. Potentiated startle may provide a valuable tool in understanding the biologic mechanisms underlying nicotine withdrawal and inform cessation and prevention efforts.

  7. Pain experiences among a population-based cohort of current, former, and never regular smokers with lung and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam; Japuntich, Sandra; Keating, Nancy L; Wallace, Robert; He, Yulei; Streck, Joanna M; Park, Elyse R

    2014-11-15

    Smoking and pain are prevalent and comorbid among patients with cancer. Limited work has compared pain experiences among current, former, and never (regular) smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. We studied pain experiences of patients with lung (n = 2390) and colorectal (n = 2993) cancer participating in the multi-regional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study. We examined reports of pain, pain treatment, pain severity, and pain-related interference within each cancer group by smoking status, adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and cancer characteristics. Among lung cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and receiving pain treatment more often than former smokers. Never smokers did not differ from current and former smokers on endorsement of pain; however, they reported pain treatment less often than their counterparts. Current smokers reported greater pain severity than former smokers after adjusting for other contributing factors; however, no differences were detected between current and never smokers. There were no differences in pain-related interference. Among colorectal cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and pain treatment more often than former and never smokers; however, the latter 2 groups did not differ. Current smokers also reported greater pain severity than never smokers after adjustments; however, no differences were detected between current and former smokers. An identical pattern of findings was observed for pain-related interference. Many smokers with lung and colorectal cancer experience pain following a cancer diagnosis. Future work should assess if comprehensive smoking cessation treatments that address pain can reduce pain and facilitate smoking cessation among patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  9. Smoking and environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and associations with quitting behaviour and motivation; a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Moore, Lyndell; Clancy, Richard; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Van Zeist, Tara; Stockings, Emily; Bowman, Jenny A

    2016-04-14

    Persons with a mental illness are less likely to be successful in attempts to quit smoking. A number of smoking and environmental characteristics have been shown to be related to quitting behaviour and motivation of smokers generally, however have been less studied among smokers with a mental illness. This study aimed to report the prevalence of smoking characteristics and a variety of physical and social environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and explore their association with quitting behaviour and motivation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken of 754 smokers admitted to four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to explore the association between smoking and environmental characteristics and recent quitting behaviour and motivation. Participants were primarily daily smokers (93 %), consumed >10 cigarettes per day (74 %), and highly nicotine dependent (51 %). A third (32 %) lived in a house in which smoking was permitted, and 44 % lived with other smokers. The majority of participants believed that significant others (68-82 %) and health care providers (80-91 %) would be supportive of their quitting smoking. Reflecting previous research, the smoking characteristics examined were variously associated with quitting behaviour and motivation. Additionally, participants not living with other smokers were more likely to have quit for a longer duration (OR 2.02), and those perceiving their psychiatrist to be supportive of a quit attempt were more likely to have had more quit attempts in the past six months (OR 2.83). Modifiable characteristics of the physical and social environment, and of smoking, should be considered in smoking cessation interventions for persons with a mental illness.

  10. The detection of salivary minerals in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis by the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry technique.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Erdemir, Ali

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on the salivary minerals in subjects with chronic periodontitis by the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) technique. The study group included 24 subjects-12 smokers and 12 non-smokers-with chronic periodontitis. Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva were obtained, and the levels of five elements-sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate-in each specimen were analyzed. When the clinical parameters were compared between groups, only plaque index was significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (P <0.05). The mean plaque index of smokers and non-smokers was 1.93 +/- 0.51 and 1.51 +/- 0.39, respectively. The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between groups in the mineral content of saliva. In smokers, there were positive correlations between the levels of calcium, sodium, and magnesium and clinical attachment level. There was also a positive correlation between the level of phosphate and the percentage of bleeding on probing. In non-smokers, there was a negative correlation only between the mean level of sodium and plaque index (P <0.05). The present study showed that no significant differences were found between the mineral content of saliva of smokers and non-smokers by the ICP-AES technique. It is a useful, fast, and sensitive technique compared to other techniques, and it can be advised for researchers while analyzing the mineral content of saliva.

  11. Smokers at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  12. Smokers at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  13. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, J; Vissers, M N; Wiseman, S; van Putte, K P; Kafatos, A

    2002-10-01

    To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. The Medical School and University Hospital of the University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Twenty-five healthy males and females completed the study. Each intervention was of three weeks duration and intervention periods were separated by a two week washout. Seventy grams of extra virgin olive oil was supplied to each subject per day in the intervention periods. The olive oils supplied differed in their phenol content by 18.6 mg/day. Two fasting venous blood samples were taken at the end of each intervention period. The markers of antioxidant capacity measured in fasting plasma samples (total plasma resistance to oxidation, concentrations of protein carbonyl as a marker of protein oxidation, malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides as markers of lipid oxidation and the ferric reducing ability of plasma) did not differ significantly between the low and high phenol olive oil diets. No effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidation in smokers was detected. It may be that the natural concentrations of phenols in olive oil are too low to produce an effect in the post-absorptive phase. Possible reasons for period effects and interactions between diet and administration period need attention to aid further cross-over trials of this kind. Unilever Research Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

  14. Antibiotic Treatment of Acute Bronchitis in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jeffrey A; Sim, Ida

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Community physicians in the United States prescribe antibiotics to 80% to 90% of smokers with acute bronchitis. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the efficacy of antibiotics for smokers with acute bronchitis. DESIGN A MEDLINE search was done using the keywords bronchitis, cough, and antibiotics to identify English language articles published from January 1966 to September 2001. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antibiotics in previously healthy smokers and nonsmokers with acute bronchitis were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS For each study, we abstracted information on design, size, inclusion criteria, patient characteristics, and outcomes. Of 2,029 articles in the original search, 109 relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. There have been no studies specifically addressing antibiotic use in smokers with acute bronchitis. Nine randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antibiotics have included 774 patients and over 276 smokers. Lack of subgroup reporting for smokers precluded meta-analysis. In 7 trials, smoking status did not predict or alter patients' response to antibiotics. In one trial, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resulted in less-frequent cough overall, but not among smokers. In another trial, erythromycin reduced symptom scores only among nonsmokers while antibiotic-treated smokers had a trend toward higher symptom scores. CONCLUSION Although no trials have specifically addressed antibiotic use in smokers with acute bronchitis, existing data suggest that any benefit of antibiotics is the same or less for smokers than for nonsmokers. PMID:11929510

  15. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jason D; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended 1 laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified 3 spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture-rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Jensen, Joni; Anderson, Amanda; Broadbent, Berry; Allen, Sharon; Zhang, Yan; Severson, Herb

    2011-11-01

    Recently, oral tobacco products have been marketed specifically towards cigarette smokers. These products come in different nicotine doses and formulations (snus vs. lozenge). To date, little research has been conducted to determine how smokers respond to these products. The goal of this study was to examine if smokers prefer certain oral tobacco products based on their specific characteristics. Smokers interested in quitting underwent a sampling phase and a treatment phase. The sampling phase consisted of testing five different products varying in nicotine dose (high vs. moderate vs. low) and formulation (snus vs. lozenge): General Snus, Camel Snus, Marlboro Snus, Stonewall and Ariva. Each product was sampled in the natural environment on separate days. At the end of the sampling period, subjects chose which product they would use during the 2-week cigarette abstinence phase. General Snus (high nicotine) was not preferred by any smoker. No significant differences in preferences were observed across the other tobacco products. During the smoking cessation phase, Camel Snus was generally associated with greater craving relief and satisfaction, reduced use of cigarettes, and greater abstinence during follow-up compared to other products. There were no differences in preferences for four of the five oral tobacco products but higher nicotine oral tobacco products were associated with better cessation outcomes among smokers who chose these products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Jensen, Joni; Anderson, Amanda; Broadbent, Berry; Allen, Sharon; Zhang, Yan; Severson, Herb

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, oral tobacco products have been marketed specifically towards cigarette smokers. These products come in different nicotine doses and formulations (snus vs. lozenge). To date, little research has been conducted to determine how smokers respond to these products. The goal of this study was to examine if smokers prefer certain oral tobacco products based on their specific characteristics. Methods Smokers interested in quitting underwent a sampling phase and a treatment phase. The sampling phase consisted of testing five different products varying in nicotine dose (high vs. moderate vs. low) and formulation (snus vs. lozenge): General Snus, Camel Snus, Marlboro Snus, Stonewall and Ariva. Each product was sampled in the natural environment on separate days. At the end of the sampling period, subjects chose which product they would use during the 2-week cigarette abstinence phase. Results General Snus (high nicotine) was not preferred by any smoker. No significant differences in preferences were observed across the other tobacco products. During the smoking cessation phase, Camel Snus was generally associated with greater craving relief and satisfaction, reduced use of cigarettes, and greater abstinence during follow-up compared to other products. Conclusion There were no differences in preferences for four of the five oral tobacco products but higher nicotine oral tobacco products were associated with better cessation outcomes among smokers who chose these products. PMID:21515003

  18. An Internet-based ecological momentary assessment study relying on participants' own mobile phones: insights from a study with young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Bühler, Anneke; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to conduct an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study. Participants could access the assessment instrument via the web browsers of their mobile phones. We report results from 92 young adult smokers (18-25 years old) who completed the baseline assessment and the first of 4 waves (3 days/wave) of EMA. Random prompts were issued via text messages sent to the participants. The participants were also instructed to self-initiate reports of smoking situations. Compliance with the study protocols was low. In total, the participants completed 885 assessments during the 3 days of monitoring. Only 50.2% of random prompts were responded to, and 52.4% of those were completed within the first 10 min after issuing. Furthermore, reports of smoking situations were rarely self-initiated. In a multivariate regression analysis, age (positively) and female gender (negatively) predicted the number of completed assessments. This study adds to the limited experiences made with ICAT in substance use research. Similar to the few prior ICAT studies, compliance was low compared to traditional EMA studies. While using ICAT is technically feasible, specific improvements should be implemented to tap ICAT's full potential in future studies.

  19. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  20. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  1. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  2. Assessment of factors related to smokers' adherence to a short-term support group for smoking cessation: a longitudinal study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Ferigolo, Maristela; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which individual characteristics of smokers are associated with their adherence to a support group for smoking cessation. Smokers from Porto Alegre, Brazil, were invited to participate in a support group for smoking cessation consisting of four weekly sessions. Demographic data, smoking history, presence of tobacco-related diseases, severity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated at baseline. Adherence was defined as attendance at group sessions and was measured at the second and fourth sessions of the program. The study recruited 167 smokers who attended the first meeting and met criteria for admission to the study. One hundred and two of the participants returned to the second session and only 55 of those who attended the first meeting completed the four-week program. For immediate adherence (second session), adult smokers over the age of 35 were more likely to adhere to the treatment (p = 0.004), whereas smoking higher numbers of cigarettes per day was associated with lower adherence to attendance at group meetings (p = 0.031). For final adherence (fourth session), only minimal level symptoms of anxiety were associated with a higher likelihood of adherence (p = 0.02). Older smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, and those with lower levels of anxiety exhibited higher rates of adherence to a smoking cessation support group.

  3. Do smokers support smoke-free laws to help themselves quit smoking? Findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Gamst, Anthony; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2015-05-01

    A growing number of smokers support smoke-free laws. The theory of self-control provides one possible explanation for why smokers support laws that would restrict their own behaviour: the laws could serve as a self-control device for smokers who are trying to quit. To test the hypothesis that support for smoke-free laws predicts smoking cessation. We used longitudinal data (1999-2000) from a US national sample of adult smokers (n=6415) from the Current Population Survey, Tobacco Use Supplements. At baseline, smokers were asked whether they made a quit attempt in the past year. They were also asked whether they thought smoking should not be allowed in hospitals, indoor sporting events, indoor shopping malls, indoor work areas, restaurants, or bars and cocktail lounges. At 1-year follow-up, smokers were asked whether they had quit smoking. Smokers who supported smoke-free laws were more likely to have made a recent quit attempt. At 1-year follow-up, those who supported smoke-free laws in 4-6 venues were more likely to have quit smoking (14.8%) than smokers who supported smoke-free laws in 1-3 venues (10.6%) or smokers who supported smoke-free laws in none of the venues (8.0%). These differences were statistically significant in multivariate analyses controlling for demographics. Support for smoke-free laws among smokers correlates with past quit attempts and predicts future quitting. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that some smokers support smoke-free laws because the laws could help them quit smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Success rates with nicotine personal vaporizers: a prospective 6-month pilot study of smokers not intending to quit.

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Maglia, Marilena; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Russo, Cristina

    2014-11-08

    Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigs) are an attractive long-term alternative nicotine source to conventional cigarettes. Although they may assist smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt, studies using first generation e-Cigs report low success rates. Second generation devices (personal vaporisers - PVs) may result in much higher quit rates, but their efficacy and safety in smoking cessation and/or reduction in clinical trials is unreported. We conducted a prospective proof-of-concept study monitoring modifications in smoking behaviour of 50 smokers (unwilling to quit) switched onto PVs. Participants attended five study visits: baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Number of cigarettes/day (cigs/day) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were noted at each visit. Smoking reduction/abstinence rates, product usage, adverse events and subjective opinions of these products were also reviewed. Sustained 50% and 80% reduction in cigs/day at week-24 was reported in 15/50 (30%) and 7/50 (14%) participants with a reduction from 25cigs/day to 6cigs/day (p < 0.001) and 3cigs/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Smoking abstinence (self-reported abstinence from cigarette smoking verified by an eCO ≤10 ppm) at week-24 was observed in 18/50 (36%) participants, with 15/18 (83.3%) still using their PVs at the end of the study. Combined 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 33/50 (66%) participants. Throat/mouth irritation (35.6%), dry throat/mouth (28.9%), headache (26.7%) and dry cough (22.2%) were frequently reported early in the study, but waned substantially by week-24. Participants' perception and acceptance of the products was very good. The use of second generation PVs substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant adverse effects in smokers not intending to quit. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02124200).

  5. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  6. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  7. Varenicline-Induced Elevation of Dopamine in Smokers: A Preliminary [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Guranda, Mihail; Lagzdins, Dina; Tyndale, Rachel F; Gamaleddin, Islam; Selby, Peter; Boileau, Isabelle; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist, is the most effective treatment for tobacco use disorder. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear and may involve stimulating dopaminergic transmission. Here we used PET imaging with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to explore for the first time the impact of varenicline on dopamine transmission in the D2-rich striatum and D3-rich extra-striatal regions and its relationship with craving, withdrawal and smoking. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers underwent two PET scans with [11C]-(+)-PHNO, each following 12-h overnight smoking abstinence both prior to receiving varenicline and following 10–11 days of varenicline treatment (ie, at steady-state drug levels). Subjective measures of craving and urges to smoke were also assessed on the days of the PET scans. Varenicline treatment significantly reduced [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the dorsal caudate (p=0.008) and reduced some craving measures. These findings provide the first evidence that varenicline is able to increase DA levels in the human brain, a factor that may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26442600

  8. A genome-wide association study identifies risk loci for spirometric measures among smokers of European and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sharon M; Cho, Michael H; Young, Kendra; Hersh, Craig P; Castaldi, Peter J; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Regan, Elizabeth; Mattheisen, Manuel; DeMeo, Dawn L; Parker, Margaret; Foreman, Marilyn; Make, Barry J; Jensen, Robert L; Casaburi, Richard; Lomas, David A; Bhatt, Surya P; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Laird, Nan M; Lange, Christoph; Hokanson, John E; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-12-03

    Pulmonary function decline is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among smokers. Post bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio are considered the standard assessment of airflow obstruction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 9919 current and former smokers in the COPDGene study (6659 non-Hispanic Whites [NHW] and 3260 African Americans [AA]) to identify associations with spirometric measures (post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). We also conducted meta-analysis of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC GWAS in the COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and GenKOLS cohorts (total n = 13,532). Among NHW in the COPDGene cohort, both measures of pulmonary function were significantly associated with SNPs at the 15q25 locus [containing CHRNA3/5, AGPHD1, IREB2, CHRNB4] (lowest p-value = 2.17 × 10(-11)), and FEV1/FVC was associated with a genomic region on chromosome 4 [upstream of HHIP] (lowest p-value = 5.94 × 10(-10)); both regions have been previously associated with COPD. For the meta-analysis, in addition to confirming associations to the regions near CHRNA3/5 and HHIP, genome-wide significant associations were identified for FEV1 on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 9 [DBH] (p-value = 9.69 × 10(-9)) and 19 [CYP2A6/7] (p-value = 3.49 × 10(-8)) and for FEV1/FVC on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 4 [FAM13A] (p-value = 3.88 × 10(-12)), 11 [MMP3/12] (p-value = 3.29 × 10(-10)) and 14 [RIN3] (p-value = 5.64 × 10(-9)). In a large genome-wide association study of lung function in smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations at several previously described loci with lung function or COPD. We additionally identified a novel genome-wide significant locus with FEV1 on chromosome 9 [DBH] in a meta-analysis of three study populations.

  9. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  10. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  11. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  12. The ability of bilirubin in identifying smokers with higher risk of lung cancer: a large cohort study in conjunction with global metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chi-Pang; Zhang, Fanmao; Liang, Dong; Wen, Christopher; Gu, Jian; Skinner, Heath; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ye, Yuanqing; Pu, Xia; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Huang, Maosheng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Lippman, Scott M; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify serum metabolites as potential valuable biomarkers for lung cancer and to improve risk stratification in smokers. We performed global metabolomic profiling followed by targeted validation of individual metabolites in a case-control design of 386 lung cancer cases and 193 matched controls. We then validated bilirubin, which consistently showed significant differential levels in cases and controls, as a risk marker for lung cancer incidence and mortality in a large prospective cohort composed of 425,660 participants. Through global metabolomic profiling and following targeted validation, bilirubin levels consistently showed a statistically significant difference among healthy controls and lung cancer cases. In the prospective cohort, the inverse association was only seen in male smokers, regardless of smoking pack-years and intensity. Compared with male smokers in the highest bilirubin group (>1 mg/dL), those in the lowest bilirubin group (<0.75 mg/dL) had 55% and 66% increase in risks of lung cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. For every 0.1 mg/dL decrease of bilirubin, the risks for lung cancer incidence and mortality increased by 5% and 6% in male smokers, respectively (both P < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between low serum bilirubin level and smoking on lung cancer risk (Pinteraction = 0.001). Low levels of serum bilirubin are associated with higher risks of lung cancer incidence and mortality in male smokers and can be used to identify higher risk smokers for lung cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The ability of bilirubin in identifying smokers with higher risk of lung cancer: a large cohort study in conjunction with global metabolomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chi-Pang; Zhang, Fanmao; Liang, Dong; Wen, Christopher; Gu, Jian; Skinner, Heath; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ye, Yuanqing; Pu, Xia; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Huang, Maosheng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Lippman, Scott M.; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to identify serum metabolites as potential valuable biomarkers for lung cancer and to improve risk stratification in smokers. Experimental Design We performed global metabolomic profiling followed by targeted validation of individual metabolites in a case-control design of 386 lung cancer cases and 193 matched controls. We then validated bilirubin, which consistently showed significant differential levels in cases and controls, as a risk marker for lung cancer incidence and mortality in a large prospective cohort comprised of 425,660 participants. Results Through global metabolomic profiling and following targeted validation, bilirubin levels consistently showed a statistically significant difference among healthy controls and lung cancer cases. In the prospective cohort, the inverse association was only seen in male smokers, regardless of smoking pack-years and intensity. Compared with male smokers in the highest bilirubin group (>1 mg/dL), those in the lowest bilirubin group (<0.75 mg/dL) had 55% and 66% increase in risks of lung cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. For every 0.1 mg/dL decrease of bilirubin, the risks for lung cancer incidence and mortality increased by 5% and 6% in male smokers, respectively (both P < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between low serum bilirubin level and smoking on lung cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.001). Conclusion Low levels of serum bilirubin are associated with higher risks of lung cancer incidence and mortality in male smokers and can be used to identify higher risk smokers for lung cancer. PMID:25336700

  14. Do cigarette graphic warnings encourage smokers to attend a smoking cessation programme: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Guydish, Joseph; Tajima, Barbara; Le, Thao; Henderson, Catherine; Yip, Deborah; Gruber, Valerie; Garcia, Wayne; Delucchi, Kevin L

    2016-12-02

    This study assessed whether exposure to cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) increased attendance to a smoking cessation programme. From 2014 to 2016, alternating cohorts of smokers in 3 residential drug treatment programmes received either GWLs (experimental) or transparent (control) labels placed on their cigarette packs for 30 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who chose to attend a smoking cessation group after the labelling period. The sample (N=601) was 72.6% male, with a mean age of 41.9 (SD=11.16) and included African-American (37%), White (29.4%) and Hispanic (19.6%) participants. While similar on most measures, controls were more likely to be married, had been in the treatment programme longer and registered higher on expired carbon monoxide (CO). After labelling, the proportion attending at least one cessation group was 26% in the experimental condition and 18.8% among controls. In an intent-to-treat analysis adjusting for group differences at baseline, and for 2 levels of nesting, those who received GWLs were more likely than controls to attend the smoking cessation group (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.44). Smokers who received GWLs on their cigarette packs were more likely to attend a cessation programme. Thus, this study is one of the first to document a change in a directly observed behavioural outcome as a function of month-long exposure to cigarette pack GWLs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Individual differences in smoking-related cue reactivity in smokers: an eye-tracking and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kang, O-Seok; Chang, Dong-Seon; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Chung, Sun-Yong; Yang, Seung-In; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Chae, Younbyoung

    2012-08-07

    Measures of cue reactivity provide a means of studying and understanding addictive behavior. We wanted to examine the relationship between different cue reactivity measures, such as attentional bias and subjective craving, and functional brain responses toward smoking-related cues in smokers. We used eye-tracking measurements, a questionnaire for smoking urges-brief and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the responses to smoking-related and neutral visual cues from 25 male smokers after 36 h of smoking abstinence. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between cue-evoked brain responses and the attentional bias to smoking-related cues. The eye gaze dwell time percentage was longer in response to smoking-related cues than neutral cues, indicating significant differences in attentional bias towards smoking-related cues. The attentional bias to smoking-related cues correlated with subjective craving ratings (r=0.660, p<0.001). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the putamen, the posterior cingulate cortex and the primary motor cortex were associated with the attentional bias to smoking-related cues, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex, the insula and the superior temporal gyrus were associated with smoking-related cue-induced craving and smoking urges. These results suggest that attentional mechanisms in combination with motivational and reward-related mechanisms play a role in smoking-related cue reactivity. We confirmed a positive correlation between different smoking-related cue reactivities, such as attentional bias and subjective craving, and functional brain responses in various individuals. Further studies in this field might contribute to a better individualized understanding of addictive behavior. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes of functional and effective connectivity in smoking replenishment on deprived heavy smokers: a resting-state FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches have explored the changes of functional connectivity caused by smoking with the aid of fMRI. This study considers not only functional connectivity but also effective connectivity regarding both brain networks and brain regions by using a novel analysis framework that combines independent component analysis (ICA) and Granger causality analysis (GCA). We conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in which twenty-one heavy smokers were scanned in two sessions of different conditions: smoking abstinence followed by smoking satiety. In our framework, group ICA was firstly adopted to obtain the spatial patterns of the default-mode network (DMN), executive-control network (ECN), and salience network (SN). Their associated time courses were analyzed using GCA, showing that the effective connectivity from SN to DMN was reduced and that from ECN/DMN to SN was enhanced after smoking replenishment. A paired t-test on ICA spatial patterns revealed functional connectivity variation in regions such as the insula, parahippocampus, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and ventromedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These regions were later selected as the regions of interest (ROIs), and their effective connectivity was investigated subsequently using GCA. In smoking abstinence, the insula showed the increased effective connectivity with the other ROIs; while in smoking satiety, the parahippocampus had the enhanced inter-area effective connectivity. These results demonstrate our hypothesis that for deprived heavy smokers, smoking replenishment takes effect on both functional and effective connectivity. Moreover, our analysis framework could be applied in a range of neuroscience studies.

  17. Effects of Ω-3 fatty acids on endothelial function, arterial wall properties, inflammatory and fibrinolytic status in smokers: a cross over study.

    PubMed

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Zaromitidou, Marina; Verveniotis, Aleksis; Plastiras, Aris; Kioufis, Stamatios; Maniatis, Konstantinos; Miliou, Antigoni; Siasou, Zoi; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2013-06-20

    Smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. Supplementation of Ω-3 PUFAs is associated with better prognosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on smoking-induced impairment of arterial function. We studied the effect of a 12 weeks oral treatment with 2gr/day of Ω-3 PUFAs in 20 healthy smokers on three occasions (day 0:baseline, day 28 and day 84). The study was carried out on two separate arms (Ω-3 fatty acids and placebo), according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Measurements were carried out before (pSm), immediately and 20min after cigarette smoking. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness and augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of arterial wave reflections. Circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Compared with placebo, Ω-3 PUFAs treatment resulted in a significant improvement in pSm values of FMD (p<0.05), AIx (p<0.001) and PWV (p<0.01). Although, acute cigarette smoking decreased FMD and caused an increase in AIx and PWV, Ω-3 PUFAs treatment blunted the acute smoking-induced impairment of FMD (p<0.001), AIx (p<0.05) and PWV (p<0.05) and significantly decreased levels of TNFα (p<0.05) and IL-6 (p=0.01) and increased levels of PAI-1 (p=0.05). Ω-3 PUFAs improved endothelial function and the elastic properties of the arterial tree in healthy smokers, with a parallel anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism in ATM gene, cooking oil fumes and lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility in Chinese female non-smokers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Yin, Zhihua; Wu, Wei; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene plays an important role in the DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ATM -111G>A (rs189037) polymorphism, environmental risk factors and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese female non-smokers. A hospital-based case-control study of 487 lung cancer patients and 516 matched cancer-free controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and environmental risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, 10 ml venous blood was collected from each subject for biomarker testing. Single nucleotide polymorphism was determined by using TaqMan method. This study showed that the individuals with ATM rs189037 AA genotype were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the GA or GG genotype (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.02, P = 0.039). The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ATM rs189037 AA genotype in individuals who never or seldom were exposed to cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.03-3.49, P = 0.040). ATM rs189037 might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, ATM rs189037 AA genotype might be a risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers without cooking oil fume exposure.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in ATM Gene, Cooking Oil Fumes and Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in Chinese Female Non-Smokers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Yin, Zhihua; Wu, Wei; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    Background The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene plays an important role in the DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ATM -111G>A (rs189037) polymorphism, environmental risk factors and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese female non-smokers. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 487 lung cancer patients and 516 matched cancer-free controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and environmental risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, 10 ml venous blood was collected from each subject for biomarker testing. Single nucleotide polymorphism was determined by using TaqMan method. Results This study showed that the individuals with ATM rs189037 AA genotype were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the GA or GG genotype (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.02, P = 0.039). The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ATM rs189037 AA genotype in individuals who never or seldom were exposed to cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.03–3.49, P = 0.040). Conclusions ATM rs189037 might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, ATM rs189037 AA genotype might be a risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers without cooking oil fume exposure. PMID:24819391

  20. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  1. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  2. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  3. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    PubMed

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, P<0.001. There was also a significant difference between two groups in salivary total antioxidant capacity after one week and three weeks of green tea consumption (P<0.001). However, there was an upward trend in both smokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. Results TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t = 6.525, P < .0001, 11.36 ± 6.0 vs. 2.09 ± 2.8, mean ± SD, non-smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r = .642, P = .001), but not smokers (r = .124, P = .584). This correlation difference was significant (Z = 1.96, P = .0496). Conclusions Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers. PMID:25152706

  5. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of raising the age of cigarette purchase on young smokers in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Borland, T; Amos, A

    2009-10-01

    To explore the perceived impact among a group of Scottish 16- and 17-year-old school leavers of the recent increase in age of sale of cigarettes (1 October 2007) from 16 to 18 years on their ability to purchase and access cigarettes. Qualitative interviews with friendship pairs. Twelve paired qualitative interviews conducted in June 2008. Participants were 16- and 17-year-old early school leavers undertaking a work skills programme in Lothian who smoked at least one cigarette per week. Data were analysed thematically. The increase in the age of sale affected participants' perceived ability to purchase cigarettes to differing extents. Three groups were identified: those who were unable to purchase cigarettes either before or after the change in the law, those who could purchase cigarettes before the change in the law but who found it very difficult to do so afterwards, and those who were relatively unaffected as they could purchase cigarettes both before and after the age was raised to 18 years, mostly from small corner shops. Smoking was embedded in participants' social lives and networks. Thus, there was only a limited impact upon their reported ability to access cigarettes due to the availability of alternative social sources of cigarettes from family, friends and others. This exploratory study raises questions about the nature and extent of the impact of raising the age of sale on young smokers' ability to purchase and access cigarettes. The importance of alternative social sources of cigarettes highlights the need for further research to investigate whether the change in legislation had less of an impact on more disadvantaged adolescent smokers, as they are likely to have greater access to alternative sources from their family, friends and community.

  6. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  7. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  8. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro de Paiva; Almeida, Natalia Leandro; dos Santos, Natanael Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD). Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers ( n = 15; age range, 20-45 years), deprived smokers ( n = 15, age range 20-45 years) and healthy non-smokers ( n = 15; age range, 20-45 years), using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left) in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT): Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias. PMID:28928940

  9. Neural Responses to Smoking Stimuli Are Influenced by Smokers' Attitudes towards Their Own Smoking Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus H.; Walter, Bertram; Kagerer, Sabine; Mucha, Ronald F.; Pauli, Paul; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers

  10. Recruiting unmotivated smokers into a smoking induction trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult smokers with low motivation to quit. Over 15 months, 33% of smokers who inquired about the study were enrolled. Common recruitment methods included word-of-mouth, print advertisements and clinic referrals. Frequently mentioned reasons for participating included to: gain financial incentives (44.7%), learn about research or help others quit (43%), learn about smoking and risks (40%) and help with future quits (i.e. Quit Assistance, 23.9%). Separate regression models predicting study outcomes at 26 weeks indicated that smokers who said they participated for Quit Assistance reported higher motivation to quit (B 1.26) and were more likely to have made a quit attempt (OR 2.03) compared to those not mentioning this reason, when baseline characteristics were controlled. Understanding reasons for unmotivated smokers’ interest in treatment can help practitioners and researchers design effective strategies to engage this population. PMID:27081187

  11. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smoking is a risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be partly due to the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers to that of nonsmokers in participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. Men a...

  12. Assessment of changes in nicotine dependence, motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among smokers in the initial process of smoking reduction or cessation: a short-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Bortolon, Cassandra Borges; Benchaya, Mariana Canellas; Bisch, Nadia Krubskaya; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The first days of a quit attempt represent an important challenge to long-term abstinence, especially because of the changes that take place over this period. To examine whether smokers who have recently changed their smoking behavior show changes in the intensity of nicotine dependence, motivational stage, or symptoms of anxiety and depression relative to smokers without recent changes in smoking behavior. Smokers attending a support group for smoking cessation in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were invited to participate. The program consisted of four weekly sessions. Smokers answered questionnaires covering intensity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression at baseline and in the fourth week. Urine was collected at both time points, tested for cotinine concentration, and used to determine the final status of smokers. Of the 54 smokers included in the study, 20 (37%) stopped smoking or decreased tobacco use. Both smokers who stopped or reduced tobacco use and those who did not change their behavior presented a decrease in nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.001). Conversely, only the smokers who changed behavior presented an increase in scores in the maintenance stage (p < 0.001). When modifying tobacco use, smokers face a difficult process, marked by several changes. A better understanding of these changes and their implications for treatment are discussed.

  13. Relationship between inflammatory cells and structural changes in the lungs of asymptomatic and never smokers: a biopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, K; Ekberg-Jansson, A; Lofdahl, C; Venge, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Bronchial biopsy specimens were taken from 29 smokers and 16 never smokers and stained with monoclonal antibodies HNL, EPO, AA1, CD68 in order to identify neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, respectively. The biopsy specimens were also stained with monoclonal antibodies to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8. Structural changes were identified by staining the biopsy specimens with antibodies to tenascin and laminin and by evaluating the condition of the epithelial layer. Results: The numbers of all inflammatory cells and of cytokine staining cells were significantly increased in smokers. The thickness of the tenascin and laminin layers was increased in the smoking group and the integrity of the epithelial layer was significantly reduced. In smokers the epithelial integrity was negatively correlated with the number of eosinophils and macrophages. The thickness of the tenascin and laminin layers was positively correlated with AA1 and EPO positive cells only. Conclusion: High numbers of inflammatory cells are present in the bronchial mucosa of asymptomatic smokers which have a clear relationship with the impaired epithelial integrity. The increased thickness of the laminin and tenascin layers in these subjects was strongly related to the presence of eosinophils and mast cells, suggesting a role for these cells in tissue remodelling of the airways of smokers. PMID:12554896

  14. Did cigarette vouchers increase female smokers in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A

    2009-08-01

    From 1960 to 1980, a voucher was required to purchase cigarettes in China. The Chinese government issued vouchers to ration cigarettes, without informing its citizens that smoking was unhealthy. These vouchers were available to all adults, and allowed them to purchase specified numbers of cigarettes. As a result, a number of nonsmokers started smoking during the voucher period. This study included 229 female and 1165 male smokers from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1989-2006, which provides the year in which each respondent began smoking. The percentages of male and female smokers who started smoking during the voucher period were compared using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relative risk of smoking initiation by women during the voucher period, while adjusting for confounding variables. During the voucher period, 46% of female smokers and 39% of male smokers started smoking (p=0.05). Women who did not have a regular job or were less educated were more likely to start smoking. The relative risk of female smokers to have initiated smoking during the voucher period was 4.75, with a p<0.01 in the logistic regression. China's policy of issuing vouchers to ration tobacco consumption had the unintended consequence of encouraging smoking, particularly among women. Issuing cigarette vouchers to every adult, combined with the inexpensive prices of cigarettes, led more women to initiate smoking. Women with low SES were particularly likely to initiate smoking.

  15. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  17. A randomized clinical trial of a financial education intervention with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for low socio-economic status Australian smokers: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Ryan J; Bradford, Deborah; Martire, Kristy A; Bonevski, Billie; Borland, Ron; Doran, Christopher; Hall, Wayne; Farrell, Michael; Siahpush, Mohammad; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; West, Robert; Mattick, Richard P

    2014-10-01

    Reducing smoking prevalence among smokers from low socio-economic status (SES) is a preventative health priority. Financial stress (e.g. shortage of money or inability to pay bills) may be a major barrier to quitting smoking. This study evaluates the efficacy of a financial education and support programme coupled with pharmacotherapy at improving cessation rates at 8-month follow-up among Australian low SES smokers (people receiving a government pension or allowance). A two-group parallel block randomized (ratio 1 : 1) open-label clinical trial (RCT) with allocation concealment will be conducted. Allocation will be concealed to interviewers at data collection-points. The study will be conducted primarily by telephone with baseline, follow-up interviews and telephone-based support sessions. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) delivery will be mail-based. Daily smokers who are interested in quitting smoking and are currently in receipt of government benefits (n = 1046) will be recruited through study advertisements placed in newspapers, posters placed in government social assistance agencies and Quitline telephone-based cessation support services. After completion of a baseline computer-assisted telephone interview, participants will be allocated randomly to control or intervention group using a permuted block approach. Participants in both groups will receive 8 weeks of free combination NRT plus Quitline support. Participants in the intervention group will also receive four telephone-delivered financial education and support sessions. The primary outcome measure will be prolonged abstinence (at 8-month follow-up) assessed using Russell Standard criteria and biochemically verified (urine cotinine). This is the first intervention study to evaluate the potential of co-managing financial stress as a means of enhancing smokers' capacity to quit smoking. Such an intervention may provide a scalable intervention to help low SES smokers to quit. © 2014 Society for

  18. Use of varenicline for more than 12 months for smoking cessation in heavy chronic obstructive pulmonary disease smokers unmotivated to quit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sansores, Raúl H; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Arellano-Rocha, Rosario; Noé-Díaz, Valeri; García-Gómez, Leonor; Pérez Bautista, Oliver; Velázquez Uncal, Mónica

    2016-10-01

    Use of varenicline for as long as necessary to achieve abstinence has not been studied. The aim of this study was to test whether smokers with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are able to quit if they use varenicline for a sufficient length of time. A total of 30 heavy smokers with COPD took varenicline for sufficiently long enough for smoking cessation. Smokers were allowed to smoke without a fixed quit date. The main endpoints were the time of voluntary abstinence (VA) and the continuous abstinence rate (CAR) at 12 and 18 months. Of 28 subjects, eight subjects continued to smoke and 20 subjects stopped smoking, demonstrating a CAR up to 18 months (71%). Median time of treatment was 6 (range 3-24) and 2 (range 1-8) months for abstainers and non-abstainers, respectively, and the median time of VA for abstainers was 4 (range 1-21) months. Use of varenicline for more than the traditional 12 recommended weeks may be a good strategy to increase the cessation rate in heavy smokers with mild COPD. © The Author(s), 2016.

  19. The influence of cigarette smoking on blood and salivary super oxide dismutase enzyme levels among smokers and nonsmokers-A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jenifer, Haziel Diana; Bhola, Sarthak; Kalburgi, Veena; Warad, Shivaraj; Kokatnur, Vijayalaxmi M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the influence of smoking on blood and salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme levels among smokers, and to demonstrate the significant alterations in the levels of superoxide dismutase in association with patient age, periodontal disease status, smoking duration, and smoking frequency. This study also aimed to evaluate the use of saliva as a biological fluid for disease diagnosis. Ninety males aged 25-56 years were selected and included 30 smokers, 30 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical parameters such as the gingival index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Blood and saliva samples were collected and superoxide dismutase enzyme levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric assay. Superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in the blood and saliva were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers and the controls (p < 0.05). A significant correlation existed between superoxide dismutase levels and clinical parameters. There was also a significant positive correlation between blood and salivary superoxide dismutase levels among the three groups. Systemic and local antioxidant status is affected by periodontal disease and by the impact of smoking. The increased blood and salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in smokers may be an adaptive defense mechanism to counteract the increased reactive oxygen species production induced by smoking. This study emphasizes the importance of saliva as an easy noninvasive tool in diagnosing patients who are more prone to precancerous lesions and conditions, and its importance in patient education and motivation programs for smoking cessation.

  20. Comparison of Clinical and Radiographic Periodontal Status Between Habitual Water-Pipe Smokers and Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Rahman, Irfan; Millan-Luongo, Lorena Teresa; Feng, Changyong; Yunker, Michael; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2016-02-01

    There is a dearth of studies that have compared clinical and radiologic markers of periodontal inflammation between water-pipe smokers (WPs) and cigarette smokers (CSs). The aim of the present study is to compare the clinical and radiographic periodontal status between habitual WPs and CSs. In total, 200 males (50 WPs, 50 CSs, and 100 controls) with comparable mean age and education were included. Demographic information was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) and numbers of missing teeth (MT) were recorded. The duration of each smoking session for WPs and CSs was 50.2 ± 6.7 and 15.3 ± 0.4 minutes, respectively. Number of MT [P <0.0001], PI [P <0.0001], AL [P <0.0001], PD ≥4 mm [P <0.0001], and MBL [P <0.0001]) was significantly higher among WPs and CSs than controls. BOP was significantly higher among controls than WPs (P <0.0001) and CSs (P <0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in the aforementioned parameters between WPs and CSs. Males in a Saudi Arabian community who were CSs or WPs had more MT and poorer periodontal condition than never smokers. The periodontal condition of WPs was equally as poor as CSs. Additional clinical observational studies with emphasis on sex and sociodemographic characteristics are needed.

  1. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  2. Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhijun; Luo, Hong; Cai, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However

  3. Comparing the Experience of Regret and Its Predictors Among Smokers in Four Asian Countries: Findings From the ITC Surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Lee, Wonkyong B.; Laux, Fritz L.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341–S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: “If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking.” Results: Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%–90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p < .001). Conclusions: Across the Asian countries and high-income Western countries, the prevalence of regret varies, but the factors predicting regret are quite consistent. Regret may be an important indicator of tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting. PMID:23509091

  4. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  5. Physical activity and lung cancer among non-smokers: a pilot molecular epidemiological study within EPIC.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Richie, John; Steindorf, Karen; Peluso, Marco; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob P; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Hendrik B; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, M Jose; Quiros, Josèr; Agudo, Antonio; Berglund, Goran; Jarvholm, Bengt; Bingham, Sheila; Key, Timothy J; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2010-02-01

    The association between physical activity, potential intermediate biomarkers and lung cancer risk was investigated in a study of 230 cases and 648 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition. Data on white blood cell aromatic-DNA adducts by (32)P-post-labelling and glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells were available from a subset of cases and controls. Compared with the first quartile, the fourth quartile of recreational physical activity was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.90), higher GSH levels (+1.87 micromol GSH g(-1) haemoglobin, p = 0.04) but not with the presence of high levels of adducts (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.38-2.86). Despite being associated with recreational physical activity, in these small-scale pilot analyses GSH levels were not associated with lung cancer risk (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.84-1.07 per unit increase in GSH levels). Household and occupational activity was not associated with lung cancer risk or biomarker levels.

  6. Second-hand smoke, cotinine levels, and risk of circulatory mortality in a large cohort study of never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Neasham, David; Airoldi, Luisa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boeing, Heiner; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Arriola, Larraitz; Lund, Eiliv; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Melander, Olle; Hallmans, Goran; Riboli, Elio; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to second-hand smoke has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Our aim was to investigate the risk of circulatory death associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in never-smokers in a very large prospective study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A secondary aim was to use cotinine levels for cross-validating self-reported second-hand smoke exposure. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the risk of death due to circulatory causes associated with second-hand smoke exposure in 135,233 never-smokers. Exposure to second-hand smoke was assessed through a questionnaire at enrollment and then validated against plasma cotinine measurements in a subsample. Study participants who reported second-hand smoke exposure at home had higher cotinine levels (median plasma cotinine concentration in exposed = 0.82 microg/L; in those unexposed 0.02 microg/L). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was associated with an increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.90]), all circulatory diseases (1.28 [0.98-1.69]), and coronary heart disease (1.31 [0.83-2.08]) after adjustment for age, sex, education, physical activity, and body mass index. Dose-response relationships were observed between exposure to second-hand smoke at home and risk of circulatory death (HR per each additional hour/d = 1.25 [1.04-1.50]). Having a partner who smokes more than 30 cigarettes per day considerably increased the risk of a circulatory death (2.94 [1.11-7.78]). Second-hand smoke exposure at home was not associated with total mortality (1.03 [0.93-1.13]). Exposure to second-hand smoke at home (as confirmed by plasma cotinine levels) increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality.

  7. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of lung cancer in male smokers: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yu, Kai; Horst, Ronald L; Parisi, Dominick; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    A role for vitamin D in cancer risk reduction has been hypothesized, but few data exist for lung cancer. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D status, using circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish male smokers. Lung cancer cases (n = 500) were randomly selected based on month of blood collection, and 500 controls were matched to them based on age and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression. To account for seasonal variation in 25(OH)D concentrations, season-specific and season-standardized quintiles of 25(OH)D were examined, and models were also stratified on season of blood collection (darker season = November-April and sunnier season = May-October). Pre-determined, clinically-defined cutpoints for 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D as a continuous measure were also examined. Overall, 25(OH)D was not associated with lung cancer. Risks were 1.08 (95% CI 0.67-1.75) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.53-1.31) in the highest vs. lowest season-specific and season-standardized quintiles of 25(OH)D, respectively, and 0.91 (95% CI 0.48-1.72) for the ≥75 vs. <25 nmol/L clinical categories. Inverse associations were, however, suggested for subjects with blood collections from November-April, with ORs of 0.77 (95% CI 0.41-1.45, p-trend = 0.05) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.37-1.14, p-trend = 0.07) in the highest vs. lowest season-specific and season-standardized quintiles of 25(OH)D, respectively, and 0.61 (95% CI 0.24-1.52, p-trend = 0.01) for ≥75 vs. <25 nmol/L. We also found 11% lower risk for a 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D in the darker season based on the continuous measure (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98, p = 0.02). In this prospective study of male smokers, circulating 25(OH)D was not associated with lung cancer risk

  8. Intense Passionate Love Attenuates Cigarette Cue-Reactivity in Nicotine-Deprived Smokers: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J. Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity. PMID:22860092

  9. Cognitive dissonance in tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    McMaster, C; Lee, C

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs about smoking of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers were examined within a cognitive dissonance framework. The 186 respondents completed a questionnaire concerned with smoking habits, knowledge of the effects of smoking, beliefs about smoking, and estimates of risk of lung cancer to themselves and to the average Australian smoker. Smokers estimated their risk of contracting lung cancer as greater than the risk non-smokers or ex-smokers saw for themselves, but less than the risk for the average Australian smoker. No differences were found in the amount of factual knowledge about the effects of smoking. However, smokers endorsed significantly more rationalisations and distortions of logic regarding smoking than did non-smokers or ex-smokers. Smokers may experience cognitive dissonance as a result of using tobacco despite its well-publicised ill-effects, and it may be that interventions targeting rationalisations for smoking will be useful in smoking cessation.

  10. Arsenic concentrations in prediagnostic toenails and the risk of bladder cancer in a cohort study of male smokers.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Wright, Margaret E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2004-11-01

    At high concentrations, inorganic arsenic can cause bladder cancer in humans. However, it is unclear whether low exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (<100 microg/liter) is related to bladder cancer risk. No study has been known to use biomarkers to assess the relation between individual arsenic exposure and bladder cancer risk. Toenail samples provide an integrated measure of internal arsenic exposure and reflect long-term exposure. The authors examined the relation between toenail arsenic levels and bladder cancer risk among participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort of Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years. Data for 280 incident bladder cancer cases, identified between baseline (1985-1988) and April 1999, were available for analysis. One control was matched to each case on the basis of age, toenail collection date, intervention group, and smoking duration. Arsenic levels in toenail samples were determined by using neutron activation analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Arsenic toenail concentrations in this Finnish study were similar to those reported in US studies (range: 0.02-17.5 microg/g). The authors observed no association between inorganic arsenic concentration and bladder cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 1.81 for the highest vs. lowest quartile). These findings suggest that low-level arsenic exposure is unlikely to explain a substantial excess risk of bladder cancer.

  11. Responses to online GSTM1 genetic test results among smokers related to patients with lung cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; O'Neill, Suzanne C; White, Della Brown; Bepler, Gerold; Bastian, Lori; Lipkus, Isaac M; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-07-01

    Providing smokers with personal genetic test results indicating increased lung cancer risk may increase uptake of effective smoking cessation services. Using the internet may increase reach and enable real-time assessment of how people process genetic risk information away from the clinic setting. We therefore explored smokers' responses to Web-delivered GSTM1 genetic test results indicating higher or lower lung cancer risk. Participants were smokers (n = 44) biologically related to patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Measures were assessed at baseline, before and immediately after receipt of online genetic test results, and at 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included accurate comprehension of results, regret about being tested, cessation-related cognitions (e.g., perceived response efficacy), and uptake of free smoking cessation services (nicotine replacement therapy, printed self-help materials, telephone counseling sessions). Twenty-two "relative smokers" received a GSTM1-missing (higher risk) and 22 a GSTM1-present (lower risk) result. All relative smokers with GSTM1-missing results and 55% of those with GSTM1-present results accurately interpreted their results. No relative smokers regretted having taken the test. Relative smokers receiving GSTM1-missing results reported lower confidence that quitting could reduce lung cancer risk (perceived response efficacy) than those receiving GSTM1-present results. There were no other significant between-group differences. Uptake of smoking cessation services was high (e.g., 91% nicotine replacement therapy uptake). Genetic test results may not influence uptake of free smoking cessation services because of ceiling effects. Further research is needed to determine the risks and benefits of Web-based disclosure of genetic test results.

  12. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Smoking and the bandit: a preliminary study of smoker and nonsmoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multiarmed bandit task.

    PubMed

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multiarmed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from nonsmokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and nonsmokers (n = 17) completed a 6-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e., made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than nonsmokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making.

  14. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  15. Linking mass media campaigns to pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages: a cross-sectional study to evaluate effects among Mexican smokers.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Murukutla, Nandita; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Alday, Jorge; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Cedillo, Claudia; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and a linked media campaign in Mexico. Cross-sectional data were collected from a population-based sample of 1756 adult smokers, aged 18-55 years, during the initial implementation of pictorial HWLs, which some smokers had seen on cigarette packages while others had seen only the text-based HWLs. Exposure to the campaign and pictorial HWLs was assessed with aided recall methods, and other questions addressed attention and cognitive impact of HWLs, knowledge related to HWL and campaign content, and quit-related thoughts and behaviours. Logistic and linear regression models were estimated to determine associations between key outcomes and intervention exposure. In bivariate and multivariate adjusted models, recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were positively associated with greater attention to and cognitive impact of HWLs, whereas only pictorial HWL exposure was associated with having refrained from smoking due to HWLs. Both recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were independently associated with greater knowledge of secondhand smoke harms and toxic tobacco constituents. Smokers who recalled only the pictorial HWLs were more likely to try to quit than smokers who recalled neither the pictorial HWLs nor the campaign (17% vs 6%, p<0.001). Consistent with other studies, adult smokers' exposure to new pictorial HWLs in Mexico was associated with psychosocial and behavioural responses related to quit behaviour. Exposure to the complementary media campaign was associated with independent additive effects on campaign-related knowledge, and it enhanced psychosocial responses to pictorial HWLs.

  16. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  17. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Ighodayenowho, O K; Nwoke, E

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total antioxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers in apparent good health and who have been smoking between 1.4 sticks of cigarette/day for about 1-3 years. Twenty(20) consenting smokers between 19 and 45 years consisting of fifteen (15) males and 5 females were recruited after examination to certify their apparent good health. Twenty (20) non-smokers, who were matched in age and sex were included as control subjects. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed to be higher in male non-smokers (1.92 +/- 0.2 2mM) when compared with their female counterparts (1.88 +/- 0.16 mM). Among smokers, the males subjects showed a decreased TAC (Male: 1.45 +/- 0.23 mM and female; 1.65 +/- 0.16 mM) with a strong statistical difference between the TAC of smokers and non-smokers (t = 2.095, n = 20 and P < 0.05). Data suggest lower oxidant defense and hence, increased susceptibility to free radical associated diseases especially among the male smokers. Conserted efforts need to be made by governmental agents to enforce legislation that could reduce the rate of smoking. Campaigns should also be initiated to educate the lay public on the dangers of cigarette smoking.

  18. Active telephone recruitment to quitline services: are nonvolunteer smokers receptive to cessation support?

    PubMed

    Tzelepis, Flora; Paul, Christine L; Walsh, Raoul A; Wiggers, John; Duncan, Sarah L; Knight, Jenny

    2009-10-01

    Passive recruitment strategies relying on smoker-initiated contact probably contribute to particular groups of smokers using quitlines. Compared with the smoking population, smokers who call quitlines are more likely to be female, younger, higher educated, more addicted, quit previously, and motivated to quit. Quitlines could adopt new recruitment approaches such as active telephone recruitment involving recruiter-initiated contact, since this may enroll a broader representation of smokers. This study explored acceptability of active telephone recruitment to quitline support, smokers' use, and acceptability of assistance and predictors of acceptability. Smokers (N = 1,562) randomly selected from the New South Wales telephone directory were actively recruited by telephone into a randomized controlled trial that offered proactive telephone counseling (n = 769) or self-help materials (control: n = 793). Overall, 1,369 completed the 4-month postrecruitment interview, which examined acceptability. More than 90% of 4-month interview respondents found active telephone recruitment to cessation assistance acceptable. Of smokers allocated to proactive telephone counseling (n = 769), 90% accepted at least one and 65% three or more counseling calls. Of control participants who completed the 4-month interview, 84% read at least some self-help materials. Proactive telephone counseling recipients were significantly more likely than self-help material users to find the advice useful. Few characteristics predicted acceptability of proactive telephone counseling or self-help materials, suggesting that many types of smokers actively recruited by telephone are receptive to support. Active telephone recruitment could potentially enroll a broader representation of smokers to quitline services. Given these smokers are receptive to cessation assistance, quitlines should consider active telephone recruitment.

  19. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P < 0.001). Mean gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in the presence of gingival inflammation for both groups (P = 0.001), whereas smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P < 0.001). Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  20. A Social Network Family-Focused Intervention to Promote Smoking Cessation in Chinese and Vietnamese American Male Smokers: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Burke, Nancy J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Anthony; Chan, Joanne L; Sun, Angela; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2015-08-01

    Smoking prevalence is high among limited English-proficient Chinese and Vietnamese American men, who are frequently unmotivated to quit and who underutilize smoking cessation resources. This study applied lay health worker outreach to leverage peer and family networks to promote smoking cessation among these men. We integrated qualitative formative research findings and Social Network Theory to develop a social-network family-focused intervention. In a pilot single-group trial, 15 lay health workers recruited 96 dyads (N = 192, 75% Vietnamese) of Chinese or Vietnamese male daily smokers and their family members and delivered the intervention consisting of two small group education sessions and two individual telephone calls over 2 months. At baseline, 42% of smokers were at precontemplation. At 3 months following the initiation of the intervention, 7-day and 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates as reported by smokers and independently corroborated by family members were 30% and 24%, respectively. Utilization of smoking cessation resources (medication, quitline, physician's advice) increased from 2% to 60% (P < .001). Findings showed high acceptability of the intervention as it facilitated learning about tobacco-related health risks and cessation resources, and communications between smokers and their families. This novel social network family-focused intervention to promote smoking cessation among Chinese and Vietnamese smokers appears to be acceptable, feasible, and potentially efficacious. Findings warrant evaluation of long-term efficacy of the intervention in a larger scale randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Five in a row--reactions of smokers to tobacco tax increases: population-based cross-sectional studies in Germany 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    To assess reactions of smokers to five waves of tobacco tax increases in Germany. A 10-wave cross-sectional study, with assessments before and after the tax increases. General population of Germany. 10 representative samples from the general population with a total number of 27,608 people aged > or = 14 years, including 8548 smokers (31% of the total sample), were interviewed. Reflection on smoking behaviour, and smoking behaviour (quitting, reducing, switching to a cheaper brand or no change) before and after tobacco tax increases. Before the tax increases, one third to more than half of the smokers reflected on their smoking behaviour, 9.7-13.9% intended to quit, 23.4-34.7% intended to reduce smoking and 10.8-16.4% intended to switch to cheaper tobacco products, whereas 36.1-52.1% did not intend any change at all. After the tax increases, one fourth to more than one third reported to have reflected on their smoking behaviour, 4.0-7.9% quit smoking owing to the increase, 11.5-16.6% reduced consumption and 11.0-19.9% switched to cheaper products. Significant associations were found between the height of the price increase and the intentions and reactions of smokers. Price increases lead to a substantial reflection on smoking and intended and realised behaviour changes such as reduced consumption and switching to cheaper tobacco products. These effects are more pronounced the more the price rises. Therefore, taxation policy will lead to quitting and reducing smoking. However, complementary measures should also be taken to prevent smokers switching to cheaper tobacco products, which would reduce the effectiveness of taxation policy.

  2. Greater Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density in Smokers Than in Nonsmokers: A PET Study with 2-18F-FA-85380

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Alexey G.; Kimes, Alane S.; Chefer, Svetlana I.; Matochik, John A.; Contoreggi, Carlo S.; Horti, Andrew G.; Vaupel, D. Bruce; Pavlova, Olga; Stein, Elliot A.

    2009-01-01

    Assays of human postmortem brain tissue have revealed that smokers have greater densities of high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain regions than do nonsmokers or exsmokers. Quantitative PET imaging of nAChRs in humans has recently been reported using the α4β2* subtype–specific radioligand 2-18F-FA-85380 (2FA). Methods We used PET and 2FA to measure total volumes of distribution corrected for the free fraction of 2FA in plasma (VT/fP) in 10 nonsmokers and 6 heavy smokers (>14 cigarettes/d; abstinent for >36 h). Dynamic PET scans were performed over 8 h, commencing immediately after a bolus injection of 2FA. Anatomic sampling was performed on PET images that were coregistered to MR images acquired from each volunteer. Data were analyzed by Logan plots and by 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models using unbound, unmetabolized arterial 2FA concentration as the input function. Results All modeling methods yielded similar results. VT/fP was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers in all brain regions tested, except the thalamus. We used measures of VT/fP and estimates of nondisplaceable volume of distribution and found 25%–200% higher values in smokers than in nonsmokers for the volume of distribution for the specific binding compartment in the frontal cortex, midbrain, putamen, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. These findings were consistent with voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PET with 2FA can be used to study the role of nicotine-induced upregulation of nAChRs in active smokers and during smoking cessation. PMID:18794265

  3. No increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in smokers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Niopas, Ioannis; Kafantari, Anna; Kanaze, Feraz Imad; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Melissidis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Fokas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking cigarettes has repeatedly been found to be greater in schizophrenia as compared with other psychiatric patients and the general population. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to engage in heavy smoking and consumption of higher doses of nicotine, probably by deeper inhalation of cigarettes. The aim of the current study was to assess nicotine exposure through smoking by measuring urinary cotinine, the major nicotine metabolite, in a group of smokers from Greece of smokers with schizophrenia and