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Sample records for study comparing smokers

  1. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  2. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Meβgreräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and χ2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  3. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity.

  4. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Dwarakanath, Chini Doraswamy; Divya, Bheemavarapu; Sruthima, Gottumukkala Naga Venkata Satya; Penmetsa, Gautami Subadra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) in nonsmokers and smokers. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA), depth of recession (RD), width of recession (RW), and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60%) and 3 smokers (30%) showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  5. Comparative study of clinico-bacterio-radiological profile and treatment outcome of smokers and nonsmokers suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Deepti; Arora, Piyush; Meena, Manoj; Sarin, Rohit; Chakraborty, Pitambar; Jaiswal, Anand; Goyal, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Radiological severity of disease was assessed using guidelines of National TB Association of USA. Sputum smears for AFB were graded for positivity as per WHO Revised National TB Control Programme criteria. Response was determined in terms of sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase and final treatment outcomes. Results: Sputum smear grading of 3+ increased from 12.5% to 68.18% and 66.66% as smoking index increased from <100 to 100–299 and >300 (P < 0.05). In nonsmokers, 79.2% patients had minimal disease while only 4.2% had advanced disease as compared to smokers where 52.4% had moderate disease, 26.2% advanced disease, and 21.4% minimal disease (P < 0.01). Smokers had significantly lower treatment success rate (69%) as against nonsmokers and former smokers (93.8% and 90.9%, respectively, P = 0.001) owing to a higher default rate among smokers (28.5%) than nonsmokers (6.3%) and former smokers (9.1%). Conclusion: Smokers during initial presentation, as well as at end of the treatment demonstrate more radiological findings, cavitary disease, and worse sputum AFB smear grading. Smokers also have a poorer treatment success rate largely due to high percentage of default rate thus suggesting noncompliance as a main confounder to treatment success. Focus needs to be made to reduce defaulters which are more common among smokers. PMID:27625444

  6. Lower task persistence in smokers with schizophrenia as compared to non-psychiatric control smokers.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Foulds, Jonathan; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-12-01

    One contributing factor to difficulty in quitting smoking may be task persistence, which can be viewed as a behavioral manifestation of distress tolerance, and describes the act of persisting in a difficult or effortful task. Task persistence was assessed in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA; N = 71) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 78) before a quit attempt. These data support the hypothesis that smokers with SZ/SA display less task persistence than do non-psychiatric controls when persistence is measured via mirror tracing and a 2-item persistence measure. Lower persistence may partially explain the reduced smoking cessation successes of smokers with SZ/SA as compared to the general population. These data also replicate findings regarding relationships between histories of ability to quit smoking and task persistence and expand them to a new population of smokers. The absence of a diagnostic status by length of previous abstinence interaction suggests that the contribution of task persistence to smoking cessation is similar for smokers with and without schizophrenia. Future studies should evaluate the ability of task persistence to predict abstinence from cigarettes prospectively among smokers with schizophrenia.

  7. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  8. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  9. Does Moralization Motivate Smokers to Quit? A Longitudinal Study of Representative Samples of Smokers in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with moralized sentiments about smoking are more willing to quit or reduce their smoking. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived personal risk has not been examined. Methods: In this study, representative samples of smokers in Denmark (a smoking lenient country; N = 429) and the United States (a smoking prohibitive country; N = 431) completed surveys 6 months apart. Results: As expected, Danish smokers (compared to U.S. smokers) moralized less and estimated that their personal risk of lung cancer was smaller. Furthermore, moralization at T1 predicted an increase in perceived personal risk at T2 (for Danish smokers and marginally for U.S. smokers), a decrease in smoking behaviors (for Danish smokers only), and an increase in quitting intentions (marginally for Danish smokers only). For Danish smokers, perceived personal risk mediated the relationship between moralization and quitting intentions. Conclusions: Moralization predicted an increase in perceived personal risk, an increase in quitting intentions, and a reduction in smoking behaviors, especially for the Danish sample. Future research should examine the effects of moralization in different cultural contexts. PMID:24907242

  10. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  11. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  12. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    P. Kolte, Abhay; A. Kolte, Rajashri; N. Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association. PMID:28096949

  13. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    P Kolte, Abhay; A Kolte, Rajashri; N Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  14. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  15. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations - lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count - both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α - higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 - higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products.

  16. Increased bone resorption in moderate smokers with low body weight: the Minos study.

    PubMed

    Szulc, P; Garnero, P; Claustrat, B; Marchand, F; Duboeuf, F; Delmas, P D

    2002-02-01

    Tobacco was found to be a risk factor for osteoporosis, mainly in postmenopausal women. We studied the effect of smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in a cohort of 719 men, aged 51-85 yr, composed of 83 current smokers, 405 former smokers, and 231 men who never smoked. Most current and former smokers were moderate smokers (median, 10 cigarettes/d). Current smokers were younger, thinner, and drank more coffee and more alcoholic beverages. After adjustment for age, body weight, alcohol intake, and caffeine intake, current and former smokers had similar BMD, except at the forearm. Former smokers had lower BMD compared with never-smokers at most skeletal sites. Men who had smoked more than 7120 packs (third quartile) had lower BMD of total hip (P < 0.01) and distal forearm (P = 0.03) compared with men in the 2 lower tertiles. In the 3 groups, levels of bone formation markers did not differ. After adjustment for confounding variables, levels of urinary markers of bone resorption (beta-isomerized C-terminal telopeptide, free and total deoxypyridinoline) were higher in the current smokers than in former smokers and never-smokers. Concentrations of T, total 17beta-E2, and androstenedione were higher, whereas that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower, in current smokers. When men were divided according to tertiles of body weight, increased bone resorption, decreased BMD and biochemical indexes of secondary hyperparathyroidism were observed in current smokers in the lowest tertile of body weight (<75 kg) compared with the never-smokers, but not in men in the two highest tertiles of body weight. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of vertebral deformities after adjustment for age and body weight (13% vs. 5%; P < 0.005). In summary, in moderate smokers with low body weight (<75 kg), increased bone resorption, not matched by increased bone formation, results in decreased BMD and an increased prevalence of vertebral deformities. In this group, low serum 25

  17. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2017-03-13

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  18. Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Victor, J. Charles; Diemert, Lori M.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Chaiton, Michael; Brown, K. Stephen; Cohen, Joanna E.; McDonald, Paul W.; Ferrence, Roberta; Garcia, John M.; Selby, Peter; Schwartz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence. PMID:23231826

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jessie, Kala; Pang, Wei Wei; Haji, Zubaidah; Rahim, Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2010-01-01

    A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and chronic diseases that are associated with it. PMID:21151451

  20. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  1. A study of deterioration of pulmonary function parameters among smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, B Sudha; Sunitha, M S; Nataraj, S M; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has deleterious effects on Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) parameters; however, evidences about recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Therefore present study was conducted to quantify relative deterioration of PFT parameters and to assess reversibility of the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. PFT observations were obtained using Medspiror following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among three groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. There were substantial effects of smoking on PFT parameters (deterioration was up-to half). Partial recovery was found in all the parameters of ex-smokers. Frequency and duration of smoking were negatively correlated with some of the parameters. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated considerable deterioration of PFT parameters in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size and stricter definition of ex-smokers is recommended.

  2. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. Objective This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Methods Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Results Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel

  3. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  4. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  5. C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in smokers and nonsmokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study.

    PubMed

    Kleber, M E; Siekmeier, R; Delgado, G; Grammer, T B; Winkelmann, B R; Scharnagl, H; Boehm, B O; März, W

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) provides information on systemic inflammation and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Data analyzing the effect of smoking on these parameters are sparse. The aim of our study was the analysis of these parameters in active smokers and never-smokers. The study included 777 smokers and 1,178 never-smokers, of whom 221 and 302 died during a follow-up, respectively. The values of LpPLA2 and hsCRP were significantly higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Mortality was highest in smokers and never-smokers with elevation of both biomarkers. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for patients in the highest tertile of both hsCRP and LpPLA2 compared with patients in the lowest tertile of both markers were 1.85 (1.04-3.28) in never-smokers and 1.94 (1.10-3.45) in smokers. Our data confirmed the predictive value of hsCRP and LpPLA2. However, there were a relevant number of patients with an increase of only one of these parameters. Therefore, beside other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, both parameters should be determined at least in high risk patients.

  6. Electronic Cigarette Use among Current Smokers: A Pilot Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Ban A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Sterling, Kymberle L.; Burns, Joy D.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Results Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine craving, social image, and convenience were reasons for initial and regular dual use. Two patterns of use emerged – (1) using e-cigarettes to supplement combustible cigarettes; and (2) to replace combustible cigarettes. Conclusions Reasons for dual use were related to nicotine dependence, social influence, product appeal, and perception of reduced harm. Understanding contextual nuances of dual use can inform policy and communication.

  7. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  8. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  9. A pilot study of the gingival response when smokers switch from smoking to vaping.

    PubMed

    Wadia, R; Booth, V; Yap, H F; Moyes, D L

    2016-12-09

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for periodontitis as it alters the host response to plaque. Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has declined in recent years, the use of electronic-cigarettes (vaping) has increased. The effect of vaping on the gingiva is unknown and an evidence-base needs to be established before providing dental advice about the use of these products.Objective To compare the gingival health of a group of established smokers before and after substituting vaping for smoking tobacco.Design Pilot.Setting Guy's Dental Hospital (England) from April-December 2015.Materials and methods Twenty established smokers (all staff members at Guy's Hospital) with mild periodontal disease replaced their regular smoking habits with the use of e-cigarettes for two weeks.Main outcome measure The primary outcome measure of gingival inflammation was bleeding on probing. Levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in GCF, saliva and serum samples were also determined.Results and conclusions There was a statistically significant increase in gingival inflammation when tobacco smokers switched from smoking to vaping for two weeks. However, this result must be interpreted with extreme caution since this is only a pilot study. Nonetheless, this study should provide a stepping stone to encourage further investigation of the effects of vaping on periodontal health.

  10. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  11. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M.; Manley, Alison R.; Goldberg, Simon B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized Midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were Mindfulness = 25.0%, Control= 17.9% (p = 0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes. PMID:24957302

  12. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  13. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  14. Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Goelz, Patricia M.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to play an important role in cognitive function and nicotine dependence. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease, increases prefrontal dopamine levels, with cognitive benefits that may vary by COMT genotype. We tested whether tolcapone alters working memory-related brain activity and performance in abstinent smokers. Methods In this double-blind crossover study, 20 smokers completed 8 days of treatment with tolcapone and placebo. In both medication periods, smokers completed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI scans while performing a working memory N-back task after 24 h of abstinence. Smokers were genotyped prospectively for the COMT val158met polymorphism for exploratory analysis. Results Compared to placebo, tolcapone modestly improved accuracy (p = 0.017) and enhanced suppression of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (p = 0.002). There were no effects of medication in other a priori regions of interest (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, or posterior cingulate cortex). Exploratory analyses suggested that tolcapone led to a decrease in BOLD signal in several regions among smokers with val/val genotypes, but increased or remained unchanged among met allele carriers. Tolcapone did not attenuate craving, mood, or withdrawal symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusions Data from this proof-of-concept study do not provide strong support for further evaluation of COMT inhibitors as smoking cessation aids. PMID:24095246

  15. Risk and protective factors of adolescent exclusive snus users compared to non-users of tobacco, exclusive smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E; Rise, J; Lund, K E

    2013-07-01

    The use of snus is increasing in Norway. In this study we examined differences between adolescents who were exclusive snus users, and adolescent non-users, smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes on a number of psychosocial factors, categorized as risk variables and protective variables associated with involvement in health compromising behavior. We applied separate logistic regression models, where exclusive snus users (n=740) were compared with non-users (n=904), smokers (n=219), and dual users (n=367). Compared to non-users, the group of exclusive snus users was associated with variables traditionally predicting health risk behavior, such as smoking friends (OR=1.74, SD 1.27-2.38) and truancy (OR=2.12, SD 1.65-2.78). Compared to smokers, exclusive snus users were related to variables traditionally associated with protection against involvement in health risk behavior, e.g. higher academic orientation (OR=1.66, SD 1.12-2.45). Associations with protective factors were also observed when exclusive snus users were compared with dual users. While the group of exclusive snus users was associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk compared to non-users, they showed a more conventional pattern when compared to smokers and dual users. The group of exclusive snus users may be described on a continuum varying from psychosocial risk factors to protective factors of risk involvement depending on the group of comparison.

  16. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Lucinara Ignez Tavares; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir; Sant'ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Cestari, Tânia Mary

    2007-01-01

    Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) for arches (upper and lower) and teeth (anterior and posterior). Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05) in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect. PMID:19089190

  17. Psychological and hormonal features of smokers at risk to gain weight after smoking cessation--results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Anne; Dinter, Christina; Grosshans, Martin; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hentschel, Rahel; Dahmen, Norbert; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wagner, Michael; Gründer, Gerd; Thürauf, Norbert; Wienker, Thomas; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Mobascher, Arian; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Clepce, Marion; de Millas, Walter; Wiedemann, Klaus; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest modulating effects of appetite-regulating hormones and stress perception on food intake. Nicotine intake also interferes with regulation of body weight. Especially following smoking cessation gaining weight is a common but only partially understood consequence. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between smoking habits, the appetite regulating hormone leptin, negative affectivity, and stress vulnerability on eating behavior in a clinical case-control study under standardized conditions. In a large population-based study sample, we compared leptin and cortisol plasma concentrations (radioimmunoassay) between current tobacco smokers with high cognitive restraint and disinhibition in eating behavior and smokers scoring low in both categories as assessed with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ; Stunkard & Messick, 1985). As a measure for smoking effects on the stress axis, the saliva cortisol concentrations were compared before and after nicotine smoking. Additionally, stress perception was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), symptoms of depression and anxiety with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition we found significantly higher leptin concentrations than in the group of smokers scoring low in both categories. Furthermore there was a significant group difference in saliva cortisol concentrations after nicotine intake. Smokers showing high cognitive restraint and disinhibition were also characterized by significantly higher scores in the STAI, the PSS and the BDI. Our results suggest that smokers with a pathological eating behavior show an impaired neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and are prone to experience higher levels of stress and negative affectivity. This interaction of behavioral and neuroendocrinological factors may constitute a high risk condition for gaining weight

  18. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Poles, Antônio A; Balcão, Victor M; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Aranha, Norberto; Yoshida, Valquíria M H; Oliveira, José M

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  19. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  20. Likelihood of Unemployed Smokers vs Nonsmokers Attaining Reemployment in a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Michalek, Anne K.; Brown-Johnson, Catherine; Daza, Eric J.; Baiocchi, Michael; Anzai, Nicole; Rogers, Amy; Grigg, Mia; Chieng, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Studies in the United States and Europe have found higher smoking prevalence among unemployed job seekers relative to employed workers. While consistent, the extant epidemiologic investigations of smoking and work status have been cross-sectional, leaving it underdetermined whether tobacco use is a cause or effect of unemployment. Objective To examine differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period. Design, Setting, and Participants An observational 2-group study was conducted from September 10, 2013, to August 15, 2015, in employment service settings in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). Participants were 131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers, all of whom were unemployed job seekers. Owing to the study's observational design, a propensity score analysis was conducted using inverse probability weighting with trimmed observations. Including covariates of time out of work, age, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived health status as predictors of smoking status. Mainoutcomes and measures Reemployment at 12-month follow-up. Results Of the 251 study participants, 165 (65.7) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (11) years; 96 participants were white (38.2%), 90 were black (35.9%), 24 were Hispanic (9.6%), 18 were Asian (7.2%), and 23 were multiracial or other race (9.2%); 78 had a college degree (31.1%), 99 were unstably housed (39.4%), 70 lacked reliable transportation (27.9%), 52 had a criminal history (20.7%), and 72 had received prior treatment for alcohol or drug use (28.7%). Smokers consumed a mean (SD) of 13.5 (8.2) cigarettes per day at baseline. At 12-month follow-up (217 participants retained [86.5%]), 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6%) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6%) (unadjusted risk difference, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42). With 6% of analysis sample observations trimmed, the estimated risk difference indicated that nonsmokers were 30% (95% CI, 12%-48%) more likely on average to be reemployed at 1 year

  1. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  4. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  6. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864

  7. Patterns of airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Babusyte, Agne; Stravinskaite, Kristina; Jeroch, Jolanta; Lötvall, Jan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking activates and recruits inflammatory cells and proteases to the airways. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 may be a key mediator in smoke induced emphysema. However, the influence of smoking and its cessation on airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression during COPD is still unknown. We aimed to analyse airway inflammatory cell patterns in induced sputum (IS) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from COPD patients who are active smokers and who have ceased smoking >2 years ago. Methods 39 COPD outpatients – smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 17) were studied. 8 'healthy' smokers and 11 healthy never-smokers were tested as the control groups. IS and BAL samples were obtained for differential and MMP-12+-macrophages count analysis. Results The number of IS neutrophils was higher in both COPD groups compared to both controls. The amount of BAL neutrophils was higher in COPD smokers compared to healthy never-smokers. The number of BAL MMP-12+-macrophages was higher in COPD smokers (1.6 ± 0.3 × 106/ml) compared to COPD ex-smokers, 'healthy' smokers and healthy never-smokers (0.9 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.1 × 106/ml respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The lower amount of BAL neutrophils in COPD ex-smokers, compared to COPD smokers, suggests positive alterations in alveolar compartment after smoking cessation. Smoking and disease itself may stimulate MMP-12 expression in airway compartments (IS and BAL) from COPD patients. PMID:18001475

  8. Prospective study of physical activity and lung cancer by histologic type in current, former, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Michael F; Koebnick, Corinna; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Increased physical activity has been associated with decreased lung cancer risk. However, no previous investigation has examined physical activity in relation to lung cancer histologic types by smoking status. The authors investigated these relations in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study among 501,148 men and women aged 50-71 years at baseline in 1995-1996. During follow-up to 2003, 6,745 lung carcinomas occurred (14.8% small cell, 40.3% adenocarcinoma, 19.7% squamous cell, 6.1% undifferentiated large cell, 7.2% non-small cell not otherwise specified, and 11.8% carcinoma not otherwise specified). Among former smokers, the multivariate relative risks of small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and undifferentiated large cell carcinomas comparing the highest with the lowest activity level (> or =5 times/week vs. inactive) were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.28), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.93), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.98), respectively. Among current smokers, corresponding values were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.02), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.95), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.11), and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.78). In contrast, physical activity was unrelated to lung carcinoma among never smokers (P(interaction) between physical activity and smoking for total lung carcinomas = 0.002). The inverse findings among former and current smokers in combination with the null results for physical activity among never smokers may point toward residual confounding by cigarette smoking as an explanation for the relations observed.

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients – positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa – negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P < 0.05. Results: OSCC, Individual cell modifications, intercellular relationships and surface characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues. PMID:28182055

  10. Assessment of Periodontal Health Status in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Chintagunta, Chaitanya; Tadiboina, Nagarjuna; Borugadda, Ravithej; Loya, Mitali; Marella, Yamuna; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral smokeless tobacco consumption has been considered as a major risk factor for oral cancer, its role as a risk factor for periodontal disease is less well documented when compared to that of relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of various forms of tobacco consumption i.e., smoking and smokeless tobacco forms on periodontal status. Materials and Methods The study population included 120 subjects with the habit of tobacco consumption, based on form of tobacco use they were divided into Group 1 (smoking), Group 2 (Smokeless tobacco), and Group 3 (smokers and smokeless tobacco users). The periodontal status for each group was evaluated by measuring Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) for Probing Depth (CPI-PD) and Attachment Loss (CPI-AL). Results OHI-S mean scores in Group 1 (3.53±1.03), Group 2 (3.06±0.92) and Group 3 (3.45±0.96) were similar, which were not statistically significant (p>0.076). The mean values of CPI-PD were 3.75±0.44 in Group 1, 3.65±0.48 in Group 2, 3.80±0.41 in Group 3 with no significant difference between the three Groups (p> 0.309). When the mean values of CPI-AL (0.95±0.75 in Group 1, 1.40±0.74 in group 2, and 1.55±0.60 in Group 3) were compared in between the Groups, a statistically significant difference was observed in Group 3 (p<0.001). Conclusion The results showed that tobacco consumption in both forms caused poor periodontal status, with smokeless tobacco users having more amount of attachment loss than smokers. PMID:27891477

  11. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Motivation Phase Intervention Components for Use with Smokers Unwilling to Quit: A Factorial Screening Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jessica W.; Collins, Linda M.; Fiore, Michael C.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fraser, David; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Jorenby, Douglas; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Aims To screen promising intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence in smokers initially unwilling to quit. Design A balanced, 4-factor, randomized factorial experiment. Setting Eleven primary care clinics in southern Wisconsin, USA. Participants 517 adult smokers (63% women, 91% White) recruited during primary care visits who were willing to reduce their smoking but not quit. Interventions Four factors contrasted intervention components designed to reduce smoking and promote abstinence: 1) nicotine patch vs. none; 2) nicotine gum vs. none; 3) motivational interviewing (MI) vs. none; and 4) behavioral reduction counseling (BR) vs. none. Participants could request cessation treatment at any point during the study. Measurements The primary outcome was percent change in cigarettes smoked per day at 26 weeks post-study enrollment; the secondary outcomes were percent change at 12 weeks and point-prevalence abstinence at 12 and 26 weeks post-study enrollment. Findings There were few main effects, but a significant 4-way interaction at 26-weeks post-study enrollment (p=.01, β = .12) revealed relatively large smoking reductions by two component combinations: nicotine gum combined with BR and BR combined with MI. Further, BR improved 12-week abstinence rates (p=.04), and nicotine gum, when used without MI, increased abstinence after a subsequent aided quit attempt (p=.01). Conclusions Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit. PMID:26582140

  13. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  14. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  15. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  16. Visual Assessment of CT Findings in Smokers With Nonobstructed Spirometric Abnormalities in The COPDGene® Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Stinson, Douglas S.; Zach, Jordan A.; McKenzie, Alexander S.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wan, Emily S.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in the COPDGene® study (200 GOLDU, 200 smokers with normal lung function) were retrospectively evaluated in a blinded fashion. Visual CT assessment included lobar analysis of emphysema (type, extent), presence of paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, expiratory air trapping, centrilobular nodules, atelectasis, non-fibrotic and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), pleural thickening, diaphragmatic eventration, vertebral body changes and internal thoracic diameters (in mm). Univariate comparisons of groups for each CT parameter and multiple logistic regression were performed to determine the imaging features associated with GOLDU. When compared with the control group, GOLDU participants had a significantly higher prevalence of unilateral diaphragm eventration (30% vs. 16%), airway wall thickening, centrilobular nodules, reticular abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (33% vs. 17%), linear atelectasis (60% vs. 35.6%), kyphosis (12% vs. 4%), and a smaller internal transverse thoracic diameter (255 ± 22.5 [standard deviation] vs. 264.8 ± 22.4, mm) (all p<0.05). With multiple logistic regression, all of these CT parameters, except non-fibrotic ILD and kyphosis, remained significantly associated with GOLDU status (p<0.05). In cigarette smokers, chest wall abnormalities and parenchymal lung disease, which contribute to restrictive physiologic impairment, are associated with GOLD-nonobstructed status. PMID:25197723

  17. Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Pena-Álvarez, Carolina; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were recruited from individuals undergoing minor, non-oncological surgery. Residential radon was measured using alpha track detectors. We included 521 individuals, 192 cases and 329 controls, 21% were males. We observed an odds ratio of 2.42 (95% CI 1.45-4.06) for individuals exposed to ≥200 Bq·m(-3) compared with those exposed to <100 Bq·m(-3). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home increased lung cancer risk in individuals with radon exposure>200 Bq·m(-3). Individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and to radon concentrations>200 Bq·m(-3) had higher lung cancer risk than those exposed to lower radon concentrations and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Residential radon increases lung cancer risk in never-smokers. An association between residential radon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of lung cancer might exist.

  18. Lung cancer in never smokers in the UK Million Women Study

    PubMed Central

    Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    To assess directly the effects of various risk factors on lung cancer incidence among never smokers, large prospective studies are needed. In a cohort of 1.2 million UK women without prior cancer, half (634,039) reported that they had never smoked. Mean age at recruitment was 55 (SD5) years, and during 14 (SD3) years of follow‐up, 0.2% (1,469) of these never smokers developed lung cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for 34 potential risk factors, of which 31 were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The remaining three risk factors were associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers: non‐white vs. white ethnicity (RR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.55–3.52, p < 0.001), asthma requiring treatment vs. not (RR = 1.32, 1.10–1.58, p = 0.003) and taller stature (height ≥ 165 cm vs. <160 cm: RR = 1.16, 1.03–1.32, p = 0.02). There was little association with other sociodemographic, anthropometric or hormonal factors, or with dietary intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and fiber. The findings were not materially affected by restricting the analyses to adenocarcinomas, the most common histological type among never smokers. PMID:26954623

  19. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  20. [A cohort study on the relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers].

    PubMed

    Fan, Z; Li, F; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Yi, Y; Zhang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Ma, Y; Zen, X

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers in Shifang County was studied. The results indicated that the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases in the male groups of cigarette-smokers older than 65 and cigar-smokers older than 55 was significantly higher than that of the nonsmokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.68-3.22. Also, the mortality in the female groups of cigarette-smokers older than 55 and cigar-smokers older than 65 was significantly higher than that of the non-smokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.99-3.19. The sex-specific mortalities of the other age groups revealed no significant differences in spite of some inequalities in smoking (P < 0.05). Age should be one of the risk factors for the death of cerebro-vascular diseases regardless of the sex. The mortality rose with the increasing accumulated amount of smoking. The relationship was not significant between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and short-term smokers with small dose (P > 0.05). However, when the accumulated amount reached certain degree, i.e. the smoker consumed cigar more than 270 kg or consumed cigarette more than 10,000 packs, the relationship between the behavior of cigar-smoking and cigarette-smoking and the mortality became apparent, the RR being 2.53-3.91 (P < 0.01).

  1. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  2. Isolated and skeptical: social engagement and trust in information sources among smokers.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W; Ackerson, Leland K

    2011-09-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08) and former smokers (OR = 2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR = 4.59) and former smokers (OR = 1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR = 1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR = 1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR = 1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers.

  3. Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164137.html Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement: Study Cessation programs help reduce the rate ... that smokers do worse than non-smokers after joint replacements, and now this research shows there's good ...

  4. Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure in Smokers Switching to a Carbon-Heated Tobacco Product: A Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label 5-Day Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Haziza, Christelle; Weitkunat, Rolf; Magnette, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco harm reduction aims to provide reduced risk alternatives to adult smokers who would otherwise continue smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, single-center, short-term confinement study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of cigarette smoke in adult smokers who switched to a carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) compared with adult smokers who continued to smoke CCs and those who abstained from smoking for 5 days. Methods: Biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, including nicotine and urinary excretion of mutagenic material, were measured in 24-hour urine and blood samples in 112 male and female Caucasian smokers switching from CCs to the CHTP ad libitum use. Puffing topography was assessed during product use. Results: Switching to the CHTP or smoking abstinence (SA) resulted in marked decreases from baseline to Day 5 in all biomarkers of exposure measured, including carboxyhemoglobin (43% and 55% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). The urinary excretion of mutagenic material was also markedly decreased on Day 5 compared with baseline (89% and 87% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). No changes in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs or urinary mutagenic material were observed between baseline and Day 5 in the CC group. Conclusions: Our results provide clear evidence supporting a reduction in the level of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in smokers who switch to CHTP under controlled conditions, similar to that observed in SA. Implications: The reductions observed in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in this short-term study could potentially also reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in those smokers who switch to a heated tobacco product. PMID:26817490

  5. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and COPD Risk in Smokers: A COPDGene Study Cohort Subgroup Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Koeverden, Ian; Blanc, Paul D.; Bowler, Russell P.; Arjomandi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) can be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its role among relatively heavy smokers with potential co-exposure to workplace vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) has not been studied. Methods To estimate the contribution of SHS exposure to COPD risk, taking into account smoking effects and work-related exposures to VGDF, we quantified SHS based on survey responses for 1400 ever-employed subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study, all current or former smokers with or without COPD. Occupational exposures to VGDF were quantified based on a job exposure matrix. The associations between SHS and COPD were tested in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, VGDF exposure, and cumulative smoking. Results and Discussion Exposures to SHS at work and at home during adulthood were associated with increased COPD risk: odds ratio (OR) = 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.23; p = 0.01) and OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00–1.18; p = 0.04) per 10 years of exposure adjusted for smoking and other covariates, respectively. In addition, subjects with employment histories likely to entail exposure to VGDF were more likely to have COPD: OR = 1.52 (95%CI: 1.16–1.98; p < 0.01) (adjusted for other covariates). While adult home SHS COPD risk was attenuated among the heaviest smokers within the cohort, workplace SHS and job VGDF risks persisted in that stratum. Conclusion Among smokers all with at least 10 pack-years, adult home and work SHS exposures and occupational VGDF exposure are all associated with COPD. PMID:24983136

  7. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jessica L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Alberg, Anthony J; Cummings, K Michael; Gray, Kevin M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    To refine public health policy amidst a changing landscape of tobacco products in the United States, it is first necessary to describe fully the nature of smokers' alternative product use. Little research addresses smokers' snus use, and most studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional designs, and crude outcome measurement. This study sample includes 626 adult US smokers who denied intention to quit in the next month and were randomized to receive free snus during a 6-week sampling period, after which no snus was provided. Participants were then followed for one year. Outcome data were collected via phone. Participants (mean age: 48.7years) were predominately female, White non-Hispanic. Eighty-four percent reported trial of snus. Eleven percent reported purchase (i.e., adoption). Current use declined from 47.1% at the end of the sampling period to 6.5% at the end of follow-up. Frequency and quantity of snus use among current users was low. Among snus users, 79.3% said it functioned as an alternative to smoking and 58.4% said it provided a means of coping with smoking restrictions; options not mutually exclusive. In logistic regressions, men were more likely to report trial (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p<0.01) and adoption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) than women. Baseline expectations about the nature of snus use also predicted snus outcomes (OR=1.28-1.78, p<0.05). Smokers showed willingness to try snus, but product interest waned over time. Snus as currently marketed is unlikely to play a prominent role in US tobacco control efforts.

  8. Intranasal oxytocin dampens cue-elicited cigarette craving in daily smokers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Bershad, Anya; King, Andrea C; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Despite moderate success with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, smoking relapse rates remain high, and many smokers report that smoking cues lead to relapse. Therefore, treatments that target cue reactivity are needed. One candidate for reducing craving is the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal OT on two types of craving for cigarettes: craving following overnight abstinence and craving elicited by smoking-related cues. In this within-subject, placebo-controlled pilot study, smokers (N=17) abstained from smoking for 12 h before attending two sessions randomized to intranasal OT or placebo (i.e. saline nasal spray). On each session, participants received two doses of OT (20 IU) or placebo at 1-h intervals, and rated craving before and after each dose. Spontaneous cigarette craving was assessed after the first spray, and cue-elicited craving was assessed following the second spray. OT did not reduce levels of spontaneous craving after the first spray, but significantly dampened cue-induced smoking craving. These results provide preliminary evidence that OT can reduce cue-induced smoking craving in smokers. These findings provide an important link between preclinical and clinical studies aimed at examining the effectiveness of OT as a novel treatment for drug craving.

  9. Emphysema Predicts Hospitalisation and Incident Airflow Obstruction among Older Smokers: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Ahmed, Firas S.; Austin, John H. M.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Keller, Brad M.; Lemeshow, Adina; Reeves, Anthony P.; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Pearson, G. D. N.; Shiau, Maria C.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers. Materials and Methods Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001–02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ −910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted. Results Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01–3.52) adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19–21.1). Conclusion Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers. PMID:24699215

  10. Modulation of smoking and decision-making behaviors with transcranial direct current stimulation in tobacco smokers: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Agosta, Sara; Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fregni, Felipe; Boggio, Paulo; Ciraulo, Domenic; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Most tobacco smokers who wish to quit fail to reach their goal. One important, insufficiently emphasized aspect of addiction relates to the decision-making system, often characterized by dysfunctional cognitive control and a powerful drive for reward. Recent proof-of-principle studies indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can transiently modulate processes involved in decision-making, and reduce substance intake and craving for various addictions. We previously proposed that this beneficial effect of stimulation for reducing addictive behaviors is in part mediated by more reflective decision-making. The goal of this study was to test whether nicotine intake and decision-making behaviors are modulated by tDCS over the DLPFC in tobacco smokers who wished to quit smoking. Methods Subjects received two five-day tDCS regimens (active or sham). Stimulation was delivered over the right DLPFC at a 2mA during 30 minutes. Nicotine cravings, cigarette consumption and decision-making were assessed before and after each session. Results Main findings include a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked when participants received active as compared to sham stimulation. This effect lasted up to four days after the end of the stimulation regimen. In regards to decision-making, smokers rejected more often offers of cigarettes, but not offers of money, after they received active as compared to sham stimulation at the Ultimatum Game. No significant change was observed at the Risk Task with cigarettes or money as rewards. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that tDCS over the DLPFC may be beneficial for smoking reduction and induce reward sensitive effects. PMID:24814566

  11. Effect of Oral Snus and Medicinal Nicotine in Smokers on Toxicant Exposure and Withdrawal Symptoms: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Jensen, Joni A; Carmella, Steven G; Stepanov, Irina; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokeless, spitless tobacco products are being introduced and marketed as cigarette substitutes. Data are needed regarding how smokers interested in cessation would use these products, the levels of resultant toxicant exposure and the feasibility of using these products as aids for tobacco cessation. Methods Smokers were randomized to receive Camel Snus (n=51), Taboka (n=52) or medicinal nicotine (n=27) and required to quit smoking for 4 weeks. Measures of toxicant exposure and symptoms of craving and withdrawal were assessed prior to and during product use. Results Concentrations of exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary cotinine, urinary total NNAL and urinary total NNN were significantly (p values <0.05) lower at the end of treatment in each group except for total NNN in those receiving Camel Snus (p=0.066). A significant group × time effect was observed for total NNAL concentrations (p=0.002) with the decrease greatest in the medicinal nicotine group and smallest decrease in the Camel Snus group. No significant differences between groups were found in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions Enrolling smokers into a cessation study utilizing newer smokeless tobacco products is feasible. Camel Snus and Taboka use was not found to be superior to medicinal nicotine in reducing withdrawal symptoms but decreases in NNAL were smaller in users of Camel Snus. Impact This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study utilizing these newer tobacco products. An appropriately powered study is needed assessing smoking cessation rates using these newer products compared with established, safer products such as medicinal nicotine. PMID:21068204

  12. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers.

  13. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  15. Hookah's new popularity among US college students: a pilot study of the characteristics of hookah smokers and their Facebook displays

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N; Pumper, Megan A; Christakis, Dimitri A; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To confirm the prevalence of hookah use among US college students. (2) To identify substances commonly smoked in hookahs and other substance use characteristics of hookah smokers. (3) Given the powerful influence of Facebook and its potential role in promoting behaviours, to assess the prevalence of hookah references on Facebook profiles. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two large US universities; www.Facebook.com. Participants 307 Facebook profiles were coded and 216 of these profile owners completed an online survey. On average, participants were 18.8 years old (SD=0.7), women (54%), Caucasian (70.4%) and approximately half were from each university. Outcome measures Lifetime and frequency of hookah use, substance smoked in hookah, cigarette and marijuana use, hookah references displayed on Facebook. Results 27.8% of participants endorsed hookah use; there were no significant differences between age, gender, race or university for hookah use. Hookah users reported smoking tobacco (78%), hash (12%) and both tobacco and marijuana/hash (10%) in their hookah. Compared with non-hookah smokers, hookah smokers were more likely to report using cigarettes (OR=3.41, 95%CI=1.2 to 9.64) and marijuana (OR=15.01, 95%CI=6.5 to 34.65). Hookah references were present on 5% of Facebook profiles. Conclusions More than one quarter of college students smoke hookah. Most smoke tobacco in their hookah, and hookah smoking is associated with polysubstance use. Hookah may present new risks for nicotine addiction in this population. PMID:23242241

  16. [What determines smoking habits in pregnancy? A qualitative study among pregnant smokers].

    PubMed

    Haugland, S; Haug, K; Wold, B

    1995-06-30

    In this article we present results from a qualitative study among 33 pregnant smokers, who took part in an in-depth interview in the 27th-35th weeks of pregnancy. The aim was to obtain insight into pregnant women's own experience of smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women interviewed were concerned about their smoking habits. In spite of this, they still expressed positive attitudes towards smoking, and many did not experience pregnancy as a favourable time to stop. The study shows that pregnant women still lack important knowledge about the dangers of smoking. Pregnant smokers' attitudes towards scientific facts, and the role cigarettes play in their everyday lives, are considered to be important variables in determining smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women experienced that their partner and health-personnel played a minor role in changing smoking behaviour. The reasons the women gave for smoking in pregnancy are discussed in the light of current theories on changing health behaviour. Four key questions are proposed which can be used by doctor and midwife to obtain knowledge of pregnant women's perception of the seriousness of smoking and the associated risks, and of the gains and barriers connected with quitting.

  17. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  18. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  19. Decline of lung function and development of chronic airflow limitation: a longitudinal study of non-smokers and smokers in Busselton, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, J K; Woolcock, A J; Cullen, K

    1990-01-01

    Data collected during seven population health surveys over 18 years in Busselton, Western Australia, were examined to determine the effect of smoking on lung function and to investigate the development of chronic airflow limitation. Lung function was measured and details of respiratory illness and smoking histories were collected from subjects attending surveys at three year intervals from 1966 to 1984. Data from ex-smokers and asthmatic patients (diagnosis based on answer to questionnaire) were excluded. Regression of height adjusted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on age was calculated individually for 759 non-smokers and 225 regular smokers with four or more observations. Decline in height adjusted FEV1 was similar for men and women. In smokers the rate of decline in FEV1 was greater than in non-smokers and was related to the amount smoked, to the extent that a smoker could expect a 20-30% greater rate of decline than a non-smoker of the same age. Chronic airflow limitation (defined as FEV1/FEV less than 65% or FEV1 less than 65% predicted on at least two occasions) was common, occurring in 24% of men and 18% of women who were regular smokers and in 5% of male and 8% of female non-smokers. These figures are higher than those reported in other populations, especially for women and for non-smokers. Not all chronic airflow limitation was associated with respiratory symptoms, confirming that the condition may be unrecognised until it is advanced. PMID:2321175

  20. Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult non-smokers, abstinent smokers, and non-abstinent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian; Avenevoli, Shelli; Daurignac, Elsa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the transition from experimental to regular smoking is facilitated by the influence of tobacco on affective and attentional mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine affective and attentional responses in young adult smokers using fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition. Methods Participants were 56 college non smokers, non-abstinent smokers, and overnight-abstinent smokers. The fear-potentiated startle test examined phasic responses to imminent threat cues and more sustained responses to unpredictable aversive events. Prepulse inhibition investigated responses to attended and ignored prepulse stimuli. Results Abstinent and non-abstinent smokers showed increased sustained potentiation of startle to contextual cues, compared to controls. Abstinent smokers showed increased fear-potentiated startle to threat cues, compared to non-smokers. PPI did not discriminate between abstinent or non-abstinent smokers and controls. Conclusion These findings suggest that negative affectivity or anxiety is associated with smoking, particularly during withdrawal. Potentiated startle may provide a valuable tool in understanding the biologic mechanisms underlying nicotine withdrawal and inform cessation and prevention efforts. PMID:17543892

  1. A retrospective study on the use of a dental dressing to reduce dry socket incidence in smokers.

    PubMed

    Murph, James T; Jaques, Susan H; Knoell, Alexander N; Archibald, Geoffrey D; Yang, Stan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of using an oxidized cellulose dental dressing in order to reduce the rate of alveolar osteitis after posterior tooth extraction in smokers. Dry socket incidences of heavy smokers from 4 independent dental clinics, which routinely used oxidized cellulose dental dressings to mitigate dry socket formation between March 2011 and December 2012, were compiled and evaluated. All extraction sites healed uneventfully except for those cases that developed dry sockets. Overall, 1.7% of male patients and 2.2% of female patients developed dry sockets. No conclusive relationship was found between the number of cigarettes smoked and dry socket formation among patients in this study. The results of this study were consistent with the view that gender, age, postextraction regimen, and multiple extractions affect dry socket formation. The results indicate that an oxidized cellulose dental dressing postextraction is a safe and effective method for mitigating dry socket formation among smokers.

  2. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  3. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  4. Functional small airways defence in symptomless cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Pavia, D; Clarke, S W

    1986-01-01

    Smoking induced changes in the secretory cells of bronchiolar epithelium by facilitating secretion of cross linked glycoprotein mucus may influence the efficiency of mucus-cilia coupling. The functional impact on mucociliary transport in small (peripheral) airways has been studied by comparing data on aerosol deposition and clearance from symptomless cigarette smokers (30 tests, 18 subjects) with data from age matched non-smokers (30 tests, 19 subjects). Gamma camera images, assessed in terms of a penetration index comparing peripheral with inner zone deposition, indicated closely similar initial deposition in the two groups. Alveolar deposition, however, assessed in terms of particle retention at 24 hours, was significantly (p less than 0.01) less in the smokers. Given the similarity of initial deposition, this implies that an increased proportion of small conducting airways are protected by mucociliary defence in the smokers' lungs. Clearance from conducting airways of the peripheral zone in tests with relatively high peripheral deposition (14 tests on smokers, and 12 on non-smokers) nevertheless proceeded at the same rate in smokers as in non-smokers. PMID:3787532

  5. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation.

  6. Urinary metabolites of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer development in lifelong never smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various environmental and occupational sources are considered a primary risk factor for lung cancer among lifelong never smokers, based largely on results from epidemiologic studies utilizing self-reported exposure information. Prospective, biomarker-based human studies on the role of PAH and other airborne carcinogens in the development of lung cancer among lifelong non-smokers have been lacking. We prospectively investigated levels of urinary metabolites of a PAH and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer risk in a nested case–control study of 82 cases and 83 controls among lifelong never smokers of the Shanghai Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men aged 45–64 years at enrollment. We quantified three PAH metabolites: r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-Phe) and total hydroxyphenanthrenes (total OH-Phe, the sum of 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-OH-Phe), as well as metabolites of the volatile organic compounds acrolein (3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), benzene (S-phenyl mercapturic acid), crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid) and ethylene oxide (2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid). Urinary cotinine was also quantified to confirm non-smoking status. Compared with the lowest quartile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for lung cancer risk for the highest quartile levels of PheT, 3-OH-Phe and total OH-Phe were 2.98 (1.13–7.87), 3.10 (1.12–7.75) and 2.59 (1.01–6.65) (all P trend < 0.05), respectively. None of the metabolites of the volatile organic compounds were associated with overall lung cancer risk. This study demonstrates a potentially important role of exposure to PAH in the development of lung cancer among lifelong never smokers. PMID:24148823

  7. Putamen functional connectivity during inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, Sophie E A; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Daan; Franken, Ingmar H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-12-05

    The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted on fMRI data from a Go-NoGo study, using the generalized form of psychophysiological interaction with anterior and posterior putamen seed regions. In the context of inhibition, the anterior putamen exhibited connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus (pFWE  < .05), which was in line with previous literature. Conversely, the posterior putamen showed connectivity with regions implicated in sensorimotor processing. When we compared smokers to non-smokers, we did not observe the expected weaker connectivity between the anterior putamen and ACC during inhibition in smokers. Instead, our study revealed stronger inhibition-related connectivity between the anterior putamen and right insula in smokers. This finding highlights the involvement of putamen - insula interactions in addiction and impulse control.

  8. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on tobacco craving in cigarette smokers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress with subsequent polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) peroxidation. Low concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs can affect neurotransmission, resulting in hypofunctioning of the mesocortical systems associated with reward and dependence mechanisms and thus may increase cigarette craving, hampering smoking cessation efforts. PUFA deficiency, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), has also been linked to reduced psychological health and ability to cope with stress. Although stress is well linked to smoking urges and behavior, no research to date has examined the effects of PUFA supplementation on tobacco craving. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, performed in regular cigarette smokers (n=48), administration of 2710 mg EPA/day and 2040 mg DHA/day for one month was accompanied by a significant decrease in reported daily smoking and in tobacco craving following cigarette cue exposure. Craving did not return to baseline values in the month that followed treatment discontinuation. This is the first study demonstrating that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces tobacco craving in regular smokers, compared to placebo treatment. Thus, omega-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in managing tobacco consumption. Further studies are needed on larger samples to explore the possible therapeutic implications for heavy cigarette smokers.

  9. Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized.

  10. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  11. Additive and subtractive resilience strategies as enablers of biographical reinvention: a qualitative study of ex-smokers and never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul Russell; Muller, Robert; Tsourtos, George; Hersh, Deborah; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Coveney, John

    2011-04-01

    The notion of developing resilience is becoming increasingly important as a way of responding to the social determinants of poor health, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It is hypothesized that resilient individuals and communities are able to 'bounce back' from the adversities they face. This paper explores the processes involved in building resilience as an outcome in relation to both quitting smoking and never smoking. The study involved 93 qualitative, oral-history interviews with participants from population groups with high and enduring smoking rates in Adelaide, Australia, and was essentially interested in how some people in these groups managed to quit or never start smoking in the face of adversities, in comparison to a group of smokers. Our key findings relate to what we call additive and subtractive resilience strategies, which focus on the practices, roles and activities that individuals either 'took on' or 'left behind' in order to quit smoking or remain abstinent. The theoretical lenses we use to understand these resilience strategies relate to biographical reinforcement and biographical reinvention, which situate the resilience strategies in a broader 'project of the self', often in relation to attempting to develop 'healthy bodies' and 'healthy biographies'.

  12. Oral Mucosal Lesions Associated with Smokers and Chewers – A Case-Control Study in Chennai Population

    PubMed Central

    Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To determine the association of oral mucosal lesions in a group of Chennai population aged 15 years and above with smoking and chewing habits. To also determine the dose-response relationship of these habits associated with the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Materiala and Methods The study was undertaken with 450 subjects with smoking and/or chewing habits aged 15 years and over gathered through random selection in Chennai, India. Subjects with alcohol intake were excluded from the study. Based on the habits the study group was categorized into smokers, chewers and mixed (smoking+chewing). One hundred and fifty subjects diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions designated as “cases” and 300 lesion-free “controls”, frequency matched for age, sex, habit and family income were assessed during the study. The study protocol included a visual oral soft tissue examination and a questionnaire-based interview. In addition, those requiring further examination, scalpel biopsies were performed to establish a definitive diagnosis. Results Irrespective of the type of habit, 78% of cases smoked and/or chewed for more than 10 years as compared to 37.4% of the control group. Similarly, 71.3% of cases smoked and/or chewed more than 5 times per day as compared to 25.6% of the control group. Eleven habits related mucosal lesions of the oral cavity were encountered. Smoker’s melanosis was the most common oral mucosal lesion followed by Oral submucous fibrosis and Leukoplakia. Dose-response relationships were observed for both duration and frequency of habits on the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Conclusion The result of the present study provides information on the association of oral mucosal lesions in smokers, chewers and patients with mixed habits. The mucosal lesions encountered included a few potentially malignant conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Habits were more prevalent in men thus more lesions were encountered in males than in females

  13. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jin; Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.

  14. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality

  15. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D; Lagua, Ian Joseph N; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Alexander, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  16. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  17. Comparative Analyses Between the Smoking Habit Frequency and the Nucleolar Organizer Region Associated Proteins in Exfoliative Cytology of Smokers' Normal Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Renata Pittella; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; Filho, Manoel Sant'Anna

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the cellular alterations in the smoker's oral mucosal cells was performed. Exfoliative Citology technique were applied and the cytologic smears stained with silver for quantitative analyses of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions. (AgNORs). Cytologic smears were collected from two anatomic sites, mouth floor and tongue border with the purpose of relating the frequency of smoking with the quantitative analyses of the AgNORs. This study showed that the average number of AgNORs/nucleus is related with the number of cigarettes per day in the mouth floor of smoker's. These results suggest a possible relation between the number of cigarettes per day and an increase rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells. PMID:19570270

  18. Comparative Analyses Between the Smoking Habit Frequency and the Nucleolar Organizer Region Associated Proteins in Exfoliative Cytology of Smokers' Normal Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Renata Pittella; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; Filho, Manoel Sant'Anna

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the cellular alterations in the smoker's oral mucosal cells was performed. Exfoliative Citology technique were applied and the cytologic smears stained with silver for quantitative analyses of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions. (AgNORs). Cytologic smears were collected from two anatomic sites, mouth floor and tongue border with the purpose of relating the frequency of smoking with the quantitative analyses of the AgNORs. This study showed that the average number of AgNORs/nucleus is related with the number of cigarettes per day in the mouth floor of smoker's. These results suggest a possible relation between the number of cigarettes per day and an increase rate of cellular proliferation in the oral mucosal cells.

  19. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  20. Metabolic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Abuse in Non-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Obianyo, Obiamaka; Liang, Yan; Burnham, Ellen L.; Mehta, Ashish; Park, Youngja; Uppal, Karan; Harris, Frank L.; Jones, Dean P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    An alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infection and injury and, upon hospitalization, higher mortality rates. Studies in model systems show effects of alcohol on mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and antioxidant systems. The present study applied high-resolution metabolomics to test for these changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of subjects with an AUD. Smokers were excluded to avoid confounding effects and compliance was verified by cotinine measurements. Statistically significant metabolic features, differentially expressed by control and AUD subjects, were identified by statistical and bioinformatic methods. The results show that fatty acid and acylcarnitine concentrations were increased in AUD subjects, consistent with perturbed mitochondrial and lipid metabolism. Decreased concentrations of methyl-donor compounds suggest altered one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. An accumulation of peptides suggests proteolytic activity, which could reflect altered epithelial barrier function. Two metabolites of possible microbial origin suggest subclinical bacterial infection. Furthermore, increased diacetylspermine suggests additional metabolic perturbations, which could contribute to dysregulated alveolar macrophage function and vulnerability to infection. Together, the results show an extended metabolic consequence of AUD in the bronchoalveolar space. PMID:26102199

  1. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Gu, Youlan L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; de Smet, Bart J G L; Esposito, Giovanni; Windecker, Stephan; Thiele, Holger; Piscione, Federico

    2016-12-15

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3.6% vs 8.0%; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72, p = 0.001), but not in nonsmokers (10.2% vs 9.9%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.36, p = 0.96), with a significant interaction (p = 0.009). Furthermore, intracoronary abciximab decreased the risk of reinfarction in smokers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, p = 0.001), with no difference in nonsmokers (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.01, p = 0.50). Stent thrombosis was lowered by intracoronary abciximab in smokers (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66, p = 0.009), but was ineffective in nonsmokers (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.00, p = 0.903). Interaction testing showed heterogeneity in treatment effect for reinfarction (p = 0.002) and stent thrombosis (p = 0.018) according to smoking status. In conclusion, among patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, smoking status did not affect the adjusted risk of clinical events. Intracoronary abciximab bolus improved clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of death or reinfarction.

  2. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  3. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Differential effects of dietary supplements on metabolomic profile of smokers versus non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states. Methods In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured. Results Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers. Conclusions Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular

  5. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions, including mood lability, sleep disruption and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in non-treatment-seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were in-patient. On the first in-patient day, active marijuana [6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week, completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, and decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Compared with placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence.

  6. Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is one crop that accumulates cadmium, making smokers susceptible to higher levels of the metal in their bodies. The findings suggest that even a low-level exposure to a heavy metal like cadmium is likely to cause a change in the functions of neurons in the brain and the behavioral response to drugs of abuse.

  7. Anthropometric measures and physical activity and the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Moore, Steve C; Brinton, Louise A; Smith, Llewellyn; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Gierach, Gretchen L; Freedman, Neal D

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer in never-smokers is ranked the seventh most common cause of cancer death; however, the etiology of lung cancer in never-smokers is unclear. We investigated associations for body mass index (BMI) at various ages, waist circumference, hip circumference, and physical activity with lung cancer in 158,415 never-smokers of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models. Over 11 years of follow-up, 532 lung cancer cases occurred. The risk estimate for obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) participants at baseline was 1.21 (95%CI = 0.95-1.53) relative to those with a normal BMI between 18.5 ≤ BMI<25.0. Overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI<30.0) at age 18 (HR(overweight-vs-normal) = 1.51;95%CI = 1.01-2.26) and time spent sitting (HR(≥ 3 hrs-vs-<3 hrs) = 1.32;95%CI = 1.00-1.73) was each associated with lung cancer after adjustment for baseline BMI, as was waist (HR(Q4-vs-Q1) = 1.75;95%CI = 1.09-2.79) and hip circumference (HRQ4-vs-Q1 = 0.62;95%CI = 0.39-0.99), after mutual adjustment for each other and baseline BMI. No associations were observed for vigorous activity or television watching. In summary, using a large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence that BMI at baseline or middle age was associated with decreased lung cancer risk in never smokers. If anything, we observed some evidence for positive associations with a larger BMI or waist circumference.

  8. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  9. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  10. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers’ social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers’ understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  11. Lung Adenocarcinoma of Never Smokers and Smokers Harbor Differential Regions of Genetic Alteration and Exhibit Different Levels of Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Kelsie L.; Vucic, Emily A.; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W.; English, John C.; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39) and NS (n = 30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

  12. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  13. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed.

  14. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  15. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21–30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  16. Distribution and levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the lung and plasma in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Linja-aho, Anna; Mazur, Witold; Toljamo, Tuula; Nieminen, Pentti; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Rönty, Mikko; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2013-01-01

    Our recent non-biased proteomic screening study revealed elevated SerpinA1 i.e. alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in induced sputum of smokers with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to further investigate the role of AAT in smokers and subjects with COPD. The expression/distribution of AAT was studied by immunohistochemistry/digital image morphometry in the lung, by Western blot in the lung and sputum, and by ELISA in the plasma at baseline (n = 349) and after a 2-year follow-up (n = 58). AAT was localized mainly in airway and alveolar epithelium and endothelium, especially in smokers and in those with COPD. AAT was elevated in smokers and in subjects with COPD in the lung endothelial cells. Total lung AAT immunoreactivity was elevated in subjects with moderate COPD compared with smokers and with non-smokers. AAT showed elevated tendency in sputum of smokers with COPD compared with 'healthy' smokers. Plasma AAT levels were elevated in smokers with/without COPD compared with non-smokers. In the follow-up, plasma AAT concentrations decreased significantly after quitting smoking. Chronic smoking/COPD leads to AAT elevation especially in the endothelium of the lung periphery; these changes reflect only modestly to the AAT in sputum, while plasma AAT significantly reflects smoking-related systemic manifestations, and decreases after smoking cessation.

  17. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  18. Analysis of Fifty Hotspot Mutations of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although a small number of lung SCCs occurs in never-smokers. The purpose of this study was to compare 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCCs between never-smokers and smokers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with lung SCC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in the Seoul National University Hospital. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used for analysis of hotspot mutations. Fifty cancer-related genes in never-smokers were compared to those in ever-smokers. Of 379 lung SCC patients, 19 (5.0%) were never-smokers. The median age of these 19 patients was 67 years (interquartile range 57–73 years), and 10 of these patients were women (52.5%). The incidence rates of stage I, II, III, and IV disease in this group were 26.4%, 5.3%, 31.6%, and 36.8%, respectively, and sequencing was performed successfully in 14 cases. In the 26 lung SCC tumor samples (12 from never-smokers and 14 from ever-smokers) sequenced using personal genome machine, the most common mutations were in TP53 (75.0%), RAS (66.7%), and STK11 (33.3%), but mutations were also found in EGFR, KIT, and PTEN. The distribution of hotspot mutations in never-smokers was similar to that in ever-smokers. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the 2 groups. The 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCC in never-smokers were similar to those of ever-smokers. PMID:28145643

  19. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  20. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José; and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  1. Two dimensional protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, M.; Ekström, T.; Sörensen, J.; Tagesson, C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contains a large number of proteins which comprise a potential resource for studying respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. A study was undertaken to compare protein patterns of BAL fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were analysed with two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The separated proteins were detected, quantified, and pattern-matched between different individuals with a computerised imaging system designed for evaluations of 2-DE patterns. RESULTS: About 200 different protein spots were detected in each sample of BAL fluid. As is the case with blood plasma, the BAL fluid samples contained large amounts of albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins. Higher levels of basic proteins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while subjects exposed to asbestos had increased amounts of several high molecular weight proteins as well as basic proteins. Lower levels of albumin and higher levels of immunoglobulins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while higher levels of transferrin were found in asbestos exposed subjects than in unexposed subjects. Moreover, in the group exposed to asbestos differences were found between patients with pleuritis and patients with pleural plaque, and one protein spot was found only in two patients with progressive pleural disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both smokers and asbestos exposed subjects have significant changes in their airway protein expression compared with non-smokers and unexposed subjects. It is inferred that analysis of protein patterns in the BAL fluid with 2-DE may be used to detect and characterise, at a molecular level, respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. Images PMID:8977605

  2. Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, A. R.; McConnell, P. A.; Eichberg, C.; Saladin, M. E.; Carpenter, M. J.; Garland, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a behavioral treatment grounded in dual-process models derived from cognitive science, on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult (N = 13; mean (SD) age 49 ± 12.2) smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG). All participants underwent two fMRI scans: pre-tx and after 8-weeks of MORE. Emotion regulation (ER), smoking cue reactivity (CR), and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were assessed at each fMRI visit; smoking and mood were assessed throughout. As compared to the CG, MORE significantly reduced smoking (d = 2.06) and increased positive affect (d = 2.02). MORE participants evidenced decreased CR-BOLD response in ventral striatum (VS; d = 1.57) and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC; d = 1.7) and increased positive ER-BOLD in VS (dVS = 2.13) and vPFC (dvmPFC = 2.66). Importantly, ER was correlated with smoking reduction (r's = .68 to .91) and increased positive affect (r's = .52 to .61). These findings provide preliminary evidence that MORE may facilitate the restructuring of reward processes and play a role in treating the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. PMID:28373890

  3. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  4. Intervention for Smokers through New Communication Technologies: What Perceptions Do Patients and Healthcare Professionals Have? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fábregas Escurriola, Mireia; Lozano Moreno, Maribel; Burón Leandro, Raquel; Gomez Quintero, Ana María; Ballve, Jose Luis; Clemente Jiménez, María Lourdes; Puigdomènech Puig, Elisa; Casas More, Ramón; Garcia Rueda, Beatriz; Casajuana, Marc; Méndez-Aguirre, Marga; Garcia Bonias, David; Fernández Maestre, Soraya; Sánchez Fondevila, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health service is increasing. In spite of limitations, such as lack of time and experience, the deployment of ICTs in the healthcare system has advantages which include patient satisfaction with secure messaging, and time saving benefits and utility for patients and health professionals. ICTs may be helpful as either interventions on their own or as complementary tools to help patients stop smoking. Objectives To gather opinions from both medical professionals and smokers about an email-based application that had been designed by our research group to help smoking cessation, and identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with interventions based on the utilization of ICTs for this purpose. Methods A qualitative, descriptive–interpretative study with a phenomenological perspective was performed to identify and interpret the discourses of the participating smokers and primary healthcare professionals. Data were obtained through two techniques: semi-structured individual interviews and discussion groups, which were recorded and later systematically and literally transcribed together with the interviewer’s notes. Data were analyzed with the ATLAS TI 6.0 programme. Results Seven individual interviews and four focal groups were conducted. The advantages of the application based on the email intervention designed by our research group were said to be the saving of time in consultations and ease of access for patients who found work timetables and following a programme for smoking cessation incompatible. The disadvantages were thought to be a lack of personal contact with the healthcare professional, and the possibility of cheating/ self-deception, and a greater probability of relapse on the part of the smokers. Conclusions Both patients and healthcare professionals viewed the email-based application to help patients stop smoking as a complementary aid to face-to-face consultations

  5. Cognitive effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, in healthy, non-treatment seeking smokers: A pilot feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Ray, Riju; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify medications to aid in smoking cessation. Reducing withdrawal-related cognitive deficits represents a pharmacological target for new pharmacotherapies. Endogenous acetylcholine levels, which are modulated by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), play an important role in smoking behavior and cognition. This pilot feasibility study tested whether an AChEI, donepezil, enhanced cognitive performance among healthy smokers. Methods Eighteen non-treatment seeking daily smokers (6 female) received either donepezil (5mg q.d) or placebo (double-blind; 2:1 allocation ratio) for four weeks. Smoking rate, side effects, and neurocognitive measures of working memory (Letter-N-back) and sustained attention (Penn Continuous Performance Task) were assessed weekly. Results For the working memory task, there was a significant group × load × time interaction (p=0.03) indicating that the donepezil group demonstrated an increase in true positives from baseline to week 4 at the highest working memory load (3-back). The placebo group showed no change in accuracy. For the sustained attention task, there was a marginal effect in the same direction for discriminability, or d', p=0.08. There were no significant effects on reaction time during either task. There was also a reduction in cigarettes per day in the placebo group, but not the donepezil group. Conclusions AChEIs, such as donepezil, may have pro-cognitive effects among healthy smokers while they continue to smoke as usual. Given the association between cognitive deficits and relapse, AChEIs should be explored as potential therapeutics for smoking cessation. PMID:22595038

  6. Smoking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Dimensionality of the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives and Identify Different Typologies Among Young Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    D’Addario, Marco; Cappelletti, Erika Rosa; Greco, Andrea; Monzani, Dario; Steca, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the dimensionality of the brief version of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (B-WISDM) and identify different smoking motivational profiles among young daily smokers (N = 375). Methods: We tested 3 measurement models of the B-WISDM using confirmatory factor analysis, whereas cluster analysis was used to identify the smokers’ motivational profiles. Furthermore, we compared clusters toward dependence level and the number of cigarettes smoked per day using analysis of variance tests. Results: The results confirmed that the B-WISDM measures 11 first-order intercorrelated factors. The second-order model, originally proposed for the longer version of the questionnaire, showed adequate fit indices but fitted the data significantly worse than the first-order model. Five motivational clusters were identified and differed in terms of tobacco addiction and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although each cluster had specific features, 2 main smoker groups were distinguished: Group A (composed of 3 clusters), which was mainly characterized by high levels of secondary dependence motives, and Group B (composed of 2 clusters), in which the primary and secondary dependence motives reached similar levels. In general, the clusters of Group B were more addicted to cigarettes than Group A clusters. Conclusions: Using the B-WISDM to identify different smoking motivational profiles has important practical implications because they might help characterize addiction, which represents the first step to help an individual quit smoking. PMID:25168033

  7. Do brain responses to emotional images and cigarette cues differ? An fMRI study in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Jackson, Edward F.; Costa, Vincent D.; Robinson, Jason D.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic smoking is thought to cause changes in brain reward systems that result in overvaluation of cigarette-related stimuli and undervaluation of natural rewards. We tested the hypotheses that, in smokers, brain circuits involved in emotional processing 1) would be more active during exposure to cigarette-related than neutral pictures, and 2) would be less active to pleasant compared to cigarette-related pictures, suggesting a devaluation of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. We obtained whole brain blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data from 35 smokers during the presentation of pleasant (erotica and romance), unpleasant (mutilations and sad), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Whole brain analyses showed significantly larger BOLD responses during presentation of cigarette-related pictures relative to neutral ones within the secondary visual areas, the cingulate gyrus, the frontal gyrus, the dorsal striatum, and the left insula. BOLD responses to erotic pictures exceeded responses to cigarette-related pictures in all clusters except the insula. Within the left insula we observed larger BOLD responses to cigarette-related pictures than to all other picture categories. By including intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant pictures in addition to neutral ones, we were able to conclude that the presentation of cigarette-related pictures activates brain areas supporting emotional processes, but we did not find evidence of overall reduced activation of the brain reward systems in the presence of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. PMID:22097928

  8. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Jensen, Joni; Anderson, Amanda; Broadbent, Berry; Allen, Sharon; Zhang, Yan; Severson, Herb

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, oral tobacco products have been marketed specifically towards cigarette smokers. These products come in different nicotine doses and formulations (snus vs. lozenge). To date, little research has been conducted to determine how smokers respond to these products. The goal of this study was to examine if smokers prefer certain oral tobacco products based on their specific characteristics. Methods Smokers interested in quitting underwent a sampling phase and a treatment phase. The sampling phase consisted of testing five different products varying in nicotine dose (high vs. moderate vs. low) and formulation (snus vs. lozenge): General Snus, Camel Snus, Marlboro Snus, Stonewall and Ariva. Each product was sampled in the natural environment on separate days. At the end of the sampling period, subjects chose which product they would use during the 2-week cigarette abstinence phase. Results General Snus (high nicotine) was not preferred by any smoker. No significant differences in preferences were observed across the other tobacco products. During the smoking cessation phase, Camel Snus was generally associated with greater craving relief and satisfaction, reduced use of cigarettes, and greater abstinence during follow-up compared to other products. Conclusion There were no differences in preferences for four of the five oral tobacco products but higher nicotine oral tobacco products were associated with better cessation outcomes among smokers who chose these products. PMID:21515003

  9. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  10. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  11. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  12. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  13. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  14. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  15. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  16. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. Results TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t = 6.525, P < .0001, 11.36 ± 6.0 vs. 2.09 ± 2.8, mean ± SD, non-smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r = .642, P = .001), but not smokers (r = .124, P = .584). This correlation difference was significant (Z = 1.96, P = .0496). Conclusions Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers. PMID:25152706

  17. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  18. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  19. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  20. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  1. Changes of functional and effective connectivity in smoking replenishment on deprived heavy smokers: a resting-state FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches have explored the changes of functional connectivity caused by smoking with the aid of fMRI. This study considers not only functional connectivity but also effective connectivity regarding both brain networks and brain regions by using a novel analysis framework that combines independent component analysis (ICA) and Granger causality analysis (GCA). We conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in which twenty-one heavy smokers were scanned in two sessions of different conditions: smoking abstinence followed by smoking satiety. In our framework, group ICA was firstly adopted to obtain the spatial patterns of the default-mode network (DMN), executive-control network (ECN), and salience network (SN). Their associated time courses were analyzed using GCA, showing that the effective connectivity from SN to DMN was reduced and that from ECN/DMN to SN was enhanced after smoking replenishment. A paired t-test on ICA spatial patterns revealed functional connectivity variation in regions such as the insula, parahippocampus, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and ventromedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These regions were later selected as the regions of interest (ROIs), and their effective connectivity was investigated subsequently using GCA. In smoking abstinence, the insula showed the increased effective connectivity with the other ROIs; while in smoking satiety, the parahippocampus had the enhanced inter-area effective connectivity. These results demonstrate our hypothesis that for deprived heavy smokers, smoking replenishment takes effect on both functional and effective connectivity. Moreover, our analysis framework could be applied in a range of neuroscience studies.

  2. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  3. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  4. Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhijun; Luo, Hong; Cai, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However

  5. Relationship between inflammatory cells and structural changes in the lungs of asymptomatic and never smokers: a biopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, K; Ekberg-Jansson, A; Lofdahl, C; Venge, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Bronchial biopsy specimens were taken from 29 smokers and 16 never smokers and stained with monoclonal antibodies HNL, EPO, AA1, CD68 in order to identify neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, respectively. The biopsy specimens were also stained with monoclonal antibodies to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8. Structural changes were identified by staining the biopsy specimens with antibodies to tenascin and laminin and by evaluating the condition of the epithelial layer. Results: The numbers of all inflammatory cells and of cytokine staining cells were significantly increased in smokers. The thickness of the tenascin and laminin layers was increased in the smoking group and the integrity of the epithelial layer was significantly reduced. In smokers the epithelial integrity was negatively correlated with the number of eosinophils and macrophages. The thickness of the tenascin and laminin layers was positively correlated with AA1 and EPO positive cells only. Conclusion: High numbers of inflammatory cells are present in the bronchial mucosa of asymptomatic smokers which have a clear relationship with the impaired epithelial integrity. The increased thickness of the laminin and tenascin layers in these subjects was strongly related to the presence of eosinophils and mast cells, suggesting a role for these cells in tissue remodelling of the airways of smokers. PMID:12554896

  6. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Ighodayenowho, O K; Nwoke, E

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total antioxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers in apparent good health and who have been smoking between 1.4 sticks of cigarette/day for about 1-3 years. Twenty(20) consenting smokers between 19 and 45 years consisting of fifteen (15) males and 5 females were recruited after examination to certify their apparent good health. Twenty (20) non-smokers, who were matched in age and sex were included as control subjects. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed to be higher in male non-smokers (1.92 +/- 0.2 2mM) when compared with their female counterparts (1.88 +/- 0.16 mM). Among smokers, the males subjects showed a decreased TAC (Male: 1.45 +/- 0.23 mM and female; 1.65 +/- 0.16 mM) with a strong statistical difference between the TAC of smokers and non-smokers (t = 2.095, n = 20 and P < 0.05). Data suggest lower oxidant defense and hence, increased susceptibility to free radical associated diseases especially among the male smokers. Conserted efforts need to be made by governmental agents to enforce legislation that could reduce the rate of smoking. Campaigns should also be initiated to educate the lay public on the dangers of cigarette smoking.

  7. Smoking and the bandit: a preliminary study of smoker and nonsmoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multiarmed bandit task.

    PubMed

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multiarmed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from nonsmokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and nonsmokers (n = 17) completed a 6-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e., made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than nonsmokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making.

  8. No increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in smokers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Niopas, Ioannis; Kafantari, Anna; Kanaze, Feraz Imad; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Melissidis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Fokas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking cigarettes has repeatedly been found to be greater in schizophrenia as compared with other psychiatric patients and the general population. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to engage in heavy smoking and consumption of higher doses of nicotine, probably by deeper inhalation of cigarettes. The aim of the current study was to assess nicotine exposure through smoking by measuring urinary cotinine, the major nicotine metabolite, in a group of smokers from Greece of smokers with schizophrenia and smokers from the general population. Participants were current smokers and belonged to one of two groups: 35 patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy controls matched in age, education, and gender. The quantitative analysis of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, in urine samples was performed by a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients with schizophrenia who smoke presented a significantly larger time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine sample collection, as well as a significantly higher average number of cigarettes consumed daily than normal smokers. Urinary cotinine levels of patients with schizophrenia who smoke did not significantly differ from that of normal smokers when adjusted for average number of cigarettes per day and time interval between last cigarette smoked and urine collection. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia did not present higher nicotine exposure through smoking compared with smokers from the community. The pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of nicotine, as well as patient medications of the patients may explain our findings.

  9. Intense Passionate Love Attenuates Cigarette Cue-Reactivity in Nicotine-Deprived Smokers: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J. Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity. PMID:22860092

  10. Physical activity and lung cancer among non-smokers: a pilot molecular epidemiological study within EPIC.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Richie, John; Steindorf, Karen; Peluso, Marco; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob P; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Hendrik B; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, M Jose; Quiros, Josèr; Agudo, Antonio; Berglund, Goran; Jarvholm, Bengt; Bingham, Sheila; Key, Timothy J; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2010-02-01

    The association between physical activity, potential intermediate biomarkers and lung cancer risk was investigated in a study of 230 cases and 648 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition. Data on white blood cell aromatic-DNA adducts by (32)P-post-labelling and glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells were available from a subset of cases and controls. Compared with the first quartile, the fourth quartile of recreational physical activity was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.90), higher GSH levels (+1.87 micromol GSH g(-1) haemoglobin, p = 0.04) but not with the presence of high levels of adducts (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.38-2.86). Despite being associated with recreational physical activity, in these small-scale pilot analyses GSH levels were not associated with lung cancer risk (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.84-1.07 per unit increase in GSH levels). Household and occupational activity was not associated with lung cancer risk or biomarker levels.

  11. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  12. Impact of smoking cessation on global gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of chronic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Lee, Jack; Tang, Hongli; Fan, You-Hong; Xiao, Lianchun; Ren, Hening; Kurie, Jonathan; Morice, Rodolfo C; Hong, Waun Ki; Mao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the major cause of lung cancer and can interact in complex ways with drugs for lung cancer prevention or therapy. Molecular genetic research promises to elucidate the biologic mechanisms underlying divergent drug effects in smokers versus non-smokers and to help in developing new approaches for controlling lung cancer. The present study compared global gene expression profiles (determined via Affymetrix microarray measurements in bronchial epithelial cells) between chronic smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Smoking effects on global gene expression were determined from a combined analysis of three independent datasets. Differential expression between current and never smokers occurred in 591 of the 13,902 genes measured on the microarrays (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change; pooled data)—a profound effect. In contrast, differential expression between current and former smokers occurred in only 145 of the measured genes (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change; pooled data). Nine of these 145 genes showed consistent and significant changes in each of the three datasets (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change), with 8 being down-regulated in former smokers. Seven of the 8 down-regulated genes, including CYP1B1 and 3 AKR genes, influence the metabolism of carcinogens and/or therapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Our data comparing former and current smokers allowed us to pinpoint the genes involved in smoking–drug interactions in lung cancer prevention and therapy. These findings have important implications for developing new targeted and dosing approaches for prevention and therapy in the lung and other sites, highlighting the importance of monitoring smoking status in patients receiving oncologic drug interventions. PMID:19138944

  13. Does "smoker's paradox" exist in clopidogrel-treated Turkish patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Edem, Efe; Kirdök, Ali Hikmet; Kınay, Ahmet Ozan; Tekin, Ümit İlker; Taş, Sedat; Alpaslan, Erkan; Pabuccu, Mustafa Türker; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Previously conducted studies revealed that smoking enhanced the efficacy of clopidogrel by increasing formation of the active metabolite (AM) from the prodrug through induction of the cytochrome CYP1A2. The expression of cytochrome enzymes depends on genotype and no data exists in literature conducted in Turkish patients comparing the clopidogrel responsiveness between active smokers and non-active smokers treated with clopidogrel. In this study, our aim was to investigate the clopidogrel responsiveness in clopidogrel-treated Turkish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients according to their smoking status. We retrospectively enrolled 258 patients who were hospitalized due to ACS. Clinical variables of the patients, especially smoking status were recorded. Clopidogrel resistance was evaluated by using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregometry. Clopidogrel resistance was detected as a change in maximal aggregation ≤20% from baseline. A total of 139 patients were active smokers while 12 were former smokers. 107 patients did not have a history of smoking. Ten of the smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel, whereas 36 of non-smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel (p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that Au-min value >612.5 predicted the clopidogrel resistance with a sensitivity of 60% (OR: 100.65, %95 CI = 19.996-506.615 p < 0.001). Results of this study demonstrated that ADP responses were lower in smokers receiving clopidogrel and aspirin than in non-smokers receiving the same drug regimen. This finding indicates that smoking was related to an enhanced clopidogrel responsiveness in Turkish patients hospitalized due to ACS, suggesting that "smoker's paradox" probably exists in Turkish ACS patients.

  14. THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE AFFECT IN RISK FOR EARLY LAPSE AMONG LOW DISTRESS TOLERANCE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Ana M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Niaura, Raymond; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative affect due to psychological and/or physical discomfort (e.g., distress tolerance) are emerging as an important predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to build on existing evidence by exploring the relationship between levels of distress tolerance (DT) and negative affect on quit date in relation to risk for early lapse. Eighty-one smokers (48% female; M age = 42.6 years) who completed laboratory-based, behavioral distress tolerance tasks prior to an unaided quit attempt were categorized into low, average, and high persistence on the tasks. Low persistence smokers were significantly more likely to lapse on the assigned quit day. Among smokers able to achieve abstinence on quit day, low persistence smokers demonstrated higher levels of negative affect and urges compared to high persistence smokers. Further, negative affect-related risk for early lapse was strongest among those with low persistence. These findings suggest that smokers low in distress tolerance may be particularly vulnerable to very early lapse to smoking and that increases in negative affect may contribute to the risk for early lapse in this high-risk group of smokers. PMID:18684569

  15. Heroin users' careers and perceptions of drug use: a comparison of smokers and injectors in the Mersey region.

    PubMed

    Cousins, P; Bentall, R P

    1989-12-01

    To date few studies have compared heroin users who smoke heroin with those who inject it. In the present study a sample of 38 heroin users, half smokers and half injectors, was investigated using several drugs career indices. Results showed that users display preferences, with the use of some drugs being favoured over time. Injectors used all drugs more frequently than smokers. Although there was much variability in frequency of use the trend over the initial 3 years of use showed no increase in heroin use for either smokers or injectors. Although the majority of smokers had injected heroin there was no evidence that this group favoured injecting over time; rather the data suggested that smoking became the increasingly preferred method of consumption. Smokers were more likely than injectors to use other drugs post-heroin. Contrary to expectation, few periods of abstinence were reported by the subjects in either group.

  16. Gut Microbial Diversity Is Reduced in Smokers with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Jorrit L.; Plassais, Jonathan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Achouri, Emna; Pichaud, Matthieu; Siersema, Peter D.; Cervino, Alessandra C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. Methods: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. On average, 40 million paired-end reads were generated per sample. Gene richness and the Shannon index were computed to assess microbial diversity. Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests for paired samples were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups. Results: In total, 21 smoking and 21 nonsmoking patients with CD were included. Compared with nonsmoking patients, gut microbial gene richness (P = 0.01), genus diversity (P < 0.01), and species diversity (P = 0.01) were decreased in smoking patients. This was accompanied by a reduced relative abundance of the genera Collinsella (P = 0.02), Enterorhabdus (P = 0.02), and Gordonibacter (P = 0.02) in smokers. No statistically significant differences at the species level were observed, although smokers had lower proportions of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.10). Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is reduced in smokers with CD compared with nonsmokers with CD. The microbial profile differs between these groups at the genus level. Future studies should evaluate whether intestinal microbes mediate the adverse effects of smoking in CD. PMID:27542127

  17. The analysis of protein-bound thiocyanate in plasma of smokers and non-smokers as a marker of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Youso, Stephanie L; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-05-01

    When cyanide is introduced into the body, it quickly transforms through a variety of chemical reactions, normally involving sulfur donors, to form more stable chemical species. Depending on the nature of the sulfur donor, cyanide may be transformed into free thiocyanate, the major metabolite of cyanide transformation, 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid or protein-bound thiocyanate (PB-SCN) adducts. Because protein adducts are generally stable in biological systems, it has been suggested that PB-SCN may have distinct advantages as a marker of cyanide exposure. In this study, plasma was analyzed from 25 smokers (chronic low-level cyanide exposure group) and 25 non-smokers for PB-SCN. The amount of PB-SCN found in the plasma of smokers, 1.35 µM, was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) when compared to non-smokers, 0.66 µM. Differences in sub-groups of smokers and non-smokers were also evaluated. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of analyzing PB-SCN in determining instances of chronic cyanide exposure with possible extension to confirmation of acute cyanide exposure.

  18. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and may improve the opportunities

  19. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  20. Barriers and motivators to gaining access to smoking cessation services amongst deprived smokers – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Elin; Antoniak, Marilyn; Britton, John; Molyneux, Andrew; Lewis, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking is strongly associated with disadvantage and is an important contributor to inequalities in health. Smoking cessation services have been implemented in the UK targeting disadvantaged smokers, but there is little evidence available on how to design services to attract this priority group. Methods We conducted focus groups with 39 smokers aged 21–75 from the most socio-economically deprived areas of Nottingham UK who had made an unsuccessful attempt to quit within the last year without using smoking cessation services, to identify specific barriers or motivators to gaining access to these services. Results Barriers to use of existing services related to fear of being judged, fear of failure, a perceived lack of knowledge about existing services, a perception that available interventions – particularly Nicotine Replacement Therapy – are expensive and ineffective, and negative media publicity about bupropion. Participants expressed a preference for a personalised, non-judgemental approach combining counselling with affordable, accessible and effective pharmacological therapies; convenient and flexible timing of service delivery, and the possibility of subsidised complementary therapies. Conclusion We conclude that smokers from these deprived areas generally had low awareness of the services available to help them, and misconceptions about their availability and effectiveness. A more personalised approach to promoting services that are non-judgemental, and with free pharmacotherapy and flexible support may encourage more deprived smokers to quit smoking. PMID:17087825

  1. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (≥50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Results Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government’s failure to protect the public—even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Conclusion Given the Food and Drug Administration’s new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry’s “best customers” (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco. PMID:23958397

  2. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  3. Attention Training in Smokers: A Feasibility Study of an Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-04

    not presented in the current report. The Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) is a self-report measure of craving (Cox, Tiffany, & Christen, 2001...7 Note. Mean (SD) for Bias scores, Craving , other Subjective measures, and Physiological measures for lab portion of study. QSU = Questionnaire of...Interest (AOI), time stamp, and gaze fixations evident. Figure 7: Attentional Bias and Craving data from nine pilot participants. Figure 8

  4. Mood, mood regulation expectancies and frontal systems functioning in current smokers versus never-smokers in China and Australia.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Bothma, Vicole; Edwards, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Indices of mood, mood regulation expectancies and everyday executive functioning were examined in adult current smokers and never-smokers of both genders in Australia (N = 97), where anti-smoking campaigns have dramatically reduced smoking prevalence and acceptability, and in China (N = 222), where smoking prevalence and public acceptance of smoking remain high. Dependent measures included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) expectancies scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) controlling for demographic and recruitment related variables revealed highly significant differences between current smokers and never-smokers in both countries such that smokers indicated worse moods and poorer functioning than never-smokers on all dependent measures. Chinese smokers scored significantly worse on all dependent measures than Australian smokers whereas Chinese and Australian never-smokers did not differ on any of the same measures. Although nicotine dependence level as measured by FTND was significantly higher in Chinese than Australian smokers and was significantly correlated with all other dependent measures, inclusion of FTND scores as another covariate in MANCOVA did not eliminate the highly significant differences between Chinese and Australian smokers. Results are interpreted in light of the relative ease of taking up and continuing smoking in China compared to Australia today.

  5. The impact of genetic variation and cigarette smoke on DNA methylation in current and former smokers from the COPDGene study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiliang; Wan, Emily; Morrow, Jarrett; Cho, Michael H; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; DeMeo, Dawn L

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation can be affected by systemic exposures, such as cigarette smoking and genetic sequence variation; however, the relative impact of each on the epigenome is unknown. We aimed to assess if cigarette smoking and genetic variation are associated with overlapping or distinct sets of DNA methylation marks and pathways. We selected 85 Caucasian current and former smokers with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping available from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide methylation was obtained on DNA from whole blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 platform. To determine the impact of local sequence variation on DNA methylation (mQTL), we examined the association between methylation and SNPs within 50 kb of each CpG site. To examine the impact of cigarette smoking on DNA methylation, we examined the differences in methylation by current cigarette smoking status. We detected 770 CpG sites annotated to 708 genes associated at an FDR < 0.05 in the cis-mQTL analysis and 1,287 CpG sites annotated to 1,242 genes, which were nominally associated in the smoking-CpG association analysis (P(unadjusted) < 0.05). Forty-three CpG sites annotated to 40 genes were associated with both SNP variation and current smoking; this overlap was not greater than that expected by chance. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and genetic variants impact distinct sets of DNA methylation marks, the further elucidation of which may partially explain the variable susceptibility to the health effects of cigarette smoking. Ascertaining how genetic variation and systemic exposures differentially impact the human epigenome has relevance for both biomarker identification and therapeutic target development for smoking-related diseases.

  6. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  7. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  8. Gender Differences in Responses to Cues Presented in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. PMID:25762753

  9. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A. Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G.; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions. PMID:28182070

  10. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  11. Wanting to attend isn’t just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged

  12. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers' Helpline.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

  13. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S.; Moolchan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18–35. Methods Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Results Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = . 0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p =.01). Conclusions Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. PMID:25744873

  14. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  15. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  16. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Guillermo; Beltrán, Belén

    2011-06-14

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC. Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient. The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death, for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise, encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  17. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  18. Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Lall, K B; Singhi, S; Gurnani, M; Singhi, P; Garg, O P

    1980-01-01

    One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower than that of the non-smokers at all ages, more so in regular than occasional smokers. Sixty-nine per cent of the smokers had mesomorphic type of body build; about 65% of the non-smokers had ectomorphic somatotype (P less than 0.001). Onset of puberty occurred significantly earlier among smokers compared with non-smokers, as was evident from the early appearance of genital stage 2, and an early and rapid increase in testicular size. Genital stage 2 appeared at a mean age of 11 years in smokers and 11.6 years in non-smokers. However, the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair was delayed. The possible significance of this is discussed. PMID:7241030

  19. Reasons for smoking cessation attempts among Japanese male smokers vary by nicotine dependence level: a cross-sectional study after the 2010 tobacco tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Shinichi; Momose, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between smoking cessation attempts during the previous 12 months, motivators to quit smoking and nicotine dependence levels among current male smokers after Japan's massive 2010 tobacco tax increase. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A self-reported questionnaire about smoking habits, nicotine dependence levels and factors identified as motivators to quit smoking was administered to 9378 employees working at a company located in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan (as of 1 October 2011). Participants A total of 2251 male current smokers 20–69 years old. Primary and secondary outcome measures Nicotine dependence level assessed by Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), smoking cessation attempts during the previous 12 months and motivators for smoking cessation. Results The proportion of current smokers who had attempted to quit smoking within the previous 12 months was 40.6%. Nicotine dependence level of current smokers was negatively associated with cessation attempts during the previous 12 months. Motivators for smoking cessation differed by nicotine dependence levels. ‘The rise in cigarette prices since October 2010’ as a smoking cessation motivator increased significantly at the medium nicotine dependence level (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.90); however, this association was not statistically significant for individuals with high nicotine dependence (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.92). ‘Feeling unhealthy’ was significantly negatively associated for medium (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.65) and high (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.71) nicotine dependence levels. Trend associations assessed by assigning ordinal numbers to total FTCD score for those two motivators were statistically significant. Conclusions The efficacy of smoking cessation strategies can be improved by considering the target group's nicotine dependence level. For smokers with medium and high nicotine dependence levels, more effective strategies aimed

  20. Comparison of Army Flight School Performance in Smokers and Nonsmokers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    memory function in smokers, and Hull (1924) found an increase in arithmetic ability among smokers compared to nonsmokers. Ague ’ (1974) found that smokers...9 Bibliography Ague ’, C. 1974. Cardiovascular variables, skin conductance and time estimation: Changes after the administration of small doses of...Relation to the Tasks of Today’s Aircrew . North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Report No. AGARD-CP-152. (February) Elgerot, A. 1976. Note on selective

  1. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  2. Demystifying the Enigma of Smoking – An Observational Comparative Study on Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nallakunta, Rajesh; Reddy, Sudhakara Reddy; Chennoju, Sai Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a hazardous habit which causes definite changes in the oral cavity, consequently there exist changes in the mucosa when subjected to smoking. Palatal mucosa is first to be affected. The present study determines the palatal status in reverse smokers and conventional smokers. Aim To study and compare the clinical, cytological and histopathological changes in palatal mucosa among reverse and conventional smokers. Materials and Methods Study sample was categorized into two groups. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of reverse smoking and Group 2 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of conventional smoking. Initially, clinical appearance of the palatal mucosa was recorded, followed by a cytological smear and biopsy of the involved area among all the subjects. The findings were studied clinically, the specimens were analysed cytologically and histopathologically, and compared among the two groups. Results The severity of clinical changes of the palatal mucosa among reverse smokers was statistically significant when compared to those of conventional smokers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in cytological staging between the groups with a p-value of 0.35. The histopathological changes in both the groups showed a significant difference with a p-value of 0.02. A significant positive correlation was observed between the clinical appearance, and cytological, histopathological changes. Conclusion Profound clinically aggressive changes were observed in group I compared to group II. Severity of dysplastic changes have been detected in few subjects through histopathological examination irrespective of no prominent clinical and cytological changes observed among the two groups. PMID:27190962

  3. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Lynch, David A.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Austin, John H. M.; Grenier, Philippe A.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Casaburi, Richard H.; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Washko, George R.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E.; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M.; Make, Barry J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. OBJECTIVE To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. RESULTS One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping

  4. DNA methylation in nasal epithelial cells from smokers: identification of ULBP3-related effects.

    PubMed

    Rager, Julia E; Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta L; Smeester, Lisa; Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2013-09-15

    We previously demonstrated that, in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from smokers, methylation of an antiviral gene was associated with impaired antiviral defense responses. To expand these findings and better understand biological mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke (CS)-induced modifications of host defense responses, we aimed to compare DNA methylation of genes that may play a role in antiviral response. We used a two-tiered analytical approach, where we first implemented a genome-wide strategy. NECs from smokers differed in the methylation levels of 390 genes, the majority (84%) of which showed decreased methylation in smokers. Secondly, we generated an a priori set of 161 antiviral response-related genes, of which five were differentially methylated in NEC from smokers (CCL2, FDPS, GSK3B, SOCS3, and ULBP3). Assessing these genes at the systems biology level revealed a protein interaction network associated with CS-induced epigenetic modifications involving SOCS3 and ULBP3 signaling, among others. Subsequent confirmation studies focused on SOCS3 and ULBP3, which were hypomethylated and hypermethylated, respectively. Expression of SOCS3 was increased, whereas ULBP3 expression was decreased in NECs from smokers. Addition of the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced ULBP3 expression in NECs from smokers. Furthermore, infection of differentiated NECs with influenza virus resulted in significantly lower levels of ULBP3 in cells from smokers. Taken together, our findings show that genomic DNA methylation profiles are altered in NECs from smokers and that these changes are associated with decreased antiviral host defense responses, indicating that epigenenic dysregulation of genes such as SOCS3 and ULBP3 likely impacts immune responses in the epithelium.

  5. Superoxide-mediated inactivation of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite formation by tobacco smoke in vascular endothelium: studies in cultured cells and smokers

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, Gonzalo; Calcerrada, Pablo; Piacenza, Lucia; Pizzano, Nelson; Radi, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is known to cause nitric oxide (·NO) inactivation and endothelial dysfunction. In this work we evaluated the interplay between ·NO and superoxide (O2·−) radicals and the consequent impact on ·NO bioavailability and nitroxidative stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and in smokers. Bovine aortic endothelial cells in the presence of CSE triggered O2·− production as indicated by spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance experiments. O2·− was produced both extracellulary (3.4 vs. 1.0 nmol·h−1·mg−1; CSE vs. control; cytochrome c3+ reduction assay) and intracellularly (40% inhibition of cytosolic aconitase). CSE also led to the production of peroxynitrite as evaluated by dihydrorhodamine oxidation and protein tyrosine nitration on cells. O2·− and peroxynitrite formation were decreased by ascorbate and α-tocopherol. Additionally, CSE led to the oxidation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase increasing the monomeric inactive form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Smokers and age-matched healthy volunteers were supplemented orally with 500 mg ascorbate plus 400 IU all-rac-α-tocopherol every 12 h for 165 days. Smokers had endothelial dysfunction compared with control subjects (95% confidence interval: 2.5, 8.3 vs. 10.6, 14.2; P < 0.05) as assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and plasma levels of protein 3-nitrotyrosine were 1.4-fold higher. The loss of flow-mediated dilation in smokers reverted after a long-term antioxidant supplementation (95% confidence interval: 13.9, 19.9; P < 0.05), reaching values comparable with the control population. Our data indicate that elements on tobacco smoke, most likely through redox cycling, divert ·NO toward peroxynitrite by inducing O2·− production in vascular endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19363134

  6. Health and economic effects from linking bedside and outpatient tobacco cessation services for hospitalized smokers in two large hospitals: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extended smoking cessation follow-up after hospital discharge significantly increases abstinence. Hospital smoke-free policies create a period of ‘forced abstinence’ for smokers, thus providing an opportunity to integrate tobacco dependence treatment, and to support post-discharge maintenance of hospital-acquired abstinence. This study is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1U01HL1053231). Methods/Design The Inpatient Technology-Supported Assisted Referral study is a multi-center, randomized clinical effectiveness trial being conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) and at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) hospitals in Portland, Oregon. The study assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of linking a practical inpatient assisted referral to outpatient cessation services plus interactive voice recognition (AR + IVR) follow-up calls, compared to usual care inpatient counseling (UC). In November 2011, we began recruiting 900 hospital patients age ≥18 years who smoked ≥1 cigarettes in the past 30 days, willing to remain abstinent postdischarge, have a working phone, live within 50 miles of the hospital, speak English, and have no health-related barriers to participation. Each site will randomize 450 patients to AR + IVR or UC using a 2:1 assignment strategy. Participants in the AR + IVR arm will receive a brief inpatient cessation consult plus a referral to available outpatient cessation programs and medications, and four IVR follow-up calls over seven weeks postdischarge. Participants do not have to accept the referral. At KPNW, UC participants will receive brief inpatient counseling and encouragement to self-enroll in available outpatient services. The primary outcome is self-reported thirty-day smoking abstinence at six months postrandomization for AR + IVR participants compared to usual care. Additional outcomes include self-reported and biochemically confirmed seven-day abstinence at

  7. Impulsivity and Cigarette Craving among Adolescent Daily and Occasional Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Burris, Jessica L.; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. Methods 106 smokers (ages 16–20) completed questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Results Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p’s>.16). Conclusions Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. PMID:25665916

  8. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, P<.001). Of those who met initial screening

  9. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Respiratory Complex-I in Never-Smoker Lung Cancer Patients Contribute to Lung Cancer Progression and associated with EGFR gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Santanu; Soudry, Ethan; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Shao, Chunbo; Yee, John; Lam, Stephan; Lam, Wan; Zhang, Wei; Gazdar, Adi F; Fisher, Paul B; Sidransky, David

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations were reported in different cancers. However, the nature and role of mtDNA mutation in never-smoker lung cancer patients including patients with EGFR and KRAS gene mutation are unknown. In the present study, we sequenced entire mitochondrial genome (16.5 kb) in matched normal and tumors obtained from 30 never-smoker and 30 current-smoker lung cancer patients, and determined the mtDNA content. All the patients’ samples were sequenced for KRAS (exon 2) and EGFR (exon 19 and 21) gene mutation. The impact of forced overexpression of a respiratory complex-I gene mutation was evaluated in a lung cancer cell line. We observed significantly higher (P=0.006) mtDNA mutation in the never-smokers compared to the current-smoker lung cancer patients. MtDNA mutation was significantly higher (P=0.026) in the never-smoker Asian compared to the current-smoker Caucasian patients’ population. MtDNA mutation was significantly (P=0.007) associated with EGFR gene mutation in the never-smoker patients. We also observed a significant increase (P=0.037) in mtDNA content among the never-smoker lung cancer patients. The majority of the coding mtDNA mutations targeted respiratory complex-I and forced overexpression of one of these mutations resulted in increased in vitro proliferation, invasion and superoxide production in lung cancer cells. We observed a higher prevalence and new relationship between mtDNA alterations among never-smoker lung cancer patients and EGFR gene mutation. Moreover, a representative mutation produced strong growth effects after forced overexpression in lung cancer cells. Signature mtDNA mutations provide a basis to develop novel biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for never-smoker lung cancer patients. PMID:21830212

  11. Genome-wide association study of genetic predictors of overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xifeng; Wang, Liang; Ye, Yuanqing; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Pu, Xia; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Roth, Jack A.; Marks, Randolph S.; Lippman, Scott M.; Chang, Joe Y.; Lu, Charles; Deschamps, Claude; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Wen-Chang; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chang, David W.; Li, Yan; Pankratz, V. Shane; Minna, John D.; Hong, Waun Ki; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    To identify the genetic factors that influence overall survival in never smokers who have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a consistency meta-analysis study utilizing genome-wide association approaches for overall survival in 327 never smoker NSCLC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center and 293 cases from the Mayo Clinic. We then performed a two-pronged validation of the top 25 variants that included additional validation in 1,256 NSCLC patients from Taiwan and assessment of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression of genes surrounding the top loci in 70 tumors and matched normal tissues. A total of 94 loci were significant for overall survival in both MD Anderson and Mayo studies in the consistency meta-analysis phase, with the top 25 variants reaching a p-value of 10−6. Two variants of these 25 were also significant in the Taiwanese population: rs6901416 (HR:1.44, 95%CI:1.01-2.06) and rs10766739 (HR:1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.51). These loci resulted in a reduction in median survival time of at least 8 and 5 months in three populations, respectively. An additional six variants (rs4237904, rs7976914, rs4970833, rs954785, rs485411, and rs10906104) were validated through eQTL analysis that identified significant correlations with expression levels of six genes (LEMD3, TMBIM, ATXN7L2, SHE, ITIH2, and NUDT5, respectively) in normal lung tissue. These genes were also significantly differentially expressed between the tumor and normal lung. These findings identify several novel, candidate prognostic markers for NSCLC in never smokers, with eQTL analysis suggesting a potential biological mechanism for a subset of these observed associations. PMID:23704207

  12. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior.

  13. High occurrence of thyroid multinodularity and low occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism among tobacco smokers in a large population study.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, N; Bülow, I; Laurberg, P; Perrild, H; Ovesen, L; Jørgensen, T

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco smoking increases the risk of goitre and Graves' disease, but the association with thyroid nodularity and hypothyroidism has not been settled. We investigated 4649 subjects from the general population with questionnaires, thyroid ultrasonography and blood tests. The results were analysed in multivariate regression models. Tobacco smoking was associated with an increased prevalence of thyroid multinodularity (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.5), but not with increased prevalence of solitary thyroid nodules. The tendency was for a stronger association in the area with the most pronounced iodine deficiency (P for interaction=0.08). Lower levels of serum TSH were found among tobacco smokers (P<0.001), but this association disappeared when adjustment was made for thyroid nodularity and thyroid Volume. The prevalence of elevated TSH levels was markedly reduced among smokers (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.33-0.67). No association was found between smoking and hyperthyroidism. The observed associations seem to be explainable by the blocking of iodine uptake and organification in the thyroid by thiocyanate, a degradation product of cyanide in tobacco smoke.

  14. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  15. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  16. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A.; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Dodd, Michael D.; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  17. Changing smokers' risk perceptions--for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Myers, Lynn B

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a smoking health message on smokers' comparative optimism. Two groups watched an anti-smoking scenario, with one group imagining being part of the scenario. Participants, including controls, completed comparative optimism ratings for four smoking-related illnesses. The intervention had negative consequences with both intervention groups reporting significantly higher comparative optimism versus the control group for all four smoking-related illnesses. It is concluded that media health messages can be powerful tools in changing comparative optimism but are influenced by peoples' prior perceptions. Health messages need to be systematically assessed to understand prior beliefs of the target audience.

  18. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  19. Framing Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels to Motivate Young Smokers to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Monique M.; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Evans, W. Douglas; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires new pictorial warnings for U.S. cigarette packs, but enactment has been delayed by tobacco industry lawsuits. Research can inform implementation of the pictorial warning requirement and identify ways to optimize their public health impact post-implementation. This study investigated the impact of warning label message framing on young smokers’ motivation to quit, examining cessation self-efficacy, and perceived risks as moderators of message framing impact. Methods: Smokers ages 18–30 (n = 740) completed baseline measures and were randomized to view 4 images of cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings featuring gain- or loss-framed messages. Motivation to quit was assessed after participants viewed the pack images. Linear models accounting for repeated measures and adjusting for baseline covariates examined the impact of message framing and interactions with baseline self-efficacy to quit and perceived risks of smoking. Results: Loss-framed warnings prompted significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high self-efficacy compared with smokers with low self-efficacy. Among smokers with low self-efficacy, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Gain-framed warnings generated significantly greater motivation to quit among smokers with high perceived risks compared with smokers with low perceived risks. Among smokers with high perceived risks, gain-framed messages were superior to loss-framed messages. Conclusions: A combination of pictorial warnings featuring risk-based (i.e., loss-framed) and efficacy-enhancing (i.e., gain-framed) information may promote better public health outcomes. Research is needed to investigate how strategically framed warning messages impact smokers’ behaviors based on their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs in real-world settings. PMID:25143295

  20. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  1. Smokers' beliefs about the relative safety of other tobacco products: findings from the ITC collaboration.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; McNeill, Ann; Borland, Ron; Hammond, David; King, Bill; Boudreau, Christian; Cummings, K Michael

    2007-10-01

    Most tobacco control efforts in western countries focus on the factory-made, mass-produced (FM) cigarette, whereas other tobacco products receive relatively little attention. Noncombusted tobacco products (i.e., referred to as smokeless tobacco), particularly Swedish-style snus, carry lower disease risks, compared with combusted tobacco products such as cigarettes. In this context, it is important to know what tobacco users believe about the relative harmfulness of various types of tobacco products. Data for this study came from random-digit-dialed telephone surveys of current smokers aged 18 or older in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Three waves of data, totaling 13,322 individuals, were assessed. Items assessed use of and beliefs about the relative harms of cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and FM and roll-your-own cigarettes, as well as sociodemographics and smoking behaviors. Cigars (2.8%-12.7%) were the other tobacco products most commonly used by current cigarette smokers, followed by pipes (0.3%-2.1%) and smokeless tobacco (0.0%-2.3%). A significant minority of smokers (12%-21%) used roll-your-own cigarettes at least some of the time. About one-quarter of smokers believed that pipes, cigars, or roll-your-own cigarettes were safer than FM cigarettes, whereas only about 13% responded correctly that smokeless tobacco was less hazardous than cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that use of other tobacco products was most strongly related to beliefs about the reduced harm of these other products. Use of other tobacco products was low but may be growing among smokers in the four countries studied. Smokers are confused about the relative harms of tobacco products. Health education efforts are needed to correct smoker misperceptions.

  2. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers: cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex-smokers were available from two population-based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty-two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P < 1.2 × 10(-6) , Bonferroni correction). The most significant genes were G protein-coupled receptor 15 (P < 1 × 10(-150) ) and leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (P < 1 × 10(-44) ). The smoking-related genes were enriched for immune system, blood coagulation, natural killer cell and cancer pathways. By taking the data of ex-smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis-expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression.

  3. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P < 1.2 × 10−6, Bonferroni correction). The most significant genes were G protein‐coupled receptor 15 (P < 1 × 10−150) and leucine‐rich repeat neuronal 3 (P < 1 × 10−44). The smoking‐related genes were enriched for immune system, blood coagulation, natural killer cell and cancer pathways. By taking the data of ex‐smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene

  4. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  5. Effect of a Mobile Phone Intervention on Quitting Smoking in a Young Adult Population of Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struik, Laura Louise; Hammond, David; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Norman, Cameron D; Whittaker, Robyn; Burns, Catherine M; Grindrod, Kelly A; Brown, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use remains the number one cause of preventable chronic disease and death in developed countries worldwide. In North America, smoking rates are highest among young adults. Despite that the majority of young adult smokers indicate wanting to quit, smoking rates among this age demographic have yet to decline. Helping young adults quit smoking continues to be a public health priority. Digital mobile technology presents a promising medium for reaching this population with smoking cessation interventions, especially because young adults are the heaviest users of this technology. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness of an evidence-informed mobile phone app for smoking cessation, Crush the Crave, on reducing smoking prevalence among young adult smokers. Methods A parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms will be conducted in Canada to evaluate Crush the Crave. In total, 1354 young adult smokers (19 to 29 years old) will be randomized to receive the evidence-informed mobile phone app, Crush the Crave, or an evidence-based self-help guide known as “On the Road to Quitting” (control) for a period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure is a 30-day point prevalence of abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include a 7-day point prevalence of abstinence, number of quit attempts, reduction in consumption of cigarettes, self-efficacy, satisfaction, app utilization metrics, and use of smoking cessation services. A cost-effectiveness analysis is included. Results This trial is currently open for recruitment. The anticipated completion date for the study is April 2016. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial will provide the evidence to move forward on decision making regarding the inclusion of technology-based mobile phone interventions as part of existing smoking cessation efforts made by health care providers. Evidence from the trial will also inform the development of future apps

  6. Heterogeneity of pulmonary perfusion as a mechanistic image-based phenotype in emphysema susceptible smokers

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Sara K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction and pathology of pulmonary vascular responses may serve as a precursor to smoking-associated emphysema. Although it is known that emphysematous destruction leads to vasculature changes, less is known about early regional vascular dysfunction which may contribute to and precede emphysematous changes. We sought to test the hypothesis, via multidetector row CT (MDCT) perfusion imaging, that smokers showing early signs of emphysema susceptibility have a greater heterogeneity in regional perfusion parameters than emphysema-free smokers and persons who had never smoked (NS). Assuming that all smokers have a consistent inflammatory response, increased perfusion heterogeneity in emphysema-susceptible smokers would be consistent with the notion that these subjects may have the inability to block hypoxic vasoconstriction in patchy, small regions of inflammation. Dynamic ECG-gated MDCT perfusion scans with a central bolus injection of contrast were acquired in 17 NS, 12 smokers with normal CT imaging studies (SNI), and 12 smokers with subtle CT findings of centrilobular emphysema (SCE). All subjects had normal spirometry. Quantitative image analysis determined regional perfusion parameters, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and mean transit time (MTT). Mean and coefficient of variation were calculated, and statistical differences were assessed with one-way ANOVA. MDCT-based MTT and PBF measurements demonstrate globally increased heterogeneity in SCE subjects compared with NS and SNI subjects but demonstrate similarity between NS and SNI subjects. These findings demonstrate a functional lung-imaging measure that provides a more mechanistically oriented phenotype that differentiates smokers with and without evidence of emphysema susceptibility. PMID:20368443

  7. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in low-income smokers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the leading avoidable cause of death in high-income countries. The smoking-related disease burden is borne primarily by the least educated and least affluent groups. Thus, there is a need for effective smoking cessation interventions that reach to, and are effective in this group. Research suggests that modest financial incentives are not very effective in helping smokers quit. What is not known is whether large financial incentives can enhance longer-term (1 year) smoking cessation rates, outside clinical and workplace settings. Trial design A randomized, parallel groups, controlled trial. Methods Participants: Eight hundred low-income smokers in Switzerland (the less affluent third of the population, based on fiscal taxation). Intervention: A smoking cessation program including: (a) financial incentives given during 6 months; and (b) Internet-based counseling. Financial rewards will be offered for biochemically verified smoking abstinence after 1, 2, and 3 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months, for a maximum of 1,500 CHF (1,250 EUR, 1,500 USD) for those abstinent at all time-points. All participants, including controls, will receive Internet-based, individually-tailored, smoking cessation counseling and self-help booklets, but there will be no in-person or telephone counseling, and participants will not receive medications. The control group will not receive financial incentives. Objective: To increase smoking cessation rates. Outcome: Smoking abstinence after 6 and 18 months, not contradicted by biochemical tests. We will assess relapse after the end of the intervention, to test whether 6-month effects translate into sustained abstinence 12 months after the incentives are withdrawn. Randomization: Will be done using sealed envelopes drawn by participants. Blinding: Is not possible in this context. Discussion Smoking prevention policies and interventions have been least effective in the least educated, low-income groups. Combining

  8. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  9. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  10. Current and never smokers: differentials in characteristics, knowledge and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional interview survey of tobacco use was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, comparing current smokers with never smokers. Among men, the risk of current tobacco use was significantly higher among married participants (OR = 1.74), especially those with low educational or occupational status. In contrast, although few women smoked, tobacco use was significantly higher among those holding a university degree (OR = 15.33). Never smokers were significantly more knowledgeable than current smokers about tobacco-related health hazards. Never smokers had significantly better perceptions of the danger of tobacco use, susceptibility to health-related hazards and the benefits of being tobacco-free. Multivariate analysis revealed that tobacco use is independently predicted by participants' sex, age and educational attainment as well as their perceptions.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity risk reduction in smokers: A randomized control trial examining effects on panic.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Norman B; Raines, Amanda M; Allan, Nicholas P; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Empirical evidence has identified several risk factors for panic psychopathology, including smoking and anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related sensations). Smokers with elevated AS are therefore a particularly vulnerable population for panic. Yet, there is little knowledge about how to reduce risk of panic among high AS smokers. The present study prospectively evaluated panic outcomes within the context of a controlled randomized risk reduction program for smokers. Participants (N = 526) included current smokers who all received a state-of-the-art smoking cessation intervention with approximately half randomized to the AS reduction intervention termed Panic-smoking Program (PSP). The primary hypotheses focus on examining the effects of a PSP on panic symptoms in the context of this vulnerable population. Consistent with prediction, there was a significant effect of treatment condition on AS, such that individuals in the PSP condition, compared to those in the control condition, demonstrated greater decreases in AS throughout treatment and the follow-up period. In addition, PSP treatment resulted in lower rates of panic-related symptomatology. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that reductions in AS resulted in lower panic symptoms. The present study provides the first empirical evidence that brief, targeted psychoeducational interventions can mitigate panic risk among smokers.

  12. Anxiety sensitivity risk reduction in smokers: A randomized control trial examining effects on panic

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Raines, Amanda M.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence has identified several risk factors for panic psychopathology, including smoking and anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related sensations). Smokers with elevated AS are therefore a particularly vulnerable population for panic. Yet, there is little knowledge about how to reduce risk of panic among high AS smokers. The present study prospectively evaluated panic outcomes within the context of a controlled randomized risk reduction program for smokers. Participants (N = 526) included current smokers who all received a state-of-the-art smoking cessation intervention with approximately half randomized to the AS reduction intervention termed Panic-smoking Program (PSP). The primary hypotheses focus on examining the effects of a PSP on panic symptoms in the context of this vulnerable population. Consistent with prediction, there was a significant effect of treatment condition on AS, such that individuals in the PSP condition, compared to those in the control condition, demonstrated greater decreases in AS throughout treatment and the follow-up period. In addition, PSP treatment resulted in lower rates of panic-related symptomatology. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that reductions in AS resulted in lower panic symptoms. The present study provides the first empirical evidence that brief, targeted psychoeducational interventions can mitigate panic risk among smokers. PMID:26752327

  13. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  14. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  15. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  16. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sebrié, Ernesto; Walsemann, Katrina M; Bottai, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change. PMID:21243195

  17. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. Methods We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). Conclusions These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers.

  18. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  19. Current insights into the mechanisms and development of treatments for heavy drinking cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Ray, Lara A.; Yardley, Megan M.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use at the epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular levels, and this co-use creates substantial impediments to smoking cessation among smokers who are also heavy drinkers. Compared with individuals who only smoke, those who both drink and smoke heavily experience more severe health consequences and have greater difficulty in quitting smoking. During smoking abstinence, greater alcohol use is associated with decreased odds of smoking cessation, and smokers are substantially more likely to experience a smoking lapse during drinking episodes. As heavy drinking smokers are less responsive to the currently available pharmacological treatments, this subgroup of high-risk substance users possesses a unique clinical profile and treatment needs. Thus, treatment development for heavy drinking smokers represents a significant and understudied research area within the field of smoking cessation. This review will briefly describe findings from epidemiological, behavioral, and molecular studies illustrating alcohol and tobacco co-use and identify how the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the interaction of alcohol and nicotine may inform the development of targeted treatments for this unique population of smokers. PMID:27162709

  20. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  1. Estimation of major immunoglobulins in smokers and gutkha chewers

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Ketankumar Jayantilal; Chawda, Jyoti G

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the level of IgG and IgA major immunoglobulins in patients having the habit of smoking, gutkha chewing and in patients without any tobacco habit as control. Materials and Methods: Estimation of major immunoglobulins IgG and IgA was carried out by automated Nephelometry method in ten patients (control group), forty patients who had habit of smoking either bidi or cigarette and forty patients who had the habit of gutkha chewing. Among forty patients who smoked, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had homogenous leukoplakia. Among the forty patients who had habit of gutkha chewing, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The obtained data were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results: IgG and IgA levels were higher in smokers and gutkha chewers as compared to control group and were higher in gutkha chewers as compared to smokers. IgG and IgA levels of non- lesional smokers and gutkha chewers showed no change as compared to the controls while it was increased in patients with homogenous leukoplakia and patients with OSMF as compared to control group. IgG and IgA levels were also significantly higher in patients with OSMF as compared to that of homogenous leukoplakia. IgG and IgA levels were higher in all the grades of OSMF as compared to the controls and both IgG and IgA levels were directly correlated with the grades of OSMF. Conclusion: Higher major immunoglobulins levels in present study among the study groups indicate the use of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis and would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of the lesions. PMID:27601812

  2. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress.

  3. MD2 expression is reduced in large airways of smokers and COPD smokers.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Pipitone, Loredana; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling requires a number of accessory proteins to initiate a signal. MD-2 is one of the accessory proteins with a relevant role in lipopolysaccharide responses. Although cigarette smoke increases TLR4 expression, TLR4 signaling is altered in smokers and in smokers COPD patients. The main aims of this study were to explore whether MD2 is altered in large and small airways of COPD and of smokers without COPD. The expression of MD2 ex vivo was assessed by immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens from current smokers COPD (s-COPD; n = 14), smokers without COPD (S; n = 7), and from non-smoker non-COPD subjects (C; n = 11. The in vitro effects of cigarette smoke extracts on the MD2 expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) were also assessed by flow cytometry. MD2 is reduced in the epithelium and in the submucosa in large airways but not in the epithelium and in the submucosa in small airways of smokers and of s-COPD. The expression of MD2 in the submucosa of the large airways is significantly higher in comparison to the submucosa of the small airways in all the studied groups. In vitro, cigarette smoke is able to increase TLR4 but it reduces MD2 in a dose-dependent manner in bronchial epithelial cells. Cigarette smoke may alter innate immune responses reducing the expression of the MD2, a molecule with an important role in TLR4 signaling.

  4. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers’ responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  5. Sex-Related Cochlear Impairment in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lisowska, Grażyna; Jochem, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Agata; Misiołek, Maciej; Ścierski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of studies have documented the influence of cigarette smoking on hearing. However, the association between sex and hearing impairment in smokers as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to analyze sex-specific effects of smoking on hearing via conventional and ultra-high-frequency pure tone audiometry (PTA), and OAEs, specifically spontaneous OAEs, click-evoked OAEs, and distortion-product OAEs. Material/Methods The study included 84 healthy volunteers aged 25–45 years (mean 34), among them 46 women (25 non-smokers and 21 smokers) and 38 men (16 non-smokers and 22 smokers). The protocol of the study included otoscopic examination, tympanometry, low-, moderate-, and ultra-high-frequency PTA, evaluation of spontaneous click-evoked (CEAOEs) and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), assessment of the DP-grams for 2f1-f2 (f1 from 977 to5 164 Hz), and input/output function at L2 primary tone level of 40–70 dB SPL. Results Smokers and non-smokers did not differ significantly in terms of their hearing thresholds assessed with tone audiometry. Male smokers presented with significantly lower levels of CEAOEs and DPOAEs than both male non-smokers and female smokers. Conclusions Smoking does not modulate a hearing threshold determined with PTA at low, moderate, and ultra-high frequencies, but causes a significant decrease in OAE levels. This effect was observed only in males, which implies that they are more susceptible to smoking-induced hearing impairment. Sex-specific differences in otoacoustic emissions level may reflect influences of genetic, hormonal, behavioral, and/or environmental factors. PMID:28110343

  6. Systemic signs of neutrophil mobilization during clinically stable periods and during exacerbations in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Andelid, Kristina; Andersson, Anders; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Åhrén, Christina; Jirholt, Pernilla; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann; Lindén, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background It is still unclear whether signs of neutrophil mobilization in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease represent true systemic events and how these relate to bacterial colonization in the airways. In this study, we evaluated these issues during clinically stable periods and during exacerbations in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB). Methods Over a period of 60 weeks for each subject, blood samples were repeatedly collected from 60 smokers with OPD-CB during clinically stable periods, as well as during and after exacerbations. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) protein and mRNA, growth of bacteria in sputum, and clinical parameters were analyzed. Ten asymptomatic smokers and ten never-smokers were included as controls. Results We found that, during clinically stable periods, neutrophil and NE protein concentrations were increased in smokers with OPD-CB and in the asymptomatic smokers when compared with never-smokers. During exacerbations, neutrophil and MPO protein concentrations were further increased in smokers with OPD-CB, without a detectable increase in the corresponding mRNA during exacerbations. However, MPO and NE protein and mRNA displayed positive correlations. During exacerbations, only increased neutrophil concentrations were associated with growth of bacteria in sputum. Among patients with low transcutaneous oxygen saturation during exacerbations, PaO2 (partial oxygen pressure) correlated with concentrations of MPO and NE protein and neutrophils in a negative manner. Conclusion There are signs of systemic neutrophil mobilization during clinically stable periods and even more so during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this condition, MPO and NE may share a cellular origin, but its location remains uncertain. Factors other than local bacteria, including hypoxemia, may be important for driving systemic signs of neutrophil mobilization

  7. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  8. Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years.

  9. Successful smoking cessation is associated with prefrontal cortical function during a Stroop task: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Wolff, Max; Benz, Annika; Goschke, Thomas

    2015-10-30

    Although many smokers try to quit, relatively few are successful in their attempts. Here we investigated whether the ability to quit smoking is related to behavioral and neural measures of cognitive control. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a counting Stroop task was used to measure cognitive control in ex-smokers (N=10) who had successfully quit smoking and smokers (N=10) who continuously failed to quit smoking. Behavioral results showed a significant Stroop effect in ex-smokers and smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited less Stroop interference, indicating superior cognitive control compared with smokers. Furthermore, when incongruent trials were contrasted with congruent trials, ex-smokers showed stronger BOLD activity than smokers in the right superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. Although the present study does not permit us to draw strong conclusions regarding causality, the results suggest that successful smoking cessation may be mediated by superior cognitive control.

  10. Multicolor holography: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Rosa M.; Bernardo, Luis M.; Pinto, Joao L.

    2000-10-01

    A multicolor holography study case will be presented with emphasis on color control in different silver-halide materials. It has been systematized in order to compare the results obtained with Agfa 8E 75HD to those with Slavich PFG-01. Some experiments were made and the emulsion was manipulated before exposure to achieve high quality multicolored white light reflection holograms. This work has therefore been developed in order to obtain the various colors in a very well controlled way.

  11. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  12. Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film

    PubMed Central

    McCool, J; Cameron, L; Petrie, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films. Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools and 10 secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Results: Appraisals of smokers in film were strongly influenced by age and sex with younger adolescents and males more likely to see female smokers as sexy, intelligent and healthy whereas older students and females more often appraised female smokers as stressed bored and depressed. Overall, image stereotypes (sexy, stylish) were more likely to be significantly associated with smoking susceptibility than emotional sensitivity stereotypes (stressed, depressed etc). Conclusions: Adolescents differ significantly in their appraisal of smokers in films; however, image based stereotypes, rather than emotional sensitivity stereotypes, are significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. PMID:15333889

  13. Development of a Culturally Targeted Smoking Cessation Intervention for African American Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; King, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development a culturally targeted (CT) smoking cessation intervention for low-to-middle income African–American smokers. Based on theoretically based guidelines, modifications were made to a standard treatment manual for group-based smoking cessation counseling that incorporates cognitive-behavioral, motivational, and twelve step skills. Approximately 41% of the standard treatment materials were modified, and four new modules were developed. A pilot study was conducted to compare acceptability, feasibility and early outcome indicates in African American smokers randomized to the CT intervention compared with existing data from African American smokers treated using a non-targeted standard approach (ST). Outcomes from the CT pilot study were promising: results showed high levels of feasibility, acceptability and better adherence to nicotine replacement therapy, higher quit rates, and better retention and follow-up compared with the ST. Findings suggest that a culturally targeted and intensive group based smoking cessation treatment is plausibly effective in improving smoking cessation outcomes in African American smokers, warranting a larger randomized trial. PMID:19728056

  14. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  15. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  16. Oesophageal cancer in never-smokers and never-drinkers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K K; Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Lam, T H

    1995-03-16

    Alcohol, tobacco and diet are the most important determinants of oesophageal cancer. Previous studies which examined smoking in non-drinkers and drinking in non-smokers did not report the main effects of dietary factors or the smoking and drinking effects adjusted for dietary factors. Data from a hospital-based case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese were used to examine the effects of dietary variables as well as tobacco and alcohol in never-drinkers and never-smokers. Among the 400 cases, there were 68 never-smokers and 53 never-drinkers; 540 were never-smokers and 407 were never-drinkers among 1598 controls. In never-smokers, alcohol drinking was strongly associated with risk. Use of green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. Among never-drinkers, smokers had increased risk, but the protective effect of vegetables and fruits did not reach statistical significance. In never-smokers and in never-drinkers alike, frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and being born in Teochew or Hokkien were associated with increased risks. This study provides further support for the independent effects of alcohol, tobacco and diet in oesophageal cancer.

  17. Opioid antagonism of cannabinoid effects: differences between marijuana smokers and nonmarijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    In non-human animals, opioid antagonists block the reinforcing and discriminative-stimulus effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while in human marijuana smokers, naltrexone (50 mg) enhances the reinforcing and subjective effects of THC. The objective of this study was to test a lower, more opioid-selective dose of naltrexone (12 mg) in combination with THC. The influence of marijuana-use history and sex was also investigated. Naltrexone (0, 12 mg) was administered 30 min before oral THC (0-40 mg) or methadone (0-10 mg) capsules, and subjective effects, task performance, pupillary diameter, and cardiovascular parameters were assessed in marijuana smoking (Study 1; n=22) and in nonmarijuana smoking (Study 2; n=21) men and women. The results show that in marijuana smokers, low-dose naltrexone blunted the intoxicating effects of a low THC dose (20 mg), while increasing ratings of anxiety at a higher THC dose (40 mg). In nonmarijuana smokers, low-dose naltrexone shifted THC's effects in the opposite direction, enhancing the intoxicating effects of a low THC dose (2.5 mg) and decreasing anxiety ratings following a high dose of THC (10 mg). There were no sex differences in these interactions, although among nonmarijuana smokers, men were more sensitive to the effects of THC alone than women. To conclude, a low, opioid-selective dose of naltrexone blunted THC intoxication in marijuana smokers, while in nonmarijuana smokers, naltrexone enhanced THC intoxication. These data demonstrate that the interaction between opioid antagonists and cannabinoid agonists varies as a function of marijuana use history.

  18. Gene expression subtraction of non-cancerous lung from smokers and non-smokers with adenocarcinoma, as a predictor for smokers developing lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stav, David; Bar, Ilan; Sandbank, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in developed countries. Adenocarcinoma is becoming the most common form of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. Long-term cigarettes smoking may be characterized by genetic alteration and diffuse injury of the airways surface, named field cancerization, while cancer in non-smokers is usually clonally derived. Detecting specific genes expression changes in non-cancerous lung in smokers with adenocarcinoma may give us instrument for predicting smokers who are going to develop this malignancy. Objectives We described the gene expression in non-cancerous lungs from 21 smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma and compare it to gene expression in non-cancerous lung tissue from 10 non-smokers with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Total RNA was isolated from peripheral non-cancerous lung tissue. The cDNA was hybridized to the U133A GeneChip array. Hierarchical clustering analysis on genes obtained from smokers and non-smokers, after subtracting were exported to the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software for further analysis. Results The genes subtraction resulted in disclosure of 36 genes with high score. They were subsequently mapped and sorted based on location, cellular components, and biochemical activity. The gene functional analysis disclosed 20 genes, which are involved in cancer process (P = 7.05E-5 to 2.92E-2). Conclusion Detected genes may serve as a predictor for smokers who may be at high risk of developing lung cancer. In addition, since these genes originating from non-cancerous lung, which is the major area of the lungs, a sample from an induced sputum may represent it. PMID:18811983

  19. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ≥ 1 μg/L, in addition to CBD ≥ 1 μg/L or CBN ≥ 1 μg/L suggested recent cannabis intake (≤13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ≥ 1 μg/L or THC ≥ 2 μg/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (≥30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers.

  20. Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yingling, Christin M.; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S.; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non–small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non–small cell lung cancer (≤10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8–89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II–IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

  1. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: MOLECULAR PROFILES AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Charles M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Harris, Curtis C.; Herman, James G.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Pao, William; Schwartz, Ann G.; Vahakangas, Kirsi H.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. While a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers. PMID:19755392

  3. Independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guoxi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; He, Baochang

    2017-02-04

    This study aims to evaluate the independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer risk among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NS/ND). A hospital-based case-control study was performed in Fujian, China. 421 cases and frequency-matched 1398 controls were included without tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of tea and milk consumption with oral cancer risk. Tea and milk consumption were significantly associated with decreased risk of oral cancer, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54-0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.88), respectively. According to subgroup analysis, the inverse associations between tea consumption and oral cancer risk were only observed among the elders (>60 years) and urban residents. While the protect effect of milk drinking was more obvious in males, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), urban residents and those age ≤ 60 years. Additionally, a significantly multiplicative interaction between tea and milk consumption was observed for oral cancer risk (P = 0.001). The present study is the first to simultaneously assess the association of tea consumption and milk drinking with oral cancer risk. The results suggest that tea and milk consumption are independent protective factors for oral cancer among NS/ND, with a joint effect between them.

  4. Ethnic differences in smoking rate, nicotine dependence, and cessation-related variables among adult smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pokhrel, Pallav

    2012-12-01

    This study tests hypotheses concerning ethnic disparities in daily cigarette smoking rates, nicotine dependence, cessation motivation, and knowledge and past use of cessation methods (e.g., counseling) and products (e.g., nicotine patch) in a multiethnic sample of smokers in Hawaii. Previous research has revealed significant differences in smoking prevalence among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Caucasians in Hawaii. However, no study has examined differences in dependence and cessation-related knowledge and practices among smokers representing these ethnic groups. Participants were recruited through newspaper advertisement as part of a larger smoking cessation intervention study. Participants (N = 919; M age = 45.6, SD = 12.7; 48 % women) eligible to participate provided self-report data through mail and telephone. Participants included 271 self-identified Native Hawaiians, 63 Filipinos, 316 Caucasians, 145 "East Asians" (e.g., Japanese, Chinese), and 124 "other" (e.g., Hispanic, African-American). Pair-wise comparisons of means, controlling for age, gender, income, education, and marital status, indicated that Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly higher daily smoking rates and higher levels of nicotine dependence compared to East Asians. Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly lower motivation to quit smoking than Caucasians. Further, Filipino and Native Hawaiian smokers reported lesser knowledge of cessation methods and products, and less frequent use of these methods and products than Caucasians. The results suggest that Native Hawaiian and Filipino smokers could be underserved with regard to receiving cessation-related advice, and may lack adequate access to smoking cessation products and services. In addition, cessation interventions tailored for Native Hawaiian smokers could benefit from a motivational enhancement component.

  5. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1+ Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1+ smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1+ smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1− smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1+ smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1− healthy nonsmokers, HIV1− healthy smokers, HIV1− smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1+ nonsmokers, and HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1− smokers with low DLCO and HIV1+ smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1+ individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1+ smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  6. Most Smokers with Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163073.html Most Smokers With Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit But psychiatrists and ... News) -- Nearly six in 10 Americans with severe mental illness smoke, and a new study suggests that many ...

  7. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  8. Changes in the profiles of smokers seeking cessation treatment and in its effectiveness in Galicia (Spain) 2001–10

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, the prevalence of daily smokers has decreased in all developed countries due to a great variety of factors. Despite this decrease, the effectiveness of clinical treatments has decreased and several studies report a change in smokers’ characteristics. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the changes in the characteristics of Spanish smokers who seek smoking cessation treatment between 2001 and 2010 and the changes in the effectiveness of such treatment. Methods The sample was made up of 870 smokers who sought psychological treatment for giving up smoking at the Smoking Cessation Unit in the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) during the period 2001 to 2010. Results Smokers in the 2006–2010 group, compared to those in the 2001–2005 group, were older, smoked fewer cigarettes per day and of a brand with fewer mg/nicotine, had been smoking longer, were less motivated to give up smoking, and had more antecedents of depression. Quit rates were validated by testing smokers' carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Percentages of abstinence were higher in the 2001–2005 group than in the 2006–2010 group (58.7% vs. 52.15 at the end of treatment, p = 0.05); 30.8% vs. 24.2% at 6 months follow-up, p = 0.031; 27.5% vs. 22% at 12 months follow-up, p = 0.059). Although abstinence decreased more than 5% in the 2006–2010 group there were no differences between the two groups in nicotine dependence. Those participants who did not assist to the follow-up were considered smokers at pretreatment level. Conclusions In Spain there has been a qualitative change in the profile of the smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. Treatment effectiveness has decreased, and the variables predicting intervention outcome have changed. PMID:24938635

  9. Intention to quit betel quid: A comparison of betel quid chewers and cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Suguitan, Gil S.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the global significance of betel quid chewing and the associated health risks, there have been no studies assessing chewers' intention to quit. Given the difficulties associated with quitting betel quid and the serious health consequences of chewing, it is important for researchers to develop interventions aimed at helping chewers quit. Betel quid chewers experience similar patterns of dependence and withdrawal symptoms as tobacco smokers, and the use of both substances causes serious adverse health effects. Therefore, it is possible that intention to quit betel quid and tobacco would also be similar. If similarities were found, researchers could look to existing tobacco cessation interventions to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. In the current study we sought to understand chewers' intention to quit and how it compares to smokers' intention to quit cigarettes. Methods A total of 351 adult betel quid chewers from Guam were compared against 1,555 adult tobacco users from Hawaii. These comparisons were made possible because of the deliberate use of identical questionnaire items (mutatis mutandis) for betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking. Results Smokers reported higher levels of wanting to quit, intending to quit, and wishing they have never started in the first place compared to chewers (p's < .0001). There were no differences across groups with regard to having a plan for how to quit and when to quit, with half of the samples reporting not having a plan for how or when to quit. Conclusion Both smokers and chewers want to quit and intend to quit, but do not have plans of when or how to quit. A deeper understanding of chewers' intention to quit and its similarities to smokers' intention to quit could be used to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. PMID:24984674

  10. Use of Tobacco Cessation Treatments Among Young Adult Smokers: 2005 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Sporer, Amy K.; Pugach, Oksana; Campbell, Richard T.; Emery, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared use of smoking cessation treatments and factors associated with treatment use among young adult smokers and other adult smokers. Methods. We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey core and cancer control supplement. The sample consisted of 6511 current smokers, of whom 759 were aged 18–24 years. Our analyses were weighted to account for differential sampling probabilities and nonresponse rates. We compared continuous measures using the t test; logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and confidence intervals. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of treatment use. Results. Behavioral treatment use was infrequent among all smokers (4%–5%). Young adult smokers were less likely than other smokers to use pharmacotherapy (18% vs 32%). Correlates of pharmacotherapy use for young adult smokers were receiving advice from a health care provider, heavier smoking, and higher educational attainment. Compared with other smokers, young adult smokers were less likely to have received advice to quit from a health care provider (49% vs 60%). Conclusions. Evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments are underused by young adult smokers. PMID:17600243

  11. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  12. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  13. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  14. Effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in stop smoking service in reaching and supporting disadvantaged UK smokers to quit

    PubMed Central

    Venn, Andrea; Dickinson, Anne; Murray, Rachael; Jones, Laura; Li, Jinshuo; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background In countries where there are large disparities in smoking with persistent high rates among disadvantaged groups, there is a need to ensure that stop smoking services (SSS) reach such smokers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in, community-based SSS in reaching more disadvantaged smokers, particularly those from routine and manual (RM) occupation groups, than standard services; secondary aims were to evaluate effectiveness in reaching those who had not previously accessed SSS, triggering unplanned quit behaviour, helping people quit and cost-effectiveness. Methods Following a 4-week pilot period, a mobile drop-in SSS was delivered across various public locations in Nottingham City, UK for 6 months, offering behavioural and pharmacological support via one-to-one consultations with trained cessation advisors. Detailed demographic and smoking behaviour data were collected from all clients accessing the mobile SSS, and Nottingham's standard SSS for comparison. Results Compared with smokers accessing the standard SSS (n=1856), mobile SSS smokers (n=811) were significantly more likely to be from the RM group (33.3% vs 27.2%, p=0.002), and to be first-time SSS users (67.8% vs 59.3%, p<0.001). Nearly 1 in 10 smokers setting a quit date through the mobile SSS had no prior quit intentions. The cost per smoker setting a quit date for the mobile SSS was only slightly higher than the standard SSS (£224 vs £202). Conclusions A mobile drop-in SSS is an effective way of reaching more disadvantaged smokers from RM occupations, as well as those who have not previously accessed standard SSS and those without prior quit intentions. PMID:25260749

  15. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other

  16. Characterizing and identifying "hard-core" smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; Gilpin, E A; Ake, C; Farkas, A J; Pierce, J P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Some smokers may never quit. Depending on how many of these "hard-core" smokers exist, tobacco control efforts could reach the limits of a minimum achievable smoking prevalence. We defined the hard core as heavy smokers with weak quitting histories who expect never to quit smoking. We compared them with other smokers and analyzed whether they represent a meaningful barrier to further reducing smoking prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Surveys (18616 adults; response rate = 72.9%). RESULTS: In 1996, 5.2% of California smokers 26 years and older (1.3% of the California population) were hard-core smokers. Compared with other smokers, hard-core smokers were more likely to be retired non-Hispanic White males, with 12 years or less of education and incomes below $30,000 a year, who live alone. They began smoking at younger ages and attributed fewer negative health consequences to smoking than other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco control efforts have a long way to go before they "hit the wall." Nonetheless, the group of hard-core smokers represents a challenge because they appear to be largely unaffected by the messages of tobacco control. PMID:10705856

  17. Nicotine reinforcement in never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Angela N.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Reissig, Chad J.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Global tobacco-related mortality dwarfs that of all other drugs. Nicotine is believed to be the primary agent responsible for tobacco use and addiction. However, nicotine is a relatively weak and inconsistent reinforcer in nonhumans and nicotine reinforcement has not been demonstrated in never-smokers. Objectives This study investigated the discriminative, subjective, and reinforcing effects of nicotine in never-smokers. Methods Eighteen never-smokers (<50 lifetime nicotine exposures) participated in a double-blind study. During a drug discrimination phase, volunteers ingested oral nicotine and placebo capsules (quasi-random order) at least 2 hours apart and rated subjective effects repeatedly for 2 hours after ingestion in daily sessions. Blocks of 10 sessions were continued until significant discrimination was achieved (p≤.05, binomial test; ≥8 of 10). Following discrimination, nicotine choice was tested by having volunteers choose which capsule set to ingest on each daily session. Successive blocks of 10 sessions were conducted until choice for nicotine or placebo met significance within each volunteer (≥8 of 10 sessions). Results All 18 volunteers significantly discriminated nicotine from placebo; the lowest dose discriminated ranged from 1.0–4.0 mg/70kg. Nine volunteers significantly chose nicotine (choosers) and nine significantly chose placebo (nicotine avoiders). The choosers reported predominately positive nicotine subjective effects (e.g., alert/attentive, good effects, liking), while avoiders tended to report negative effects (e.g., dizzy, upset stomach, disliking). Both choosers and avoiders attributed their choice to the qualitative nature of drug effects. Conclusions These results provide the first evidence that nicotine can function as a reinforcer in some never-smokers. PMID:26345343

  18. Spontaneous action representation in smokers when watching movie characters smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dylan D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-01-19

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontoparietal network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan, or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and 17 nonsmokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowed us to keep both smoking and nonsmoking participants naive to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by movie scenes of smoking was contrasted with nonsmoking control scenes that were matched for frequency and duration. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking versus control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking.

  19. In axial spondyloarthritis, never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers show a gradient of increasing disease severity - results from the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis (SIRAS).

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2016-11-29

    Objectives To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics/quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. Methods The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis indices of disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI), was obtained from medical records. Postal questionnaires provided information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire; ASQoL). Linear and logistic regression quantified the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, education and alcohol status. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 946 participants provided data (male 73.5%, mean age 52yrs). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers experienced poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5; 0.2 to 0.9) and BASFI (β = 0.8; 0.4 to 1.2), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL, β = 1.5; 0.7 to 2.3). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported lower disease activity (BASDAI, β = -0.5; -1.0 to -0.04) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL, β = -1.2; -2.3 to -0.2). They also were more likely to have a uveitis history (OR = 2.4; 1.5 to 3.8). Conclusions Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than never smokers. However, we provide new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking.

  1. Assessment of Tear Film Quality among Smokers Using Tear Ferning Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Adil; Alanazi, Saud A.; Abusharaha, Ali; Fagehi, Raied

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the ocular tear film. Methods. Thirty healthy young male cigarette smokers (20–38 years old) and 30 healthy age matched nonsmokers were enrolled in the study. McMonnies questionnaire, slit lamp, and PRT test were used to screen the subjects. Tear samples were collected from the right eyes and tear ferning patterns were observed and graded. Results. The mean MacMonnies scores and TF grades were significantly higher in the smoker subjects (mean ± SD = 9.83 ± 5.22 and 0.96 ± 0.54, resp.) compared to nonsmokers (mean ± SD = 5.96 ± 3.06 and 0.41 ± 0.38, resp.). The mean values obtained from PRT and TBUT tests were 22.23 ± 6.35 mm and 12.17 ± 3.81 s for smokers and 22.16 ± 5.63 mm and 14.13 ± 2.62 s for nonsmokers, respectively. Strong correlations were found between MacMonnies scores and both PRT (r = 0.596) and TF (r = 0.516). There was statistically significant difference in TF grades (p = 0.00), TBUT (p = 0.036) and McMonnies (p = 0.02) between smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking could have a significant effect on the tear film quality of the eye. PMID:28003910

  2. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area–CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 μm) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 μm), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 μm, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 μm, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 μm, P < 0.0001) than ex-smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  3. Metabolomic profiles of current cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-Ching; Lan, Renny S; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Cheema, Amrita K; Ressom, Habtom W; Loffredo, Christopher A; Pickworth, Wallace B; Shields, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    Smoking-related biomarkers for lung cancer and other diseases are needed to enhance early detection strategies and to provide a science base for tobacco product regulation. An untargeted metabolomics approach by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) totaling 957 assays was used in a novel experimental design where 105 current smokers smoked two cigarettes 1 h apart. Blood was collected immediately before and after each cigarette allowing for within-subject replication. Dynamic changes of the metabolomic profiles from smokers' four blood samples were observed and biomarkers affected by cigarette smoking were identified. Thirty-one metabolites were definitively shown to be affected by acute effect of cigarette smoking, uniquely including menthol-glucuronide, the reduction of glutamate, oleamide, and 13 glycerophospholipids. This first time identification of a menthol metabolite in smokers' blood serves as proof-of-principle for using metabolomics to identify new tobacco-exposure biomarkers, and also provides new opportunities in studying menthol-containing tobacco products in humans. Gender and race differences also were observed. Network analysis revealed 12 molecules involved in cancer, notably inhibition of cAMP. These novel tobacco-related biomarkers provide new insights to the effects of smoking which may be important in carcinogenesis but not previously linked with tobacco-related diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Alcohol and lung cancer risk among never smokers: A pooled analysis from the international lung cancer consortium and the SYNERGY study.

    PubMed

    Fehringer, Gordon; Brenner, Darren R; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Lan, Qing; Vineis, Paolo; Johansson, Mattias; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Stucker, Isabelle; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Christiani, David C; Hong, Yun-Chul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Morgenstern, Hal; Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Rennert, Gad; McLaughlin, John R; Harris, Curtis C; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J; Zauderer, Marjorie; Barros Dios, Juan M; Ruano Raviña, Alberto; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita; Lazarus, Philip; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Le Marchand, Loic; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Duell, Eric J; Andrew, Angeline S; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Consonni, Dario; Olsson, Ann; Straif, Kurt; Hung, Rayjean J

    2017-05-01

    It is not clear whether alcohol consumption is associated with lung cancer risk. The relationship is likely confounded by smoking, complicating the interpretation of previous studies. We examined the association of alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in a large pooled international sample, minimizing potential confounding of tobacco consumption by restricting analyses to never smokers. Our study included 22 case-control and cohort studies with a total of 2548 never-smoking lung cancer patients and 9362 never-smoking controls from North America, Europe and Asia within the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) and SYNERGY Consortium. Alcohol consumption was categorized into amounts consumed (grams per day) and also modelled as a continuous variable using restricted cubic splines for potential non-linearity. Analyses by histologic sub-type were included. Associations by type of alcohol consumed (wine, beer and liquor) were also investigated. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk with evidence most strongly supporting lower risk for light and moderate drinkers relative to non-drinkers (>0-4.9 g per day: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90; 5-9.9 g per day: OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99; 10-19.9 g per day: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.96). Inverse associations were found for consumption of wine and liquor, but not beer. The results indicate that alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, particularly among subjects with low to moderate consumption levels, and among wine and liquor drinkers, but not beer drinkers. Although our results should have no relevant bias from the confounding effect of smoking we cannot preclude that confounding by other factors contributed to the observed associations. Confounding in relation to the non-drinker reference category may be of particular importance.

  5. Exposure to Nicotine and Carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native Cigarette Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Renner, Caroline C.; Lanier, Anne P.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Lindgren, Bruce; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Clifford H.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Jacob, Peyton

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco use, both cigarette smoking and smokeless, including iqmik (homemade smokeless tobacco prepared with dried tobacco leaves mixed with alkaline ash), and of tobacco-related cancer is high in Alaskan Native people (AN). To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people. Methods Participants included 163 cigarette smokers, 76 commercial smokeless tobacco, 20 iqmik, 31 dual cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco, and 110 nontobacco users. Tobacco use history, samples of tobacco products used, and blood and urine samples were collected. Results Nicotine concentrations were highest in cigarette tobacco and TSNAs highest in commercial smokeless tobacco products. The AN participants smoked on average 7.8 cigarettes per day. Nicotine exposure, assessed by several biomarker measures, was highest in iqmik users, and similar in smokeless tobacco and cigarette smokers. TSNA exposure was highest in smokeless tobacco users, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was highest in cigarette smokers. Conclusions Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, AN cigarette smokers had similar daily intake of nicotine compared to the general U.S. population. Nicotine exposure was greatest from iqmik, likely related to its high pH due to preparation with ash, suggesting high addiction potential compared to other smokeless tobacco products. TSNA exposure was much higher with smokeless tobacco than other product use, possibly contributing to the high rates of oral cancer. Impact Our data contribute to an understanding of the high addiction risk of iqmik use and of the cancer-causing potential of various forms of tobacco use among AN people. PMID:22490317

  6. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18), “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12), “Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Results A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker. Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. Conclusions The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage. PMID:23327643

  7. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before–after study with parallel group comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Design Before–after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Setting Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Participants Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Intervention In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. Results In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (p<0.001). Median duration of counselling was 50 min. During the intervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). Conclusions A proactive strategy offering

  8. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H R

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers.

  9. Clinical Significance of Symptoms in Smokers with Preserved Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Prescott G.; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Paine, Robert; Rennard, Stephen; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.70 as assessed by spirometry after bronchodilator use. However, many smokers who do not meet this definition have respiratory symptoms. METHODS We conducted an observational study involving 2736 current or former smokers and controls who had never smoked and measured their respiratory symptoms using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater severity of symptoms). We examined whether current or former smokers who had preserved pulmonary function as assessed by spirometry (FEV1:FVC ≥0.70 and an FVC above the lower limit of the normal range after bronchodilator use) and had symptoms (CAT score, ≥10) had a higher risk of respiratory exacerbations than current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function who were asymptomatic (CAT score, <10) and whether those with symptoms had different findings from the asymptomatic group with respect to the 6-minute walk distance, lung function, or high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scan of the chest. RESULTS Respiratory symptoms were present in 50% of current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function. The mean (±SD) rate of respiratory exacerbations among symptomatic current or former smokers was significantly higher than the rates among asymptomatic current or former smokers and among controls who never smoked (0.27± 0.67 vs. 0.08±0.31 and 0.03±0.21 events, respectively, per year; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Symptomatic current or former smokers, regardless of history of asthma, also had greater limitation of activity, slightly lower FEV1, FVC, and inspiratory capacity, and greater airway-wall thickening without emphysema according to HRCT than did asymptomatic current or former smokers. Among symptomatic current or former smokers, 42% used

  10. A study to investigate changes in the levels of biomarkers of exposure to selected cigarette smoke constituents in Japanese adult male smokers who switched to a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product.

    PubMed

    Miura, Naoki; Yuki, Dai; Minami, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    In a clinical study, changes in 14 biomarkers of exposures (BOEs) from 10 tobacco smoke constituents and mutagens detected by the urine mutagenicity test were investigated using a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product (NCIT) by switching from a conventional cigarette. This study was conducted in 80 Japanese healthy adult males with a 4-week residential, controlled, open-label, parallel group design. After randomization, 40 smokers used NCIT with approximately 750 aspirations, other 20 smokers smoked approximately 20 pieces of an assigned 1-mg ISO tar conventional cigarette (CC1) every day. Twenty non-smokers (NS) did not use any tobacco product. Under this study condition, switching from cigarette to NCIT showed significant reduction in all BOEs measured. On day 29, the levels of these BOEs were almost the same as those in the NS group, except BOEs of nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). This suggested that the exposure to 8 constituents and mutagens in the NCIT group was similar to that in the NS group, while the exposure to nicotine was higher. Although the precise exposure level to NNK was not estimated because of the long half-life of its BOE, it would be substantially lower in the NCIT group than in the CC1 group.

  11. Metabolomics using GC-TOF-MS followed by subsequent GC-FID and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed significantly altered fatty acid and phospholipid species profiles in plasma of smokers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel C; Degen, Christian; Scherer, Gerhard; Jahreis, Gerhard; Niessner, Reinhard; Scherer, Max

    2014-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is an ideal tool for investigations of the metabolome in human plasma. To investigate the impact of smoking on the human metabolome, we performed an untargeted metabolic fingerprinting using GC-TOF-MS with EDTA-plasma samples from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. The observed elevated levels in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in smokers were verified by a targeted analysis using GC-FID, which revealed also significantly alterations in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in smokers (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Since the main fraction of fatty acids in plasma is esterified to phospholipids, we analyzed phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species composition in the plasma samples of the same subjects. The profiles of 39 PC and 40 PE species were analyzed with a newly developed and validated HILIC-ESI-MS/MS method. We were able to baseline separate the two lipid classes (PC from PE) by maintaining co-elution of individual lipid species of each class. The method shows a linear range from 0.5μM to 2000μM and an inter- and intraday coefficient of variation (CV)<20% across all analytes. Application of the validated method to the plasma samples of smokers and non-smokers, derived from a diet-controlled smoking study, revealed significantly elevated levels of PC and PE species containing MUFAs in smokers. In summary, we could demonstrate that there is a significantly altered total fatty acid profile, with increased MUFAs, in the plasma of smokers compared to non-smokers. Results obtained with the new HILIC-MS/MS method indicate that the altered fatty acid profile is also reflected in the PC and PE profile of smokers.

  12. A correlation study applied to biomarkers of internal and effective dose for acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl in smokers.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Gerhard; Newland, Kirk; Papadopoulou, Ermioni; Minet, Emmanuel

    2014-06-01

    The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts.

  13. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols.

  14. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  15. Distal airway dysfunction identifies pulmonary inflammation in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Kenneth I.; Pradhan, Deepak R.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Oppenheimer, Beno W.; Rom, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5–20) and dynamic elastance (X5). Inflammation was quantified in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage utilising cell count differential and cytokines expressed as concentration per mL epithelial lining fluid. All control subjects and seven smokers had normal R5. Nine smokers had elevated R5 with abnormal R5–20 and X5, indicating distal lung dysfunction. The presence of abnormal FOT was associated with two-fold higher lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (p<0.025) and with higher interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin and fractalkine levels (p<0.01). Reactivity of R5–20 and X5 correlated with levels of IL-8, eotaxin, fractalkine, IL-12p70 and transforming growth factor-α (r>0.47, p<0.01). Distal airway dysfunction in smokers without COPD identifies the presence of distal lung inflammation that parallel reported observations in established COPD. These findings were not evident on routine pulmonary function testing and may allow the identification of smokers at risk of progression to COPD. PMID:27995132

  16. Increased gastric secretory capacity in smokers without gastrointestinal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Massarrat, S; Enschai, F; Pittner, P M

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and gastric secretory capacity was studied in 201 25-40 year old healthy subjects with normal laboratory data and no gastrointestinal lesions. Basal acid output (BAO) and peak acid output (PAO) were determined in all, and basal and stimulated pepsin outputs were measured in 85 participants. The accuracy of the patients' statements was checked by urinary nicotine assay. Basal acid output and PAO were significantly higher in male smokers (n = 55) than in male non-smokers (n = 49). In women PAO in smokers (n = 38) was higher than in non-smokers (n = 59). Female smokers (n = 38) had a higher pepsin output than female non-smokers (n = 23). Eight variables were considered in relation to BAO and PAO: age, height, weight, alcohol abuse, smoking habits, duration of smoking habit, number of cigarettes per day, and the product of years of smoking multiplied by daily number of cigarettes. The daily number of cigarettes X years of smoking was most closely correlated with BAO and PAO by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. It was concluded that smoking is related to increased gastric acid capacity. PMID:3082724

  17. Distal airway dysfunction identifies pulmonary inflammation in asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kenneth I; Pradhan, Deepak R; Goldring, Roberta M; Oppenheimer, Beno W; Rom, William N; Segal, Leopoldo N

    2016-10-01

    Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20) and dynamic elastance (X5). Inflammation was quantified in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage utilising cell count differential and cytokines expressed as concentration per mL epithelial lining fluid. All control subjects and seven smokers had normal R5. Nine smokers had elevated R5 with abnormal R5-20 and X5, indicating distal lung dysfunction. The presence of abnormal FOT was associated with two-fold higher lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (p<0.025) and with higher interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin and fractalkine levels (p<0.01). Reactivity of R5-20 and X5 correlated with levels of IL-8, eotaxin, fractalkine, IL-12p70 and transforming growth factor-α (r>0.47, p<0.01). Distal airway dysfunction in smokers without COPD identifies the presence of distal lung inflammation that parallel reported observations in established COPD. These findings were not evident on routine pulmonary function testing and may allow the identification of smokers at risk of progression to COPD.

  18. Body composition in heavy smokers: comparison of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rom, O; Reznick, A Z; Keidar, Z; Karkabi, K; Aizenbud, D

    2015-01-01

    Smokers tend to have lower body mass index, on one hand, and increased abdominal obesity, on the other hand. Also, low levels of lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) were found among older smokers compared with non-smokers. This altered body composition and its consequences raise the need for simple and reliable methods for assessment of body composition in smokers. This study aimed to compare body composition assessment by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (sBIA) with the reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Body composition was measured by sBIA (Tanita BC-545) and DEXA (Hologic) in 49 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day, mean age 43.8±12.0). The comparison included correlations and differences between measurements obtained using the two methods as well as the Blande-Altman analysis. Whole-body fat mass (FM) and LM measured by the two methods were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). Compared with DEXA, sBIA significantly overestimated whole-body LM and BMC (1,126 g and 382 g, respectively, p<0.01). The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a good agreement for whole-body FM and LM, but a poor agreement for BMC. The segmental FM percentage and LM were also highly correlated (r>0.9, p<0.001). However, sBIA significantly overestimated LM of the trunk and legs and underestimated the appendicular FM percentage. Verified by DEXA, sBIA provides reliable measures of whole-body LM, FM, and trunk FM in heavy smokers. A lesser degree of agreement was found for BMC, appendicular LM, and FM.

  19. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers.

    PubMed

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  20. [Evaluation of visual attentional biases in a sample of university smokers].

    PubMed

    Morales Domínguez, Zaira; Pascual Orts, Luis Miguel; Garrido Muñoz de Arenillas, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco consumption continues being a worrying problem due to the negative consequences in the health. At presents, strategies of prevention based on the persuasion across clue pictures are used, which need to attract the attention of the smoker in order that they are effective. Nevertheless, the number of experimental studies in Spain on attentional biases in smokers is very limited. For it, in this study the aim was to verify the presence of visual attentional biases using the dot probe task in university smokers, stage where the smoking habit is consolidated. The sample was constituted by 337 students of the University of Huelva, with ages between 17 and 30 years. The participation was voluntary and the participants signed an informed assent. 135 subjects presented consumption history, which were distributed, according to classification of the WHO, in daily smokers, occasional smokers and former smokers. A experimental Ex post facto prospective design was used. The results showed that the smokers group was significantly later time to respond to the clue located in the same place that the tobacco picture than the group of not smokers. This shows that the smokers presented more difficulty to disconnect the attention towards smoking cues than not smokers.

  1. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    PubMed

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  2. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  3. Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Risch, H A; Howe, G R; Jain, M; Burch, J D; Holowaty, E J; Miller, A B

    1993-09-01

    A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.

  4. Comparative study of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Allier, C.P.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Bom, V.R.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    1998-06-01

    The authors studied three different types of silicon sensors: PIN diodes, circular drift detectors, both made at the Delft University of Technology (DUT), and Hamamatsu S5345 avalanche photodiodes. Measurements have been carried out in the same optimized experimental setup, both at room temperature and at low temperatures. Comparison is made for direct X-ray detection and CsI(Tl) scintillation light readout.

  5. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  6. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  7. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT.

  8. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  9. Comparative pyrolysis studies of ethylarsines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. H.; Larsen, C. A.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    The pyrolysis of triethylarsine (TEAs), diethylarsine (DEAsH), and monoethylarsine (MEAsH 2) has been studied at atmospheric pressure in a flow tube reactor using mass spectrometry. He and D 2 were selected as the carrier gases to determine ambient effects and to isotopically label the pyrolysis products. For some experiments, supplemental C 2H 5 and CH 3 radicals, produced from pyrolysis of the co-reactants azoethane ((C 2H 5) 2N 2) and azomethane ((CH 3) 2N 2), were added to investigate the roles of C 2H 5 and CH 3 in the reactions. Significant D 2 effects have been observed for pyrolysis of TEAs but not for DEAsH and MEAsH 2. Pyrolysis of the latter could be enhanced by adding C 2H 5 radicals while the TEAs was nearly unaffected. With the presence of supplemental CH 3 radicals, 85% decomposition was induced for each precursor. The products included DEAsD, rather than DEAsH, for TEAs pyrolysis in D 2. However, DEAsH pyrolysis produced TEAs, and MEAsH 2 decomposed to yield DEAsH and arsine, in both ambients. This suggests that a β-elimination reaction is not a major step for any of the ethylarsine precursors. More likely, radical reactions occur. When trimethylgallium (TMGa) was added, the ethylarsine pyrolysis rates were accelerated due to the CH 3 radicals produced from TMGa pyrolysis. In addition, heterogeneous reactions have been observed for pyrolysis of ethylarsines, especially when a GaAs surface was involved.

  10. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.

    PubMed

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  11. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  12. Evaluation of Toxicant and Carcinogen Metabolites in the Urine of E-Cigarette Users Versus Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carmella, Steven G.; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Pillsbury, Makenzie E.; Chen, Menglan; Ransom, Benjamin W. S.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Thompson, Elizabeth; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity but little information is available on their potential toxic or carcinogenic effects. Methods: Twenty-eight e-cigarette smokers who had not smoked tobacco cigarettes for at least 2 months provided urine samples which were analyzed by validated methods for a suite of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites including 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), 2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (2-HPMA), 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), nicotine, and cotinine. Levels of these compounds were compared to those found in cigarette smokers from three previous studies. Results: Levels of 1-HOP, total NNAL, 3-HPMA, 2-HPMA, HMPMA, and SPMA were significantly lower in the urine of e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers. Levels of nicotine and cotinine were significantly lower in e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers in one study but not in another. Conclusions: With respect to the compounds analyzed here, e-cigarettes have a more favorable toxicity profile than tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25335945

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  14. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  15. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of thoracic CT screening for lung cancer in non-smokers and smokers of <30 pack-years aged 50-64 years (JECS study): research design.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Motoyasu; Nakayama, Tomio; Tanaka, Makoto; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of lung cancer screening using low-dose thoracic computed tomography, compared with chest roentgenography, in people aged 50-64 years with a smoking history of <30 pack-years, a randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Japan. The screening methods are randomly assigned individually. The duration of this trial is 10 years. In the intervention arm, low-dose thoracic computed tomography is performed for each participant in the first and the sixth years. In the control arm, chest roentgenography is performed for each participant in the first year. The participants in both arms are also encouraged to receive routine lung cancer screening using chest roentgenography annually. The interpretation of radiological findings and the follow-up of undiagnosed nodules are to be carried out according to the guidelines published in Japan. The required sample size is calculated to be 17 500 subjects for each arm.

  16. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  17. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L.; Adami, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic. PMID:26544609

  18. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L; Adami, Guy R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  19. A Standardized Transcutaneous Electric Acupoint Stimulation for Relieving Tobacco Urges in Dependent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Caroline; Berlin, Ivan; Lee, Tat-Leang; Hee, Siew Wan; Tan, Audrey S. L.; Picard, David; Han, Ji Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of acupuncture in smoking cessation, and its effect on the urge to smoke are unclear. We evaluated the effect of a standardized protocol of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS) on alleviating the urge to smoke. Ninety-eight smokers were recruited in two double-blind studies. Participants abstained from smoking for 26 h, and were randomized to receive TEAS alternating between 2 and 100 Hz at four acupoints (LI4 and PC8, PC6 and TE5) at four different intensities (10, 5, Intermittent 5 or 0 mA). The urge to smoke was assessed by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). In Experiment 1, the 10 mA group (n = 20) was compared with the 5 mA group (n = 20); the increase in smoking urges did not differ significantly. Considering the possibility that 5 mA may be an active intervention, in Experiment 2, a true placebo (0 mA), and a proxy of placebo [Intermittent 5 mA (i5 mA)] were compared with 10 mA TEAS. In this experiment, 10 mA (n = 20) TEAS showed a tendency to alleviate smoking urges compared with 0 mA (n = 16), and i5 mA (n = 19) TEAS. Only when the data of smokers with Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥5 were analyzed that the difference between the 10 mA group and the control group (0 and i5 mA) became significant. Based on these preliminary findings, we conclude that TEAS applied on the skin may antagonize the increase in urge to smoke in abstinent-dependent smokers. It seems warranted to assess the efficacy of TEAS in smoking cessation clinical trials involving a larger population of dependent smokers. PMID:19073777

  20. Strategies to Help a Smoker Who is Struggling to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of Americans who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (i.e., counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quitlines (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Smokers who use nicotine replacement (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs’ benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  1. Menthol Preference Among Smokers: Association With TRPA1 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Donna; Behm, Frederique M.; Rose, Jed E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Preference for smoking menthol cigarettes differs from individual to individual and population to population in ways that may provide higher levels of nicotine intake and contribute to smoking’s morbidity and mortality. Menthol acts at sites that include the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channel that is expressed by nociceptors in the lung and airways, suggesting that individual and population differences in TRPA1 sequences might contribute to observed differences in menthol preference among smokers. Methods: We have thus sought association between menthol preference and common variants in the TRPA1 gene in heavier and lighter European-American smokers. Smokers were recruited for studies of smoking cessation in North Carolina and of substance abuse genetics in Maryland. Results: A common TRPA1 haplotype is defined by 1 missense and 10 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant (.006 < p < .05; χ2) association with preference for mentholated cigarettes in heavy smokers (odds ratio ca. 1.3). There are smaller trends in the same direction in lighter smokers. Conclusions: This TRPA1 haplotype provides a novel biological basis for individual differences in menthol preference and possibly for actions of other agents that act at TRPA1. PMID:21719896

  2. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  3. E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

  4. Personalized Risk Assessment in Never, Light, and Heavy Smokers in a prospective cohort in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang; Ye, Yuanqing; Tsai, MinKwang; Wen, Christopher; Roth, Jack A.; Pu, Xia; Chow, Wong-Ho; Huff, Chad; Cunningham, Sonia; Huang, Maosheng; Wu, Shuanbei; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Gu, Jian; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop markedly improved risk prediction models for lung cancer using a prospective cohort of 395,875 participants in Taiwan. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by generation of receiver operator curves and estimation of area under the curve (AUC). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, gender, smoking pack-years, family history of lung cancer, personal cancer history, BMI, lung function test, and serum biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), bilirubin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were identified and included in an integrative risk prediction model. The AUC in overall population was 0.851 (95% CI = 0.840–0.862), with never smokers 0.806 (95% CI = 0.790–0.819), light smokers 0.847 (95% CI = 0.824–0.871), and heavy smokers 0.732 (95% CI = 0.708–0.752). By integrating risk factors such as family history of lung cancer, CEA and AFP for light smokers, and lung function test (Maximum Mid-Expiratory Flow, MMEF25–75%), AFP and CEA for never smokers, light and never smokers with cancer risks as high as those within heavy smokers could be identified. The risk model for heavy smokers can allow us to stratify heavy smokers into subgroups with distinct risks, which, if applied to low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, may greatly reduce false positives. PMID:27805040

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  6. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  7. [Occupational exposure and lung cancer in smokers].

    PubMed

    Mahuad, R; Pezotto, S; Poletto, L

    1994-06-01

    High male lung cancer incidence and mortality in Rosario city, Argentina, have been found in previous studies. A project was undertaken for the purpose of evaluating the life-time occupational history as well as the duration and intensity of cigarette smoking as determinants of histologic cell types in 211 male patients with primary lung cancer. Their histologic cell types were: squamous 39%, adenocarcinoma 29%, small cell 18%, and others and not specified 14%. An association was found between histologic cell types and occupations (p < 0.0001), adenocarcinoma being more prevalent in office personnel, teachers, accountants, lawyers, and squamous in the other, supposedly dirtier working environments, mainly in those men who had begun to work in farming and later transferred to mechanics and metallurgy. These latter ones were diagnosed at a younger age than those in other occupations, with a significant difference for squamous and small cell. No differences in the smoking intensity were found between the occupational groups. The mean age these patients began to smoke at was 15 years for those with squamous and small cell, and 17 years for those with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). An interesting finding was the difference at their mean-age at diagnosis, 58 years for smokers and 68 for ex-smokers (p < 0.0001). Studies are needed to elucidate the interplay of risk factors in the etiology of histologic subtypes of lung cancer.

  8. Variations in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in smokers.

    PubMed

    Castleden, C M; Cole, P V

    1974-12-28

    Three experiments on smokers have been performed to determine variations in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) throughout the day and night and whether a random measurement of COHb gives a true estimation of a smoker's mean COHb level. In the individual smoker the COHb level does not increase gradually during the day but is kept within relatively narrow limits. Moderately heavy smokers rise in the morning with a substantially raised COHb level because the half life of COHb is significantly longer during sleep than during the day. Women excrete their carbon monoxide faster than men. A random COHb estimation gives a good indication of the mean COHb level of an individual.

  9. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  10. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  11. The relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life among smokers who participated in a 1-year smoking cessation programme in Taiwan: a cohort study using the EQ-5D

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Kuo, Raymond Nien-Chen; Lai, Chih-Kuan; Tsai, Shih-Tzu; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life 1 year after participation in a smoking cessation programme in Taiwan. Design A cohort study of smokers who voluntarily participated in a smoking cessation programme with two follow-up assessments of smoking status via telephone interview, conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing the smoking cessation programme. Setting Hospitals and clinics providing smoking cessation services. Participants A total of 3514 participants completed both telephone interviews, which represents a response rate of 64%. After the interviews, participants were divided into four groups according to their smoking status: (1) long-term quitters: participants who had quit tobacco use for 1 year; (2) short-term quitters: participants who had been smoking for at least 6 months and then quit tobacco for 6 months after participating in the programme; (3) relapsed smokers: participants who relapsed into tobacco use after ceasing tobacco use for 6 months; and (4) continuing smokers: participants who failed to quit smoking for at least 1 year, despite participating in the programme. Interventions The Outpatient Smoking Cessation Service of Taiwan provides counselling and pharmacotherapy to individuals seeking to quit smoking. Primary outcomes The health-related quality of life of the participants was measured using an approved Chinese version of the EuroQol-5D-3L (EQ-5D-3L) descriptive system. Results After controlling for sex, age, education, marital status, job status, monthly income and disease status at baseline, our results revealed that long-term (OR=0.61 (0.48 to 0.77)) and short-term (OR=0.65 (0.54 to 0.79)) quitters experienced less anxiety and depression than did continuing smokers. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support claims that all quitters, regardless of whether they stop smoking for 6 months or 1 year, have better quality of life with regard to anxiety

  12. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside.

  13. Increased Rho-kinase expression and activity and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers with normal lung function.

    PubMed

    Duong-Quy, S; Dao, P; Hua-Huy, T; Guilluy, C; Pacaud, P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2011-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main consequences of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke on the vascular system. Increasing evidence suggests that the small G-protein RhoA and its downstream effectors, the Rho-kinases (ROCKs), are involved in systemic endothelial dysfunction induced by cigarette smoke. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the RhoA/ROCKs pathway in pulmonary artery endothelial function in current smokers with normal lung function. Lung tissues were obtained from nonsmokers and smokers who underwent lobectomy for lung carcinoma. Arterial relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed in isolated pulmonary arterial rings. Protein expressions and activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), ROCKs and the myosin phosphatase subunit 1 (MYPT-1) were sought. Relaxation in response to ACh was significantly lower in smokers as compared with nonsmokers (n = 8 in each group), consistent with reduced eNOS activity in the former compared with the latter. eNOS protein expression remained, however, the same in both groups. Expression of ROCKs, guanosine triphosphate-RhoA and phosphorylated MYPT-1 were significantly increased in smokers compared with controls. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction is present in smokers whose lung function has not yet been impaired. Reduced activity of eNOS accounts at least in part for this endothelial dysfunction. Increased expression and activity of ROCKs accounts for another part through direct or indirect inhibition of the Rho-A/ROCKs pathway on nitric oxide synthesis and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction through inhibition of myosin phosphatase.

  14. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  15. Cotinine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in the Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Cord at Birth and in the Urine from Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Julia de Barros; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls). We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances’ concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey’s test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5–13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9–52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0–6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6–29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0–1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7–4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only. PMID:25549364

  16. Distinct Quantitative Computed Tomography Emphysema Patterns Are Associated with Physiology and Function in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    San José Estépar, Raúl; Mendoza, Carlos S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Laird, Nan; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Washko, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Emphysema occurs in distinct pathologic patterns, but little is known about the epidemiologic associations of these patterns. Standard quantitative measures of emphysema from computed tomography (CT) do not distinguish between distinct patterns of parenchymal destruction. Objectives: To study the epidemiologic associations of distinct emphysema patterns with measures of lung-related physiology, function, and health care use in smokers. Methods: Using a local histogram-based assessment of lung density, we quantified distinct patterns of low attenuation in 9,313 smokers in the COPDGene Study. To determine if such patterns provide novel insights into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology, we tested for their association with measures of physiology, function, and health care use. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with percentage of low-attenuation area less than −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA-950), local histogram-based measures of distinct CT low-attenuation patterns are more predictive of measures of lung function, dyspnea, quality of life, and health care use. These patterns are strongly associated with a wide array of measures of respiratory physiology and function, and most of these associations remain highly significant (P < 0.005) after adjusting for %LAA-950. In smokers without evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the mild centrilobular disease pattern is associated with lower FEV1 and worse functional status (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Measures of distinct CT emphysema patterns provide novel information about the relationship between emphysema and key measures of physiology, physical function, and health care use. Measures of mild emphysema in smokers with preserved lung function can be extracted from CT scans and are significantly associated with functional measures. PMID:23980521

  17. Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed.

  18. Smokers' attitudes and behaviors related to consumer demand for cessation counseling in the medical care setting.

    PubMed

    Weber, Deanne; Wolff, Lisa S; Orleans, Tracy; Mockenhaupt, Robin E; Massett, Holly A; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2007-05-01

    This study describes a new segmentation strategy exploring smokers' interest levels in counseling in the medical care setting in order to understand how public health communications can be designed to increase consumer demand for cessation services within this population. A subsample of 431 smokers from a large, nationally representative mail survey was analyzed and categorized into three cessation-demand groups: Low demand (LD), medium demand (MD), and high demand (HD). HD smokers were most likely to be heavy smokers, to make quitting a high priority, and to have self-efficacy in quitting. MD and LD smokers were less likely than HD smokers to have been told to quit smoking by a health care provider in the past or to believe that counseling is effective. The first step in the regression analysis revealed that age, cigarettes smoked per month, whether smokers were currently trying to quit, and whether they were ever told to quit smoking by their health care provider accounted for 21% of the variance in smokers' interest in smoking cessation counseling, F(4, 234) = 16.49, p<.001. When additional variables on attitudes toward smoking and quitting and perceived effectiveness of receiving counseling in the medical care setting were added to the model, an additional 11% of the variance in smokers' interest in cessation counseling was explained, F(12, 234) = 10.07, p<.001. Results suggest that by categorizing smokers by interest level in cessation counseling, we emerge with three distinct portraits of smokers who might be activated in different ways to increase consumer demand for cessation counseling.

  19. A Preliminary Exploration of Former Smokers Enrolled in an Internet Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M; Elmasry, Hoda; Graham, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    quitting more than a week prior to website registration and 43.9% (97/221) had quit within 7 days of registration. The website features most likely to be used were an interactive Quit Date tool (166/221, 75.1%) and the Community (134/221, 60.6%). Univariate regression models showed that recent quitters, those with higher motivation to remain abstinent, and those who used cessation medication in the past year were more likely to use the Community. Older age, longer duration of abstinence at registration, better health status, and health care provider advice to quit were associated with 1-month abstinence. Website utilization metrics did not predict abstinence, though odds ratios suggested higher utilization was associated with greater odds of abstinence. Conclusions This exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility of recruiting former smokers to a research study and documented the uptake of an Internet cessation intervention among this group of self-quitters. Results also showed higher levels of website utilization and greater likelihood of community use among smokers early in their quit attempt compared to those with a longer period of abstinence at enrollment. Important areas for future research include identifying former smokers who may be more susceptible to relapse and determining which components of an Internet intervention are most helpful to prevent relapse in the early and later stages of a quit attempt. PMID:27302500

  20. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  1. Nicotine Withdrawal in U.S. Smokers with Current Mood, Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The current study examined tobacco withdrawal symptoms and withdrawal-related discomfort and relapse in smokers with and without current mood disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The subsample of current daily smokers (n=8,213) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, Wave 1, 2001–2002, full sample n=43,093) were included in these analyses. Cross-sectional data compared smokers with and without current psychiatric disorders on withdrawal symptoms using logistic regression models. The effects of having a co-morbid psychiatric disorder and AUD/SUD compared to a psychiatric disorder alone on nicotine withdrawal were also examined. Results Participants with a current mood disorder, anxiety disorder, AUD, or SUD were more likely to report withdrawal symptoms and reported more withdrawal symptoms than those without current disorders. Having a current mood disorder, anxiety disorder, and SUD was also associated with increased likelihood of withdrawal-related discomfort and relapse. There were no significant interactions between psychiatric disorders and AUDs/SUDs on withdrawal symptoms or behavior. Conclusions Participants with a current Axis I disorder were more likely to experience tobacco withdrawal symptoms and withdrawal-related discomfort and relapse. Having a co-morbid psychiatric disorder and AUD/SUD did not synergistically increase the experience of withdrawal-related symptoms or relapse. It is important to identify Axis I disorders in smokers and provide these smokers with more intensive and/or longer treatments to help them cope with withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. PMID:20006451

  2. Adaptive angiogenesis in placentas of heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Pfarrer, C; Macara, L; Leiser, R; Kingdom, J

    1999-07-24

    Smoking in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality, suggesting impaired placental function, though placental weight is increased. We used scanning electron microscopy to show adaptive angiogenesis in term placental villi from smokers (n=4) and non-smokers (n=4). These images may aid communication of the dangers of smoking in pregnancy.

  3. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2) and nutritional status (measured by body mass index) data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15) and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11). In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045) between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002) and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010). There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2. PMID:21040562

  4. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Battaglia, Eliana; Russo, Cristina; Ciampi, Claudio; Adams, George; Bruno, Cosimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP) changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43) though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46). Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2) decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile) systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144) to 130 (123.5, 138.5) mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90) to 80 (74.5, 90) mmHg; p = 0.006). No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control. PMID:27845734

  5. Tempol improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia through increasing nitric oxide bioavailability in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    We recently found that young cigarette smokers display cutaneous vascular dysfunction relative to nonsmokers, which is partially due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-dependent vasodilation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that reducing oxidative stress improves NO bioavailability, enhancing cutaneous vascular function in young smokers. Ten healthy young male smokers, who had smoked for 6.3 ± 0.7 yr with an average daily consumption of 9.1 ± 0.7 cigarettes, were tested. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during local heating to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C/s was evaluated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial blood pressure and normalized to maximal CVC, induced by local heating to 44°C plus sodium nitroprusside administration. We evaluated plateau CVC during local heating, which is known to be highly dependent on NO, at four intradermal microdialysis sites with 1) Ringer solution (control); 2) 10 μM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol), a superoxide dismutase mimetic; 3) 10 mM N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor; and 4) a combination of 10 μM tempol and 10 mM l-NNA. Tempol increased plateau CVC compared with the Ringer solution site (90.0 ± 2.3 vs. 77.6 ± 3.9%maximum, P = 0.028). Plateau CVC at the combination site (56.8 ± 4.5%maximum) was lower than the Ringer solution site (P < 0.001) and was not different from the l-NNA site (55.1 ± 4.6%maximum, P = 0.978), indicating the tempol effect was exclusively NO dependent. These data suggest that in young smokers, reducing oxidative stress improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia to local heating by enhancing NO production.

  6. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  7. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  8. Effects of 7.5% carbon dioxide inhalation on anxiety and mood in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Ataya, Alia F; Bailey, Jayne E; Lightman, Stafford L; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps < 0.043), and greater increases in anxiety (p = 0.005) and negative affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers.

  9. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow.

  10. Hardening and the hard-core smoker: concepts, evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E; Burns, David M

    2003-02-01

    A nascent debate pits researchers who believe that hard-core smokers are coming to dominate the remaining population of smokers against others who perceive the hardening of the target as a far more distant concern. At stake is the future emphasis of tobacco control: should we alter the current allocation of resources between treatment of individual smokers and modification of the psychosocial environment through public education and policy measures? We review the evidence and conclude that: (1) hardening is probably occurring in the sense that, compared with earlier generations, many of today's smokers possibly do have greater difficulty quitting, or are inherently less willing to do so. (2) Hardening may be most usefully construed in the context of specific groups of smokers, such as the mentally ill, who may constitute a growing fraction of the remaining smoking population. (3) Using conventional measures, however, we find little evidence that the population of smokers as a whole is hardening. Cessation rates have not decreased. (4) Truly hard-core smokers necessarily constitute a very small fraction of the population. Quitting-susceptible smokers continue to dominate the smoking population. (5) Hardening and the potential existence of true hard-core smokers recommend creative thinking about, and devotion of resources to, finding new ways to help the most dependent smokers to quit. (6) Sound research recommends the expansion of comprehensive tobacco-control programs in both the public and private sectors, and does not support reallocation of resources from such programs toward more intensive individualized treatment. We can afford both.

  11. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  12. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [(15)O]H(2)O PET.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Byeong-Il; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [(15)O]H(2)O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8+/-1.1yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0+/-2.5yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6+/-2.5 pack years. Myocardial [(15)O]H(2)O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 degrees C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [(15)O]H(2)O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43+/-0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37+/-0.41ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25+/-0.33 vs. 1.59+/-0.29ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90+/-24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122+/-28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81+/-1.99 vs. 5.03+/-1.27ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [(15)O]H(2)O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  14. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  15. Comparative Review of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Barbara A.

    Four elementary social studies textbook series are reviewed and compared with particular attention paid to the extent to which the textbooks are globally oriented. The trend of emphasizing global education in the social studies also is discussed. As used in this paper, "global education" includes the study of world geography, world…

  16. Pilot study on lower nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products compared with medicinal nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Baumgart, M Irene; Tulunay, Ozlem E; Hecht, Stephen S; Zhang, Yan; Murphy, Sharon; Le, Chap; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) products have the potential to be used as a harm reduction method for cigarette smokers. These products can deliver significantly less toxicants than cigarettes, although they are not toxicant free nor harmless. It is important to examine potential health risks and benefits of these products. These two small pilot studies examined the effects of two different ST products (Exalt and Ariva) compared with medicinal nicotine, another potential harm reduction product. Dependent, healthy adult cigarette smokers, who were motivated to quit smoking, underwent 1 week of baseline smoking measurement. They were then asked to quit smoking and were randomly assigned to use either an ST product or a medicinal nicotine lozenge (MNL, Commit) for 2 weeks, then crossed over to use the other product for 2 weeks. In the last week, following the sampling phase, subjects could choose the product they wished to use. Assessments were made repeatedly during baseline cigarette use and throughout the 5 weeks of treatment. Outcome measures included biomarkers for tobacco exposure and subjective, physiological, and behavioral responses. Tobacco-specific carcinogen uptake was greater from Exalt than from the MNL, and was comparable between the MNL and Ariva. Physiological effects and subjective effects on withdrawal and craving were comparable among Exalt, Ariva, and the MNL. Ariva was preferred over the MNL, which was preferred over Exalt. With the exception of medicinal nicotine products, low-nitrosamine ST products have the greatest potential to result in reduced toxicant exposure compared with other combustible reduced exposure products and have promise for reducing individual risk for disease. However, the population effect of marketing of such products as reduced exposure/reduced risk is unknown. The need for further research in this area and regulation of tobacco products is evident.

  17. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  18. Smoked Cannabis' Psychomotor and Neurocognitive Effects in Occasional and Frequent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at −1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. PMID:25745105

  19. Comparative studies of gene regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pai, Athma A; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that changes in gene regulation have played an important role in adaptive evolution both between and within species. Over the past five years, comparative studies have moved beyond simple characterizations of differences in gene expression levels within and between species to studying variation in regulatory mechanisms. We still know relatively little about the precise chain of events that lead to most regulatory adaptations, but we have taken significant steps towards understanding the relative importance of changes in different mechanisms of gene regulatory evolution. In this review, we first discuss insights from comparative studies in model organisms, where the available experimental toolkit is extensive. We then focus on a few recent comparative studies in primates, where the limited feasibility of experimental manipulation dictates the approaches that can be used to study gene regulatory evolution.

  20. Benign and time-limited visual disturbances (flashbacks) in recent abstinent high-potency heavy cannabis smokers: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Arturo G; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Bleich, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Eight high-potency heavy cannabis smokers who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence sought treatment for outpatient detoxification. During routine psychiatric interview they reported the presence of visual disturbances when intoxicated and no prior history of LSD use. They all communicated the persistence of visual disturbances after ceasing cannabis use. Seven categories of visual disturbances were described when staring at stationary and moving objects: visual distortions, distorted perception of distance, illusions of movement of stationary and moving objects, color intensification of objects,dimmed color, dimensional distortion and blending of patterns and objects. Patients reported having 2-5 different categories of flashbacks up to 3-6 months after cessation of cannabis use. The described phenomena may be interpreted as a time-limited benign side effect of high-potency cannabis use in some individuals. A combination of vulnerability and use of large amounts of high potency cannabis seem to contribute to the appearance of this condition. Conclusions from uncontrolled case series should be taken with appropriate caution.

  1. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  2. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  3. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05).

  4. Modifiable risk factors of lung cancer in "never-smoker" women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2015-01-01

    Korean women with a history of never smoking and with adenocarcinoma showed an increasing trend in lung cancer occurrence during 2002 to 2012. The two modifiable factors of never-smoker lung cancer in women are hormone and oncogenic virus infection. Based on previous studies, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection might afford protection or be a risk factor, respectively. It is necessary to perform a pooled analysis of cohort studies to evaluate HRT and never-smoker lung cancer in women and a systematic review of case-control studies to determine the association between HPV infection and never-smoker lung cancer.

  5. No impact of passive smoke on the somatic profile of lung cancers in never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Couraud, Sébastien; Debieuvre, Didier; Moreau, Lionel; Dumont, Patrick; Margery, Jacques; Quoix, Elisabeth; Duvert, Bernard; Cellerin, Laurent; Baize, Nathalie; Taviot, Bruno; Coudurier, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Missy, Pascale; Morin, Franck; Mornex, Jean-François; Zalcman, Gérard; Souquet, Pierre-Jean

    2015-05-01

    EGFR and HER2 mutations and ALK rearrangement are known to be related to lung cancer in never-smokers, while KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are typically observed among smokers. There is still debate surrounding whether never-smokers exposed to passive smoke exhibit a "smoker-like" somatic profile compared with unexposed never-smokers. Passive smoke exposure was assessed in the French BioCAST/IFCT-1002 never-smoker lung cancer cohort and routine molecular profiles analyses were compiled. Of the 384 patients recruited into BioCAST, 319 were tested for at least one biomarker and provided data relating to passive smoking. Overall, 219 (66%) reported having been exposed to passive smoking. No significant difference was observed between mutation frequency and passive smoke exposure (EGFR mutation: 46% in never exposed versus 41% in ever exposed; KRAS: 7% versus 7%; ALK: 13% versus 11%; HER2: 4% versus 5%; BRAF: 6% versus 5%; PIK3CA: 4% versus 2%). We observed a nonsignificant trend for a negative association between EGFR mutation and cumulative duration of passive smoke exposure. No association was found for other biomarkers. There is no clear association between passive smoke exposure and somatic profile in lifelong, never-smoker lung cancer.

  6. A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Haight, John; Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers (n=34) to smoking-related and neutral cues. Half of the cues depicted a human interacting with an object (i.e., active), whereas the remaining cues depicted objects alone (i.e., inactive). Results indicated that for the active cues, daily smokers responded more positively to smoking-related than to neutral cues, whereas occasional smokers showed no difference in their implicit responses. In addition to smoking frequency, relative differences in implicit responses to active cues were related to cognitive enhancement motivation. For inactive cues, implicit responses were related to cognitive enhancement as well as reinforcement. Because daily smokers have more positive implicit responses to active smoking-related cues than occasional smokers, these cues may play an important role in maintaining smoking behavior in daily smokers.

  7. Smoking and chronic respiratory symptoms: prevalence in male and female smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Liard, R; Perdrizet, S; Correman, J; Bidou, S

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, according to sex, was studied in 899 adults (average age 39, 55 per cent male) in a Paris industrial medical center. The relative risk of having chronic bronchitis among smokers, compared to nonsmokers, was higher in females (3.3) than in males (1.6). The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, dyspnoea and wheezing was more closely associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day in females than in males. No confounding factor was found to be responsible for these results. PMID:7356091

  8. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  9. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Guđbjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  10. Effect of young barley leaf extract and adlay on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Liu, Chu-Sun; Tsai, Ching-Min

    2004-06-01

    Forty hyperlipidemic patients, smokers and non-smokers, were studied. Subjects received 15 g young barley leaf extract (BL) or 60 g adlay daily for four weeks. Overnight fasting blood samples were drawn immediately prior to and after four weeks of supplementation. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipid profiles and their susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced following treatment with either BL or adlay; furthermore, the lag phase of LDL oxidation increased after either supplementation. However, it seemed that BL had stronger antioxidative effect on the prevention of LDL oxidation than adlay. Our results also indicated that the antioxidative effect was less pronounced in smokers than in non-smokers. Therefore, supplementation with BL or adlay can decrease plasma lipids and inhibit LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers and/or non-smokers.

  11. Comparative Study Of Four Models Of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menter, Florian R.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents comparative study of four popular eddy-viscosity models of turbulence. Computations reported for three different adverse pressure-gradient flowfields. Detailed comparison of numerical results and experimental data given. Following models tested: Baldwin-Lomax, Johnson-King, Baldwin-Barth, and Wilcox.

  12. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  13. Disparities in the Population Distribution of African American and Non-Hispanic White Smokers along the Quitting Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Dennis R.; Xie, Bin; Fagan, Pebbles; Pulvers, Kim; Romero, Devan R.; Blanco, Lyzette; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed,…

  14. The relationship of major depressive disorder and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: Longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Although depression and smoking are highly correlated, the relationship of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to smoking cessation and relapse remains unclear. This study compared changes in smoking for current and former smokers with and without Current and Lifetime MDD over a three year period. Design Analysis of two waves of longitudinal data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 1, 2001–2002; Wave 2, 2004–2005). Setting Data were collected through face-to-face interviews from non-institutionalized United States civilians, 18 years and older, in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Participants 11,973 adults (46% female) classified as Current or Former Daily Smokers at Wave 1 and completed Wave 2. Measurements Classification as Current or Former Smokers at Wave 1 and Wave 2. Findings Smoking status remained stable for most participants. Wave 1 Current Daily Smokers with Current MDD (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.03, 1.85) and Lifetime MDD (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.85) were more likely than those without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 Former Daily Smokers with Current MDD (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.26, 0.76) were less likely to report continued abstinence at Wave 2. None of the gender by MDD diagnosis interactions were significant. Patterns of results remained similar when analyses were limited to smokers with nicotine dependence. Conclusions Current and Lifetime Major Depressive Disorder are associated with a lower likelihood of quitting smoking and Current Major Depressive Disorder is associated with greater likelihood of smoking relapse. PMID:22429388

  15. Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene E(4) are increased in the urine of smokers: evidence that celecoxib shunts arachidonic acid into the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.

    PubMed

    Duffield-Lillico, Anna J; Boyle, Jay O; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Ghosh, Aradhana; Butala, Geera S; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Newman, Robert A; Morrow, Jason D; Milne, Ginger L; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) play a role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Biomarkers that reflect tobacco smoke-induced tissue injury are needed. In this study, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)), biomarkers of the COX and 5-LO pathways, were compared in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. The effects of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were determined. Baseline levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were positively associated with smoking status; levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were higher in current versus never smokers. Treatment with 200 mg celecoxib twice daily for 6 +/- 1 days led to a reduction in urinary PGE-M levels in all groups but exhibited the greatest effect among subjects with high baseline PGE-M levels. Thus, high baseline PGE-M levels in smokers reflected increased COX-2 activity. In individuals with high baseline PGE-M levels, treatment with celecoxib led to a significant increase in levels of urinary LTE(4), an effect that was not found in individuals with low baseline PGE-M levels. In conclusion, increased levels of urinary PGE-M and LTE(4) were found in human smokers, a result that may reflect subclinical lung inflammation. In individuals with high baseline levels of PGE-M (elevated COX-2 activity), celecoxib administration shunted arachidonic acid into the proinflammatory 5-LO pathway. Because 5-LO activity and LTE(4) have been suggested to play a role in cardiovascular disease, these results may help to explain the link between use of COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular complications.

  16. Effects of Intravenous Nicotine on Prepulse Inhibition in Smokers and Nonsmokers: Relationship with Familial Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Drobes, David J.; MacQueen, David A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Malcolm, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. Objectives The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. Methods The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Results Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. Conclusions These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk. PMID:23624809

  17. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. Objective The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Methods A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted advertisement to target age and keywords related to tobacco smoking in the Facebook users profile, interests, and likes. A 3-day newspaper advertisement recruitment campaign was used as a comparison. The study that used both recruitment methods aimed to test the psychometric properties of 4 newly developed lung cancer screening health belief scales. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey methodology using an Web-based survey platform. Results The Facebook-targeted advertisements were viewed 56,621 times over an 18-day campaign in 2015 in the United States. The advertisement campaign yielded 1121 unique clicks to the Web-based survey platform at a cost of $1.51 per completed survey. Of those who clicked through to the study survey platform, 423 (37.7%) consented to participate; 92 (8.2%) dropped out during completion of the survey yielding a final study pool of 331 completed surveys. Recruitment by newspaper advertisement yielded a total of 30 participants in response to a 3-day advertisement campaign; recruitment efficacy resulted in 10 participants/day at $40.80 per completed survey. Participants represented current (n=182; 51%) and former smokers (n=178; 49%) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 6.0). Cost of the advertisement campaign was $500 total for the 18-day campaign. Conclusions Recruitment by Facebook was more efficacious and cost-effective compared with newspaper advertisement. Facebook offers a new venue for

  18. Withdrawal Symptoms and Nicotine Dependence Severity Predict Virtual Reality Craving in Cigarette-Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Kim N.; Mahoney, James J.; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Salas, Ramiro; Kosten, Thomas R.; Dani, John A.; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in eliciting responses to nicotine cues in cigarette smokers. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether cigarette-deprived smokers would exhibit increased craving and changes in heart rate when viewing cigarette related cues as compared to non-smoking cues in a VR environment, and the secondary aim was to assess the extent to which self-assessed measures of withdrawal and dependence correlated with VR craving. Methods: Nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were recruited for a 2 day study. On Day 1, participants smoked as usual and on Day 2 were deprived from smoking overnight. On both days, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires on withdrawal, craving, and nicotine-dependence. Participants completed a VR session during the cigarette deprivation condition only (Day 2). During this session, they were exposed to active smoking and placebo (non-smoking) cues. Results: The data show that self-reported levels of “craving” (p < .01) and “thinking about cigarettes” (p < .0001) were significantly greater after exposure to the active cues versus non-smoking cues. Significant increases in heart rate were found for 3 of 4 active cues when compared to non-smoking cues (p < .05). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between self-reported craving prior to the VR session and craving induced by active VR cues (p < .01). Conclusions: In this report, active VR cues elicited craving during cigarette deprivation. This is the first study to demonstrate that self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, and nicotine dependence severity predict cue-induced craving in the VR setting. PMID:25475087

  19. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were

  20. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice.

  1. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    PubMed Central

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P < 0.05). In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P < 0.05). The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P < 0.05). Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β that seem to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  2. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) or heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). An MPA5 was used to measure SC hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  3. Targeting smokers with empathy appeal antismoking public service announcements: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment study (N = 189) was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of empathy appeal antismoking messages and their potential advantage over fear appeal messages. Data from 12 antismoking public service announcements showed that (a) smokers resist antismoking messages and (b) overall empathy appeal was equally effective as fear appeal messages. There was also evidence for moderators. First, empathy messages were more effective to women than to men. Second, fear appeal messages were more effective to occasional smokers than were empathy messages. Third, empathy messages were more effective to regular smokers than were fear appeal messages. Implications for audience segmentation and message targeting in public health antismoking efforts are discussed.

  4. Polymorphisms of NRF2 gene correlated with decreased FEV1 in lung cancers of smokers.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Ayumi; Shitara, Masayuki; Hikosaka, Yu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Moriyama, Satoru; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-01

    The metabolism of xenobiotics plays a fundamental role in smoking-related lung function loss and the development of pulmonary disease. An NRF2-dependent response is a key protective mechanism against oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in NRF2 genes on the level of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in lung cancers of smokers. We genotyped the status of NRF2 gene polymorphisms in 209 surgically treated lung cancer cases of smokers using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results demonstrated the mean FEV1 in patients with rs2364723 C/C, C/G and G/G to be 2143.9, 2294.2 and 2335.4 ml, respectively, and there was a tendency towards lower FEV1 in C/C phenotype (P=0.0944). The mean FEV1 was significantly lower in the C/C phenotype (2143.9±566.0 ml) compared to C/G or G/G (2308.9±642.9 ml, P=0.05). The mean FEV1 in patients with rs6726395 A/A, G/A and G/G was 66.7, 71.2 and 72.3%, respectively, and there was a significant difference between A/A and G/G phenotype (P=0.043). A tendency towards a lower mean FEV1 in A/A phenotype (66.7±11.7%) was observed when compared to A/G or G/G (71.9±10.7%, P=0.07). This study demonstrated that an NRF2-dependent response to cigarette smoking has the potential to affect FEV1 decrease in a lung cancer population. In conclusion, the results have shown that NRF2 genetic changes may play a role in FEV1 loss in smokers with lung cancer.

  5. Hemorheological aspects in hypertensive menopausal smoker women treated with female hormones.

    PubMed

    Cicco, G; Dolce, E; Vicenti, P; Stingi, G D; Tarallo, M S; Pirrelli, A

    1999-01-01

    In postmenopausal hypertensive women (PostMHW) the erythrocyte deformability (ED) is reduced if compared with premenopausal hypertensive women (PreMHW). This might partially explain the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CD) in hypertensive women after menopause. Moreover a positive correlation exists between estradiol and rheological patterns in women. If PostMHW smoke cigarettes, there is an important decrease in hemorheological parameters. On the other hand if PostMHW are submitted to an hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) they can show controversial results with an impairment if hemorheological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking and HRT on PostMHW. We studied four groups of subjects: Group 1: PreMHW (10 F aged 35 +/- 3 years) non smokers; Group 2: PostMHW (8 F aged 45 +/- 2 years) non smokers; Group 3: PostMHW (14 F aged 48 +/- 4 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day); Group 4: PostMHW (16 F aged 50 +/- 2 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day) submitted to HRT. We evaluated Elongation Index of erythrocytes under torsion force of 30 pascals (EI--30 Pa) using a new computerized instrument Laser assisted Optical rotational Red Cell Analyzer (LORCA) (Mechatronics, Hoorn, NL) acc. to Hardeman (1994) and, also with the same LORCA, Aggregation Index (AI), t(1/2). We measured the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (TcpO2) in subclavicular standard area using a Transcutaneous Oximeter (Microgas 7650 Kontron Instruments with Combi Sensor) and total cholesterolaemia. In PostMHW our data showed a significant (p < 0.01) impairment of hemorheological patterns and tissue oxygenation if compared with PreMHW (Group 1). In Group 3 there is a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in EI, a significant (p < 0.01) increase in AI, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in t(1/2) and TcpO2 if compared with Control Group 1 and Group 2. Finally a further significant (p < 0.01) impairment in hemorheology and tissue oxygenation showed Group 4

  6. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  7. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD.

    PubMed

    Holz, Olaf; Roepcke, Stefan; Watz, Henrik; Tegtbur, Uwe; Lahu, Gezim; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF]) in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load) on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20). Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion), and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range) exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0) minutes and 10.0 (8.0) minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0) minutes and 26.5 (14.5) minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at the end of exercise compared to before exercise) in IL6 (P=0.01) and a larger decline (P=0.03) in MPO. The overall profile of the serum markers during the exercise challenge was shown to be repeatable in the second challenge. In summary, intense load exercise is capable of changing the concentration of inflammatory and endothelial function markers. Especially, the decline in the level of MPO, a marker closely related to cardiovascular risk, appears to be of clinical interest, as the exercise-induced decline might be related to the beneficial effects of physical activity

  8. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  9. Anxiety Sensitivity Cognitive Concerns Predict Suicidality among Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Daniel W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Medley, Amanda N.; Lewis, Sarah; Feldner, Matthew T.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxiety along with anxiety-related risk factors is receiving increased attention in regard to its role in elevated suicidality. One such risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS), refers to a fear of anxiety-related symptoms. Emerging research indicates that components of AS, particularly the AS subfactor focused on cognitive arousal concerns, are significantly associated with elevated suicidality in samples of diverse clinical outpatients, clinical outpatients with PTSD symptoms, and Air Force cadets undergoing a stressful life experience. Cigarette smokers represent another relevant population for this line of research due to recent reports indicating that cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence may be related to elevated suicidality. Methods Study 1 examined the role of AS and the AS subfactors in a large sample (n = 343) of community adult smokers. Study 2 examined the role of AS and AS subfactors in a sample of “pack-a-day” adult smokers (n = 78) who were seeking outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. Results Study 1 results were consistent with our a priori hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns would be significantly associated with suicidality. Additionally, after covarying for relevant substance use variables, Study 2 results were also consistent with our hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns were significantly associated with suicidality. Limitations Limitations included the use of suicide related outcomes, not death by suicide, and cross-sectional design. Conclusions These findings suggest that suicide potential in cigarette smokers may be related to AS cognitive concerns and add to the emerging literature suggesting AS cognitive concerns are a risk factor for suicidality. PMID:22370063

  10. Pulmonary ventilation defects in older never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Khadija; Paulin, Gregory A; Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Paterson, Nigel A M; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI previously revealed spatially persistent ventilation defects in healthy, older compared with healthy, younger never-smokers. To understand better the physiological consequences and potential relevance of (3)He MRI ventilation defects, we evaluated (3)He-MRI ventilation-defect percent (VDP) and the effect of deep inspiration (DI) and salbutamol on VDP in older never-smokers. To identify the potential determinants of ventilation defects in these subjects, we evaluated dyspnea, pulmonary function, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) measurements, as well as occupational and second-hand smoke exposure. Fifty-two never-smokers (71 ± 6 yr) with no history of chronic respiratory disease were evaluated. During a single visit, pulmonary function tests, CPET, and (3)He MRI were performed and the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease questionnaire administered. For eight of 52 subjects, there was spirometry evidence of airflow limitation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-Unclassified, I, and II), and occupational exposure was reported in 13 of 52 subjects. In 13 of 52 (25%) subjects, there were no ventilation defects and in 39 of 52 (75%) subjects, ventilation defects were observed. For those subjects with ventilation defects, six of 39 showed a VDP response to DI/salbutamol. Ventilation heterogeneity and VDP were significantly greater, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for subjects with ventilation defects with a response to DI/salbutamol than subjects with ventilation defects without a response to DI/salbutamol and subjects without ventilation defects. In a step-wise, forward multivariate model, FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and airway resistance significantly predicted VDP (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001). In conclusion, most never-smokers had normal spirometry and peripheral ventilation defects not reversed by DI/salbutamol; such ventilation defects were likely

  11. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  12. Comparative study of hydrogenated and lithiated superhalogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Na; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Sun, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-09-01

    The structural features, properties and stability of two kinds of representative superhalogen compounds, namely hydrogenated superhalogens and lithiated superhalogens, are theoretically studied in detail, providing further insight into the behavior of superhalogens. According to topological analysis of the electron localization function, most of superhalogen clusters as a whole combine with Li atom through ionic bond(s). In contrast, the H atom tends to bind with superhalogen by covalent bond although a portion of superhalogens are broken upon hydrogenation. In addition, the electric properties of these superhalogen compounds are also obtained and compared with those of traditional acid and salt molecules.

  13. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  14. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme compared with other smoking cessation interventions in Denmark: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful quitting. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting A total of 423 smoking cessation clinics from different settings reported data from 2001 to 2013. Participants In total, 82 515 patients were registered. Smokers ≥15 years old and attending a programme with planned follow-up were included. Smokers who did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard Programme, Come & Quit, crash courses, health promotion counselling (brief intervention) and other interventions. Main outcome Self-reported continuous abstinence for 6 months. Results Overall, 33% (11 184) were continuously abstinent after 6 months; this value was 24% when non-respondents were considered smokers. The follow-up rate was 74%. Women were less likely to remain abstinent, OR 0.83 (CI 0.79 to 0.87). Short interventions were more effective among men. After adjusting for confounders, the Gold Standard Programme was the only intervention with significant results across sex, increasing the odds of abstinence by 69% for men and 31% for women. In particular, compliance, and to a lesser degree, mild smoking, older age and not being disadvantaged were associated with positive outcomes for both sexes. Compliance increased the odds of abstinence more than 3.5-fold. Conclusions Over time, Danish smoking cessation interventions have been effective in real life. Compliance is the main predictor of successful quitting. Interestingly, short programmes seem to have

  15. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  16. Marked global reduction in mGluR5 receptor binding in smokers and ex-smokers determined by [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Funda; Ametamey, Simon M.; Treyer, Valerie; Burger, Cyrill; Johayem, Anass; Umbricht, Daniel; Gomez Mancilla, Baltazar; Sovago, Judit; Buck, Alfred; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem, resulting in primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We measured the glutamate receptor binding in the human brain and provided direct evidence for the abnormal glutamate system in smokers. Because antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and mice, mGluR5 is suggested to be involved in nicotine addiction. mGluR5 receptor binding specifically to an allosteric site was observed by using positron emission tomography with [11C]ABP688. We found a marked global reduction (20.6%; P < 0.0001) in the mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the gray matter of 14 smokers. The most prominent reductions were found in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with 14 nonsmokers, 14 ex-smokers had global reductions in the average gray matter mGluR5 DVR (11.5%; P < 0.005), and there was a significant difference in average gray matter mGluR5 DVR between smokers and ex-smokers (9.2%; P < 0.01). Clinical variables reflecting current nicotine consumption, dependence and abstinence were not correlated with mGluR5 DVR. This decrease in mGluR5 receptor binding may be an adaptation to chronic increases in glutamate induced by chronic nicotine administration, and the decreased down-regulation seen in the ex-smokers could be due to incomplete recovery of the receptors, especially because the ex-smokers were abstinent for only 25 wk on average. These results encourage the development and testing of drugs against addiction that directly target the glutamatergic system. PMID:23248277

  17. A column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid in Chinese smokers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Zhang, Xiaotao; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-11-01

    The acrylonitrile metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA) have been determined in human urine using an automated column-switching procedure. A diluted sample was centrifuged just prior to being injected into a reusable precolumn packed with a restricted access material and coupled to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. This method achieved satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy. Average intra- and interday variations (% relative standard deviations) ranged from 2.4 to 3.8% for CEMA and from 2.7 to 10.5% for HEMA. The limits of quantification were 0.003 and 0.099ng/ml for CEMA and HEMA, respectively. It was used to study the uptake of acrylonitrile from smoke constituents by both nonsmokers and smokers of different tar yield cigarettes under ISO 3308 smoking condition. Metabolite concentrations in smoker urine samples were approximately 12 times higher compared with those in nonsmokers for CEMA and 3 times higher for HEMA. Urinary CEMA levels show a clear dose-response relationship with daily cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine. CEMA can also discriminate between smokers of different ISO cigarettes. Because HEMA is not specific, it is only slightly related to smoking and acrylonitrile exposure. The validated biomarker CEMA will continue to be useful for studies of acrylonitrile uptake by smokers.

  18. 'Every space is claimed': smokers' experiences of tobacco denormalisation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; McCullough, Lucy; Salmon, Amy; Bell, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy of 'denormalising' tobacco use has become one of the cornerstones of the global tobacco control movement. Although tobacco denormalisation policies primarily affect people on the lowest rungs of the social ladder, few qualitative studies have explicitly set out to explore how smokers have experienced and responded to these legislative and social changes in attitudes towards tobacco use. Drawing on a qualitative study of interviews with 25 current and ex-smokers living in Vancouver, Canada, this paper examines the ways they interpret and respond to the new socio-political environment in which they must manage the increasingly problematised practice of tobacco smoking. Overall, while not opposed to smoking restrictions per se, study participants felt that recent legislation, particularly efforts to prohibit smoking in a variety of outdoor settings, was overly restrictive and that all public space had increasingly been 'claimed' by non-smokers. Also apparent from participants' accounts was the high degree of stigma attached to smoking. However, although the 'denormalisation' environment had encouraged several participants to quit smoking, the majority continued to smoke, raising ethical and practical questions about the value of denormalisation strategies as a way of reducing smoking-related mortality and morbidity.

  19. Mental health of two communities of Japanese-Brazilians: a comparative study in Japan and in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Lincoln Sakiara; Otsuka, Koichiro; Tsuji, Keisuke; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Kunihiro, Joseph; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kato, Satoshi; Abe, Yu; Kamada, Yoshiro

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mental health status of Japanese-Brazilians living in Kiyoharadai, Japan and compare the findings with the Japanese-Brazilians living in Bauru, Brazil. A comparative community-based mental health survey was conducted from November 1997 to April 1999 on a randomly selected sample of Brazilians of Japanese descent living in Bauru, Brazil (n=213) and on the entire Brazilian community of Kiyoharadai, Utsunomiya, Japan (n=158), using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). Analysis was done by chi2, Fisher and multiple logistic regression. Scores indicating probable cases of minor psychiatric disorders, were found in 3.2% of the community in Bauru city and 17.8% (OR=7.01) of the community in Kiyoharadai. The sociodemographic data indicated that those with high SRQ-20 scores were most likely to be female (OR=2.98), smokers (OR=2.76), and those whose former occupation was student when living in Brazil (OR=9.57). The mental health status of the Japanese-Brazilians living in Kiyoharadai, Japan is significantly worse than that of the community living in Bauru, Brazil, particularly among women, smokers and those who were students when living in Brazil. Further research concerning the mental health of this community is necessary and assistance provided.

  20. Comparative study of methods for WHPA delineation.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Daniel; Martel, Richard; Karanta, Gilbert; Lefebvre, René; Michaud, Yves; Therrien, René; Nastev, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Human activities, whether agricultural, industrial, commercial, or domestic, can contribute to ground water quality deterioration. In order to protect the ground water exploited by a production well, it is essential to develop a good knowledge of the flow system and to adequately delineate the area surrounding the well within which potential contamination sources should be managed. Many methods have been developed to delineate such a wellhead protection area (WHPA). The integration of more information on the geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the study area increases the precision of any given WHPA delineation method. From a practical point of view, the WHPA delineation methods allowing the simplest and least expensive integration of the available information should be favored. This paper presents a comparative study in which nine different WHPA delineation methods were applied to a well and a spring in an unconfined granular aquifer and to a well in a confined highly fractured rock aquifer. These methods range from simple approaches to complex computer models. Hydrogeological mapping and numerical modeling with MODFLOW-MODPATH were used as reference methods to respectively compare the delineation of the zone of contribution and the zone of travel obtained from the various WHPA methods. Although applied to simple ground water flow systems, these methods provided a relatively wide range of results. To allow a realistic delineation of the WHPA in aquifers of variable geometry, a WHPA delineation method should ensure a water balance and include observed or calculated regional flow characteristics.

  1. Improvement of mucociliary transport in smokers by mucolytics.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Marsico, S A; Del Donno, M

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two mucolytic drugs with different mechanism of action on mucociliary transport (MCT). N-acetylcysteine (NAC-600 mg/day) and ambroxol (AMB-90 mg/day) were administered according to a double-blind cross-over scheme to 12 heavy smokers suffering from hypersecretory bronchitis and homogeneous reduction of the MCT. Placebo of both treatments was administered during an interval of ten days between the administrations of NAC and AMB. The entire treatment period was 30 days. The data were analyzed according to ANOVA for the two-period cross-over clinical trial. The results indicate that: NAC and AMB, administered both before and after placebo, produce a significant increase in MCT, NAC showed a slightly greater efficacy than AMB, but the differences are not statistically significant. The overall efficacy of NAC and AMB is consistently greater than that of placebo. The sequence of administration of the drugs does not influence their effect.

  2. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Māori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a cessation intervention appropriate for Indigenous people. Methods/Design A literature review was conducted to identify what cultural principles and practices could be used to increase salience, and what competition elements could have an impact on efficacy of smoking cessation. The identified elements were incorporated into the design of a cessation intervention. Discussion Cultural practices incorporated into the intervention include having a holistic family or group-centred focus, inter-group competitiveness, fundraising and ritual pledging. Competition elements included are social support, pharmacotherapy use, cash prize incentives and the use of a dedicated website and iPad application. A pre-test post-test will be combined with process evaluation to evaluate if the competition results in triggering mass-quitting, utilisation of pharmacotherapy and in increasing sustained smoking cessation and to get a comprehensive understanding of the way in which they contribute to the effect. The present study is the first to describe how knowledge about cultural practices and principles can be combined with proven cessation support into a smoking cessation contest. The findings from this study are promising and further more rigorous testing is warranted. PMID:24365329

  3. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged < or =19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p < 0.0001) and delivering pre-term (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 2.4-3.7, p < 0.0001). Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p < 0.0001) and were more likely to deliver vaginally with no significant increase in the risk of assisted vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Young mothers were nearly twice at risk of delivering low birth weight babies (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2, p < 0.0001) and 50% less likely to have normal birth weight babies (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9, p < 0.0001). The outcome of this study showed that teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking

  4. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  5. Depressive Symptoms Among Heavy Cigarette Smokers: The Influence of Daily Rate, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smokers experience higher levels of depressive symptoms and are more likely to be diagnosed with depressive disorders than nonsmokers. To date, the nature of the smoking–depression relationship has not been adequately studied among heavy smokers, a group at elevated risk for poor health outcomes. In this study, we examined depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers while considering the moderating roles of smoking status, gender, and race. We also explored whether amount of tobacco usually consumed had an impact. Methods: We extracted data from a large, highly nicotine-dependent, nontreatment cigarette smoking study sample (N = 6,158). Participants who consented were screened for major exclusions, and they completed questionnaires. Results: Smokers reported a higher, clinically meaningful level of depressive symptoms relative to nonsmokers (27.3% of smokers vs. 12.5% of nonsmokers) scored above the clinical cutoff on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (p < .001), which differed among race × gender subgroups. Further, amount of daily intake was inversely associated with self-report of depressive symptoms. For every 10-cigarette increment, the likelihood of scoring above the CES-D clinical cutoff decreased by 62% (p < .0001). Conclusions: These findings improve our understanding of tobacco’s influence on depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers, with implications for tailoring evidence-based tobacco treatments. PMID:23569006

  6. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  7. Quantification of benzo[a]pyrene and other PAHs in the serum and follicular fluid of smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Michael S; Zhu, Jiping; Foster, Warren G

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-established reproductive hazard that has been linked with decreased fertility in both smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke. The chemical components responsible for the reproductive toxic effects of cigarette smoke are unknown. Moreover, exposure of reproductive tissues to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke is largely unknown. Therefore, we measured the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in cigarette smoke, in the serum and follicular fluid of women exposed to mainstream (n=19) and side stream smoke (n=7) compared to non-smokers (n=10). Women exposed to mainstream smoke had significantly higher levels of B[a]P (1.32+/-0.68ng/ml) in their follicular fluid compared to side stream exposed (0.05+/-0.01ng/ml) or their non-smoking (0.03+/-0.01ng/ml) counterparts. More importantly we found significantly higher (p<0.001) levels of B[a]P in the follicular fluid of women who did not conceive (1.79+/-0.03ng/ml) compared to those that achieved a pregnancy (0.08+/-0.03ng/ml). Other PAHs known to be present in cigarette smoke were also detectable in both serum and follicular fluid of study subjects studied but with lower frequency compared to B[a]P and no differences in serum or follicular fluid levels between the groups could be demonstrated. The important finding that B[a]P reaches the follicular fluid and the fact that it is found at much higher levels in women who smoke provides further evidence that of the many toxicants present in cigarette smoke, B[a]P may be a key compound that is central to the documented adverse effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and subsequent fertility.

  8. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  9. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers' Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-07-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers' readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses.

  10. Evaluating smokers' reactions to advertising for new lower nicotine quest cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph; Strasser, Andrew A; Pinto, Angela; Hornik, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Quest cigarettes are a relatively new (2003) product that has been marketed as a way for smokers to gradually reduce the nicotine they receive from cigarettes in order to, according to marketing materials, become nicotine free. However, despite lower levels of nicotine, Quest cigarettes do not have reduced tar levels and, thus, still pose health hazards. This study evaluated beliefs about Quest cigarettes following exposure to a single print advertisement among 200 regular smokers who had never heard of the brand itself. Descriptively, smokers made several specific false inferences about Quest cigarettes after exposure (i.e., lower in tar, healthier, less likely to cause cancer). Two individual-differences variables, need for cognition and perceived vulnerability, moderated smokers' health beliefs about Quest cigarettes.

  11. A comparative study of physiologic intracranial calcifications.

    PubMed

    Abbassioun, K; Aarabi, B; Zarabi, M

    1978-04-01

    It has been the impression of clinicians that pineal calcification is infrequent in Shiraz, Iran. In order to evaluate this clinical impression 2000 consecutive skul X-rays taken at Saadi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed for the presence of physiologic intracranial calcifications. The incidence of these clasifications in male and female in consecutive age groups of 10 years from 0 to over 70 years of age were assessed and compared with previous reports from other countries. The average incidence of pineal calcification for those over 20 years of age was 18.29% in this study compared with 55% in the U.S.A. The incidence of calcification in the choroid plexus and the falx cerebri was also considerably less than previously reported. The literature is reviewed and the possible causes for the geographical differences in the reported frequency of physiologic intracranial calcifications is discussed. It is possible that racial and dietary factors may be significant in the variation in the incidence of pineal and other cranial calcifications noted in different countries. Within a population group, age and sex are additional factors.

  12. Smoker Identity and Its Potential Role in Young Adults’ Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16–34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Results: Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals’ defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Conclusions: Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker’s identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. PMID:25622078

  13. Comparative study of boundary conditions with helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, Shamini; Kumar, Deepak; Phua, Y. N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of dispersion characteristics of the circular waveguide with helical windings. Our waveguide is doubly unconventional in the choice of reverse boundary condition, in the choice of normal boundary condition and further with the presence of sheath helix between the core and cladding parameters. Two methods of winding the helix between the core and cladding are considered namely from right to left and left to right. Through mathematical analysis using field components and boundary conditions the modal characteristics are derived for both conditions. Normal boundary condition and reverse boundary conditions are used respectively to represent the helical windings. Here the characteristic equation is obtained in the form of Bessel and modified Bessel for both waveguides. Using the modal characteristic equation the dispersion curves are plotted for numerous angles and wavelengths. We find that the method of wrapping the helical material has significant effect on the dispersion properties with regards to the way the modes propagate.

  14. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  15. Comparative studies on ecotoxicology of synthetic detergents.

    PubMed

    Lal, H; Misra, V; Viswanathan, P N; Krishna Murti, C R

    1983-12-01

    To predict the comparative toxicological response of synthetic detergents on aquatic ecosystems, the effects of various concentrations of neutralized alkyl benzene sulfonate were studied. The median tolerance limit at 48 hr, 95% confidence limit, slope function, presumable harmless concentration, and rate of survival of different species of aquatic fauna such as water fleas (Daphnia magna), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), slug worms (Tubifex rivulorum), snails (Lymnaea vulgaris), tadpoles (Rana cyanophlyctis), and fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) were followed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Any effect on quality of the water was also tested after the addition of various concentrations of detergents. The results showed that water fleas are more susceptible to detergent toxicity than fish fingerlings, tadpoles, slug worms, snails, and mosquito larvae. Behavioral changes were also observed as an index for detergent toxicity. The relative toxicity of the detergents to various species is discussed in relation to selective ecotoxicological response.

  16. Knowledge of the new Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act is associated with smokers' behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Yin; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chen, Chien-Chih; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-03-01

    Evidence that smoking area restrictions and raising cigarette taxes affect smokers' behavior of seeking help in cessation is limited. The authors conducted a case-control study of 200 participants in Taipei City, Taiwan, from December 2008 to June 2009 to evaluate the association between knowledge on legislation and the behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation. They compared smokers who sought assistance in clinics/classes and smokers who did not, matching for age, gender, and recruitment time. In a univariate model, both banning smoking and increasing prices had positive effects on smokers' behavior, but the effect size of the latter was larger (P = .021). A better knowledge of the regulations was associated with cessation effort (odds ratio [OR] = 2.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-5.23), as were being more influenced by increased prices (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.38-4.34) and by smoking bans (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.29-4.16). Increased knowledge of the regulations is associated with seeking help for smoking.

  17. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  18. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  19. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  20. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.0001). When adjusted for age and gender, levels of total NNAL per milligram of creatinine were also significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). Levels of cotinine per milliliter of urine and per milligram of creatinine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). These results show similar exposures to the potent tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  1. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  2. [Stress and smoking in treatment-seeking smokers].

    PubMed

    Dupont, P; Reynaud, M; Aubin, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fear of not controlling stress is the most frequently reported obstacle to smoking cessation. We report a retrospective study involving 70 smokers whose files were randomly selected from a smoking cessation clinic's recruitment. Stress management as a motive to smoke (SMMS) was systematically explored at the first visit, before quit date. SMMS mean score was 7.36 (+/- 2.4) on a 10 point scale. The score was higher in females than in males (p = 0,048). A multivariate logistic regression showed that SMMS was explained by two variables: physical dependence as measured with the FTND score (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.18-2.46), and anxiety as measured with the HAD scale (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03-1.56). In conclusion, the high frequency and impact of perceived stress on smoking behavior call for a systematic clinical evaluation of perceived stress when engaging a treatment for smoking dependence. Our work has confirmed the importance for the smokers of perceived stress on their smoking behavior, particularly in females. Perceived stress showed a strong relationship with nicotine dependence and anxiety. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety in smokers.

  3. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rios, Monica; Fernandez, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Lopez, Maria Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006) and after (2011) the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010. Methods Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old) Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76%) showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%). Conclusions The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. PMID:26066497

  4. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents.

  5. CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotyping and 3-aminobiphenyl and 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct levels in smokers and non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Mohamadi; Stabbert, Regina; Kinser, Robin D.; Oey, Jan; Rustemeier, Klaus; Holt, Klaus von; Schepers, Georg; Walk, Roger A.; Roethig, Hans J.

    2006-06-15

    Some aromatic amines are considered to be putative bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) have been used as biomarkers of exposure to aromatic amines from cigarette smoke. One of the goals of this study was to determine intra- and inter-individual variability in 3-ABP and 4-ABP Hb adducts and to explore the predictability of ABP Hb adduct levels based on caffeine phenotyping. The study was conducted in adult smokers (S, n = 65) and non-smokers (NS, n 65). The subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2 and NAT2 using urinary caffeine metabolites. Blood samples were collected twice within 6 weeks and adducts measured by GC/MS. The levels of 4-ABP Hb adducts were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater in S (34.5 {+-} 21.06 pg/g Hb) compared to NS (6.3 {+-} 3.02 pg/g Hb). The levels of 3-ABP Hb adducts were below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in most (82%) of the NS and about 10-fold lower in S (3.6 {+-} 3.29 pg/g Hb) compared to 4-ABP Hb adducts. No differences were observed in the adduct levels between weeks 1 and 6 in the smokers, suggesting that a single sample would be adequate to monitor cigarette smoke exposure. The regression model developed with CYP1A2, NAT2 phenotype and number of cigarettes smoked (NCIG) accounted for 47% of the variability in 3-ABP adducts, whereas 32% variability in 4-ABP adducts was accounted by CYP1A2 and NCIG. The ratio of 4-ABP Hb adducts in adult S:NS was {approx} 5:1, whereas 3-ABP Hb adducts levels were BLOQ in some S, exhibited large interindividual variability ({approx} 91% compared to 57% for 4-ABP Hb) and poor dose response relationship. Therefore, 4-ABP Hb adduct levels may be a more useful biomarker of aminobiphenyl exposure from cigarette smoke.

  6. [Lung cancer in never smokers: a French national cohort (BioCAST/IFCT-1002)].

    PubMed

    Couraud, S; Labonne, S; Missy, P; Morin, F; Tran, Q; Deroy, A; Milleron, B; Blanché, H; Zalcman, G; Souquet, P-J

    2013-09-01

    Around 5 to 25% of lung cancer worldwide occurs in lifelong non-smokers (less than 100 cigarettes in lifetime). Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) shows many clinical, epidemiological and molecular differences compared to those related to tobacco. It is therefore often considered as a separate entity. LCINS is also a good model for the study of lung cancer risk factors and tumoral mutation profiles (usually more common and specific). However, most data has come from retrospective studies and/or from Asian populations, although this disease shows high geographic lability. The BioCAST/IFCT-1002 is a national, multicentric, prospective study promoted by the French intergroup IFCT. The first objective is to describe the clinical and molecular epidemiology of LCINS in a French population. Detailed data (including exposure to many risk factors) are collected directly from the patient through a standardized questionnaire completed during a telephone interview. All patients also undergo blood sampling for the analysis of genomic polymorphisms and the characterization of epigenetic anomalies. BioCAST hopes to provide concrete answers for clinicians and patients about this entity.

  7. [Terconazol in vaginal candidiasis. Comparative study].

    PubMed

    Llaca Rodríguez, V; Carrión Tizcareño, H; Arguelles Domenzain, P

    1990-11-01

    The antimycotic action and tolerance to terconazole in patients with vaginal candidiasis, were evaluated in a blind study. The medication was given in vaginal ovules (VO) 240 mg, one dose per day, and 80 mg one daily dose for three days; as compared to chlotrimazole, VO 200 mg, daily dose for three days. The patients presented with vaginal candidiasis demonstrated by Nickerson culture medium. Sixty patients were studied in three equivalent groups. The mates of patients treated with terconazole had no treatment; and the mates of patients treated with chlotrimazole received urinary acidifying medication. Symptomatology and mycologic findings were evaluated at 10 and 28 days post treatment. Mycological cure rates at 10 days were: 90 per cent for the terconazole group, 240 mg, one dose; and 95 per cent for patients with terconazole, 80 mg, daily dose for three days; or chlotrimazole, 200 mg, daily dose for three days. Twenty eight days post-treatment, laboratory tests were positive again: 50%, 40% and 15%, respectively. Recidive in patients treated with terconazole, is explained by lack of treatment in mates. In conclusion, terconazole offers a high percentage of clinical and mycological cure in vaginal candidiasis, and it is indispensable treatment for the mate, in order to avoid recidives.

  8. [Terconazole in vaginal candidiasis. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Llaca Rodríguez, V; Carrión Tizcareño, H; Arguelles Domenzain, P

    1990-11-01

    The antimycotic action and tolerance to terconazole in patients with vaginal candidiasis, were evaluated in a blind study. The medication was given in vaginal ovules (VO)240 mg, one dose per day, and 80 mg one daily dose for three days; as compared to chlotrimazole, VO 200 mg, daily dose for three days. The patients presented with vaginal candidiasis demonstrated by Nickerson culture medium. Sixty patients were studied in three equivalent groups. The mates of patients treated with terconazole had no treatment; and the mates of patients treated with chlotrimazole received urinary acidifying medication. Symptomatology and mycologic findings were evaluated at 10 and 28 days post treatment. Mycological cure rates at 10 days were: 90 per cent for the terconazole group, 240 mg, one dose; and 95 per cent for patients with terconazole, 80 mg, daily dose for three days; or chlotrimazole, 200 mg, daily dose for three days. Twenty eight days post-treatment, laboratory tests were positive again: 50%, 40% and 15%, respectively. Recidive in patients treated with terconazole, is explained by lack of treatment in mates. In conclusion, terconazole offers a high percentage of clinical and mycological cure in vaginal candidiasis, and it is indispensable treatment for the mate, in order to avoid recidives.

  9. An Encapsulated Juice Powder Concentrate Improves Markers of Pulmonary Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Heavy Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bamonti, Fabrizia; Pellegatta, Marco; Novembrino, Cristina; Vigna, Luisella; De Giuseppe, Rachele; de Liso, Federica; Gregori, Dario; Noce, Cinzia Della; Patrini, Lorenzo; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Bonara, Paola; Calvelli, Laura; Maiavacca, Rita; Cighetti, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluated the effects of two different combinations of mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (Juice Plus+, NSA, Collierville, TN) on heavy smokers. Methods: At baseline (T0) and after 3 months’ supplementation (T1), pulmonary function parameters and cardiovascular risk factors—that is, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) with related B vitamins and cysteine (tCys) concentrations—were assessed in 75 apparently healthy smokers (aged 49.2 ± 10.6 years, 20 cigarettes/d, duration > 10 years) randomized into 3 groups: placebo (P), fruit/vegetable (FV) and fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Results: T0: most smokers showed abnormalities in tHcy and tCys concentrations. T1: respiratory function was unchanged in P and slightly, but not significantly, improved in FV, whereas FVB showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory flow at 25% (FEF25; p < 0.0001 vs P and FV) and significant improvement in CO diffusion lung/alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). FV and FVB (50%) showed significant reduction in tHcy and tCys compared to T0 (p < 0.0001) and P (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: At T1, both supplemented groups, but to a greater extent the FVB group, showed improvements in some pulmonary parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and folate status. The beneficial effects of Juice Plus+ supplementation could potentially help smokers, even if smoking cessation is advisable. PMID:24015696

  10. Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Collins, Bradley N; Napolitano, Melissa A

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is often used as a maladaptive weight control strategy among female smokers. Many of the perceived benefits accrued from smoking, including enhanced mood, reduced anxiety, and weight control, can also be achieved through physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a novel behavioral task (body-image exposure) that was designed to elicit body image and weight concerns on urge to smoke among 18-24 year old female smokers who vary in levels of physical activity. Using a cue-reactivity paradigm, 16 sedentary (SE) and 21 physically active (PA) female smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day for past 6 months) were exposed to a pilot tested body-image exposure session. Self-reported urge and latency to first puff were obtained before and after exposure session. Paired sample t tests showed significant increases in self-reported urge (p < .01) and quicker latency to first puff (p < .01) at posttest for the entire sample compared with pretest. Results of partial correlation (controlling for body mass index [BMI], nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and depressive symptoms) showed that increased time engaging in vigorous intensity physical activity was associated with lower self-reported urge to smoke at post (r = -0.44; p = .01) but not with latency to first puff (r = -.10; p = .62). These results suggest that among weight-concerned female smokers, physical activity may attenuate smoking urges in a context where weight concerns are increased. Future research should continue to explore effects of physical activity on reactivity to body image and smoking cues and variability in smoking cue-reactivity related to physical activity.

  11. Subgingival microbial profiles of smokers with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shchipkova, A Y; Nagaraja, H N; Kumar, P S

    2010-11-01

    The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms.

  12. Stories from Former Smokers | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    You are not alone. You can learn a lot about quitting from others who have quit smoking. As you build your quit plan, think about the ways these former smokers were able to stop smoking and stay smokefree. On this page: James Mary Lisa

  13. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163390.html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing ... 2017 THURSDAY, Feb. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most current and former smokers in the United States don' ...

  14. Comparative study of selected parallel tempering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakis, A.; Papakonstantinou, T.

    2013-07-01

    We review several parallel tempering schemes and examine their main ingredients for accuracy and efficiency. The present study covers two selection methods of temperatures and several choices for the exchange of replicas, including a recent novel all-pair exchange method. We compare the resulting schemes and measure specific heat errors and efficiency using the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model. Our tests suggest that an earlier proposal for using numbers of local moves related to the canonical correlation times is one of the key ingredients for increasing efficiency, and protocols using cluster algorithms are found to be very effective. Some of the protocols are also tested for efficiency and ground state production in 3D spin-glass models where we find that a simple nearest-neighbor approach using a local n-fold-way algorithm is the most effective. Finally, we present evidence that the asymptotic limits of the ground state energy for the isotropic case and for an anisotropic case of the 3D spin-glass model are very close and may even coincide.

  15. Biosafe alternative to xylene: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Chauhan, Isha; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Xylene in one of the non-substitutable chemical used in histology laboratories. However, it is known to have many toxic effects. The toxic effects of xylene include heart and kidney injuries, some fatal blood dyscrasia and other less dangerous problems, such as skin erythema, drying, scaling and secondary infections. The exposure and handling of xylene is maximum during deparaffinizing tissue sections. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.7% dishwashing soap (DWS) solution as a deparaffinizing agent for hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and compare it with xylene. Materials and Methods: Sixty sections of 4 μm were obtained from 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and were considered in two different groups, groups A and B. Slides in group A were stained with routine H and E staining procedure; whereas, slides in group B were stained using 1.7% DWS as a deparaffinizing agent. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to calculate the test of significance (P-value significant at ≤0.05). Results and Conclusion: 1.7% DWS was found to be an effective alternative deparaffinizing agent to xylene and meanwhile facilitating as less biohazardous, economical and a faster deparaffinizing agent. PMID:24574653

  16. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed.

  17. Task persistence predicts smoking cessation in smokers with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Foulds, Jonathan; Epstein, Elizabeth E; Brandon, Thomas H

    2012-12-01

    Smokers attempting to quit should benefit from persisting in cognitive and behavioral coping in order to achieve and maintain abstinence. Task persistence, which describes the act of persisting in a difficult or effortful task, is likely to be required in the face of distressing smoking cues, urges to smoke, or other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. This study examined whether task persistence (also called distress tolerance) could prospectively predict smoking cessation in a mixed sample of smokers with and without schizophrenia. Smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 71) and nonpsychiatric smokers (n = 78) seeking treatment at state-funded tobacco dependence treatment clinics completed tests of task persistence before their target quit date, and then provided tobacco use data over the 6 months after their quit date. Findings from generalized estimating equations support the hypothesis that task persistence as measured by a mirror-tracing task predicts smoking cessation while controlling for important covariates such as psychiatric diagnosis, nicotine dependence, and confidence in ability to quit. These findings add to the literature by corroborating reports suggesting that task persistence may make important contributions to smoking cessation success, and by indicating that the contribution of task persistence to smoking cessation is similar for smokers with schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric smokers. These results suggest that efforts to target task persistence in smoking cessation counseling protocols may be warranted.

  18. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color.

  19. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore ); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. ); Somerville, C.C. )

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  20. Food hedonics and reinforcement as determinants of laboratory food intake in smokers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Wright, Suzanne M; Paluch, Rocco A; Leddy, John; Hawk, Larry W; Jaroni, Jodie L; Saad, Frances G; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-05-01

    Both the hedonic ratings and the reinforcing value of food have been considered to be determinants of food intake. The objective of this study was to compare the pleasurable ratings and the reinforcing value of food as determinants of energy intake. Seventy-four smokers were studied in food consumption and reinforcing value of food tasks prior to enrolling in a smoking-cessation treatment program. For the food consumption task, the participants tasted and consumed food ad lib from eight snack foods. The reinforcing value of the food task assessed how hard subjects would work for a preferred snack food. Results showed that food reinforcement was related to laboratory food intake, with those high in food reinforcement consuming significantly more calories (+114.4 kcal, P<.01) than did the participants low in food reinforcement. Food reinforcement was related to food intake for the preferred food as well as to total energy intake. Hedonics for the preferred food was related to food reinforcement but not to either measure of laboratory energy intake. In multiple-regression models, food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement by sex were significant predictors of energy intake for the preferred food and for total energy intake, along with baseline hunger. In conclusion, energy intake in smokers in a laboratory setting is more strongly related to food reinforcement than to the hedonic ratings of food.

  1. Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Richard S; Leonard, Scott W; Atkinson, Jeffery; Montine, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Bray, Tammy M; Traber, Maret G

    2006-02-15

    Vitamin E disappearance is accelerated in cigarette smokers due to their increased oxidative stress and is inversely correlated with plasma vitamin C concentrations. Therefore, we hypothesized that ascorbic acid supplementation (500 mg, twice daily; 2 weeks) would normalize smokers' plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol disappearance rates and conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover investigation in smokers (n=11) and nonsmokers (n=13) given a single dose of deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (50 mg each d6-RRR-alpha and d2-RRR-gamma-tocopheryl acetate). During the placebo trial, smokers, compared with nonsmokers, had significantly (P<0.05) greater alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates and shorter half-lives. Ascorbic acid supplementation doubled (P<0.0001) plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both groups and attenuated smokers', but not nonsmokers', plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (P<0.05) fractional disappearance rates by 25% and 45%, respectively. Likewise, smokers' plasma deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) at 72 h during ascorbic acid supplementation compared with placebo. Ascorbic acid supplementation did not significantly change (P>0.05) time of maximal or maximal-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Smokers' plasma F2alpha-isoprostanes were approximately 26% higher than nonsmokers (P>0.05) and were not affected by ascorbic acid supplementation in either group (P>0.05). In summary, cigarette smoking increased plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates, suggesting that the oxidative stress from smoking oxidizes tocopherols and that plasma ascorbic acid reduces alpha- and gamma-tocopheroxyl radicals to nonoxidized forms, thereby decreasing vitamin E disappearance in humans.

  2. Where There is Smoke There is Fear-Impaired Contextual Inhibition of Conditioned Fear in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schümann, Dirk; Bunzeck, Nico; Peters, Jan; Sommer, Tobias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2017-02-15

    The odds-ratio of smoking is elevated in populations with neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular in the highly prevalent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Yet, the association between smoking and a key dimensional phenotype of these disorders-maladaptive deficits in fear learning and fear inhibition-is unclear. We therefore investigated acquisition and memory of fear and fear inhibition in healthy smoking and non-smoking participants (N=349, 22% smokers). We employed a well validated paradigm of context-dependent fear and safety learning (day 1) including a memory retrieval on day 2. During fear learning, a geometrical shape was associated with an aversive electrical stimulation (classical fear conditioning, in danger context) and fear responses were extinguished within another context (extinction learning, in safe context). On day 2, the conditioned stimuli were presented again in both contexts, without any aversive stimulation. Autonomic physiological measurements of skin conductance responses as well as subjective evaluations of fear and expectancy of the aversive stimulation were acquired. We found that impairment of fear inhibition (extinction) in the safe context during learning (day 1) was associated with the amount of pack-years in smokers. During retrieval of fear memories (day 2), smokers showed an impairment of contextual (safety context-related) fear inhibition as compared with non-smokers. These effects were found in physiological as well as subjective measures of fear. We provide initial evidence that smokers as compared with non-smokers show an impairment of fear inhibition. We propose that smokers have a deficit in integrating contextual signs of safety, which is a hallmark of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.17.

  3. A Comparative Study Of Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, C. F.; Prieto, L. E.

    2005-12-01

    computational models. This was accomplished by examining features of the dust devils in the form of three main flow parameters: the ratio of the inflow layer height h to the updraft radius r_0 (aspect ratio), the radial Reynolds number characterizing the updraft zone, and the ratio of the tangential velocity to the mean radial velocity (swirl ratio) at the radius of the updraft zone, r_0. The detailed analysis of the numerical flow solutions led to a simple definition of h and r_0, valid for the types of model flows analyzed. This study is a necessary part of a larger effort to examine and compare both numerical and laboratory simulations of atmospheric vortices in terrestrial and Martian conditions. References [1] R. Greeley et al., XXXII Lunar and Planetary Science, 2001. [2] D. E. Lund and J. T. Snow, The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, 1993, p. 297--306. [3] N. B. Ward, J. Atmos. Sci., 1972, 1194--1204.

  4. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  5. Comparative Study of Two Automatic Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, D.; Bethel, J.; Crawford, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is prevalent for the automatic fine registration of overlapping pairs of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. This method along with its vast number of variants, obtains the least squares parameters that are necessary to align the TLS data by minimizing some distance metric between the scans. The ICP algorithm uses a "model-data" concept in which the scans obtain differential treatment in the registration process depending on whether they were assigned to be the "model" or "data". For each of the "data" points, corresponding points from the "model" are sought. Another concept of "symmetric correspondence" was proposed in the Point-to-Plane (P2P) algorithm, where both scans are treated equally in the registration process. The P2P method establishes correspondences on both scans and minimizes the point-to-plane distances between the scans by simultaneously considering the stochastic properties of both scans. This paper studies both the ICP and P2P algorithms in terms of their consistency in registration parameters for pairs of TLS data. The question being investigated in this paper is, should scan A be registered to scan B, will the parameters be the same if scan B were registered to scan A? Experiments were conducted with eight pairs of real TLS data which were registered by the two algorithms in the forward (scan A to scan B) and backward (scan B to scan A) modes and the results were compared. The P2P algorithm was found to be more consistent than the ICP algorithm. The differences in registration accuracy between the forward and backward modes were negligible when using the P2P algorithm (mean difference of 0.03 mm). However, the ICP had a mean difference of 4.26 mm. Each scan was also transformed by the forward and backward parameters of the two algorithms and the misclosure computed. The mean misclosure for the P2P algorithm was 0.80 mm while that for the ICP algorithm was 5.39 mm. The conclusion from this study is

  6. Factors Associated with Smoking Frequency among Current Waterpipe Smokers in the United States: Findings from the National College Health Assessment II

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Islam, Farahnaz; Ortiz, Kasim S.; Kates, Frederick R.; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Background Some waterpipe smokers exhibit nicotine dependent behaviors such as increased use over time and inability to quit, placing them at high risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of dependence by measuring frequency of use among current waterpipe smokers using a large national U.S. sample. Methods Data were drawn from four waves (Spring/Fall 2009 and Spring/Fall 2010) of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment datasets. The sample was restricted to students who smoked a waterpipe at least once in the past 30 days (N=19,323). Ordered logistic regression modeled the factors associated with higher frequency of waterpipe smoking. Results Among current waterpipe smokers, 6% used a waterpipe daily or almost daily (20–29 days). Daily cigarette smokers were at higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies compared with non-smokers of cigarettes (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.61–2.04). There was a strong association between daily cigar smoking and higher frequency of waterpipe smoking (OR=7.77; 95% CI=5.49–11.02). Similarly, students who used marijuana had higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.37–1.81). Conclusions Daily consumers of other addictive substances are at a higher risk of intensive waterpipe smoking and thus higher risk of waterpipe dependence. Intervention programs must incorporate methods to reduce waterpipe dependence and subsequently prevent its deleterious health effects. PMID:26036602

  7. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  8. Adult smokers in Colombia: Who isn’t giving it up

    PubMed Central

    Storr, Carla L.; Cheng, Hui; Posada-Villa, Jose; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Anthony, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Without ongoing surveillance systems to assess tobacco product demand and exposure levels, many low and middle income countries monitor smoking via periodic cross-sectional surveys. In this article, we seek to update estimates for the prevalence of adult smoking in Colombia and contribute additional information useful for tobacco control initiatives. Data are from the 2003 Colombian National Study of Mental Health (NSMH). A national probability sample of 4,426 adults (age 18-65) was assessed via a computer-assisted interview. An estimated 49% of the adult population had smoked at least once in their lifetimes; one in three adults (31%) had smoked regularly. Nearly half of regular smokers had been able to quit (44%; 95% CI= 40-48). Several personal and smoking related characteristics were associated with failing to quit: being a younger age, employed as compared to being a homemaker, and a history of daily use. Quitters and non-quitters were equivalent with respect to sex, educational status, and age of smoking onset. In conclusion, our findings describe the characteristics of regular smokers in Colombia and identify subgroups of non-quitters that may help guide tobacco control activities. PMID:18006241

  9. Effect of continuous smoking reduction and abstinence on blood pressure and heart rate in smokers switching to electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Cibella, Fabio; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Morjaria, Jaymin Bhagwanji; Battaglia, Eliana; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    We present prospective blood pressure (BP) and hear rate (HR) changes in smokers invited to switch to e-cigarettes in the ECLAT study. BP and HR changes were compared among (1) different study groups (users of high, low, and zero nicotine products) and (2) pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (same phenotype from week 12 to -52), with participants classified as quitters (completely quit smoking), reducers (≥50% reduction in smoking consumption) and failures (<50% or no reduction in smoking consumption). Additionally, the latter comparison was repeated in a subgroup of participants with elevated BP at baseline. No significant changes were observed among study groups for systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HR. In 145 subjects with a continuous smoking phenotype, we observed lower systolic BP at week 52 compared to baseline but no effect of smoking phenotype classification. When the same analysis was repeated in 66 subjects with elevated BP at baseline, a substantial reduction in systolic BP was observed at week 52 compared to baseline (132.4 ± 12.0 vs. 141.2 ± 10.5 mmHg, p < 0.001), with a significant effect found for smoking phenotype classification. After adjusting for weight change, gender and age, reduction in systolic BP from baseline at week 52 remains associated significantly with both smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. In conclusion, smokers who reduce or quit smoking by switching to e-cigarettes may lower their systolic BP in the long term, and this reduction is apparent in smokers with elevated BP. The current study adds to the evidence that quitting smoking with the use of e-cigarettes does not lead to higher BP values, and this is independently observed whether e-cigarettes are regularly used or not.

  10. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, N E; Ganio, M S; Burchfield, J M; Tucker, M A; Gonzalez, M A; Dougherty, E K; Robinson, F B; Ridings, C B; Veilleux, J C

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for > 4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p >  .05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s(-1)) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s(-1); p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s(-1); 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s(-1); p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  11. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  12. Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and

  13. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  14. Reduced coenzyme Q10 in female smokers and its association with lipid profile in a young healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices. PMID:22328876

  15. Flip This Classroom: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Tiffany; Peters, Michelle L.; Willis, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the beliefs and attitudes of teachers using the flipped versus the traditional class model. Survey and interview data were collected from a matched sample of in-service teachers representing both models from a large suburban southeastern Texas school district. The Attitude Towards Technology Scale, the…

  16. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  17. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  18. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments.

  19. Evaluation of the tobacco heating system 2.2. Part 9: Application of systems pharmacology to identify exposure response markers in peripheral blood of smokers switching to THS2.2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Haziza, Christelle; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-11-30

    As part of current harm reduction strategies, candidate modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) are developed to offer adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco product an alternative to cigarettes while potentially reducing individual risk and population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. One of these candidate MRTPs is the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 which does not burn tobacco, but instead heats it, thus producing significantly reduced levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) compared with combustible cigarettes (CC). A controlled, parallel group, open-label clinical study was conducted with subjects randomized to three monitored groups: (1) switching from CCs to THS2.2; (2) continuous use of non-menthol CC brand (CC arm); or (3) smoking abstinence (SA arm) for five days. Exposure response was assessed by measuring biomarkers of exposure to selected HPHCs. To complement the classical exposure response measurements, we have used the previously reported whole blood derived gene signature that can distinguish current smokers from either non-smokers or former smokers with high specificity and sensitivity. We tested the small signature consisting of only 11 genes on the blood transcriptome of subjects enrolled in the clinical study and showed a reduced exposure response in subjects that either stopped smoking or switched to a candidate MRTP, the THS2.2, compared with subjects who continued smoking their regular tobacco product.

  20. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  1. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Robert P.

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths (≃ 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of ≃ 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  2. Motivating and Helping Smokers to Stop Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R

    2003-01-01

    Smokers try to quit only once every 2 to 3 years and most do not use proven treatments. Repeated, brief, diplomatic advice increases quit rates. Such advice should include a clear request to quit, reinforcing personal risks of smoking and their reversibility, offering solutions to barriers to quitting, and offering treatment. All smokers should be encouraged to use both medications and counseling. Scientifically proven, first-line medications are nicotine gum, inhaler, lozenge, and patch plus the nonnicotine medication bupropion. Proven second-line medications are clonidine, nicotine nasal spray, and nortriptyline. These medications are equally effective and safe and the incidence of dependence is very small. The proven psychosocial therapies are behavioral and supportive therapies. These are as effective as medications and are effective via individual counseling, group, and telephone formats. The writing of this article was supported in part by Senior Scientist Award DA-00450 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. PMID:14687265

  3. Prevalence and Frequency of mHealth and eHealth Use Among US and UK Smokers and Differences by Motivation to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Tooley, Erin; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background Both mHealth and eHealth interventions for smoking cessation are rapidly being developed and tested. There are no data on use of mHealth and eHealth technologies by smokers in general or by smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking. Objective The aims of our study were to (1) assess technology use (eg, texting, social media, Internet) among smokers in the United States and United Kingdom, (2) examine whether technology use differs between smokers who are motivated to quit and smokers who are not motivated to quit, (3) examine previous use of technology to assist with smoking cessation, and (4) examine future intentions to use technology to assist with smoking cessation. Methods Participants were 1000 adult smokers (54.90%, 549/1000 female; mean age 43.9, SD 15.5 years; US: n=500, UK: n=500) who were recruited via online representative sampling strategies. Data were collected online and included demographics, smoking history, and frequency and patterns of technology use. Results Among smokers in general, there was a high prevalence of mobile and smartphone ownership, sending and receiving texts, downloading and using apps, using Facebook, and visiting health-related websites. Smokers who were unmotivated to quit were significantly less likely to own a smartphone or handheld device that connects to the Internet than smokers motivated to quit. There was a significantly lower prevalence of sending text messages among US smokers unmotivated to quit (78.2%, 179/229) versus smokers motivated to quit (95.0%, 229/241), but no significant differences between the UK groups (motivated: 96.4%, 239/248; unmotivated: 94.9%, 223/235). Smokers unmotivated to quit in both countries were significantly less likely to use a handheld device to read email, play games, browse the Web, or visit health-related websites versus smokers motivated to quit. US smokers had a high prevalence of app downloads regardless of motivation to quit, but UK smokers who were motivated to quit

  4. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  5. Lower but not higher doses of transdermal nicotine facilitate cognitive performance in smokers on gender non-preferred tasks.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Petros, Thomas V; Holm, Jeffrey E

    2012-09-01

    One of the most widely used treatments for smoking cessation is nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There is some evidence that smokers experience abstinence-induced deficits in cognitive function, which are attenuated by NRTs. Additionally it's been suggested that the degree of reversal of cognitive deficits may depend on the NRT dose and the smoker's gender. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine (7 mg, 14 mg and 21 mg) on cognitive performance of 48 male and 48 female smokers after overnight abstinence and 6h of patch application. Cognitive tasks used in the study included the Conners' CPT, emotional Stroop, mental arithmetic, and verbal recall of affective prose passages. The results showed greater probability of attentional problems in the male sample compared to females as identified by the Conners' CPT. Within gender women showed improved performance in the 7 mg and 14 mg conditions on several measures of the Conners' CPT, and faster hit reaction time on the emotional Stroop test compared to women in the placebo and 21 mg of nicotine groups. Conversely, males showed a moderate overall advantage on the mental arithmetic task and were differentially sensitive to nicotine treatment on the prose recall task, on which the greatest improvement in recall of affective material was observed for the 14 mg group compared to the 21 mg group. The results are explained on the basis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between nicotinic stimulation and cognitive performance as well as greater sensitivity to nicotine dose manipulation on gender non-preferred cognitive tasks.

  6. Targeting smokers at increased risk for relapse: treating women and those with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stevens S; Jorenby, Douglas E; Leischow, Scott J; Nides, Mitchell A; Rennard, Stephen I; Johnston, J Andrew; Jamerson, Brenda; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2003-02-01

    Some studies have shown that female smokers and smokers with a history of depression have an increased risk of relapse following smoking cessation treatment. This study examined the e