Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
Meissner, U.G.
1991-09-01
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.
Baryon mass splittings and strong CP violation in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory
de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Walker-Loud, Andre P.
2015-10-08
We study SU(3) flavor breaking corrections to the relation between the octet baryon masses and the nucleon-meson CP-violating interactions induced by the QCD theta term. We also work within the framework of SU(3) chiral perturbation theory and work through next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) chiral expansion, which is O(m2q). At lowest order, the CP-odd couplings induced by the QCD θ- term are determined by mass splittings of the baryon octet, the classic result of Crewther et al. We show that for each isospin-invariant CP-violating nucleon-meson interaction there exists one relation which is respected by loop corrections up to the ordermore » we work, while other leading-order relations are violated. With these relations we extract a precise value of the pion-nucleon coupling g-0 by using recent lattice QCD evaluations of the proton-neutron mass splitting. Additionally, we derive semi-precise values for CP-violating coupling constants between heavier mesons and nucleons and discuss their phenomenological impact on electric dipole moments of nucleons and nuclei.« less
The eightfold way model, the SU(3)-flavor model and the medium-strong interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Syed Afsar
2015-04-01
Lack of any baryon number in the eightfold way model, and its intrinsic presence in the SU(3)-flavor model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964. First we show that the conventional popular understanding of this puzzle is actually fundamentally wrong, and hence the problem being so old, begs urgently for resolution. In this paper we show that the issue is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation. This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in quantum chromodynamics.
Strong decays of charmed baryons in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory: An update
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang
2015-10-01
We first give a brief overview of the charmed baryon spectroscopy and discuss their possible structure and spin-parity assignments in the quark model. With the new Belle measurement of the widths of Σc(2455 ) and Σc(2520 ) and the recent CDF measurement of the strong decays of Λc(2595 ) and Λc(2625 ), we give updated coupling constants in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We find g2=0.56 5-0.024+0.011 for P -wave transitions between s -wave and s -wave baryons, and h2, one of the couplings responsible for S -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons, is extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+π π to be 0.63 ±0.07 . It is substantially enhanced compared to the old value of order 0.437. With the help from the quark model, two of the couplings h10 and h11 responsible for D -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons are determined from Σc(2880 ) decays. There is a tension for the coupling h2 as its value extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+ππ will imply Ξc(2790 )0→Ξc'π and Ξc(2815 )+→Ξc*π rates slightly above the current limits. It is conceivable that SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking can help account for the discrepancy.
SU(3) flavor symmetry and CP violating rate differences for charmless B{yields}PV decays
Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang; Shi, Jian-Qing
2000-08-01
We derive several relations between CP violating rate differences {delta}(B{yields}PV)={gamma}(B{yields}PV)-{gamma}(B(bar sign){yields}P(bar sign)V(bar sign)) for charmless B{yields}PV decays in the standard model using SU(3) flavor symmetry. It is found that although the relations between branching ratios of {delta}S=0 and {delta}S=-1 processes are complicated, there are simple relations independent of hadronic models between some of the {delta}S=0 and {delta}S=-1 rate differences due to the unitarity property of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, such as {delta}(B{yields}{pi}{sup +}{rho}{sup -})=-{delta}(B{yields}{pi}{sup +}K{sup *-}), {delta}(B{yields}{pi}{sup -}{rho}{sup +})=-{delta}(B{yields}K{sup -}{rho}{sup +}). SU(3) breaking effects are also estimated using the factorization approximation. These relations can be tested at B factories in the near future. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira
2016-12-01
We investigate the critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a )-improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical endline is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multiparameter, multiensemble reweighting method to calculate observables off the SU(3)-symmetric point, at the temporal size NT=6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm . We confirm that the slope of the critical endline takes the value of -2 , and find that the second derivative is positive, at the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point on the Columbia plot parametrized with the strange quark mass ms and degenerated up-down quark mass ml.
Staggered heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory
Bailey, Jon A.
2008-03-01
Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms of O(m{sub {pi}}{sup 3}), which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms of O(a{sup 2}). The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in detail. The resulting chiral forms are appropriate to lattice results obtained with operators already in use and could be used to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit. I assume that the fourth root of the fermion determinant can be incorporated in staggered chiral perturbation theory using the replica method.
Chiral nontopological solitons with perturbative quantum pions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, A. G.; Dodd, L. R.
1988-04-01
We investigate chiral extensions of a broad class of nontopological soliton bag models. Chiral symmetry is restored in a nonlinear realization through the introduction of an elementary pion field. We show in particular that it is consistent to treat the pions as a perturbative quantum field, as is done in the cloudy-bag model. The cloudy-bag model is recovered as a limiting case. A careful comparison is made between predictions of chiral extensions of the Friedberg-Lee and the Nielsen-Patkos color-dielectric nontopological soliton models and the cloudy-bag model. Once the overall distance scale is fixed we find relative insensitivity to the detailed choice of nontopological soliton parameters. We investigate two versions of chiral nontopological solitons, analogous to the surface- and volume-coupled cloudy-bag model, and discuss their relation to current algebra.
Baryon mass splittings and strong $\mathit{CP}$ violation in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory
de Vries, Jordy; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Walker-Loud, Andre P.
2015-10-08
We study SU(3) flavor breaking corrections to the relation between the octet baryon masses and the nucleon-meson CP-violating interactions induced by the QCD theta term. We also work within the framework of SU(3) chiral perturbation theory and work through next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) chiral expansion, which is O(m^{2}_{q}). At lowest order, the CP-odd couplings induced by the QCD θ^{-} term are determined by mass splittings of the baryon octet, the classic result of Crewther et al. We show that for each isospin-invariant CP-violating nucleon-meson interaction there exists one relation which is respected by loop corrections up to the order we work, while other leading-order relations are violated. With these relations we extract a precise value of the pion-nucleon coupling g^{-}_{0} by using recent lattice QCD evaluations of the proton-neutron mass splitting. Additionally, we derive semi-precise values for CP-violating coupling constants between heavier mesons and nucleons and discuss their phenomenological impact on electric dipole moments of nucleons and nuclei.
Applications of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory
Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.
1998-05-01
Partially quenched theories are theories in which the valence- and sea-quark masses are different. In this paper we calculate the nonanalytic one-loop corrections of some physical quantities: the chiral condensate, weak decay constants, Goldstone boson masses, B{sub K}, and the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude, using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. Our results for weak decay constants and masses agree with, and generalize, results of previous work by Sharpe. We compare B{sub K} and the K{sup +} decay amplitude with their real-world values in some examples. For the latter quantity, two other systematic effects that plague lattice computations, namely, finite-volume effects and unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta, are also considered. We find that typical one-loop corrections can be substantial. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.
2017-03-01
Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.
The baryon vector current in the combined chiral and 1/Nc expansions
Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Goity, Jose L
2014-12-01
The baryon vector current is computed at one-loop order in large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory, where Nc is the number of colors. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states are systematically incorporated into the analysis and the effects of the decuplet-octet mass difference and SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking are accounted for. There are large-Nc cancellations between different one-loop graphs as a consequence of the large-Nc spin-flavor symmetry of QCD baryons. The results are compared against the available experimental data through several fits in order to extract information about the unknown parameters. The large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory predictions are in very good agreement both with the expectations from the 1/Nc expansion and with the experimental data. The effect of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking for the |Delta S|=1 vector current form factors f1(0) results in a reduction by a few percent with respect to the corresponding SU(3) symmetric values.
Staggered chiral perturbation theory in the two-flavor case
Du Xining
2010-07-01
I study two-flavor staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light pseudoscalar sector. The pion mass and decay constant are calculated through next-to-leading order in the partially-quenched case. In the limit where the strange quark mass is large compared to the light quark masses and the taste splittings, I show that the SU(2) staggered chiral theory emerges from the SU(3) staggered chiral theory, as expected. Explicit relations between SU(2) and SU(3) low energy constants and taste-violating parameters are given. The results are useful for SU(2) chiral fits to asqtad data and allow one to incorporate effects from varying strange quark masses.
One-loop chiral perturbation theory with two fermion representations
DeGrand, Thomas; Golterman, Maarten; Neil, Ethan T.; ...
2016-07-11
In this study, we develop chiral perturbation theory for chirally broken theories with fermions in two different representations of the gauge group. Any such theory has a nonanomalous singlet U(1)A symmetry, yielding an additional Nambu-Goldstone boson when spontaneously broken. We calculate the next-to-leading order corrections for the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants, which include the singlet Nambu-Goldstone boson, as well as for the two condensates. The results can be generalized to more than two representations.
One-loop chiral perturbation theory with two fermion representations
DeGrand, Thomas; Golterman, Maarten; Neil, Ethan T.; Shamir, Yigal
2016-07-11
In this study, we develop chiral perturbation theory for chirally broken theories with fermions in two different representations of the gauge group. Any such theory has a nonanomalous singlet U(1)_{A} symmetry, yielding an additional Nambu-Goldstone boson when spontaneously broken. We calculate the next-to-leading order corrections for the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants, which include the singlet Nambu-Goldstone boson, as well as for the two condensates. The results can be generalized to more than two representations.
Electroproduction of pions at threshold in chiral perturbation theory
Lee, T.S.H.; Bernard, V.; Kaiser, N.; Meissner, U.G.
1995-08-01
The electroproduction of pions off protons close to threshold is studied within the framework of baryon chiral perturbation theory. The approach is based on the fundamental QCD property that at low energies the strong interactions are dictated by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. The calculation was done up to the 1-loop level by carrying out order-by-order renormalization procedures. A thorough study of the low-energy theorems related to electroproduction of pions was carried out. Our study showed how the axial radius of the nucleon can be related to the S-wave multipoles E{sub 0+}{sup (-)} and L{sub 0+}{sup (-)}.
A chiral perturbation expansion for gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou-Zeid, Mohab; Hull, Christopher M.
2006-02-01
A formulation of Einstein gravity, analogous to that for gauge theory arising from the Chalmers-Siegel action, leads to a perturbation theory about an asymmetric weak coupling limit that treats positive and negative helicities differently. We find power counting rules for amplitudes that suggest the theory could find a natural interpretation in terms of a twistor-string theory for gravity with amplitudes supported on holomorphic curves in twistor space.
B{sub K} in staggered chiral perturbation theory
Water, Ruth S. van de; Sharpe, Stephen R.
2006-01-01
We calculate the kaon B parameter, B{sub K}, to next-to-leading order in staggered chiral perturbation theory. We find expressions for partially quenched QCD with three sea quarks, quenched QCD, and full QCD with m{sub u}=m{sub d}{ne}m{sub s}. We extend the usual power counting to include the effects of using perturbative (rather than nonperturbative) matching factors. Taste breaking enters through the O(a{sup 2}) terms in the effective action, through O(a{sup 2}) terms from the discretization of operators, and through the truncation of matching factors. These effects cause mixing with several additional operators, complicating the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition to the staggered expressions, we present B{sub K} at next-to-leading order in continuum PQ{chi}PT for N{sub f}=3 sea quarks with m{sub u}=m{sub d}{ne}m{sub s}.
Topological susceptibility in staggered fermion chiral perturbation theory
Billeter, Brian; DeTar, Carleton; Osborn, James
2004-10-01
The topological susceptibility of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics has been simulated numerically using the Asqtad improved staggered fermion formalism. At nonzero lattice spacing, the residual fermion doublers (fermion tastes) in the staggered fermion formalism give contributions to the susceptibility that deviate from conventional continuum chiral perturbation theory. In this brief report, we estimate the taste-breaking artifact and compare it with results of recent simulations, finding that it accounts for roughly half of the scaling violation.
Mixing kaons with mixed action chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubin, Christopher
2006-12-01
We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter, BK , to next-to-leading order in mixed action (domain-wall valence with staggered sea quarks) chiral perturbation theory. We find the expres- sion for BK in this mixed-action case only differs from the continuum partially quenched expres- sion by an additional analytic term. Additionally, in preparation for a lattice calculation of BK with a mixed action, we discuss quantitatively the effects of the taste violations as well as finite volume effects.
Generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in baryon chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lensky, Vadim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2017-02-01
The nucleon generalized polarizabilities (GPs), probed in virtual Compton scattering (VCS), describe the spatial distribution of the polarization density in a nucleon. They are accessed experimentally via the process of electron-proton bremsstrahlung (ep→ epγ ) at electron-beam facilities, such as MIT-Bates, CEBAF (Jefferson Lab), and MAMI (Mainz). We present the calculation of the nucleon GPs and VCS observables at next-to-leading order in baryon chiral perturbation theory (Bχ PT), and confront the results with the empirical information. At this order our results are predictions, in the sense that all the parameters are well known from elsewhere. Within the relatively large uncertainties of our calculation we find good agreement with the experimental observations of VCS and the empirical extractions of the GPs. We find large discrepancies with previous chiral calculations - all done in heavy-baryon χ PT (HBχ PT) - and discuss the differences between Bχ PT and HBχ PT responsible for these discrepancies.
Including the {delta}(1232) resonance in baryon chiral perturbation theory
Hacker, C.; Wies, N.; Scherer, S.; Gegelia, J.
2005-11-01
Baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit {delta}(1232) degrees of freedom is considered. The most general interactions of pions, nucleons, and {delta} consistent with all underlying symmetries as well as with the constraint structure of higher-spin fields are constructed. By use of the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme, a manifestly Lorentz-invariant effective-field theory with a systematic power counting is obtained. As applications, we discuss the mass of the nucleon, the pion-nucleon {sigma} term, and the pole of the {delta} propagator.
Staggered chiral perturbation theory for heavy-light mesons
Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.
2006-01-01
We incorporate heavy-light mesons into staggered chiral perturbation theory (S{chi}PT), working to leading order in 1/m{sub Q}, where m{sub Q} is the heavy-quark mass. At first nontrivial order in the chiral expansion, staggered taste violations affect the chiral logarithms for heavy-light quantities only through the light-meson propagators in loops. There are also new analytic contributions coming from additional terms in the Lagrangian involving heavy-light and light mesons. Using this heavy-light S{chi}PT, we perform the one-loop calculation of the B (or D) meson leptonic decay constant in the partially quenched and full QCD cases. In our treatment, we assume the validity both of the 'fourth root trick' to reduce four staggered tastes to one, and of the S{chi}PT prescription to represent this trick by insertions of factors of 1/4 for each sea-quark loop.
Staggered chiral perturbation theory at next-to-leading order
Sharpe, Stephen R.; Van de Water, Ruth S.
2005-06-01
We study taste and Euclidean rotational symmetry violation for staggered fermions at nonzero lattice spacing using staggered chiral perturbation theory. We extend the staggered chiral Lagrangian to O(a{sup 2}p{sup 2}), O(a{sup 4}), and O(a{sup 2}m), the orders necessary for a full next-to-leading order calculation of pseudo-Goldstone boson masses and decay constants including analytic terms. We then calculate a number of SO(4) taste-breaking quantities, which involve only a small subset of these next-to-leading order operators. We predict relationships between SO(4) taste-breaking splittings in masses, pseudoscalar decay constants, and dispersion relations. We also find predictions for a few quantities that are not SO(4) breaking. All these results hold also for theories in which the fourth root of the fermionic determinant is taken to reduce the number of quark tastes; testing them will therefore provide evidence for or against the validity of this trick.
Staggered chiral perturbation theory and the fourth-root trick
Bernard, C.
2006-06-01
Staggered chiral perturbation theory (S{chi}PT) takes into account the 'fourth-root trick' for reducing unwanted (taste) degrees of freedom with staggered quarks by multiplying the contribution of each sea quark loop by a factor of 1/4. In the special case of four staggered fields (four flavors, n{sub F}=4), I show here that certain assumptions about analyticity and phase structure imply the validity of this procedure for representing the rooting trick in the chiral sector. I start from the observation that, when the four flavors are degenerate, the fourth root simply reduces n{sub F}=4 to n{sub F}=1. One can then treat nondegenerate quark masses by expanding around the degenerate limit. With additional assumptions on decoupling, the result can be extended to the more interesting cases of n{sub F}=3, 2, or 1. An apparent paradox associated with the one-flavor case is resolved. Coupled with some expected features of unrooted staggered quarks in the continuum limit, in particular, the restoration of taste symmetry, S{chi}PT then implies that the fourth-root trick induces no problems (for example, a violation of unitarity that persists in the continuum limit) in the lowest energy sector of staggered lattice QCD. It also says that the theory with staggered valence quarks and rooted staggered sea quarks behaves like a simple, partially-quenched theory, not like a mixed theory in which sea and valence quarks have different lattice actions. In most cases, the assumptions made in this paper are not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of S{chi}PT, so that a variety of possible new routes for testing this validity are opened.
Kaon B-parameter in mixed action chiral perturbation theory
Aubin, C.; Laiho, Jack; Water, Ruth S. van de
2007-02-01
We calculate the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed-action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We find that the resulting expression is similar to that in the continuum, and in fact has only two additional unknown parameters. At 1-loop order, taste-symmetry violations in the staggered sea sector only contribute to flavor-disconnected diagrams by generating an O(a{sup 2}) shift to the masses of taste-singlet sea-sea mesons. Lattice discretization errors also give rise to an analytic term which shifts the tree-level value of B{sub K} by an amount of O(a{sup 2}). This term, however, is not strictly due to taste breaking, and is therefore also present in the expression for B{sub K} for pure Ginsparg-Wilson lattice fermions. We also present a numerical study of the mixed B{sub K} expression in order to demonstrate that both discretization errors and finite volume effects are small and under control on the MILC improved staggered lattices.
Chiral-scale perturbation theory about an infrared fixed point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crewther, R. J.; Tunstall, Lewis C.
2014-06-01
We review the failure of lowest order chiral SU(3)L ×SU(3)R perturbation theory χPT3 to account for amplitudes involving the f0(500) resonance and O(mK) extrapolations in momenta. We summarize our proposal to replace χPT3 with a new effective theory χPTσ based on a low-energy expansion about an infrared fixed point in 3-flavour QCD. At the fixed point, the quark condensate ⟨q̅q⟩vac ≠ 0 induces nine Nambu-Goldstone bosons: π,K,η and a QCD dilaton σ which we identify with the f0(500) resonance. We discuss the construction of the χPTσ Lagrangian and its implications for meson phenomenology at low-energies. Our main results include a simple explanation for the ΔI = 1/2 rule in K-decays and an estimate for the Drell-Yan ratio in the infrared limit.
Extending chiral perturbation theory with an isosinglet scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Martin; Langæble, Kasper; Sannino, Francesco
2017-02-01
We augment the chiral Lagrangian by an isosinglet scalar and compute the one-loop radiative corrections to the pion mass and decay constant, as well as the scalar mass. The calculations are carried out for different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking of immediate relevance for phenomenology and lattice investigations. By construction our results encompass several interesting limits, ranging from the dilaton to the linear sigma model.
Matching Pion-Nucleon Roy-Steiner Equations to Chiral Perturbation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-11-01
We match the results for the subthreshold parameters of pion-nucleon scattering obtained from a solution of Roy-Steiner equations to chiral perturbation theory up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, to extract the pertinent low-energy constants including a comprehensive analysis of systematic uncertainties and correlations. We study the convergence of the chiral series by investigating the chiral expansion of threshold parameters up to the same order and discuss the role of the Δ (1232 ) resonance in this context. Results for the low-energy constants are also presented in the counting scheme usually applied in chiral nuclear effective field theory, where they serve as crucial input to determine the long-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential as well as three-nucleon forces.
ππ scattering, pion form factors and chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colangelo, Gilberto
2005-04-01
I discuss recent progress in our understanding of the ππ scattering amplitude at low energy thanks to the combined use of chiral perturbation theory and dispersion relations. I also comment on the criticism raised by Peláez and Ynduráin on this work.
Gonzalez-Lopez, Jennifer; Jansen, Karl; Renner, Dru B.; Shindler, Andrea
2013-02-01
The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to non-perturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit.
Axial couplings in heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory at the next-to-leading order
Detmold, William; Lin, C.-J. David; Meinel, Stefan
2011-11-01
We present calculations of axial-current matrix elements between various heavy-meson and heavy-baryon states to the next-to-leading order in heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory in the p-regime. When compared with data from lattice computations or experiments, these results can be used to determine the axial couplings in the chiral Lagrangian. Our calculation is performed in partially quenched chiral perturbation theory for both SU(4|2) and SU(6|3). We incorporate finite-size effects arising from a single Goldstone meson wrapping around the spatial volume. Results for full QCD with two and three flavors can be obtained straightforwardly by taking the sea-quark masses to be equal to the valence-quark masses. To illustrate the impact of our chiral perturbation theory calculation on lattice computations, we analyze the SU(2) full-QCD results in detail. We also study one-loop contributions relevant to the heavy-hadron strong-decay amplitudes involving final-state Goldstone bosons, and demonstrate that the quark-mass dependence of these amplitudes can be significantly different from that of the axial-current matrix elements containing only single-hadron external states.
Electroweak reactions on light nuclei in chiral perturbation theory
Phillips, D. R.
2010-08-04
I discuss the calculation of electromagnetic and weak reactions in few-nucleon systems using potentials and current operators derived within chiral effective theory ({chi}ET). Computations up to O(P{sup 3}) relative to leading are considered. I first present results that show that at this order {chi}ET gives a good description of extant data on the deuteron's charge and quadrupole form factors for momentum transfers |q|<0.6 GeV. These predictions will be challenged by forthcoming data from BLAST and JLab. I then review calculations pertaining to the {chi}ET expansion for weak currents, which has reached unprecedentedaccuracy. When used to anlayze data on the weak-capture process, {sup 3}He({mu}{sup -},{upsilon}{sub {mu}}){sup 3}H, it yields a tight constraint on the conserved vector-current hypothesis.
Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory
Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer
2005-03-01
We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taher Ghahramani, Farhad; Tirandaz, Arash
2017-01-01
We examine the dynamics of the chiral states of chiral molecules with high tunneling rates in dilute and condensed phases in the context of time-dependent perturbation theory. The chiral molecule is effectively described by an asymmetric double-well potential, whose asymmetry is a measure of chiral interactions. The dilute and condensed phases are conjointly described by a collection of harmonic oscillators but with temperature-dependent sub-ohmic and temperature-independent ohmic spectral densities, respectively. We examine our method quantitatively by applying the dynamics to an isotopic ammonia molecule, NHDT, in an inert background gas (as the dilute phase) and in water (as the condensed phase). As the different spectral densities imply, the extension of the dynamics from the dilute phase to the condensed phase is not trivial. While the dynamics in the dilute phase leads to racemization, the chiral interactions in the condensed phase induce the quantum Zeno effect. Moreover, contrary to the condensed phase, the short-time dynamics in the dilute phase is sensitive to the initial state of the chiral molecule and to the strength of the coupling between the molecule and the environment.
Baryon chiral perturbation theory extended beyond the low-energy region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epelbaum, E.; Gegelia, J.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Yao, De-Liang
2015-10-01
We consider an extension of the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory beyond the low-energy region. The applicability of this approach for higher energies is restricted to small scattering angles, i.e. the kinematical region, where the quark structure of hadrons cannot be resolved. The main idea is to re-arrange the low-energy effective Lagrangian according to a new power counting and to exploit the freedom of the choice of the renormalization condition for loop diagrams. We generalize the extended on-mass-shell scheme for the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory by choosing a sliding scale, that is, we expand the physical amplitudes around kinematical points beyond the threshold. This requires the introduction of complex-valued renormalized coupling constants, which can be either extracted from experimental data, or calculated using the renormalization group evolution of coupling constants fixed in threshold region.
Correlators of left charges and weak operators in finite volume chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, Pilar; Laine, Mikko
2003-01-01
We compute the two-point correlator between left-handed flavour charges, and the three-point correlator between two left-handed charges and one strangeness violating DeltaI = 3/2 weak operator, at next-to-leading order in finite volume SU(3)L × SU(3)R chiral perturbation theory, in the so-called epsilon-regime. Matching these results with the corresponding lattice measurements would in principle allow to extract the pion decay constant F, and the effective chiral theory parameter g27, which determines the Delta I = 3/2 amplitude of the weak decays K to pipi as well as the kaon mixing parameter BK in the chiral limit. We repeat the calculations in the replica formulation of quenched chiral perturbation theory, finding only mild modifications. In particular, a properly chosen ratio of the three-point and two-point functions is shown to be identical in the full and quenched theories at this order.
Nucleon-to-{delta} axial transition form factors in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory
Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2008-07-01
We report a theoretical study of the axial nucleon-to-delta (1232) (N{yields}{delta}) transition form factors up to one-loop order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We adopt a formalism in which the {delta} couplings obey the spin-3/2 gauge symmetry and, therefore, decouple the unphysical spin-1/2 fields. We compare the results with phenomenological form factors obtained from neutrino bubble-chamber data and in quark models.
Proton radius from electron-proton scattering and chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horbatsch, Marko; Hessels, Eric A.; Pineda, Antonio
2017-03-01
We determine the root-mean-square proton charge radius, Rp, from a fit to low-Q2 electron-proton elastic-scattering cross-section data with the higher moments fixed (within uncertainties) to the values predicted by chiral perturbation theory. We obtain Rp=0.855 (11 ) fm. This number falls between the value obtained from muonic hydrogen analyses and the CODATA value (based upon atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron-proton scattering determinations).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, De-Liang; Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-05-01
We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P -partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananthanarayan, B.; Das, Diganta; Sentitemsu Imsong, I.
2012-10-01
Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica © based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O( p 4) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G 27. Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of τ-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics.
Forward virtual Compton scattering and the Lamb shift in chiral perturbation theory
Nevado, David; Pineda, Antonio
2008-03-15
We compute the spin-independent structure functions of the forward virtual-photon Compton tensor of the proton at one loop using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and dispersion relations. We study the relation between both approaches. We use these results to generalize some sum rules to virtual photon transfer momentum and relate them with sum rules in deep inelastic scattering. We then compute the leading chiral term of the polarizability correction to the Lamb shift of hydrogen and muonic hydrogen. We obtain -87.05/n{sup 3}Hz and -0.148/n{sup 3}meV for the correction to the hydrogen and muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, respectively.
An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananthanarayan, B.; Bijnens, Johan; Ghosh, Shayan; Hebbar, Aditya
2016-12-01
We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper.
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional: theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Sint, Stefan; Vilaseca, Pol
2016-08-01
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schrödinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O( a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O( a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
Elastic pion-nucleon scattering in chiral perturbation theory: A fresh look
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-07-01
Elastic pion-nucleon scattering is analyzed in the framework of chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order within the heavy-baryon expansion and a covariant approach based on an extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. We discuss in detail the renormalization of the various low-energy constants and provide explicit expressions for the relevant β functions and the finite subtractions of the power-counting breaking terms within the covariant formulation. To estimate the theoretical uncertainty from the truncation of the chiral expansion, we employ an approach which has been successfully applied in the most recent analysis of the nuclear forces. This allows us to reliably extract the relevant low-energy constants from the available scattering data at low energy. The obtained results provide clear evidence that the breakdown scale of the chiral expansion for this reaction is related to the Δ resonance. The explicit inclusion of the leading contributions of the Δ isobar is demonstrated to substantially increase the range of applicability of the effective field theory. The resulting predictions for the phase shifts are in an excellent agreement with the predictions from the recent Roy-Steiner-equation analysis of pion-nucleon scattering.
Matrix elements of Δ B =0 operators in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jong-Wan
2015-05-01
We study the light-quark mass and spatial volume dependence of the matrix elements of Δ B =0 four-quark operators relevant for the determination of Vu b and the lifetime ratios of single-b hadrons. To this end, one-loop diagrams are computed in the framework of heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory with partially quenched formalism for three light-quark flavors in the isospin limit; flavor-connected and -disconnected diagrams are carefully analyzed. These calculations include the leading light-quark flavor and heavy-quark spin symmetry breaking effects in the heavy hadron spectrum. Our results can be used in the chiral extrapolation of lattice calculations of the matrix elements to the physical light-quark masses and to infinite volume. To provide insight on such chiral extrapolation, we evaluate the one-loop contributions to the matrix elements containing external Bd, Bs mesons and Λb baryon in the QCD limit, where sea and valence quark masses become equal. In particular, we find that the matrix elements of the λ3 flavor-octet operators with an external Bd meson receive the contributions solely from connected diagrams in which current lattice techniques are capable of precise determination of the matrix elements. Finite volume effects are at most a few percent for typical lattice sizes and pion masses.
Resumming QCD vacuum fluctuations in three-flavor Chiral Perturbation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descotes-Genon, S.; Fuchs, N. H.; Girlanda, L.; Stern, J.
2004-05-01
Due to its light mass, of order Λ_{QCD}, the strange quark can play a special role in chiral symmetry breaking (χSB): differences in the pattern of χSB in the limits N f = 2 (m_u,m_dto 0, m s physical) and N f = 3 (m_u,m_d,m_sto 0) may arise due to vacuum fluctuations of sbar{s} pairs, related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector and encoded in particular in the O( p 4) low-energy constants L 4 and L 6. In case of large fluctuations, we show that the customary treatment of SU(3) x SU(3) chiral expansions generates instabilities upsetting their convergence. We develop a systematic program to cure these instabilities by resumming non-perturbatively vacuum fluctuations of sbar{s} pairs, in order to extract information about χSB from experimental observations even in the presence of large fluctuations. We advocate a Bayesian framework for treating the uncertainties due to the higher orders. As an application, we present a three-flavor analysis of the low-energy ππ scattering and show that the recent experimental data imply a lower bound on the quark mass ratio 2m_s/(m_u + m_d)≥ 14 at 95% confidence level. We outline how additional information may be incorporated to further constrain the pattern of χSB in the N f = 3 chiral limit.
Consistency between SU(3) and SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory for the nucleon mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Xiu-Lei; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Geng, Li-Sheng; Ledwig, Tim; Meng, Jie; Vicente Vacas, M. J.
2017-03-01
Treating the strange quark mass as a heavy scale compared to the light quark mass, we perform a matching of the nucleon mass in the SU(3) sector to the two-flavor case in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. The validity of the 19 low-energy constants appearing in the octet baryon masses up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order [1] is supported by comparing the effective parameters (the combinations of the 19 couplings) with the corresponding low-energy constants in the SU(2) sector [2]. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the effective parameters and the pion-nucleon sigma term on the strange quark mass is relatively weak around its physical value, thus providing support to the assumption made in Ref. [2] that the SU(2) baryon chiral perturbation theory can be applied to study nf = 2 + 1 lattice QCD simulations as long as the strange quark mass is close to its physical value.
SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory analyses on baryon masses in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD
Ishikawa, K.-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Kadoh, D.; Namekawa, Y.; Ukita, N.; Kanaya, K.
2009-09-01
We investigate the quark mass dependence of baryon masses in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD using SU(3) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory up to one-loop order. The baryon mass data used for the analyses are obtained for the degenerate up-down quark mass of 3 to 24 MeV and two choices of the strange quark mass around the physical value. We find that the SU(3) chiral expansion fails to describe both the octet and the decuplet baryon data if phenomenological values are employed for the meson-baryon couplings. The SU(2) case is also examined for the nucleon. We observe that higher order terms are controlled only around the physical point. We also evaluate finite size effects using SU(3) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, finding small values of order 1% even at the physical point.
τ - →K - η ( ') ν τ decays in Chiral Perturbation Theory with resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escribano, R.; González-Solís, S.; Roig, P.
2013-10-01
We have studied the τ - → K - η ( ') ν τ decays within Chiral Perturbation Theory including resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We have considered three different form factors according to treatment of final-state interactions. In increasing degree of soundness: Breit-Wigner, exponential resummation and dispersive representation. We find that although the first one fails in accounting for the data on the Kη mode, the other two approaches provide good fits to them which are sensitive to the K ⋆ (1410) pole parameters, that are determined to be MeV and MeV. These values are competitive with the standard determination from τ - → ( Kπ)- ν τ decays. The corresponding predictions for the τ - → K - η ' ν τ channel respect the current upper bound and hint to the discovery of this decay mode in the near future.
Heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory approach to thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He
Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun
2011-03-15
The cross section for radiative thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He ({sup 3}He+n{yields}{sup 4}He+{gamma}; known as the hen reaction) is calculated based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The relevant M1 operators are derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). The initial and final nuclear wave functions are obtained from the rigorous Faddeev-Yakubovski equations for five sets of realistic nuclear interactions. Up to N{sup 3}LO, the M1 operators contain two low-energy constants, which appear as the coefficients of nonderivative two-nucleon contact terms. After determining these two constants using the experimental values of the magnetic moments of the triton and {sup 3}He, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the hen cross section. The results are in good agreement with the data.
New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory
Chung-Wen Kao; Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-08-01
We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering (VCS) at {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the VCS amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double polarization experiments which allow to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.
New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory
Kao, C.-W.; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2004-12-01
We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering at O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low-energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double-polarization experiments which allow one to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.
K{yields}{pi} and K{yields}0 in 2+1 flavor partially quenched chiral perturbation theory
Aubin, C.; Laiho, J.; Li, S.; Lin, M. F.
2008-11-01
We calculate results for K{yields}{pi} and K{yields}0 matrix elements to next-to-leading order in 2+1 flavor partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. Results are presented for both the {delta}I=1/2 and 3/2 channels, for chiral operators corresponding to current-current, gluonic penguin, and electroweak penguin 4-quark operators. These formulas are useful for studying the chiral behavior of currently available 2+1 flavor lattice QCD results, from which the low-energy constants of the chiral effective theory can be determined. The low-energy constants of these matrix elements are necessary for an understanding of the {delta}I=1/2 rule, and for calculations of {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} using current lattice QCD simulations.
Convergence properties of η → 3π decays in chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesár, Marián; Novotný, Jiří
2017-01-01
The convergence of the decay widths and some of the Dalitz plot parameters of the decay η → 3π seems problematic in low energy QCD. In the framework of resummed chiral perturbation theory, we explore the question of compatibility of experimental data with a reasonable convergence of a carefully defined chiral series. By treating the uncertainties in the higher orders statistically, we numerically generate a large set of theoretical predictions, which are then confronted with experimental information. In the case of the decay widths, the experimental values can be reconstructed for a reasonable range of the free parameters and thus no tension is observed, in spite of what some of the traditional calculations suggest. The Dalitz plot parameters a and d can be described very well too. When the parameters b and α are concerned, we find a mild tension for the whole range of the free parameters, at less than 2σ C.L. This can be interpreted in two ways - either some of the higher order corrections are indeed unexpectedly large or there is a specific configuration of the remainders, which is, however, not completely improbable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemler, Paul M.; Vaccaro, Patrick
2016-06-01
The non-resonant interaction of electromagnetic radiation with an isotropic ensemble of chiral molecules, which causes the incident state of linear polarization to undergo a signed rotation, long has served as a metric for gauging the enantiomeric purity of asymmetric syntheses. While the underlying phenomenon of circular birefringence (CB) typically is probed in the condensed phase, recent advances in ultrasensitive circular-differential detection schemes, as exemplified by the techniques of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP), have permitted the first quantitative analyses of such processes to be performed in rarefied media. Efforts to extend vapor-phase investigations of CB to new families of chiral substrates will be discussed, with particular emphasis directed towards the elucidation of intrinsic (e.g., solvent-free) properties and their mediation by environmental perturbations (e.g., solvation). Specific species targeted by this work will include the stereoselective building blocks phenylpropylene oxide and α-methylbenzyl amine, both of which exhibit pronounced solvent-dependent changes in measured optical activity. The nature of chiroptical response in different environments will be highlighted, with quantum-chemical calculations serving to unravel the structural and electronic provenance of observed behavior.
Pasquini, B.; Drechsel, D.; Scherer, S.
2010-02-15
We show that the alleged discrepancies between chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and dispersion theory, reported for the polarizability of the pion by Fil'kov and Kashevarov [Phys. Rev. C 72, 035211 (2005)], result from applying dispersion theory to nonanalytic functions.
Low-energy ππ and πK scatterings revisited in three-flavour resummed chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descotes-Genon, S.
2007-09-01
Chiral symmetry breaking may exhibit significantly different patterns in two chiral limits: Nf=2 massless flavours (mu=md=0, ms physical) and Nf=3 massless flavours (mu=md=ms=0). Such a difference may arise due to vacuum fluctuations of ss¯ pairs related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, and it could yield numerical competition between contributions counted as leading and next-to-leading order in the chiral expansions of the observables. We recall and extend resummed chiral perturbation theory (ReχPT), a framework that we introduced previously to deal with such instabilities: it requires a more careful definition of the relevant observables and their one-loop chiral expansions. We analyse the amplitudes for low-energy ππ and πK scatterings within ReχPT, which we match in subthreshold regions with dispersive representations obtained from the solutions of the Roy and Roy-Steiner equations. Using a frequentist approach, we constrain the quark mass ratio as well as the quark condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant in the Nf=3 chiral limit. The results mildly favour significant contributions of vacuum fluctuations suppressing the Nf=3 quark condensate compared to its Nf=2 counterpart.
Zhou, Hui; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou; Ahmad, Farooq
2014-06-01
The toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely investigated because of their extensive use in consumer products. The mechanism of the toxicity of ZnO NPs to algae is unclear, however, and it is difficult to differentiate between particle-induced toxicity and the effect of dissolved Zn(2+). In the work discussed in this paper we investigated particle-induced toxicity and the effects of dissolved Zn(2+) by using the chiral perturbation approach with dichlorprop (DCPP) as chiral perturbation factor. The results indicated that intracellular zinc is important in the toxicity of ZnO NPs, and that ZnO NPs cause oxidative damage. According to dose-response curves for DCPP and the combination of ZnO NPs with (R)-DCPP or (S)-DCPP, the toxicity of DCPP was too low to perturb the toxicity of ZnO NPs, so DCPP was suitable for use as chiral perturbation factor. The different glutathione (GSH) content of algal cells exposed to (R)-DCPP or (S)-DCPP correlated well with different production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after exposure to the two enantiomers. Treatment of algae with ZnO NPs and (R)-DCPP resulted in reduced levels of GSH and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in the cells compared with the control. Treatment of algae with ZnO NPs and (S)-DCPP, however, resulted in no significant changes in GSH and GSH/GSSG. Moreover, trends of variation of GSH and GSH/GSSG were different when algae were treated with ZnSO4·7H2O and the two enantiomers. Overall, the chiral perturbation approach revealed that NPs aggravated generation of ROS and that released Zn(2+) and NPs both contribute to the toxicity of ZnO NPs.
Pelaez, J. R.; Michael R. Pennington; de Elvira, J. Ruiz; Wilson, D. J.
2011-11-01
The leading 1/N{sub c} behavior of Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory distinguishes the nature of the {rho} and the {sigma}. At one loop order the {rho} is a {bar q}q meson, while the {sigma} is not. However, semi-local duality between resonances and Regge behaviour cannot be satisfied for larger N{sub c}, if such a distinction holds. While the {sigma} at N{sub c}= 3 is inevitably dominated by its di-pion component, Unitarised Chiral Perturbation Theory beyond one loop order reveals that as N{sub c} increases above 6-8, the {sigma} has a sub-dominant {bar q}q fraction up at 1.2 GeV. Remarkably this ensures semi-local duality is fulfilled for the range of N{sub c} {approx}< 15-30, where the unitarization procedure adopted applies.
Navratil, P; Caurier, E
2003-10-14
The authors calculate properties of A = 6 system using the accurate charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential at fourth order of chiral perturbation theory. By application of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) and a variational calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis with basis size up to 16 {h_bar}{Omega} they obtain the {sup 6}Li binding energy of 28.5(5) MeV and a converged excitation spectrum. Also, they calculate properties of {sup 10}B using the same NN potential in a basis space of up to 8 {h_bar}{Omega}. The results are consistent with results obtained by standard accurate NN potentials and demonstrate a deficiency of Hamiltonians consisting of only two-body terms. At this order of chiral perturbation theory three-body terms appear. It is expected that inclusion of such terms in the Hamiltonian will improve agreement with experiment.
The Kaon B-parameter in mixed action chiral perturbation theory
Aubin, C.; Laiho, Jack; Van de Water, Ruth S.; /Fermilab
2006-09-01
We calculate the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We find that the resulting expression is similar to that in the continuum, and in fact has only two additional unknown parameters. At one-loop order, taste-symmetry violations in the staggered sea sector only contribute to flavor-disconnected diagrams by generating an {Omicron}(a{sup 2}) shift to the masses of taste-singlet sea-sea mesons. Lattice discretization errors also give rise to an analytic term which shifts the tree-level value of B{sub K} by an amount of {Omicron}(a{sup 2}). This term, however, is not strictly due to taste-breaking, and is therefore also present in the expression for B{sub K} for pure G-W lattice fermions. We also present a numerical study of the mixed B{sub K} expression in order to demonstrate that both discretization errors and finite volume effects are small and under control on the MILC improved staggered lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itaco, N.; Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Entem, D. R.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Machleidt, R.
2008-04-01
Recently a new low-momentum nucleon-nucleon potential (N3LOW) has been derived from chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-Ieading order with a sharp low-momentum cutoff at 2.1 fm-1. In this work we compare its perturbative properties with those of a Vlow-k potential constructed from a realistic NN potential with high-momentum components. We have performed shell-model calculations for 18O using effective hamiltonians derived from both types of low-momentum potential. The results show that the N3LOW potential is suitable to be applied perturbatively in microscopic nuclear structure calculations yielding results quite close to those obtained from Vlow-k.
Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi
2006-07-17
We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.
Hanhart, C; Peláez, J R; Ríos, G
2008-04-18
We use the one-loop chiral perturbation theory pipi-scattering amplitude and dispersion theory in the form of the inverse amplitude method to study the quark-mass dependence of the two lightest resonances of the strong interactions, the f(0)(600) (sigma) and the rho meson. As the main results, we find that the rhopipi coupling constant is almost quark mass independent and that the rho mass shows a smooth quark-mass dependence while that of the sigma shows a strong nonanalyticity. These findings are important for studies of the meson spectrum on the lattice.
Pion-nucleon scattering: from chiral perturbation theory to Roy-Steiner equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubis, Bastian; Hoferichter, Martin; de Elvira, Jacobo Ruiz; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2016-11-01
Ever since Weinberg's seminal predictions of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes at threshold, this process has been of central interest for the study of chiral dynamics involving nucleons. The scattering lengths or the pion-nucleon σ-term are fundamental quantities characterizing the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry by means of the light quark masses. On the other hand, pion-nucleon dynamics also strongly affects the long-range part of nucleon-nucleon potentials, and hence has a far-reaching impact on nuclear physics. We discuss the fruitful combination of dispersion-theoretical methods, in the form of Roy-Steiner equations, with chiral dynamics to determine pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes at low energies with high precision.
Boyle, P. A.; Christ, N. H.; Garron, N.; ...
2016-03-09
Here, we have performed fits of the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants, from a variety of the RBC-UKQCD Collaboration’s domain wall fermion ensembles, to SU(2) partially quenched chiral perturbation theory at next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We report values for 9 NLO and 8 linearly independent combinations of NNLO partially quenched low-energy constants, which we compare to other lattice and phenomenological determinations. We discuss the size of successive terms in the chiral expansion and use our large set of low-energy constants to make predictions for mass splittings due to QCD isospin-breaking effects and the S-wave ππ scattering lengths.more » Lastly, we conclude that, for the range of pseudoscalar masses explored in this work, 115 MeV≲mPS≲430 MeV, the NNLO SU(2) expansion is quite robust and can fit lattice data with percent-scale accuracy.« less
Peripheral nucleon-nucleon scattering at fifth order of chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Entem, D. R.; Kaiser, N.; Machleidt, R.; Nosyk, Y.
2015-01-01
We present the two- and three-pion-exchange contributions to the nucleon-nucleon interaction which occur at next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N4LO , fifth order) of chiral effective field theory and calculate nucleon-nucleon scattering in peripheral partial waves with L ≥3 by using low-energy constants that were extracted from π N analysis at fourth order. While the net three-pion-exchange contribution is moderate, the two-pion exchanges turn out to be sizable and prevailingly repulsive, thus compensating the excessive attraction characteristic for next-to-next-to-leading order and N3LO . As a result, the N4LO predictions for the phase shifts of peripheral partial waves are in very good agreement with the data (with the only exception being the 1F3 wave). We also discuss the issue of the order-by-order convergence of the chiral expansion for the N N interaction.
Forsén, Patrik; Lindholm, Johan; Fornstedt, Torgny
2003-03-28
The perturbation peak theory was recently developed for acquiring binary isotherm data using the perturbation method (PM) and it was applied for some chiral systems. However, the binary plateaus of these systems were only weakly to moderately nonlinear. In this article the perturbation theory for LC, is developed for both retention times and peak areas and is verified by systematic experiments over the whole range of non-linearity. Attention is focused on non-linear effects that complicate the proper use of the PM method under moderately to strongly non-linear conditions. A serious complication was that the second perturbation peak vanished already at moderate plateau concentrations. A solution to this problem based on a firm theoretical basis and verified experimentally is presented. We also investigated a peculiar retention dependence on the binary plateau concentration, as the retentions of the two perturbation peaks of the binary plateau was compared with the single plateau peak of the more retained enantiomer.
Compton scattering on the proton, neutron, and deuteron in chiral perturbation theory to O(Q{sup 4})
S.R. Beane; M. Malheiro; J.A. McGovern; D.R. Phillips; U. van Kolck
2004-03-01
We study Compton scattering in systems with A=1 and 2 using chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order. For the proton we fit the two undetermined parameters in the O(Q{sup 4}) {gamma}p amplitude of McGovern to experimental data in the region {omega}, {radical}|t| {le} 180 MeV, obtaining a {chi}{sup 2}/d.o.f. of 133/113. This yields a model-independent extraction of proton polarizabilities based solely on low-energy data: {alpha}{sub p} = (12.1 {+-} 1.1 (stat.)){sub -0.5}{sup +0.5} (theory) and {beta}{sub p} = (3.4 {+-} 1.1 (stat.)){sub -0.1}{sup +0.1} (theory), both in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}. We also compute Compton scattering on deuterium to O(Q{sup 4}). The {gamma}d amplitude is a sum of one- and two-nucleon mechanisms, and contains two undetermined parameters, which are related to the isoscalar nucleon polarizabilities. We fit data points from three recent {gamma}d scattering experiments with a {chi}{sup 2}/d.o.f. = 26.3/20, and find {alpha}{sub N} = 8.9 {+-} 1.5 (stat.){sub -0.9}{sup +4.7} (theory) and {beta}{sub N} = 2.2 {+-} 1.5 (stat.){sub -0.9}{sup +1.2} (theory), again in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}.
Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.
1997-09-01
In this paper we use one-loop chiral perturbation theory in order to compare lattice computations of the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude with the experimental value. This makes it possible to investigate three systematic effects that plague lattice computations: quenching, finite-volume effects, and the fact that lattice computations have been done at unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta (only this latter effect shows up at the tree level). We apply our results to the most recent lattice computation and find that all three effects are substantial. We conclude that one-loop corrections in chiral perturbation theory help in explaining the discrepancy between lattice results and the real-world value. We also reexamine B{sub K}, which is closely related to the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude by chiral symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Song, Young-Ho; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun
2009-06-15
M1 properties, comprising magnetic moments and radiative capture of thermal neutron observables, are studied in two- and three-nucleon systems. We use meson exchange current derived up to N{sup 3}LO using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory a la Weinberg. Calculations have been performed for several qualitatively different realistic nuclear Hamiltonians, which permits us to analyze model dependence of our results. Our results are found to be strongly correlated with the effective range parameters such as binding energies and the scattering lengths. Taking into account such correlations, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data with small model dependence.
Nucleon and Delta axial-vector couplings in 1/N{sub c}-Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
Goity, Jose Luis; Calle Cordon, Alvaro
2013-08-01
In this contribution, baryon axial-vector couplings are studied in the framework of the combined 1/N{sub c} and chiral expansions. This framework is implemented on the basis of the emergent spin-flavor symmetry in baryons at large N{sub c} and HBChPT, and linking both expansions ({xi}-expansion), where 1/N{sub c} is taken to be a quantity order p. The study is carried out including one-loop contributions, which corresponds to order xi to the third for baryon masses and order {xi} square for the axial couplings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin
1989-01-01
The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.
Laiho, Jack; Soni, Amarjit
2005-01-01
We show that it is possible to construct {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} to next-to-leading order (NLO) using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory (PQChPT) from amplitudes that are computable on the lattice. We demonstrate that none of the needed amplitudes require 3-momentum on the lattice for either the full theory or the partially quenched theory; nondegenerate quark masses suffice. Furthermore, we find that the electro-weak penguin ({delta}I=3/2 and 1/2) contributions to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} in PQChPT can be determined to NLO using only degenerate (m{sub K}=m{sub {pi}}) K{yields}{pi} computations without momentum insertion. Issues pertaining to power divergent contributions, originating from mixing with lower dimensional operators, are addressed. Direct calculations of K{yields}{pi}{pi} at unphysical kinematics are plagued with enhanced finite volume effects in the (partially) quenched theory, but in simulations when the sea quark mass is equal to the up and down quark mass the enhanced finite volume effects vanish to NLO in PQChPT. In embedding the QCD penguin left-right operator onto PQChPT an ambiguity arises, as first emphasized by Golterman and Pallante. With one version [the 'PQS' (patially quenched singlet)] of the QCD penguin, the inputs needed from the lattice for constructing K{yields}{pi}{pi} at NLO in PQChPT coincide with those needed for the full theory. Explicit expressions for the finite logarithms emerging from our NLO analysis to the above amplitudes also are given.
Extraction of {gamma} from charmless hadronic B {yields} PP decays using SU(3) flavor symmetry
Suprun, Denis A.
2006-07-11
The decays of B mesons to a pair of charmless pseudoscalar mesons (PP decays) have been analyzed within the framework of flavor SU(3) symmetry and quark-diagrammatic topological approach. Flavor symmetry breaking is taken into account in tree (T) amplitudes through ratios of decay constants fK and f{pi}; exact SU(3) is assumed elsewhere. Acceptable fits to B {yields} PP branching ratios and CP asymmetries are obtained with tree, color-suppressed and QCD penguin amplitudes. Singlet penguin amplitude was introduced to describe decay amplitudes of the modes with {eta} and {eta}' mesons in the final state. Electroweak penguin amplitudes were expressed in terms of the corresponding tree-level diagrams. Values of the weak phase {gamma} were found to be consistent with the current indirect bounds from other analyses of CKM parameters.
J. L. Goity; Longzhe Zhang
1997-02-01
The decays K{sub L}{r_arrow}{gamma}{gamma} and K{sub L}{r_arrow}l{sup +}l{sup {minus}}{gamma} are studied at the leading order p{sup 6} in Chiral Perturbation Theory. One-loop contributions stemming from the odd intrinsic parity {vert_bar}{Delta}S{vert_bar}=1 effective Lagrangian of order p{sup 4} are included and shown to be of possible relevance. They affect the decay K{sub L}{r_arrow}{gamma}{gamma} adding to the usual pole terms a piece free of counterterm uncertainties. In the case of the K{sub L}{r_arrow}l{sup +}l{sup {minus}}{gamma} decays the dependence of the form factor on the dilepton invariant mass requires a counterterm. The form factor may receive a sizeable contribution from chiral logarithms. Including considerations from the K{sub L}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{gamma} direct emission amplitude, the authors obtain two consistent scenarios. In one scenario the long distance contributions from the one-loop terms are important, while in the other they are marginal. In both cases the counterterm is shown to be significant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stalcup, A. M.
2010-07-01
The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of analytical separations but unfamiliar with chiral separations. To researchers who are not familiar with this area, there is currently a bewildering array of commercially available chiral columns, chiral derivatizing reagents, and chiral selectors for approaches that span the range of analytical separation platforms (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical-fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis). This review begins with a brief discussion of chirality before examining the general strategies and commonalities among all of the chiral separation techniques. Rather than exhaustively listing all the chiral selectors and applications, this review highlights significant issues and differences between chiral and achiral separations, providing salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate.
Hache, F
2010-09-23
Quantum calculation of the hyperpolarizabilty tensor is carried out for chiral molecules displaying a "one-electron" chirality. Calculation is made possible by introducing a chiral perturbation term in the potential energy surface. We show that a one-electron chiral molecule is intrinsically nonlinear and diplays a nonzero electric chiral hyperpolarizability. Existence of magnetic contributions is discussed, and it is shown that higher-order perturbation terms are necessary to introduce such magnetic effects in the second-order hyperpolarizability.
Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John
2016-05-01
Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.
Floss, H.G.
1994-12-01
This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.
1984-10-01
Oxazoline or 1,3-Dioxane Groups. Two other chiral monomers containing polymerizable methacrylate functions were synthesized. The 2- methyl -5-phenyl-4...BOTTOM) MONOMERS the quaternary carbon of poly( methyl methacrylate ). 10 If this peak assignment for the triads in poly( a-methylene-y- 1 butyrolactone...Imd entify by block number) Vinyl oxazolines, ’Chiral Monomers * cx~-Methylene-4- methyl -’V-butyrolactone HPChia ooynr Chromatography Cia ooyes
Harnessing the Power of Chiral Perturbation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isgur, Nathan
2001-12-01
I have enjoyed noticing the puzzled looks around the conference this week as some participants carefully labelled themselves High Energy Physicists, taking some offense if they are called Nuclear Physicists, and vice versa. This is partly a trivial issue associated with US funding sources, but it also reflects some very deeply-held feelings about Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD): a High Energy Physicist finds the strong interactions a nuisance and is studying QCD to be able to eliminate them, while a Nuclear Physicist believes that the nature and origin of the strong interactions is one of the most important unsolved problems in the Standard Model and studies QCD to be able to explain them...
Chiral dynamics with (non)strange quarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2017-01-01
We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405), the dynamical generation of the lowest S11 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy-Steiner analysis of pion-nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion-nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.
Light Nuclei and HyperNuclei from Quantum Chromodynamics in the Limit of SU(3) Flavor Symmetry
Beane, S R; Cohen, S D; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Walker-Loud, A
2013-02-01
The binding energies of a range of nuclei and hypernuclei with atomic number A <= 4 and strangeness |s| <= 2, including the deuteron, di-neutron, H-dibaryon, {sup 3}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}He, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He, and {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 4}He, are calculated in the limit of flavor-SU(3) symmetry at the physical strange quark mass with quantum chromodynamics (without electromagnetic interactions). The nuclear states are extracted from Lattice QCD calculations performed with n{sub f}=3 dynamical light quarks using an isotropic clover discretization of the quark-action in three lattice volumes of spatial extent L ~ 3.4 fm, 4.5 fm and 6.7 fm, and with a single lattice spacing b ~ 0.145 fm.
Richards, David G.; Orginos, Konstantinos
2014-06-23
We present an investigation of the excited meson spectrum at the N_f= 3 point obtained on isotropic clover lattices with a plaquette Wilson gauge action, and a NP-improved clover fermion action, at a lattice spacing of a \\simeq 0.08 fm, and compare with corresponding calculations on an anisotropic lattice at fine temporal lattice spacing but a spatial lattice spacing of a_s \\simeq 0.125 fm. The methodology adopted follows that employed in the calculation of the spectrum on anisotropic lattices, and we test the efficacy of that approach for isotropic lattices. In particular, we explore the extent to which rotational symmetry for predominantly single-hadron states is realized. By comparison of the energy levels with that obtained using the anisotropic lattice, we obtain an indication of discretization uncertainties in the single-hadron spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekki-Berrada, Ali
Bringing closer phospholipids each other on a bilayer of liposome, causes their rotation around their fatty acids axis, generating a force which brings closer the two sheets of the bilayer. In this theoretical study I show that for getting the greater cohesion of the liposome, by these forces, the serine in the hydrophilic head must have a L chirality. In the case where the hydrophilic head is absent amino acids with L chirality could contribute to this cohesion by taking the place of L-serine. Some coenzymes having a configuration similar to ethanolamine may also contribute. This is the case of pyridoxamine, thiamine and tetrahydrofolic acid. The grouping of amino acids of L chirality and pyridoxamine on the wall could initialize the prebiotic metabolism of these L amino acids only. This would explain the origin of the homo-chirality of amino acids in living world. Furthermore I show that in the hydrophilic head, the esterification of glycerol-phosphate by two fatty acids go through the positioning of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, but not of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, prior their hydrogenation to glycerol-3- phosphate. The accumulation of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the cytoplasm displace the thermodynamic equilibria towards the synthesis of D-dATP from D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, acetaldehyde and prebiotic adenine, a reaction which does not require a coenzyme in the biotic metabolism. D-dATP and thiamine, more prebiotic metabolism of L-amino acids on the wall, would initialize D-pentoses phosphate and D-nucleotides pathways from the reaction of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + dihydroxyacetone-phosphate + prebiotic nucleic bases. The exhaustion of the prebiotic glyceraldehyde (racemic) and the nascent biotic metabolism dominated by D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, would explain the origin of homo-chirality of sugars in living world. References: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Prebiotic_chirality
Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange
Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz
2007-06-14
The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.
Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT
Girlanda, Luca; Marcucci, Laura Elisa; Pastore, Saori; Piarulli, Maria; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, Michele
2013-08-01
We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.
Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie
2016-12-01
The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .
Analyzing chiral condensate dependence on temperature and density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockcliffe, Keighley
2016-09-01
Determining the thermodynamic properties of the chiral condensate, the order parameter for chiral symmetry restoration, gives insight into whether there are phase transitions in dense astrophysical objects, such as young neutron stars. The chiral condensate is the scalar density of quarks in the ground state, and its presence violates chiral symmetry. Chiral effective field theory is used to study the behavior of the scalar quark condensate with changing temperature and density of neutron matter. Two-body and three-body chiral nuclear forces were employed to find the free energy and its dependence on the pion mass at lower temperatures. With increasing temperature (up to 100 MeV), the chiral condensate is strongly reduced, indicating a fast approach to chiral symmetry restoration. Chiral restoration seems to be hindered, however, at higher densities (around 0.2 fm-3). The role of the different perturbative contributions and their change with temperature and density was extracted. Although the dominant contribution is the noninteracting term in the perturbation series expansion, nuclear interactions are important particularly at high densities where they delay chiral symmetry restoration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry
2007-10-01
pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4
Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermudez, Rocio
2016-10-01
The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.
Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya
2015-10-15
The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.
Gupta, R.
1994-12-31
This talk contains an analysis of quenched chiral perturbation theory and its consequences. The chiral behavior of a number of quantities such as the pion mass m{sub pi}{sup 2}, the Bernard-Golterman ratios R and {sub X}, the masses of nucleons, and the kaon B-parameter are examined to see if the singular terms induced by the additional Goldstone boson, {eta}{prime}, are visible in present data. The overall conclusion (different from that presented at the lattice meeting) of this analysis is that even though there are some caveats attached to the indications of the extra terms induced by {eta}{prime} loops, the standard expressions break down when extrapolating the quenched data with m{sub q} < m{sub s}/2 to physical light quarks. I then show that due to the single and double poles in the quenched {eta}{prime}, the axial charge of the proton cannot be calculated using the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly condition. I conclude with a review of the status of the calculation of light quark masses from lattice QCD.
Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David
Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.
Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2015-06-01
Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.
Understanding complex chiral plasmonics.
Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na
2015-11-07
Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the 'host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.
Status of chiral meson physics
Bijnens, Johan
2016-01-22
This talk includes a short introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory in the meson sector concentrating on a number of recent developments. I discuss the latest fit of the low-energy constants. Finite volume corrections are discussed for the case with twisted boundary conditions for form-factors and first results at two-loops for three flavours for masses. The last part discusses the extension to other symmetry breaking patterns relevant for technicolour and related theories as well as the calculation of leading logarithms to high loop orders.
Long-range interactions between chiral molecules
Salam, A.
2015-01-22
Results of molecular quantum electrodynamics calculations of discriminatory interactions between two chiral molecules undergoing resonance energy transfer, van der Waals dispersion, and optical binding are presented. A characteristic feature of the theory is that the radiation field is quantized with signals consequently propagating between centres at the speed of light. In order to correctly describe optically active chromophores, it is necessary to include magnetic as well as electric dipole coupling terms in the time-dependent perturbation theory computations. Recent work investigating the effect of an absorptive and dispersive chiral medium on the rate of migration of energy will also be discussed.
Nonlinear realization of chiral symmetry on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Pepe, Michele; Steffen, Frank Daniel; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2003-12-01
We formulate lattice theories in which chiral symmetry is realized nonlinearly on the fermion fields. In this framework the fermion mass term does not break chiral symmetry. This property allows us to use the Wilson term to remove the doubler fermions while maintaining exact chiral symmetry on the lattice. Our lattice formulation enables us to address non-perturbative questions in effective field theories of baryons interacting with pions and in models involving constituent quarks interacting with pions and gluons. We show that a system containing a non-zero density of static baryons interacting with pions can be studied on the lattice without encountering complex action problems. In our formulation one can also decide non-perturbatively if the chiral quark model of Georgi and Manohar provides an appropriate low-energy description of QCD. If so, one could understand why the non-relativistic quark model works.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharmavaram, Sanjay; Xie, Fangming; Bruinsma, Robijn; Klug, William; Rudnick, Joseph
Most icosahedral viruses are classified by their T-number which identifies their capsid in terms of the number of capsomers and their relative arrangement. Certain T-numbers (T = 7 for instance) are inherently chiral (with no reflection planes) while others (e.g. T = 1) are achiral. We present a Landau-Brazovskii (LB) theory for weak crystallization in which a scalar order parameter that measures density of capsid proteins successfully predicts the various observed T-numbers and their respective chiralities. We find that chiral capsids gain stability by spontaneously breaking symmetry from an unstable chiral state. The inherently achiral LB-free energy does not preferentially select a particular chiral state from its mirror reflection. Based on the physical observation that proteins are inherently chiral molecules with directional interactions, we propose a new chiral term to the LB energy as a possible selection mechanism for chirality.
Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD
Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang
2004-08-01
The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Keh-Fei
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of πNσ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral U(1) anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
NN potentials from IR chiral EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higa, R.
Chiral perturbation theory is nowadays a well-established approach to incorporate the chiral constraints from QCD. Nevertheless, for systems involving one baryon, the power counting which dictates the chiral order of observables is not as simple and consensual as in the purely mesonic case. The heavy baryon approach, which relies on a non-relativistic expansion around the limit of infinitely heavy baryon, recovers the usual power counting but destroys some analytic properties of the scattering amplitude. Some years ago, Becher and Leutwyler proposed a Lorentz-invariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory that maintains the required analytic properties, but at the expense of a less intuitive power counting. Aware of the shortcomings of the heavy baryon formalism, the S\\~ao Paulo group derived the two-pion exchange component of the nucleon-nucleon potential in line with the works of Becher and Leutwyler. A striking result was that the long distance properties of the potential is determined by the specific low energy region of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude where the heavy baryon expansion fails. In this talk I will discuss the origin of such failure and how it reflects in the asymptotics of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Some results for phase shifts and deuteron properties will be shown, followed by a comparison with the heavy baryon predictions.
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Understanding complex chiral plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na
2015-10-01
Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant
Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.
Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua
2014-08-14
Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.
Emerging chirality in nanoscience.
Wang, Yong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Hongyu
2013-04-07
Chirality in nanoscience may offer new opportunities for applications beyond the traditional fields of chirality, such as the asymmetric catalysts in the molecular world and the chiral propellers in the macroscopic world. In the last two decades, there has been an amazing array of chiral nanostructures reported in the literature. This review aims to explore and categorize the common mechanisms underlying these systems. We start by analyzing the origin of chirality in simple systems such as the helical spring and hair vortex. Then, the chiral nanostructures in the literature were categorized according to their material composition and underlying mechanism. Special attention is paid to highlight systems with original discoveries, exceptional structural characteristics, or unique mechanisms.
Chiral rotational spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.
2016-09-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.
Planar plasmonic chiral nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zu, Shuai; Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu
2016-02-01
A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response.A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available
Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong
2016-06-01
Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong
2016-06-01
Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.
Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in higher dimensions at weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Ho-Ung
2014-09-01
Chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect are parity odd transport phenomena originating from chiral anomaly, and have generalizations to all even dimensional space-time higher than four dimensions. We attempt to compute the associated P-odd retarded response functions in the weak coupling limit of chiral fermion theory in all even dimensions, using the diagrammatic technique of real-time perturbation theory. We also clarify the necessary Kubo formula relating the computed P-odd retarded correlation functions and the associated anomalous transport coefficients. We speculate on the 8-fold classification of topological phases.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions.
Gezerlis, A; Tews, I; Epelbaum, E; Gandolfi, S; Hebeler, K; Nogga, A; Schwenk, A
2013-07-19
We present the first quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations with chiral effective field theory (EFT) interactions. To achieve this, we remove all sources of nonlocality, which hamper the inclusion in QMC calculations, in nuclear forces to next-to-next-to-leading order. We perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for the neutron matter energy up to saturation density based on local leading-order, next-to-leading order, and next-to-next-to-leading order nucleon-nucleon interactions. Our results exhibit a systematic order-by-order convergence in chiral EFT and provide nonperturbative benchmarks with theoretical uncertainties. For the softer interactions, perturbative calculations are in excellent agreement with the AFDMC results. This work paves the way for QMC calculations with systematic chiral EFT interactions for nuclei and nuclear matter, for testing the perturbativeness of different orders, and allows for matching to lattice QCD results by varying the pion mass.
Chiral Lagrangian for baryons in the 1/Nc expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Elizabeth
1996-03-01
A 1/Nc expansion of the chiral Lagrangian for baryons is formulated and used to study the low-energy dynamics of baryons interacting with the pion nonet π, K, η, and η' in a combined expansion in chiral symmetry breaking and 1/Nc. Strong CP violation is included. The chiral Lagrangian correctly implements nonet symmetry and contracted spin-flavor symmetry for baryons in the large Nc limit. The implications of nonet symmetry for low-energy baryon-pion interactions are described in detail. The procedure for calculating nonanalytic pion-loop corrections to baryon amplitudes in the 1/Nc expansion for finite Nc is explained. Flavor-27 baryon mass splittings are calculated at leading order in chiral perturbation theory as an example.
Chiral Extrapolation of Lattice Data for Heavy Meson Hyperfine Splittings
X.-H. Guo; P.C. Tandy; A.W. Thomas
2006-03-01
We investigate the chiral extrapolation of the lattice data for the light-heavy meson hyperfine splittings D*-D and B*-B to the physical region for the light quark mass. The chiral loop corrections providing non-analytic behavior in m{sub {pi}} are consistent with chiral perturbation theory for heavy mesons. Since chiral loop corrections tend to decrease the already too low splittings obtained from linear extrapolation, we investigate two models to guide the form of the analytic background behavior: the constituent quark potential model, and the covariant model of QCD based on the ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The extrapolated hyperfine splittings remain clearly below the experimental values even allowing for the model dependence in the description of the analytic background.
Chiral magnetic superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2017-03-01
Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this "Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity" (CMS) is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different - the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent) quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 - 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.
Superenantioselective chiral surface explosions.
Gellman, Andrew J; Huang, Ye; Feng, Xu; Pushkarev, Vladimir V; Holsclaw, Brian; Mhatre, Bharat S
2013-12-26
Chiral inorganic materials predated life on Earth, and their enantiospecific surface chemistry may have played a role in the origins of biomolecular homochirality. However, enantiospecific differences in the interaction energies of chiral molecules with chiral surfaces are small and typically lead to modest enantioselectivities in adsorption, catalysis, and chemistry on chiral surfaces. To yield high enantioselectivities, small energy differences must be amplified by reaction mechanisms such as autocatalytic surface explosions which have nonlinear kinetics. Herein, we report the first observations of superenantiospecificity resulting from an autocatalytic surface explosion reaction of a chiral molecule on a naturally chiral surface. R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid decompose via a vacancy-mediated surface explosion mechanism on Cu single crystal surfaces. When coupled with surface chirality, this leads to decomposition rates that exhibit extraordinarily high enantiospecificity. On the enantiomorphs of naturally chiral Cu(643)(R&S), Cu(17,5,1)(R&S), Cu(531)(R&S) and Cu(651)(R&S) single crystal surfaces, R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid exhibit enantiospecific decomposition rates that differ by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, despite the fact that the effective rates constants for decomposition differ by less than a factor of 2.
Mulligan, Andrew; Lane, Ian; Rousseau, Gilles B D; Johnston, Shona M; Lennon, David; Kadodwala, Malcolm
2006-01-19
Naturally occurring metal surfaces possess planes of mirror symmetry on the nanometer-length scale. This mirror symmetry can be lifted and chirality "physically" conveyed onto a surface by adsorbing a chiral molecule. Until now, it has not been known whether the conveying of chirality is limited to just the physical structure or whether it goes deeper and permeates the electronic structure of the underlying surface. By using optically active second harmonic generation (OA-SHG), it is demonstrated that the adsorption of some, but not all, chiral molecules can reversibly, and without significant structural rearrangement, measurably lift the mirror symmetry of the surface electronic structure of a metal. It is proposed that the ability of a chiral molecule to place a significant "chiral perturbation" on the electronic structure of a surface is correlated to its adsorption geometry. The microscopic origins of the observed optical activity are also discussed in terms of classical models of chirality. The results of the study challenge current models of how chiral adsorbates induce enantioselectivity in the chemical/physical behavior of heterogeneous systems, which are based on geometric/stereochemical arguments, by suggesting that chiral electronic perturbations could play a role.
Pion scattering poles and chiral symmetry restoration
Fernandez-Fraile, D.; Nicola, A. Gomez; Herruzo, E. T.
2007-10-15
Using unitarized chiral perturbation theory methods, we perform a detailed analysis of the {pi}{pi} scattering poles f{sub 0}(600) and {rho}(770) behavior when medium effects such as temperature or density drive the system towards chiral symmetry restoration. In the analysis of real poles below threshold, we show that it is crucial to extend properly the unitarized amplitudes so that they match the perturbative Adler zeros. Our results do not show threshold enhancement effects at finite temperature in the f{sub 0}(600) channel, which remains as a pole of broad nature. We also implement T=0 finite-density effects related to chiral symmetry restoration, by varying the pole position with the pion decay constant. Although this approach takes into account only a limited class of contributions, we reproduce the expected finite-density restoration behavior, which drives the poles towards the real axis, producing threshold enhancement and {pi}{pi} bound states. We compare our results with several model approaches and discuss the experimental consequences, both in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in {pi}{yields}{pi}{pi} and {gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} reactions in nuclei.
Boyle, P. A.; Christ, N. H.; Garron, N.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Mawhinney, R. D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D. J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C. T.
2016-03-09
Here, we have performed fits of the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants, from a variety of the RBC-UKQCD Collaboration’s domain wall fermion ensembles, to SU(2) partially quenched chiral perturbation theory at next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We report values for 9 NLO and 8 linearly independent combinations of NNLO partially quenched low-energy constants, which we compare to other lattice and phenomenological determinations. We discuss the size of successive terms in the chiral expansion and use our large set of low-energy constants to make predictions for mass splittings due to QCD isospin-breaking effects and the S-wave ππ scattering lengths. Lastly, we conclude that, for the range of pseudoscalar masses explored in this work, 115 MeV≲mPS≲430 MeV, the NNLO SU(2) expansion is quite robust and can fit lattice data with percent-scale accuracy.
Molecular model for chirality phenomena.
Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G
2016-10-21
Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.
Applications of chiral symmetry
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.
Criteria of backscattering in chiral one-way photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chang, Shu-Wei
2016-03-01
Optical isolators are important devices in photonic circuits. To reduce the unwanted reflection in a robust manner, several setups have been realized using nonreciprocal schemes. In this study, we show that the propagating modes in a strongly-guided chiral photonic crystal (no breaking of the reciprocity) are not backscattering-immune even though they are indeed insensitive to many types of scatters. Without the protection from the nonreciprocity, the backscattering occurs under certain circumstances. We present a perturbative method to calculate the backscattering of chiral photonic crystals in the presence of chiral/achiral scatters. The model is, essentially, a simplified analogy to the first-order Born approximation. Under reasonable assumptions based on the behaviors of chiral photonic modes, we obtained the expression of reflection coefficients which provides criteria for the prominent backscattering in such chiral structures. Numerical examinations using the finite-element method were also performed and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. From both our theory and numerical calculations, we find that the amount of backscattering critically depends on the symmetry of scatter cross sections. Strong reflection takes place when the azimuthal Fourier components of scatter cross sections have an order l of 2. Chiral scatters without these Fourier components would not efficiently reflect the chiral photonic modes. In addition, for these chiral propagating modes, disturbances at the most significant parts of field profiles do not necessarily result in the most effective backscattering. The observation also reveals what types of scatters or defects should be avoided in one-way applications of chiral structures in order to minimize the backscattering.
Chirality Differentiation by Diffusion in Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Deng-Ke
2017-01-01
Chirality is of great importance in the living world. It helps differentiate biochemical reactions such as those that take place during digestion. It may also help differentiate physical processes such as diffusion. Aiming to study the latter effect, we investigate the diffusion of guest chiral molecules in chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid-crystal hosts. We discover that the diffusion dramatically depends on the handedness of the guest and host molecules and the chiral differentiation is greatly enhanced by the proper alignment of the liquid-crystal host. The diffusion of a guest chiral molecule in a chiral host with the same handedness is much faster than in a chiral host with opposite handedness. We also observe that the differentiation of chirality depends on the diffusion direction with respect to the twisting direction (helical axis). These results might be important in understanding effects of chirality on physical processes that take place in biological organisms. In addition, this effect could be utilized for enantiomer separation.
Catalysis of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking by chiral chemical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braguta, V. V.; Kotov, A. Yu.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parametrized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus, the chiral chemical potential plays the role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically, this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface, which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.
Chiral Hypervalent, Pentacoordinated Phosphoranes.
Krasowska, Dorota; Chrzanowski, Jacek; Kiełbasiński, Piotr; Drabowicz, Józef
2016-11-21
This review presents synthetic procedures applied to the preparation of chiral (mainly optically active) pentacoordinated, hypervalent mono and bicyclic phosphoranes. The mechanisms of their stereoisomerization and their selected interconversions are also presented.
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-12-01
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302; J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601; M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302].
Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Hyun-Woo
2016-01-01
The analysis of the magnetic domain wall motion in a nanostructured magnetic system with strong spin-orbit coupling shows that the energy dissipation can be chiral when the inversion symmetry is broken. PMID:26906956
Bonner, W.A.
1996-07-01
The indispensable role played by homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of crucial biomolecules is stressed, with the conclusion that life could neither exist nor originate without these chiral molecular attributes. Hypotheses historically proposed for the origin of chiral molecules on Earth are reviewed, including biogenic theories as well as abiotic theories embracing both indeterminate and determinate mechanisms. Indeterminate mechanisms, including autocatalytic symmetry breaking, asymmetric adsorption on quartz and clay minerals, and asymmetric syntheses in chiral crystals, are discussed and evaluated in the context of the prebiotic environment. Abiotic determinate mechanisms based on electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, on circularly polarized light (CPL), and on parity violation effects are summarized, with the emphasis that only CPL has proved practicable experimentally, but that it would be implausible on the primitive Earth. Mechanisms for the amplification of small, indigenous enantiomeric excesses are discussed, with one involving the partial polymerization of amino acids and the partial hydrolysis of polypeptides suggested as potentially viable prebiotically. Aspects of the turbulent, chirality-destructive primeval environment are described, with the conclusion that all of the above mechanisms for the {ital terrestrial} prebiotic origin of chirality would be non-viable, and that an alternative extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on primitive Earth must have been operative. A scenario for this is outlined, in which we postulate that asymmetric photolysis of the organic mantles on interstellar grains in molecular clouds by circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae produces chiral molecules in the grain mantles. (Abstract Truncated)
Electrodynamics of chiral matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Zebin; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang
2017-02-01
Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.
Chirality and protein biosynthesis.
Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis
2013-01-01
Chirality is present at all levels of structural hierarchy of protein and plays a significant role in protein biosynthesis. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and ribosome have chiral subunits. Despite the omnipresence of chirality in the biosynthetic pathway, its origin, role in current pathway, and importance is far from understood. In this review we first present an introduction to biochirality and its relevance to protein biosynthesis. Major propositions about the prebiotic origin of biomolecules are presented with particular reference to proteins and nucleic acids. The problem of the origin of homochirality is unresolved at present. The chiral discrimination by enzymes involved in protein synthesis is essential for keeping the life process going. However, questions remained pertaining to the mechanism of chiral discrimination and concomitant retention of biochirality. We discuss the experimental evidence which shows that it is virtually impossible to incorporate D-amino acids in protein structures in present biosynthetic pathways via any of the two major steps of protein synthesis, namely aminoacylation and peptide bond formation reactions. Molecular level explanations of the stringent chiral specificity in each step are extended based on computational analysis. A detailed account of the current state of understanding of the mechanism of chiral discrimination during aminoacylation in the active site of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and peptide bond formation in ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is presented. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of the mechanism of retention of enantiopurity has implications in developing novel enzyme mimetic systems and biocatalysts and might be useful in chiral drug design.
Circular Dichroism in the Photoionization of Nanoparticles from Chiral Compounds
Paul, J.; Doerzbach, A.; Siegmann, K.
1997-10-01
The dichroism in photoemission from chiral molecules is observed for the first time. Particles consisting of chiral molecules are suspended in air and irradiated alternately with right and left circularly polarized uv light. We found a polarization dependence in the total photoelectric current. The asymmetries observed are of the order of 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} , as expected from perturbation theory, and reverse their sign when the handedness of the molecules is changed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nuclear axial currents in chiral effective field theory
Baroni, Alessandro; Girlanda, Luca; Pastore, Saori; ...
2016-01-11
Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions owing to nonstatic corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. As a result, a complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power countingmore » is constructed.« less
Nuclear axial currents in chiral effective field theory
Baroni, Alessandro; Girlanda, Luca; Pastore, Saori; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, Michele
2016-01-11
Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions owing to nonstatic corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. As a result, a complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed.
Chiral nihility effects on energy flow in chiral materials.
Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Burokur, Nawaz; Zouhd, Saïd; Li, Le-Wei
2008-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic plane waves in an isotropic chiral medium is characterized, and a special interest is shown in chiral nihility and the effects of chirality on energy transmission. In particular, the wave impedance is matched to that of free space. Moreover, the refractive index n is also matched in impedance to that of free space when an appropriate value of the chirality is chosen. A "chiral nihility" medium is explored in which both the permittivity and the permeability tend to zero. Some specific case studies of chiral nihility are presented, and Brewster angles are found to cover an extremely wide range. The E-field distributions in these different cases where the chiral slab is placed in free space are analyzed by using the appropriate constitutive relations. It is shown from numerical calculations that one can obtain some critical characteristics of the effects of chirality on energy transmission and reflection, such as transparency and power tunneling.
Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A
2016-02-23
Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.
Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube
Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.
2017-01-01
Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity—unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures. PMID:28205518
Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.
2017-02-01
Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.
Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube.
Qin, F; Shi, W; Ideue, T; Yoshida, M; Zak, A; Tenne, R; Kikitsu, T; Inoue, D; Hashizume, D; Iwasa, Y
2017-02-16
Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity-unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
The topological structures in strongly coupled QGP with chiral fermions on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sayantan; Dick, Viktor; Karsch, Frithjof; Laermann, Edwin; Mukherjee, Swagato
2016-12-01
The nature of chiral phase transition for two flavor QCD is an interesting but unresolved problem. One of the most intriguing issues is whether or not the anomalous U(1) symmetry in the flavor sector is effectively restored along with the chiral symmetry. This may determine the universality class of the chiral phase transition. Since the physics near the chiral phase transition is essentially non-perturbative, we employ first principles lattice techniques to address this issue. We use overlap fermions, which have exact chiral symmetry on the lattice, to probe the anomalous U(1) symmetry violation of 2+1 flavor dynamical QCD configurations with domain wall fermions. The latter also optimally preserves chiral and flavor symmetries on the lattice, since it is known that the remnant chiral symmetry of the light quarks influences the scaling of the chiral condensate in the crossover transition region. We observe that the anomalous U(1) is not effectively restored in the chiral crossover region. We perform a systematic study of the finite size and cut-off effects since the signals of U(1) violation are sensitive to it. We also provide a glimpse of the microscopic topological structures of the QCD medium that are responsible for the strongly interacting nature of the quark gluon plasma phase. We study the effect of these microscopic constituents through our first calculations for the topological susceptibility of QCD at finite temperature, which could be a crucial input for the equation of state for anomalous hydrodynamics.
Chiral electroweak currents in nuclei
Riska, D. O.; Schiavilla, R.
2017-01-10
Here, the development of the chiral dynamics based description of nuclear electroweak currents is reviewed. Gerald E. (Gerry) Brown’s role in basing theoretical nuclear physics on chiral Lagrangians is emphasized. Illustrative examples of the successful description of electroweak observables of light nuclei obtained from chiral effective field theory are presented.
Chiral effective theory of dark matter direct detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Zupan, Jure
2017-02-01
We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of Script O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces. Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.
Zhang, Li; Qin, Long; Wang, Xiufeng; Cao, Hai; Liu, Minghua
2014-10-29
Supramolecular chirality, which arises from the nonsymmetric spatial arrangement of components in the self-assembly systems, has gained great attention owing to its relation to the natural biological structures and the possible new functions in advanced materials. During the self-assembling process, both chiral and achiral components are possible to form chiral nanostructures. Therefore, it becomes an important issue how to fabricate these molecular components into chiral nanostructures. Furthermore, once the chiral nanostructure is obtained, will it show new functions that simple component molecule could not? In this research news, we report our recent development in the regulation of chiral nanostructures in soft gels or vesicle materials. We have further developed several new functions pertaining to the soft gel materials, which single chiral molecules could not perform, such as the chiroptical switch, chiral recognition and the asymmetry catalysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradlyn, Barry; Cano, Jennifer; Wang, Zhijun; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. Phuan; Bernevig, B. Andrei
Materials with intrinsic Weyl points should present exotic magnetotransport phenomena due to spectral flow between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality - the so-called ``chiral anomaly''. However, to date, the most definitive transport data showing the presence of a chiral anomaly comes from Dirac (not Weyl) materials. These semimetals develop Weyl fermions only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field, when the four-fold degeneracy is lifted. In this talk we examine Berry phase effects on transport due to the emergence of these field-induced Weyl point and (in some cases) line nodes. We pay particular attention to the differences between intrinsic and field-induced Weyl fermions, from the point of view of kinetic theory. Finally, we apply our analysis to a particular material relevant to current experiments performed at Princeton.
Testa, B; Reist, M; Carrupt, P A
2000-07-01
The two enantiomers of a chiral drug may have vastly different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. As a result, the research and development of chiral drugs raises specific problems some of which are discussed here. Thus, various pharmacokinetic interactions may involve two enantiomers, as seen for example when one enantiomer inhibits the metabolism of the other and modifies its effects. A different situation occurs when a third compound stereoselectively inhibits the metabolism of one of the two enantiomers. Another problem examined here results from the lack of configurational stability of some chiral drugs, a little known phenomenon whose consequences can be of pharmacological or pharmaceutical significance depending on the rate of the reaction of racemization or epimerisation. In-depth investigations are needed before choosing between a eutomer or a racemate.
Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.
Determination of the chiral condensate from QCD Dirac spectrum on the lattice
Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T.; Aoki, S.; Chiu, T. W.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Yamada, N.; Noaki, J.
2011-04-01
We calculate the chiral condensate of QCD with 2, 2+1, and 3 flavors of sea quarks. Lattice QCD simulations are performed employing dynamical overlap fermions with up- and down-quark masses covering a range between 3 and 100 MeV. On L{approx}1.8-1.9 fm lattices at a lattice spacing {approx}0.11 fm, we calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the overlap-Dirac operator. By matching the lattice data with the analytical prediction from chiral perturbation theory at the next-to-leading order, the chiral condensate in the massless limit of up and down quarks is determined.
Chiral symmetry in quarkyonic matter
Kojo, T.
2012-05-15
The 1/N{sub c} expansion classifies nuclear matter, deconfined quark matter, and Quarkyonic matter in low temperature region. We investigate the realization of chiral symmetry in Quarkyonic matter by taking into account condensations of chiral particle-hole pairs. It is argued that chiral symmetry and parity are locally violated by the formation of chiral spirals, <{psi}-bar exp (2i{mu}{sub q} z{gamma}{sup 0} {gamma}{sup z}){psi}> . An extension to multiple chiral spirals is also briefly discussed.
Intrinsic transverse momentum and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Christian Weiss, Peter Schweitzer, Mark Strikman
2013-01-01
We study the effect of QCD vacuum structure on the intrinsic transverse momentum distribution of partons in the nucleon at a low scale. The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is caused by non-perturbative interactions at distances of the order rho ~ 0.2 - 0.3 fm, much smaller than the typical nucleon size R ~ 1 fm, resulting in a two-scale picture of nucleon structure. Using an effective dynamical model based on chiral constituent quark degrees of freedom and the 1/N_c expansion (chiral quark-soliton model), we calculate the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks at a low scale. The distribution of valence quarks is localized at p_T ~ 1/R. The distribution of flavor-singlet unpolarized sea quarks exhibits a power-like tail extending up to the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale 1/{rho}. A similar tail is present in the flavor-nonsinglet polarized sea. These features are model-independent and represent the imprint of the QCD vacuum on the nucleon's partonic structure. At the level of the nucleon's light-cone wave function, we show that sea quarks partly exist in correlated pairs of transverse size {rho} << R, analogous to short-range NN correlations in nuclei. We discuss the implications of our findings for the transverse momentum distributions in hard scattering processes (semi-inclusive DIS, Drell-Yan pair production) and possible experimental tests of the non-perturbative parton correlations induced by QCD vacuum structure.
On chiral magnetic effect in Weyl superfluid 3He-A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volovik, G. E.
2017-01-01
In the theory of the chiral anomaly in relativistic quantum field theories (RQFT) some results depend on regularization scheme at ultraviolet. In the chiral superfluid 3He-A, which contains two Weyl points and also experiences the effects of chiral anomaly, the "trans-Planckian" physics is known and the results can be obtained without regularization. We discuss this on example of the chiral magnetic effect (CME), which has been observed in 3He-A in 90's [1]. There are two forms of the contribution of the CME to the Chern-Simons term in free energy, perturbative and non-perturbative. The perturbative term comes from the fermions living in the vicinity of the Weyl point, where the fermions are "relativistic" and obey the Weyl equation. The non-perturbative term originates from the deep vacuum, being determined by the separation of the two Weyl points in momentum space. Both terms are obtained using the Adler-Bell-Jackiw equation for chiral anomaly, and both agree with the results of the microscopic calculations in the "trans-Planckian" region. Existence of the two nonequivalent forms of the Chern-Simons term demonstrates that the results obtained within the RQFT depend on the specific properties of the underlying quantum vacuum and may reflect different physical phenomena in the same vacuum.
The nucleon-nucleon system in chiral effective theory
Phillips, Daniel R.
2011-10-24
I discuss the conditions under which the application of chiral perturbation theory to the NN potential gives reliable results for NN scattering phase shifts. {sub {chi}P}T also yields a convergent expansion for the deuteron charge operator. For cutoffs <1 GeV, this produces precise predictions for deuterium's quadrupole and charge form factors in the range Q{sup 2}<0.25 GeV{sup 2}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Victor I.; Churikov, Victor M.; Singer, Jonathan; Neugroschl, Daniel; Genack, Azriel Z.
2010-04-01
We have fabricated a variety of chiral fiber sensors by twisting one or more standard or custom optical fibers with noncircular or nonconcentric core as they pass though a miniature oven. The resulting structures are as stable as the glass material and can be produced with helical pitch ranging from microns to hundreds of microns. The polarization selectivity of the chiral gratings is determined by the geometry of the fiber cross section. Single helix structures are polarization insensitive, while double helix gratings interact only with a single optical polarization component. Both single and double helix gratings may function as a fiber long period grating, coupling core and cladding modes or as a diffraction grating scattering light from the fiber core out of the fiber. The resulting dips in the transmission spectrum are sensitive to fiber elongation, twist and temperature, and (in the case of the long period gratings) to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The suitability of chiral gratings for sensing temperature, elongation, twist and liquid levels will be discussed. Gratings made of radiation sensitive glass can be used to measure the cumulative radiation dose, while gratings made of radiation-hardened glass are suitable for stable sensing of the environment in nuclear power plants. Excellent temperature stability up to 900°C is found in pure silica chiral diffraction grating sensors.
Chiral Lagrangian from Duality and Monopole Operators in Compactified QCD.
Cherman, Aleksey; Schäfer, Thomas; Ünsal, Mithat
2016-08-19
We show that there exists a special compactification of QCD on R^{3}×S^{1} in which the theory has a domain where continuous chiral symmetry breaking is analytically calculable. We give a microscopic derivation of the chiral Lagrangian, the chiral condensate, and the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation m_{π}^{2}f_{π}^{2}=-m_{q}⟨q[over ¯]q⟩. Abelian duality, monopole operators, and flavor-twisted boundary conditions play the main roles. The flavor twisting leads to the new effect of fractional jumping of fermion zero modes among monopole instantons. Chiral symmetry breaking is induced by monopole-instanton operators, and the Nambu-Goldstone pions arise by color-flavor transmutation from gapless "dual photons." We also give a microscopic picture of the "constituent quark" masses. Our results are consistent with expectations from chiral perturbation theory at large S^{1}, and yield strong support for adiabatic continuity between the small-S^{1} and large-S^{1} regimes. We also find concrete microscopic connections between N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory dynamics and nonsupersymmetric QCD dynamics.
Chiral EFT based nuclear forces: achievements and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machleidt, R.; Sammarruca, F.
2016-08-01
During the past two decades, chiral effective field theory has become a popular tool to derive nuclear forces from first principles. Two-nucleon interactions have been worked out up to sixth order of chiral perturbation theory and three-nucleon forces up to fifth order. Applications of some of these forces have been conducted in nuclear few- and many-body systems—with a certain degree of success. But in spite of these achievements, we are still faced with great challenges. Among them is the issue of a proper uncertainty quantification of predictions obtained when applying these forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. A related problem is the order by order convergence of the chiral expansion. We start this review with a pedagogical introduction and then present the current status of the field of chiral nuclear forces. This is followed by a discussion of representative examples for the application of chiral two- and three-body forces in the nuclear many-body system including convergence issues.
Tuning spontaneous radiation of chiral molecules by asymmetric chiral nanoparticles.
Guzatov, Dmitry V; Klimov, Vasily V; Chan, Hsun-Chi; Guo, Guang-Yu
2017-03-20
We have obtained analytical expressions for the radiative decay rate of the spontaneous emission of a chiral molecule located near a dielectric spherical particle with a chiral nonconcentric spherical shell made of a bi-isotropic material. Our numerical and graphical analyses show that material composition, thickness and degree of non-concentricity of the shell can influence significantly the spontaneous radiation of the chiral molecule. In particular, the radiative decay rates can differ in orders of magnitude for a chiral molecule located near the thin and thick parts of a nonconcentric shell as well as near a concentric shell made of chiral metamaterial. We also find that the radiative decay rates of the "right" and "left" chiral molecule enantiomers located near a nanoparticle with a chiral metamaterial shell can differ pronouncedly from each other. Our findings therefore suggest a way to tune the spontaneous emission of chiral molecules by varying the material composition, thickness and degree of non-concentricity of the shell in the nearby composite nanoparticle and also to enhance the chirality selection of chiral molecules in racemic mixtures.
Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2015-07-28
Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.
ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTS
Enantiomers, the mirror image isomers of chiral pollutants, are known to be selective in their interaction with other chiral molecules, including enzymes and other biochemicals. Considerable research has shown, for example, that chiral pesticides are degraded selectively by micr...
Optical properties of chiral nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecilia, Noguez; Román-Velázquez Carlos, E.; Ariadna, Sánchez; Montes Lilia, Meza
2004-03-01
A recent theoretical model [1] is applied to study the optical properties chiral nanostructures like carbon nanotubes. We calculate the Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra for carbon nanotubes with different chirality. The calculated CD spectra show features that allow us to distinguish between nanotubes with different indexes of chirality. Other nanostructures, like chiral fullerenes are also investigated.These results provide theoretical support for the quantification of chirality and its measurement, using the CD lineshapes of chiral. This work has been partly financed by CONACyT grant No. 36651-E and by DGAPA-UNAM grants No. IN104201. [1] C. E. Roman-Velazquez, et al., J. of Phys. Chem. B (Letter) 107, 12035 (2003)
Modes of structurally chiral lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topf, René D. M.; McCall, Martin W.
2014-11-01
We employ coupled wave theory to enumerate the lasing modes of structurally chiral lasers. The elliptical modes are shown to be fundamentally distinct from those of a scalar distributed feedback laser. High threshold modes are shown to lase with the opposite chirality as the active medium, in contrast to their low-threshold counterparts that lase with the same chirality as the active medium. The lasing mode structure suggests the intriguing possibility of dynamically changing the polarization handedness of a chiral laser, as well as the possibility of lasing within the forbidden band-gap region. These observations arise from the fundamental interplay between the distributed chirality-preserving reflections within the active medium and the localized chirality-reversing reflections at the medium's boundaries.
Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoover, Richard B.
2010-01-01
The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be
Husson, H P
1997-01-01
Following a brief historical review of the notion of chirality, the importance of the relationship between pharmacological activity and the enantiomeric forms of drugs is indicated. Different approaches for the preparation of optically-pure molecules are discussed, and an original strategy, known as the "CN(R,S) method", is described. To conclude, an application of this method in the synthesis of a pharmacologically-active molecule is presented.
Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks
Dmitri Diakonov
2004-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holdaway, David I. H.; Collini, Elisabetta; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra
2017-03-01
The full development of mono- or multi-dimensional time-resolved spectroscopy techniques incorporating optical activity signals has been strongly hampered by the challenge of identifying the small chiral signals over the large achiral background. Here we propose a new methodology to isolate chiral signals removing the achiral background from two commonly used configurations for performing two dimensional optical spectroscopy, known as BOXCARS and GRadient Assisted Photon Echo Spectroscopy (GRAPES). It is found that in both cases an achiral signal from an isotropic system can be completely eliminated by small manipulations of the relative angles between the linear polarizations of the four input laser pulses. Starting from the formulation of a perturbative expansion of the signal in the angle between the beams and the propagation axis, we derive analytic expressions that can be used to estimate how to change the polarization angles of the four pulses to minimize achiral contributions in the studied configurations. The generalization to any other possible experimental configurations has also been discussed. %We derive analytic expressions to changes required to the polarizations in terms of a perturbative expansion in the angle between the beams and the colinear axis. We also numerically estimate higher order coefficients which cover arbitrarily large angles and thus any experimental configuration.
Microchip electrophoresis for chiral separations.
Belder, Detlev; Ludwig, Martin
2003-08-01
Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a promising new technique for the separation of enantiomers. This recently introduced technique enables chiral separations to be performed in seconds on tiny micromachined devices. This review is intended to give a brief introduction into the principles of chiral separations with MCE with regard to methodology and instrumentation. Different approaches to realize chiral separations in microfluidic devices are described and discussed. This review gives an overview of original work done in this field with emphasis on approaches to improve detection and resolution in chiral MCE.
Free-standing chiral plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun
2014-11-01
Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.
Density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt
2004-05-14
An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.
Optical activity of chirally distorted nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tepliakov, Nikita V.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.
2016-05-01
We develop a general theory of optical activity of semiconductor nanocrystals whose chirality is induced by a small perturbation of their otherwise achiral electronic subsystems. The optical activity is described using the quantum-mechanical expressions for the rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors introduced by Rosenfeld. We show that the rotatory strengths of optically active transitions are decomposed on electric dipole and magnetic dipole contributions, which correspond to the electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions between the unperturbed quantum states. Remarkably, while the two kinds of rotatory strengths are of the same order of magnitude, the corresponding dissymmetry factors can differ by a factor of 105. By maximizing the dissymmetry of magnetic dipole absorption one can significantly enhance the enantioselectivity in the interaction of semiconductor nanocrystals with circularly polarized light. This feature may advance chiral and analytical methods, which will benefit biophysics, chemistry, and pharmaceutical science. The developed theory is illustrated by an example of intraband transitions inside a semiconductor nanocuboid, whose rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors are calculated analytically.
Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.
Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak
2015-09-01
Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.
Pion-photon reactions and chiral dynamics in Primakoff processes at COMPASS
Friedrich, Jan Michael
2016-01-22
With the COMPASS experiment at CERN, pion-photon reactions are investigated via the Primakoff effect, implying that high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. The production of a single hard photon in such a pion scattering at lowest momentum transfer to the nucleus is related to pion Compton scattering. From the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from chiral perturbation theory. In the same data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed. At low energy in the pion-photon centre-of-momentum system, these reactions are governed by chiral dynamics and contain information relevant for chiral perturbation theory. At higher energies, resonances are produced and their radiative coupling is investigated.
Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holt, Jeremy W.; Rho, Mannque; Weise, Wolfram
2016-03-01
Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme". Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.
Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.
2005-01-01
The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.
CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE
Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...
Off-equilibrium photon production during the chiral phase transition
Michler, Frank; Hees, Hendrik van; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Leupold, Stefan; Greiner, Carsten
2013-09-15
In the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions chiral symmetry is restored temporarily. During this so-called chiral phase transition, the quark masses change from their constituent to their bare values. This mass shift leads to the spontaneous non-perturbative creation of quark–antiquark pairs, which effectively contributes to the formation of the quark–gluon plasma. We investigate the photon production induced by this creation process. We provide an approach that eliminates possible unphysical contributions from the vacuum polarization and renders the resulting photon spectra integrable in the ultraviolet domain. The off-equilibrium photon numbers are of quadratic order in the perturbative coupling constants while a thermal production is only of quartic order. Quantitatively, we find, however, that for the most physical mass-shift scenarios and for photon momenta larger than 1 GeV the off-equilibrium processes contribute less photons than the thermal processes. -- Highlights: •We investigate first-order photon emission arising from the chiral mass shift. •We provide an ansatz eliminating possible unphysical vacuum contributions. •Our ansatz leads to photon spectra being integrable in the ultraviolet domain.
Mass-Selective Chiral Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boesl, Ulrich; Kartouzian, Aras
2016-06-01
Three ways of realizing mass-selective chiral analysis are reviewed. The first is based on the formation of diastereomers that are of homo- and hetero- type with respect to the enantiomers of involved chiral molecules. This way is quite well-established with numerous applications. The other two ways are more recent developments, both based on circular dichroism (CD). In one, conventional or nonlinear electronic CD is linked to mass spectrometry (MS) by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The other is based on CD in the angular distribution of photoelectrons, which is measured in combination with MS via photoion photoelectron coincidence. Among the many important applications of mass-selective chiral analysis, this review focuses on its use as an analytical tool for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective chemical catalysis. There exist other approaches to combine chiral analysis and mass-selective detection, such as chiral chromatography MS, which are not discussed here.
Controlling Chirality of Entropic Crystals.
Damasceno, Pablo F; Karas, Andrew S; Schultz, Benjamin A; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C
2015-10-09
Colloidal crystal structures with complexity and diversity rivaling atomic and molecular crystals have been predicted and obtained for hard particles by entropy maximization. However, thus far homochiral colloidal crystals, which are candidates for photonic metamaterials, are absent. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that chiral polyhedra exhibiting weak directional entropic forces self-assemble either an achiral crystal or a chiral crystal with limited control over the crystal handedness. Building blocks with stronger faceting exhibit higher selectivity and assemble a chiral crystal with handedness uniquely determined by the particle chirality. Tuning the strength of directional entropic forces by means of particle rounding or the use of depletants allows for reconfiguration between achiral and homochiral crystals. We rationalize our findings by quantifying the chirality strength of each particle, both from particle geometry and potential of mean force and torque diagrams.
Quark structure of chiral solitons
Dmitri Diakonov
2004-05-01
There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acosta Avalo, J. L.; Pérez Rojas, H.
2016-08-01
We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron-positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone) contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone). In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Chiral models: Geometrical aspects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perelomov, A. M.
1987-02-01
Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu
2012-04-01
The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.
Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.
Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M
2016-10-18
The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.
Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles
Thomas, K. George
2016-01-01
The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided. PMID:27752651
From chiral vibration to static chirality in ^135Nd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Almehed, D.; Garg, U.; Frauendorf, S.; Li, T.; Madhusudhana Rao, P. V.; Wang, X.; Ghugre, S. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Gros, S.; Hecht, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.
2007-10-01
Lifetimes were obtained in a DSAM measurement at Gammasphere, using the ^100Mo(^40Ar, 5n)^135Nd reaction. Electromagnetic transition probabilities have been measured for the intra- and inter-band transitions in the two sequences in the nucleus ^135Nd that were previously identified as a composite chiral bands [1]. The measurements are in good agreement with results of a new combination of TAC and RPA calculations. The chiral character of the bands is affirmed and it is observed that their behavior is associated with a transition from a vibrational into a static chiral regime. [1] S. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 132501 (2003).
Ball, Melissa; Fowler, Brandon; Li, Panpan; Joyce, Leo A; Li, Fang; Liu, Taifeng; Paley, Daniel; Zhong, Yu; Li, Hexing; Xiao, Shengxiong; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin
2015-08-12
We present here a new design motif for strained, conjugated macrocycles that incorporates two different aromatics into the cycle with an -A-B-A-B- pattern. In this study, we demonstrate the concept by alternating electron donors and acceptors in a conjugated cycle. The donor is a bithiophene, and the acceptor is a perylene diimide derivative. The macrocycle formed has a persistent elliptiform cavity that is lined with the sulfur atoms of the thiophenes and the π-faces of the perylene diimide. Due to the linkage of the perylene diimide subunits, the macrocycles exist in both chiral and achiral forms. We separate the three stereoisomers using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography and study their interconversion. The mechanism for interconversion involves an "intramolecular somersault" in which one of the PDIs rotates around its transverse axis, thereby moving one of its diimide heads through the plane of the cavity. These unusual macrocycles are black in color with an absorption spectrum that spans the visible range. Density functional theory calculations reveal a photoinduced electron transfer from the bithiophene to the perylene diimide.
Schulgasser, Kalman; Witztum, Allan
2004-09-21
Twisting is a prevalent feature of long, thin vertical leaves; it has been shown that this twist contributes to the mechanical integrity of the leaf. We address the question as to how this twist comes about, and posit that it is a reflection of twist at a lower structural (geometric) level. The stiffness required for maintaining verticality in leaves is due to turgescent parenchyma cells, sometimes thickened epidermis, cuticle, and is generally most significantly contributed to by vascular bundles and fibers. These contain cellulose in the cell walls. Such cellulose chains spiral upward within the cell wall layers which are of a characteristic handedness. This results in an isolated cell behaving mechanically in a chiral manner; specifically elongation (contraction) of a single cell will result in rotation of the cell about its axis of particular handedness. We propose a mathematical model that shows that when cells are mechanically associated in groups, the chiral behavior of the cell will be expressed at larger scales, albeit to a mitigated degree. Thus cell extension during leaf development may explain the characteristic twist of such leaves.
Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter
2017-01-25
Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter
2017-01-01
Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light–matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin–photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.
Universality of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Wetterich, Christof
2004-01-01
We investigate one-flavor QCD with an additional chiral scalar field. For a large domain in the space of coupling constants, this model belongs to the same universality class as QCD, and the effects of the scalar become unobservable. This is connected to a “bound-state fixed point” of the renormalization flow for which all memory of the microscopic scalar interactions is lost. The QCD domain includes a microscopic scalar potential with minima at a nonzero field. On the other hand, for a scalar mass term m2 below a critical value m2c, the universality class is characterized by perturbative spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which renders the quarks massive. Our renormalization group analysis shows how this universality class is continuously connected with the QCD universality class.
Chiral quantum dot based materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii
2014-05-01
Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.
Perturbed nonlinear differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, T. G.
1974-01-01
For perturbed nonlinear systems, a norm, other than the supremum norm, is introduced on some spaces of continuous functions. This makes possible the study of new types of behavior. A study is presented on a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas developed are applied to the study of integral manifolds, and examples are given.
Epitaxial Electrodeposition of Chiral Metal Oxide Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Switzer, Jay
2006-03-01
Chirality is ubiquitous in Nature. One enantiomer of a molecule is often physiologically active, while the other enantiomer may be either inactive or toxic. Chiral surfaces offer the possibility of developing heterogeneous enantiospecific catalysts that can more readily be separated from the products and reused. Chiral surfaces might also serve as electrochemical sensors for chiral molecules- perhaps even implantable chiral sensors that could be used to monitor drug levels in the body. Our trick to produce chiral surfaces is to electrodeposit low symmetry metal oxide films with chiral orientations on achiral substrates (see, Nature 425, 490, 2003). The relationship between three-dimensional and two-dimensional chirality will be discussed. Chiral surfaces lack mirror or glide plane symmetry. It is possible to produce chiral surfaces of materials which do not crystallize in chiral space groups. We have deposited chiral orientations of achiral CuO onto single-crystal Au and Cu using both tartaric acid and the amino acids alanine and valine to control the handedness of the electrodeposited films. We will present results on the chiral recognition of molecules such as tartaric or malic acid and L-dopa on the chiral electrodeposited CuO. Initial work on the electrochemical biomineralization of chiral nanostructures of calcite will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, C. E.; Shepard, J. R.
1991-04-01
We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear σ-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and gA. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Jamie E.
2012-01-01
Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.
Chiral discrimination in optical binding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forbes, Kayn A.; Andrews, David L.
2015-05-01
The laser-induced intermolecular force that exists between two or more particles in the presence of an electromagnetic field is commonly termed "optical binding." Distinct from the single-particle forces that are at play in optical trapping at the molecular level, the phenomenon of optical binding is a manifestation of the coupling between optically induced dipole moments in neutral particles. In other, more widely known areas of optics, there are many examples of chiral discrimination—signifying the different response a chiral material has to the handedness of an optical input. In the present analysis, extending previous work on chiral discrimination in optical binding, a mechanism is identified using a quantum electrodynamical approach. It is shown that the optical binding force between a pair of chiral molecules can be significantly discriminatory in nature, depending upon both the handedness of the interacting particles and the polarization of the incident light, and it is typically several orders of magnitude larger than previously reported.
Chirally motivated K - nuclear potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.
2011-08-01
In-medium subthreshold Kbar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K- atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K- nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold Kbar N amplitudes, with Re VK-chiral = - (85 ± 5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When Kbar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K- nuclear potential results, Re VK-chiral + phen . = - (180 ± 5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K--nuclear quasibound states generated by VK-chiral are reported and discussed.
Chiral Bosonization of Superconformal Ghosts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, Deheng; Shen, Yang; Liu, Jinling; Xiong, Yongjian
1996-01-01
We explain the difference of the Hilbert space of the superconformal ghosts (beta,gamma) system from that of its bosonized fields phi and chi. We calculate the chiral correlation functions of phi, chi fields by inserting appropriate projectors.
Spontaneous compactification and chiral fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.; Yamamoto, Katsuji
The question is addressed of which chiral fermions survive in spontaneously compactified solutions of the generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations for higher even space-time dimensions. First, we study the allowed fermion representations of SU( N) which have no gauge or gravitational chiral anomalies in arbitrary even dimension and show how to find all such representations for the case of totally antisymmetric SU( N) tensors. Second, we look explicitly at monopole-induced spontaneous compactification in six dimensions; here, interesting chiral fermions in four dimensions do not occur easily but instead require highly artificial assignments of quantum numbers under the U(1) gauge group associated with the monopole. Finally, we consider instanton-induced spontaneous compactification in eight dimensions; for this case, we may readily obtain acceptable chiral fermions in four dimensions, including Georgi's three-family SU(11) model.
Peripheral NN scattering from subtractive renormalization of chiral interactions
Batista, E. F.; Szpigel, S.; Timóteo, V. S.
2014-11-11
We apply five subtractions in the Lippman-Schwinger (LS) equation in order to perform a non-perturbative renormalization of chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here we compute the phase shifts for the uncoupled peripheral waves at renormalization scales between 0.1 fm{sup −1} and 1 fm{sup −1}. In this range, the results are scale invariant and provide an overall good agreement with the Nijmegen partial wave analysis up to at least E{sub lab} = 150 MeV, with a cutoff at Λ = 30 fm{sup −1}.
Optical properties of chiral nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecilia, Noguez; Román-Velázquez, Carlos E.; Garzón, Ignacio L.
2004-03-01
We present a computational model to study the optical properties chiral nanostructures[1] . In this work the nanostructures of interest are composed by N atoms, where each one is represented by a polarizable point dipole located at theposition of the atom. We assume that the dipole located is characterized by a polarizability. The nanostructure is excited by a circularly polarized incident wave, such that, each dipole is subject to a total electric field due to: (i) the incident radiation field, plus (ii) the radiation field resulting from all of the other induced dipoles. Once we solve the complex-linear equations, the dipole moment on each atom in the cluster can be determined and we can find the extinction cross section of the whole nanoparticle. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of chiral bare and thiol-passivated gold nanoclusters have been calculated within the dipole approximation. The calculated CD spectra show features that allow us to distinguish between clusters with different indexes of chirality. The main factor responsible of the differences in the CD lineshapes is the distribution of interatomic distances that characterize the chiral cluster geometry. These results provide theoretical support for the quantification of chirality and its measurement, using the CD lineshapes of chiral metal nanoclusters. [1] C. E. Roman-Velazquez, et al., J. of Phys. Chem. B (Letter) 107, 12035 (2003) This work has been partly supported by DGAPA-UNAM grants No. IN104201 and IN104402, and by CONACyT grant 36651-E.
Gain properties of an uncoated and chiral coated slotted sphere embedded in a chiral background.
Awan, Z A
2016-10-10
The gain properties of an uncoated and a chiral coated slotted sphere embedded in a chiral background have been investigated using numerical simulations. In this paper, it is found that a chiral background medium enhances the gain of an uncoated slotted sphere in the forward direction as compared to the free space background. It is shown that the forward direction gain of a chiral coated slotted sphere embedded in a chiral background increases with the increase in the background chirality. It is further determined that the maximum gain moves away from the polar direction toward the forward direction as the chirality of the coating increases for a fixed background chirality. Also, this maximum gain gradually decreases as the chirality of the coating increases. An interesting feature of an angular window is introduced for a chiral coated slotted sphere embedded in a chiral background where the gain is nearly constant for a specific range of angles.
Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping
2016-07-12
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.
Zhao, Jianchao; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Dongqiang; Wu, Haibo; Cheng, Lingping; Jin, Yu; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao
2015-09-17
To improve the chiral recognition capability of a cinchona alkaloid crown ether chiral stationary phase, the crown ether moiety was modified by the chiral group of (1S, 2S)-2-aminocyclohexyl phenylcarbamate. Both quinine and quinidine-based stationary phases were evaluated by chiral acids, chiral primary amines and amino acids. The quinine/quinidine and crown ether provided ion-exchange sites and complex interaction site for carboxyl group and primary amine group in amino acids, respectively, which were necessary for the chiral discrimination of amino acid enantiomers. The introduction of the chiral group greatly improved the chiral recognition for chiral primary amines. The structure of crown ether moiety was proved to play a dominant role in the chiral recognitions for chiral primary amines and amino acids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Hai-Long; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping
2016-07-01
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a novel class of porous materials, and offer great potential for various applications. However, the applications of COFs in chiral separation and chiral catalysis are largely underexplored due to the very limited chiral COFs available and their challenging synthesis. Here we show a bottom-up strategy to construct chiral COFs and an in situ growth approach to fabricate chiral COF-bound capillary columns for chiral gas chromatography. We incorporate the chiral centres into one of the organic ligands for the synthesis of the chiral COFs. We subsequently in situ prepare the COF-bound capillary columns. The prepared chiral COFs and their bound capillary columns give high resolution for the separation of enantiomers with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. The proposed strategy provides a promising platform for the synthesis of chiral COFs and their chiral separation application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1995-01-01
An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.
Perturbations for transient acceleration
Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br
2012-04-01
According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.
Neutron matter with Quantum Monte Carlo: chiral 3N forces and static response
Buraczynski, M.; Gandolfi, S.; Gezerlis, A.; ...
2016-03-14
Neutron matter is related to the physics of neutron stars and that of neutron-rich nuclei. Moreover, Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods offer a unique way of solving the many-body problem non-perturbatively, providing feedback on features of nuclear interactions and addressing scenarios that are inaccessible to other approaches. Our contribution goes over two recent accomplishments in the theory of neutron matter: a) the fusing of QMC with chiral effective field theory interactions, focusing on local chiral 3N forces, and b) the first attempt to find an ab initio solution to the problem of static response.
An Optically Active Polymer for Broad-Spectrum Enantiomeric Recognition of Chiral Acids.
Yan, Jijun; Kang, Chuanqing; Bian, Zheng; Ma, Xiaoye; Jin, Rizhe; Du, Zhijun; Gao, Lianxun
2017-03-14
Recognition of enantiomers of chiral acids by anion-π or lone pair-π interactions has not yet been investigated but is a significant and attractive challenge. This study reports an optically active polymer-based supramolecular system with capabilities of discriminating enantiomers of various chiral acids. The polymer featuring alternate π-acidic naphthalenediimides (NDIs) and methyl l-phenylalaninates in the backbone exhibits an unprecedented slow self-assembly process that is susceptible to perturbation by various chiral acids. Thus, the combination of anion-π or lone pair-π interactions and sensitivity of the polymeric self-assembly process to external chiral species endows the system with recognition capabilities. This is the first time that anion-π or lone pair-π interactions have been applied in the recognition of enantiomers of various chiral acids with a single system. The results shed light on new strategies for material design by integrating π-acidic aromatic systems and chiral building blocks to afford relevant advanced functions.
Perturbed nonlinear differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, T. G.
1972-01-01
The existence of a solution defined for all t and possessing a type of boundedness property is established for the perturbed nonlinear system y = f(t,y) + F(t,y). The unperturbed system x = f(t,x) has a dichotomy in which some solutions exist and are well behaved as t increases to infinity, and some solution exists and are well behaved as t decreases to minus infinity. A similar study is made for a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, R+, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas are applied to integral manifolds.
Consistent Chiral Kinetic Theory in Weyl Materials: Chiral Magnetic Plasmons.
Gorbar, E V; Miransky, V A; Shovkovy, I A; Sukhachov, P O
2017-03-24
We argue that the correct definition of the electric current in the chiral kinetic theory for Weyl materials should include the Chern-Simons contribution that makes the theory consistent with the local conservation of the electric charge in electromagnetic and strain-induced pseudoelectromagnetic fields. By making use of such a kinetic theory, we study the plasma frequencies of collective modes in Weyl materials in constant magnetic and pseudomagnetic fields, taking into account the effects of dynamical electromagnetism. We show that the collective modes are chiral plasmons. While the plasma frequency of the longitudinal collective mode coincides with the Langmuir one, this mode is unusual because it is characterized not only by oscillations of the electric current density, but also by oscillations of the chiral current density. The latter are triggered by a dynamical version of the chiral electric separation effect. We also find that the plasma frequencies of the transverse modes split up in a magnetic field. This finding suggests an efficient means of extracting the chiral shift parameter from the measurement of the plasma frequencies in Weyl materials.
Consistent Chiral Kinetic Theory in Weyl Materials: Chiral Magnetic Plasmons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.
2017-03-01
We argue that the correct definition of the electric current in the chiral kinetic theory for Weyl materials should include the Chern-Simons contribution that makes the theory consistent with the local conservation of the electric charge in electromagnetic and strain-induced pseudoelectromagnetic fields. By making use of such a kinetic theory, we study the plasma frequencies of collective modes in Weyl materials in constant magnetic and pseudomagnetic fields, taking into account the effects of dynamical electromagnetism. We show that the collective modes are chiral plasmons. While the plasma frequency of the longitudinal collective mode coincides with the Langmuir one, this mode is unusual because it is characterized not only by oscillations of the electric current density, but also by oscillations of the chiral current density. The latter are triggered by a dynamical version of the chiral electric separation effect. We also find that the plasma frequencies of the transverse modes split up in a magnetic field. This finding suggests an efficient means of extracting the chiral shift parameter from the measurement of the plasma frequencies in Weyl materials.
Perturbing turbulence beyond collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnen, Jakob; Scarselli, Davide; Hof, Björn; Nonlinear Dynamics; Turbulence Group Team
2016-11-01
Wall-bounded turbulent flows are considered to be in principle stable against perturbations and persist as long as the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. We show for the example of pipe flow that a specific perturbation of the turbulent flow field disrupts the genesis of new turbulence at the wall. This leads to an immediate collapse of the turbulent flow and causes complete relaminarisation further downstream. The annihilation of turbulence is effected by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component only, greatly simplifying control efforts which usually require knowledge of the highly complex three dimensional and time dependent velocity fields. We present several different control schemes from laboratory experiments which achieve the required perturbation of the flow for total relaminarisation. Transient growth, a linear amplification mechanism measuring the efficiency of eddies in redistributing shear that quantifies the maximum perturbation energy amplification achievable over a finite time in a linearized framework, is shown to set a clear-cut threshold below which turbulence is impeded in its formation and thus permanently annihilated.
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Chiral potential renormalized in harmonic-oscillator space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, C.-J.
2016-12-01
We renormalize the chiral effective field theory potential in harmonic-oscillator (HO) model space. The low energy constants (LECs) are utilized to absorb not just the ultraviolet part of the physics due to the cutoff, but also the infrared part due to the truncation of model space. We use the inverse J -matrix method to reproduce the nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts in the given model space. We demonstrate that by including the NLO correction, the nucleon-nucleon scattering in the continuum could be well reproduced in the truncated HO trap space up to laboratory energy Tlab=100 MeV with number of HO basis nmax as small as 10. A perturbative power counting starts at subleading order is adopted in this work, and how to extract the perturbative contribution is demonstrated. This work serves as the input to perform ab initio calculations.
Can a Non-Chiral Object Be Made of Two Identical Chiral Moieties?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeMarechal, Jean Francois
2008-01-01
Several pedagogical objects can be used to discuss chirality. Here, we use the cut of an apple to show that the association of identical chiral moieties can form a non-chiral object. Octahedral chirality is used to find situations equivalent to the cut of the apple. (Contains 5 figures.)
Non-perturbative QCD Modeling and Meson Physics
Nguyen, T.; Souchlas, N. A.; Tandy, P. C.
2009-04-20
Using a ladder-rainbow kernel previously established for light quark hadron physics, we explore the extension to masses and electroweak decay constants of ground state pseudoscalar and vector quarkonia and heavy-light mesons in the c- and b-quark regions. We make a systematic study of the effectiveness of a constituent mass concept as a replacement for a heavy quark dressed propagator for such states. The difference between vector and axial vector current correlators is explored within the same model to provide an estimate of the four quark chiral condensate and the leading distance scale for the onset of non-perturbative phenomena in QCD.
ENZYME DEGRADATION OF CHIRAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES
Chiral organic phosphorus pesticides (OPs) are expected to be biologically degraded enantioselectively by endogenous enzymes. Various chiral Ops were treated with the enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) obtained from partially purified extracts of Escherichia coli strain DH-5- carryi...
Chiral Chlordane Components in Environmental Matrices
Chlordane, a persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic organochlorine pesticide, has been studied for many years. Since the advent of chiral analysis for environmental samples, over 2,400 measurements have been made of various chiral chlordane components. Chlordane enantiomer fractio...
Enantioselective Recognition by Chiral Supramolecular Gels.
Zhang, Li; Jin, Qingxian; Liu, Minghua
2016-10-06
Chiral supramolecular gels, in which small organic molecules self-assemble into chiral nanostructures and entangle each other to immobilize solvents through various noncovalent interactions, can work as a matrix for enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes. Through gelation and the formation of well-defined nanostructures, the chiral sense of the component molecules can be accumulated or amplified, and thus, the enantioselective recognition ability can be enhanced. Furthermore, a chiral microenvironment formed in the gel networks could provide additional stereochemical recognition geometry and attribute to efficient recognition. In this focus review, enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes through chiral supramolecular gels, with either amplified signals or the gel-sol phase transition, is discussed. This review is expected to provide useful insights into the design and fabrication of supramolecular gel systems with chiral features and high enantioselectivity.
Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter
Chernodub, M. N.; Nedelin, A. S.
2011-05-15
We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.
Power counting regime of chiral effective field theory and beyond
Hall, J. M. M.; Leinweber, D. B.; Young, R. D.
2010-08-01
Chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of {chi}EFT, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may be used in a nonperturbative manner to describe lattice simulation results outside of the PCR. Positive results that improve on the current optimistic application of chiral perturbation theory ({chi}PT) beyond the PCR are reported.
Chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taghavi, Seyed Farid; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-02-01
As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter coupled to quantum electrodynamics allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit μ /T ≪1 . Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion, indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center-of-mass energy and that the effect is numerically very small. We note, however, that if sizable oriented asymmetries in the axial charge distribution (that are not induced by the CMW) are present in the early fluid dynamic evolution, then the mechanism of CMW-induced electric charge separation can be much more efficient.
Power counting regime of chiral effective field theory and beyond.
Hall, J. M.M.; Leinweber, D. B.; Young, R. D.; Physics; Univ. of Adelaide
2010-08-10
Chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of {chi}EFT, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may be used in a nonperturbative manner to describe lattice simulation results outside of the PCR. Positive results that improve on the current optimistic application of chiral perturbation theory ({chi}PT) beyond the PCR are reported.
Chiral effective theories from holographic QCD with scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Masayasu; Ma, Yong-Liang; Matsuzaki, Shinya
2014-06-01
We develop a method for integrating out the heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of scalar type as well as those of vector and axial-vector types, in a class of hard-wall bottom-up approaches of holographic QCD models, including the Dirac-Born-Infeld and Chern-Simons parts. By keeping only the lowest-lying vector mesons, we first obtain an effective chiral Lagrangian of the vector mesons based on the hidden local symmetry, and all the low-energy constants in the HLS Lagrangian are expressed in terms of holographic integrals and, consequently, are fully determined by the holographic geometry and a few constants of mesons. We find that the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is manifestly reproduced at the lowest order of derivative expansion. We also explicitly show that a naive inclusion of the Chern-Simons term cannot reproduce the desired chiral anomaly in QCD, and hence, some counterterms should be provided: This implies that the holographic QCD models of hard-wall type cannot give definite predictions for the intrinsic parity-odd vertices involving vector and axial-vector mesons. After integrating out the vector mesons from the HLS Lagrangian, we further obtain the Lagrangian of chiral perturbation theory for pseudoscalar mesons with all the low-energy constants fully determined.
Chiral Extrapolation of Light Mesons from the Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bin; Doring, Michael; Mai, Maxim; Molina, Raquel; Alexandru, Andrei
2017-01-01
The ρ(770) meson is the most extensively studied resonance in lattice QCD simulations in two (Nf = 2) and three (Nf = 2 + 1) flavors. We analyze all available phase shifts from Nf = 2 simulations using unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory (UCHPT), and allowing not only for the extrapolation in mass but also in flavor, Nf = 2 ->Nf = 2 + 1 . The flavor extrapolation requires information from a global fit to ππ and πK phase shifts from experiment. In the chiral extrapolations of Nf = 2 simulations, the K K channel has a significant effect and leads to ρ(770) masses surprisingly close to the experimental one. We also discuss recent results on the chiral extrapolations of Nf = 2 + 1 lattice QCD data of the ρ(770) meson and the σ(600) that have become available. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-SC0014133, contract DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Grants Nos. 1452055 and PHY-1151648 , PIF Grant No. 1415459).
Chiral multi-electron emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berakdar, Jamal; Klar, Hubert
2001-01-01
In this report we review recent progress in the understanding of the role of chirality in the multi-electron emission. A brief account of the chiral single-electron photoemission is given. In this case the chirality of the experimental set-up is brought about by an initial orientation of the target or/and by specifying a certain projection of the photoelectron spin. The dependence of the photoelectron spectrum on the chirality of the experiment is probed by changing the initial orientation of the target or by inverting the photoelectron spin projection. In a further section we envisage the direct transition of chiral electron pairs from an isotropic bound initial state into a double-continuum state following the absorption of a circularly polarised photon. We work out the necessary conditions under which the spectrum of the correlated photoelectron pair shows a chiral character, i.e. a dependence on the chirality of the exciting photon. The magnitude and the general behaviour of the chiral effects are estimated from simple analytical models and more elaborate numerical methods are presented for a more quantitative predictions. As a further example for the chiral multi-electron emission we study the photoelectron Auger-electron coincidence spectrum. The Auger hole is created by ionising a randomly oriented target by a circular polarised photon. We investigate how the helicity the photon is transferred to the emitted photoelectron pair. The theoretical findings are analysed and interpreted in light of recent experiments. In a final section we focus on the emission of correlated electrons where the initial state is already oriented, e.g. via optical pumping by circularly polarised light. The initial orientation of the atom is transferred to the continuum states following the ionisation of the target by low-energy electrons. We formulate and analyse the theoretical concepts for the transition of the screw sense of the initially bound atomic electron to the continuum
Hydrogen-regulated chiral nanoplasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Sterl, Florian; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na
2016-11-01
Chirality is a highly important topic in modern chemistry, given the dramatically different pharmacological effects that enantiomers can have on the body. Chirality of natural molecules can be controlled by reconfiguration of molecular structures through external stimuli. Despite the rapid progress in plasmonics, active regulation of plasmonic chirality, particularly in the visible spectral range, still faces significant challenges. In this Letter, we demonstrate a new class of hybrid plasmonic metamolecules composed of magnesium and gold nanoparticles. The plasmonic chirality from such plasmonic metamolecules can be dynamically controlled by hydrogen in real time without introducing macroscopic structural reconfiguration. We experimentally investigate the switching dynamics of the hydrogen-regulated chiroptical response in the visible spectral range using circular dichroism spectroscopy. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to examine the morphology changes of the magnesium particles through hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Our study can enable plasmonic chiral platforms for a variety of gas detection schemes by exploiting the high sensitivity of circular dichroism spectroscopy.
Rahaman, Anisur
2015-10-15
The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.
Tactoids of chiral liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palacio-Betancur, Viviana; Villada-Gil, Stiven; Zhou, Ye; Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; de Pablo, Juan José; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan Pablo
The phase diagram of chiral liquid crystals confined in ellipsoids is obtained, by following a theoretically informed Monte Carlo relaxation of the tensor alignment field Q. The free energy of the system is described by a functional in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. This study also includes the effect of anchoring strength, curvature, and chirality of the system. In the low chirality region of the phase diagram we found the twist bipolar (BS) phase and some cholesteric phases such as the radial spherical structure (RSS), twist cylinder (TC) and double twist cylinder (DTC) whose axis of rotation is not necessarily aligned with the major axis of the geometry. For high chirality scenarios, the disclination lines are twisted or bent near the surface preventing the formation of symmetric networks of defects, although an hexagonal pattern is formed on the surface which might serve as open sites for collocation of colloids. By analyzing the free energies of isochoric systems, prolate geometries tend to be more favorable for high chirality and low anchoring conditions. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Ph.D. grant and COLCIENCIAS under the Contract No. 110-165-843-748. CONACYT for Postdoctoral Fellowships Nos. 186166 and 203840.
Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials.
Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B
2009-09-16
The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90° in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.
Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.
Gerlach, Hans
2013-11-01
The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term.
Chiral vibrations in the A=135 region
Almehed, Daniel; Doenau, Friedrich; Frauendorf, Stefan
2011-05-15
Chiral vibrations in the A=135 region are studied in the framework of a RPA plus self-consistent tilted axis cranking formalism. In this model chiral vibrations appear as a precursor toward the static chiral regime. The properties of the RPA phonons are discussed and compared to experimental data. We discuss the limits of the chiral region and the transition to the nonharmonic regime.
Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.
Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C
2003-12-21
Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.
Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications
2015-01-27
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 25-August-2011 to 24-August-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for...researchers focused o synthesis and processing, morphology and physical characterization of chiral block copolymer (BCP) materials. Such materials a...valuable for both their optical and mechanical properties, particularly for their potential as chiral metamaterials and lightweig energy absorbing
Self-Assembly of Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures.
Lan, Xiang; Wang, Qiangbin
2016-12-01
Plasmonic chiroptical effects have attracted significant attention for their widespread potential applications in negative-refractive-index materials, advanced light-polarization filters, and ultrasensitive sensing devices, etc. As compared to top-down fabrication methods, the bottom-up self-assembly strategy provides nanoscale resolution, parallel production, and isotropic optical response, and therefore plays an indispensable role in the fabrication of chiral plasmonic nanostructures. The optical properties of these chiral structures can be predicted based on the near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons in structural components, which offers a route to tune or enhance optical activity by selecting building blocks and designing structural configurations. To date, three main types of chiral plasmonic nanostructures, i.e., chiral "plasmonic molecules", chiral superstructures, and chiral-molecule-metal hybrid complexes, are usually assembled, in which metal nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes, and compositions, and/or chiral molecules are employed as building blocks. Here, recent achievements in the self-assembly of chiral plasmonic nanostructures are highlighted and perspectives on the future directions of chiral plasmonics integrated with bottom-up self-assembly are presented, showing three typical examples, including chiral plasmonic switches, chiral nanoparticles, and chiral metamaterials.
Chiral scalars from an extended system
Kim, W.; Kim, J. ); Park, Y. )
1991-07-15
We propose a new action with a modified linear chiral constraint, which contains a chiral boson (a single self-dual theory) or left-right chiral bosons (free scalar field theory) according to the parameter {alpha}, and discuss the constraint algebra between the two theories.
Determination of the chiral condensate from (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD.
Fukaya, H; Aoki, S; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J; Onogi, T; Yamada, N
2010-03-26
We perform a precise calculation of the chiral condensate in QCD using lattice QCD with 2+1 flavors of dynamical overlap quarks. Up and down quark masses cover a range between 3 and 100 MeV on a 16{3}x48 lattice at a lattice spacing approximately 0.11 fm. At the lightest sea quark mass, the finite volume system on the lattice is in the regime. By matching the low-lying eigenvalue spectrum of the Dirac operator with the prediction of chiral perturbation theory at the next-to-leading order, we determine the chiral condensate in (2+1)-flavor QCD with strange quark mass fixed at its physical value as Sigma;{MS[over ]}(2 GeV)=[242(04)(+19/-18) MeV]{3} where the errors are statistical and systematic, respectively.
Neutron matter from chiral two- and three-nucleon calculations up to N3LO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drischler, C.; Carbone, A.; Hebeler, K.; Schwenk, A.
2016-11-01
Neutron matter is an ideal laboratory for nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory since all contributions are predicted up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO ) in the chiral expansion. By making use of recent advances in the partial-wave decomposition of three-nucleon (3 N ) forces, we include for the first time N3LO 3 N interactions in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) up to third order and in self-consistent Green's function theory (SCGF). Using these two complementary many-body frameworks we provide improved predictions for the equation of state of neutron matter at zero temperature and also analyze systematically the many-body convergence for different chiral EFT interactions. Furthermore, we present an extension of the normal-ordering framework to finite temperatures. These developments open the way to improved calculations of neutron-rich matter including estimates of theoretical uncertainties for astrophysical applications.
Renormalized Lie perturbation theory
Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.
1981-07-01
A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.
1990-01-01
We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.
Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.
Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa
2011-09-23
Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.
Chirality and gravitational parity violation.
Bargueño, Pedro
2015-06-01
In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented.
Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.
2014-05-01
In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.
Amplitudes of Spiral Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.
2014-03-01
It has proven very difficult to estimate the amplitudes of spiral perturbations in disk galaxies from observations due to the variation of mass-to-light ratio and extinction across spiral arms. Deep, near-infrared images of grand-design spiral galaxies obtained with HAWK-I/VLT were used to analyze the azimuthal amplitude and shape of arms, which, even in the K-band may, be significantly biased by the presence of young stellar populations. Several techniques were applied to evaluate the relative importance of young stars across the arms, such as surface brightness of the disk with light from clusters subtracted, number density of clusters detected, and texture of the disk. The modulation of the texture measurement, which correlates with the number density of faint clusters, yields amplitudes of the spiral perturbation in the range 0.1-0.2. This estimate gives a better estimate of the mass perturbation in the spiral arms, since it is dominated by old clusters.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.
Mechanical chirality: A chiral catalyst with a ring to it
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldup, Stephen M.
2016-05-01
A chiral [2]rotaxane in which the asymmetry is derived from the way in which the two components are mechanically interlocked -- rather than being encoded in the covalent connectivity of the components themselves -- has been shown to act as an enantioselective organocatalyst.
Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.
Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran
2015-08-01
The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed.
Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems
Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-12-01
The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions. In the quark-gluon plasma, the axial anomaly induces topological charge changing transition that results in the generation of electrical current along the magnetic field. In condensed matter systems, the chiral magnetic effect was first predicted in the gapless semiconductors with tow energy bands having pointlike degeneracies. In addition, thirty years later after this prediction, the chiral magnetic effect was finally observed in the 3D Dirac/Weyl semimetals.
The falsification of Chiral Nuclear Forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz Arriola, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Navarro Perez, R.
2017-03-01
Predictive power in theoretical nuclear physics has been a major concern in the study of nuclear structure and reactions. The Effective Field Theory (EFT) based on chiral expansions provides a model independent hierarchy for many body forces at long distances but their predictive power may be undermined by the regularization scheme dependence induced by the counterterms and encoding the short distances dynamics which seem to dominate the uncertainties. We analyze several examples including zero energy NN scattering or perturbative counterterm-free peripheral scattering where one would expect these methods to work best and unveil relevant systematic discrepancies when a fair comparison to the Granada-2013 NN-database and partial wave analysis (PWA) is undertaken. Work supported by Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad and European FEDER funds (grant FIS2014-59386-P), the Agencia de Innovacion y Desarrollo de Andalucia (grant No. FQM225), the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-SC0008511 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration)
Zhang, Li; Wang, Tianyu; Shen, Zhaocun; Liu, Minghua
2016-02-10
Helical structures such as double helical DNA and the α-helical proteins found in biological systems are among the most beautiful natural structures. Chiral nanoarchitectonics, which is used here to describe the hierarchical formation and fabrication of chiral nanoarchitectures that can be observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is one of the most effective ways to mimic those natural chiral nanostructures. This article focuses on the formation, structure, and function of the most common chiral nanoarchitectures: nanoscale chiral twists and helices. The types of molecules that can be designed and how they can form hierarchical chiral nanoarchitectures are explored. In addition, new and unique functions such as amplified chiral sensing, chiral separation, biological effects, and circularly polarized luminescence associated with the chiral nanoarchitectures are discussed.
Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate.
Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M; Gray, Jeffrey J; McKee, Marc D
2017-04-13
Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a 'right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas 'left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a 'mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential 'daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.
Is there a "most chiral tetrahedron"?
Rassat, André; Fowler, Patrick W
2004-12-03
A degree of chirality is a function that purports to measure the amount of chirality of an object: it is equal for enantiomers, vanishes only for achiral or degenerate objects and is similarity invariant, dimensionless and normalisable to the interval [0,1]. For a tetrahedron of non-zero three-dimensional volume, achirality is synonymous with the presence of a mirror plane containing one edge and bisecting its opposite, and hence it is easy to design degree-of-chirality functions based on edge length that incorporate all constraints. It is shown that such functions can have largest maxima at widely different points in the tetrahedral shape space, and by incorporation of appropriate factors, the maxima can be pushed to any point in the space. Thus the phrase "most chiral tetrahedron" has no general meaning: any chiral tetrahedron is the most chiral for some legitimate choice of degree of chirality.
Helical motion of chiral liquid crystal droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takaki; Sano, Masaki
Artificial swimmers have been intensively studied to understand the mechanism of the locomotion and collective behaviors of cells and microorganisms. Among them, most of the artificial swimmers are designed to move along the straight path. However, in biological systems, chiral dynamics such as circular and helical motion are quite common because of the chirality of their bodies, which are made of chiral biomolecules. To understand the role of the chirality in the physics of microswimmers, we designed chiral artificial swimmers and the theoretical model for the chiral motion. We found that chiral liquid crystal droplets, when dispersed in surfactant solutions, swim in the helical path induced by the Marangoni effect. We will discuss the mechanism of the helical motion with our phenomenological model. This work is supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (Grant No. 26.9814), and MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 25103004.
Chiral magnetic plasmons in anomalous relativistic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.
2017-03-01
The chiral plasmon modes of relativistic matter in background magnetic and strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields are studied in detail using the consistent chiral kinetic theory. The results reveal a number of anomalous features of these chiral magnetic and pseudomagnetic plasmons that could be used to identify them in experiment. In a system with nonzero electric (chiral) chemical potential, the background magnetic (pseudomagnetic) fields not only modify the values of the plasmon frequencies in the long-wavelength limit, but also affect the qualitative dependence on the wave vector. Similar modifications can be also induced by the chiral shift parameter in Weyl materials. Interestingly, even in the absence of the chiral shift and external fields, the chiral chemical potential alone leads to a splitting of plasmon energies at linear order in the wave vector.
Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Wen
2012-05-01
We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon.
No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald
2010-03-01
At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.
Mean field theory of the linear sigma-model: Chiral solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahana, S.; Ripka, G.
The mean field theory of the chiral invariant sigma-model is outlined. Bound states (solitons) of valence quarks are obtained self-consistently using a hedgehog shape for the pion field. A schematic model for the coupled fermion-boson fields is presented. Renormalization is worked out for the fermion one-loop corrections and numerical results presented for the purely scalar-field case. The interpretation of the baryon number of the perturbed vacuum is considered.
Mean field theory of the linear sigma-model: chiral solitons
Kahana, S.; Ripka, G.
1983-01-01
The mean field theory of the chiral invariant sigma-model is outlined. bound states (solitons) of valence quarks are obtained self-consistently using a hedgehog shape for the pion field. A schematic model for the coupled fermion-boson fields is presented. Renormalization is worked out for the fermion one-loop corrections and numerical results presented for the purely scalar-field case. The interpretation of the baryon number of the perturbed vacuum is considered.
Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking
Gorsky, A.; Krikun, A.
2014-07-23
We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.
Flow methods in chiral analysis.
Trojanowicz, Marek; Kaniewska, Marzena
2013-11-01
The methods used for the separation and analytical determination of individual isomers are based on interactions with substances exhibiting optical activity. The currently used methods for the analysis of optically active compounds are primarily high-performance separation methods, such as gas and liquid chromatography using chiral stationary phases or chiral selectors in the mobile phase, and highly efficient electromigration techniques, such as capillary electrophoresis using chiral selectors. Chemical sensors and biosensors may also be designed for the analysis of optically active compounds. As enantiomers of the same compound are characterised by almost identical physico-chemical properties, their differentiation/separation in one-step unit operation in steady-state or dynamic flow systems requires the use of highly effective chiral selectors. Examples of such determinations are reviewed in this paper, based on 105 references. The greatest successes for isomer determination involve immunochemical interactions, enantioselectivity of the enzymatic biocatalytic processes, and interactions with ion-channel receptors or molecularly imprinted polymers. Conducting such processes under dynamic flow conditions may significantly enhance the differences in the kinetics of such processes, leading to greater differences in the signals recorded for enantiomers. Such determinations in flow conditions are effectively performed using surface-plasmon resonance and piezoelectric detections, as well as using common spectroscopic and electrochemical detections.
Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis
Xiao, Yumei; Sun, Zhanhu
2014-01-01
Summary This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols. PMID:25246969
Infinite-Cutoff Renormalization of the Chiral Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction up to N3LO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeoli, Ch.; Machleidt, R.; Entem, D. R.
2013-12-01
Naively, the "best" method of renormalization is the one where a momentum cutoff is taken to infinity while maintaining stable results due to a cutoff-dependent adjustment of counterterms. We have applied this renormalization method in the non-perturbative calculation of phase-shifts for nucleon-nucleon ( NN) scattering using chiral NN potentials up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO). For lower partial waves, we find that there is either no convergence with increasing order or, if convergence occurs, the results do not always converge to the empirical values. For higher partial waves, we always observe convergence to the empirical phase shifts (except for the 3G5 state). Furthermore, no matter what the order is, one can use only one or no counterterm per partial wave, creating a rather erratic scheme of power counting that does not allow for a systematic order-by-order improvement of the predictions. The conclusion is that infinite-cutoff renormalization is inappropriate for chiral NN interactions, which should not come as a surprise, since the chiral effective field theory (chiral EFT), these interactions are based upon, is designed for momenta below the chiral-symmetry breaking scale of about 1 GeV. Therefore, this value for the hard scale should also be perceived as the appropriate upper limit for the momentum cutoff.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik
2014-07-01
A non-Fermi liquid state without time-reversal and parity symmetries arises when a chiral Fermi surface is coupled with a soft collective mode in two space dimensions. The full Fermi surface is described by a direct sum of chiral patch theories, which are decoupled from each other in the low-energy limit. Each patch includes low-energy excitations near a set of points on the Fermi surface with a common tangent vector. General patch theories are classified by the local shape of the Fermi surface, the dispersion of the critical boson, and the symmetry group, which form the data for distinct universality classes. We prove that a large class of chiral non-Fermi liquid states exists as stable critical states of matter. For this, we use a renormalization group scheme where low-energy excitations of the Fermi surface are interpreted as a collection of (1+1)-dimensional chiral fermions with a continuous flavor labeling the momentum along the Fermi surface. Due to chirality, the Wilsonian effective action is strictly UV finite. This allows one to extract the exact scaling exponents although the theories flow to strongly interacting field theories at low energies. In general, the low-energy effective theory of the full Fermi surface includes patch theories of more than one universality classes. As a result, physical responses include multiple universal components at low temperatures. We also point out that, in quantum field theories with extended Fermi surface, a noncommutative structure naturally emerges between a coordinate and a momentum which are orthogonal to each other. We show that the invalidity of patch description for Fermi liquid states is tied with the presence of UV/IR mixing associated with the emergent noncommutativity. On the other hand, UV/IR mixing is suppressed in non-Fermi liquid states due to UV insensitivity, and the patch description is valid.
Chiral NH-Controlled Supramolecular Metallacycles.
Dong, Jinqiao; Tan, Chunxia; Zhang, Kang; Liu, Yan; Low, Paul J; Jiang, Jianwen; Cui, Yong
2017-02-01
Chiral NH functionalities-based discrimination is a key feature of Nature's chemical armory, yet selective binding of biologically active molecules in synthetic systems with high enantioselectivity poses significant challenges. Here we report the assembly of three chiral fluorescent Zn6L6 metallacycles from pyridyl-functionalized Zn(salalen) or Zn(salen) complexes. Each of these metallacycles has a nanoscale hydrophobic cavity decorated with six, three, or zero chiral NH functionalities and packs into a three-dimensional supramolecular porous framework. The binding affinity and enantioselectivity of the metallacycles toward α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, amino acids, small molecule pharamaceuticals (l-dopa, d-penicillamine), and chiral amines increase with the number of chiral NH moieties in the cyclic structure. From single-crystal X-ray diffraction, molecular simulations, and quantum chemical calculations, the chiral recognition and discrimination are attributed to the specific binding of enantiomers in the chiral pockets of the metallacycles. The parent metallacycles are fluorescent with the intensity of emission being linearly related to the enantiomeric composition of the chiral biorelevant guests, which allow them to be utilized in chiral sensing. The fact that manipulation of chiral NH functionalities in metallacycles can control the enantiorecognition of biomolecular complexes would facilitate the design of more effective supramolecular assemblies for enantioselective processes.
Study of Chiral Confining Model with Vector Mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Ching-Yun
1991-02-01
This dissertation consists of two parts, the study of the chiral confining model and the investigation of vacuum instability. In the first part we present a chiral confining model in which a bag is formed dynamically. The major topics addressed are: construction of the model, mean-field solution, anomalously large rho nucleon tensor coupling, and a projection method including the quantum effects of mesons. Two features of QCD, namely, chiral invariance and vacuum condensates, are crucial ingredients of our chiral confining model. The interaction of the valence quarks with the quark condensate is described via the sigma field. It generates the quark dynamical mass. The interaction of the quarks with the gluon condensate is described in our model through the color dielectric function, epsilon. This interaction generates the bag within which quarks are absolutely confined. The introduction of the color dielectric function epsilon modifies the quark-meson interaction by multiplying a factor epsilon ^{-1/2}. Thus the quark part of the rho meson source current is structurally different from the isovector part of the electromagnetic current. Thus the chiral confining model provides a natural explanation why the tensor coupling of the rho meson, kappa_rho, is larger than the isovector part of the anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleon, kappa_upsilon . We have improved a simple method of calculating expectation values of operators in states of good angular momentum projected from a hedgehog baryon state. We have included the contributions of quantum mesons. The symmetry of the hedgehog state under grand-reversal introduces remarkable simplification in the calculation of matrix elements of operators which do not contain time derivatives of meson fields. The quantum meson contributions turn out to be (3/2)/< B|{bf J }^2| B> times the classical meson fields contributions, with | B> being the hedgehog state. In the second part we show that the perturbative vacuum of model
Perturbed effects at radiation physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi
2013-09-01
Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.
ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES
Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...
Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal
Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2016-01-01
The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity. PMID:27562028
Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2016-08-01
The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.
Completely Chiral Optical Force for Enantioseparation
Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Tepliakov, Nikita V.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Andronaki, Semen A.; Gun’ko, Yurii K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.
2016-01-01
Fast and reliable separation of enantiomers of chiral nanoparticles requires elimination of all the forces that are independent of the nanoparticle handedness and creation of a sufficiently strong force that either pushes different enantiomers in opposite directions or delays the diffusion of one of them with respect to the other. Here we show how to construct such a completely chiral optical force using two counterpropagating circularly polarized plane waves of opposite helicities. We then explore capabilities of the related enantioseparation method by analytically solving the problem of the force-induced diffusion of chiral nanoparticles in a confined region, and reveal that it results in exponential spatial dependencies of the quantities measuring the purity of chiral substances. The proposed concept of a completely chiral optical force can potentially advance enantioseparation and enantiopurification techniques for all kinds of chiral nanoparticles that strongly interact with light. PMID:27827437
Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates.
Castriciano, Maria A; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù
2017-03-09
Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule's lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.
Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates
Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù
2017-01-01
Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic. PMID:28275239
Molecular chirality: language, history, and significance.
Gal, Joseph
2013-01-01
In this chapter some background material concerning molecular chirality and enantiomerism is presented. First some basic chemical-molecular aspects of chirality are reviewed, after which certain relevant terminology whose use in the literature has been problematic is discussed. Then an overview is provided of some of the early discoveries that laid the foundations of the science of molecular chirality in chemistry and biology, including the discovery of the phenomenon of molecular chirality by L. Pasteur, the proposals for the asymmetric carbon atom by J.H. van 't Hoff and J.A. Lebel, Pasteur's discovery of biological enantioselectivity, the discovery of enantioselectivity at biological receptors by A. Piutti, the studies of enzymatic stereoselectivity by E. Fischer, and the work on enantioselectivity in pharmacology by A. Cushny. Finally, the role of molecular chirality in pharmacotherapy and new-drug development, arguably one of the main driving forces for the current intense interest in the phenomenon of molecular chirality, is discussed.
Chiral nanoparticles in singular light fields
Vovk, Ilia A.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Zhu, Weiren; Shalkovskiy, Alexey G.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.
2017-01-01
The studying of how twisted light interacts with chiral matter on the nanoscale is paramount for tackling the challenging task of optomechanical separation of nanoparticle enantiomers, whose solution can revolutionize the entire pharmaceutical industry. Here we calculate optical forces and torques exerted on chiral nanoparticles by Laguerre–Gaussian beams carrying a topological charge. We show that regardless of the beam polarization, the nanoparticles are exposed to both chiral and achiral forces with nonzero reactive and dissipative components. Longitudinally polarized beams are found to produce chirality densities that can be 109 times higher than those of transversely polarized beams and that are comparable to the chirality densities of beams polarized circularly. Our results and analytical expressions prove useful in designing new strategies for mechanical separation of chiral nanoobjects with the help of highly focussed beams. PMID:28378842
Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù
2017-03-01
Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.
Completely Chiral Optical Force for Enantioseparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Tepliakov, Nikita V.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Andronaki, Semen A.; Gun’Ko, Yurii K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.
2016-11-01
Fast and reliable separation of enantiomers of chiral nanoparticles requires elimination of all the forces that are independent of the nanoparticle handedness and creation of a sufficiently strong force that either pushes different enantiomers in opposite directions or delays the diffusion of one of them with respect to the other. Here we show how to construct such a completely chiral optical force using two counterpropagating circularly polarized plane waves of opposite helicities. We then explore capabilities of the related enantioseparation method by analytically solving the problem of the force-induced diffusion of chiral nanoparticles in a confined region, and reveal that it results in exponential spatial dependencies of the quantities measuring the purity of chiral substances. The proposed concept of a completely chiral optical force can potentially advance enantioseparation and enantiopurification techniques for all kinds of chiral nanoparticles that strongly interact with light.
Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces
Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2014-01-01
Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes. PMID:24548992
Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2014-02-01
Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes.
On lattice chiral gauge theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.
1991-01-01
The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.
Chirality and the angular momentum of light.
Cameron, Robert P; Götte, Jörg B; Barnett, Stephen M; Yao, Alison M
2017-02-28
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge
Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.
1985-06-15
We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.
Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks
Natale, A. A.
2016-01-22
We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.
Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures on Achiral Nanopillars
2013-10-10
0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures on Achiral...Nanopillars Chirality of plasmonic films can be strongly enhanced by threedimensional (3D) out-of-plane geometries. The complexity of lithographic...methods currently used to produce such structures and other methods utilizing chiral templates impose limitations on spectral windows of chiroptical
Chirality and the angular momentum of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Alison M.
2017-02-01
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natale, A. A.
2016-01-01
We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (nf ≈ 11 - 13) in agreement with lattice data.
Du, Yu-Liu; Hu, Yue; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Tu, Xi-Feng; Han, Zhi-Yong; Gong, Liu-Zhu
2015-05-01
A highly efficient chiral gold phosphate-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reaction is described. A series of chiral tetrahydroquinolines were obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. In this reaction, the gold catalyst enables both the hydroamination step as a π-Lewis acid and the asymmetric hydrogen-transfer process as an effective chiral Lewis acid.
Staggered chiral random matrix theory
Osborn, James C.
2011-02-01
We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.
Chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazen, Robert M.; Sholl, David S.
2003-01-01
From synthetic drugs to biodegradable plastics to the origin of life, the chiral selection of molecules presents both daunting challenges and significant opportunities in materials science. Among the most promising, yet little explored, avenues for chiral molecular discrimination is adsorption on chiral crystalline surfaces - periodic environments that can select, concentrate and possibly even organize molecules into polymers and other macromolecular structures. Here we review experimental and theoretical approaches to chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces - research that is poised to open this new frontier in understanding and exploiting surface-molecule interactions.
Coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomale, Ronny; Meng, Tobias; Neupert, Titus; Greiter, Martin
We develop a coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids. The starting point are individual wires of electrons in the Mott regime that are subject to a Zeeman field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Suitable spin-flip couplings between the wires yield an Abelian chiral spin liquid state which supports spinon excitations above a bulk gap, and chiral edge states. The approach generalizes to non-Abelian chiral spin liquids at level k with parafermionic edge states. RT is supported by the European Research Council through ERC-StG-336012-TOPOLECTRICS. MG and RT are supported by DFG-SFB 1170.
Asymmetric catalysis with chiral ferrocene ligands.
Dai, Li-Xin; Tu, Tao; You, Shu-Li; Deng, Wei-Ping; Hou, Xue-Long
2003-09-01
Chiral ferrocene ligands have been widely used in asymmetric catalysis. The advantages of using ferrocene as a scaffold for chiral ligands are described, particularly those regarding planar chirality, rigid bulkiness, and ease of derivatization. The role of planar chirality in 1,2- and 1,1'-disubstituted ferrocene systems is discussed. By using a bulky ferrocene fragment, novel ferrocene ligands were designed, and high enantioselectivity and regioselectivity were achieved in the allylic substitution reaction of monosubstituted allyl substrates. Using the tunable electronic properties of a diphosphine-oxazoline ferrocenyl ligand, the regioselectivity of the intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction was also examined.
Dimer crystallization of chiral proteoids.
Wang, Po-Yuan; Mason, Thomas G
2017-03-08
Proteins can self-assemble into a variety of exquisitely organized structures through hierarchical reaction pathways. To examine how different core shapes of proteins and entropy combine to influence self-assembly, we create systems of lithographically fabricated proteomimetic colloids, or 'proteoids', and explore how Brownian monolayers of mobile proteoids, which have hard interactions, self-assemble as they are slowly crowded. Remarkably, chiral C-shaped proteoids having circular heads on only one side form enantiopure lock-and-key chiral dimers; these dimers have corrugated, shape-complementary perimeters, so they, in turn, form lock-and-key arrangements into chiral dimer crystals. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals the expulsion of monomers from the growing dimer crystals through tautomerization translocation reactions which expedite the crystallization kinetics. By lithographically mutating proteoids, we also tune the types and structures of the resulting dimer crystals. Thus, rational design of sub-particle features in hard-core colloidal shapes can be used to sterically select desired self-assembly pathways without introducing any site-specific attractions, thereby generating a striking degree of hierarchical self-ordering, reminiscent of protein crystallization.
Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.
Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei
2015-07-01
Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.
Chiral plasmons without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Justin C. W.
2016-04-01
Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands.
Chiral plasmons without magnetic field
Song, Justin C. W.; Rudner, Mark S.
2016-01-01
Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron–electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090
Renormalization group flow equations for chiral nuclear models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Andrew Sheriden
1997-10-01
The renormalization group (RG) is a tool for the qualitative and quantitative nonperturbative understanding of physical systems. There are many examples of physical systems that defy any perturbative approach, e.g. strongly correlated statistical systems and strongly coupled quantum field theories. The currently accepted theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is an example of the latter. Unlike the case of its gauge theory counterpart, Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), many consequences of QCD cannot be computed using perturbation theory. Instead, closed form perturbative solutions of QCD are possible only for a limited subset of phenomena such as high momentum-transfer scattering processes. These solutions afford little insight into the most ubiquitous and experimentally accessible consequences of QCD: the bound states of the theory, e.g. nucleons and nuclei. In this thesis we present a nonperturbative solution of the σ-model which was originally proposed in the late 50s as a phenomenological description of the dynamics of nucleons and mesons. In our version of the model the fermions are interpreted as quarks which interact via the sigma and pi mesons. The model exhibits an approximate SU(2) × SU(2) chiral symmetry which is understood as a low energy consequence of QCD. We use the Renormalization Group to study the behavior of the model as we evolve from a high to a low momentum scale and as chiral symmetry is both spontaneously and explicitly broken. The results show a marked improvement over the perturbative calculation and are consistent with experiment and other nonperturbative calculations such as chiral perturbation theory and lattice gauge theory. We next review the Renormalization Group idea first with a heuristic example drawing from the contrast between the hydrodynamic and the statistical continuum limit. For physical systems in which the microscopic behavior does not sufficiently decouple from the macroscopic behavior, the de
Chiral memory via chiral amplification and selective depolymerization of porphyrin aggregates.
Helmich, Floris; Lee, Cameron C; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Meijer, E W
2010-12-01
Chiral memory at the supramolecular level is obtained via a new approach using chiral Zn porphrins and achiral Cu porphyrins. In a "sergeant-and-soldiers" experiment, the Zn "sergeant" transfers its own chirality to Cu "soldiers" and, after chiral amplification, the "sergeant" is removed from the coaggregates by axial ligation with a Lewis base. After this extraction, the preferred helicity observed for the aggregates containing achiral Cu porphyrins reveals a chiral memory effect that is stable and can be erased and partially restored upon subsequent heating and cooling.
Spontaneous emission of a chiral molecule near a cluster of two chiral spherical particles
Guzatov, D V; Klimov, V V
2015-03-31
We have obtained and investigated analytical expressions for the radiative spontaneous decay rate of a chiral (optically active) molecule located near a cluster of two identical chiral (biisotropic) spherical particles. It is found that the composition of the particles, their location and size have a significant effect on the spontaneous emission of chiral molecules. In particular, it is shown that in the case of nanoparticles of chiral metamaterials, the radiative spontaneous decay rate for the 'right-' and 'left-handed' enantiomers of chiral molecules located in the gap of the cluster are significantly different. (metamaterials)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.
2016-08-01
By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.
On gravitational chirality as the genesis of astrophysical jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.
2017-02-01
It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.
Quantifying truncation errors in chiral effective field theory: NN scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Daniel; Melendez, Jordan; Wesolowski, Sarah; Furnstahl, Richard; Klco, Natalie; Buqeye Collaboration
2017-01-01
Bayesian procedures designed to quantify truncation errors in perturbative calculations were recently adapted to expansions in effective field theory (EFT). By encoding expectations about the naturalness of EFT coefficients in Bayesian priors, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. It also permits exploration of the ways in which such error bars are, and are not, sensitive to assumptions about EFT-coefficient naturalness. The procedure has been applied to chiral EFT calculations of neutron-proton scattering that use the semi-local potentials of Epelbaum, Krebs, and Meißner. This talk describes the Bayesian assignment of truncation errors for the total np cross section at a discrete set of energies, and then considers the extension to a full set of observables and arbitrary energy. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.
Smooth Wilson loops in N=4 non-chiral superspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beisert, Niklas; Müller, Dennis; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian
2015-12-01
We consider a supersymmetric Wilson loop operator for 4d N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory which is the natural object dual to the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring in the AdS/CFT correspondence. It generalizes the traditional bosonic 1 /2 BPS Maldacena-Wilson loop operator and completes recent constructions in the literature to smooth (non-light-like) loops in the full N=4 non-chiral superspace. This Wilson loop operator enjoys global super-conformal and local kappa-symmetry of which a detailed discussion is given. Moreover, the finiteness of its vacuum expectation value is proven at leading order in perturbation theory. We determine the leading vacuum expectation value for general paths both at the component field level up to quartic order in anti-commuting coordinates and in the full non-chiral superspace in suitable gauges. Finally, we discuss loops built from quadric splines joined in such a way that the path derivatives are continuous at the intersection.
Applications of modern chiral interactions in nuclear matter and nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sammarruca, Francesca
2016-09-01
Experimental investigations are in progress, and more are planned for the near future, to set reliable constraints on the isospin asymmetric part of the nuclear equation of state. The latter plays a fundamental role in a broad spectrum of systems and phenomena, including the skins of neutron-rich nuclei and the location of the neutron drip lines. From the theoretical standpoint, microscopic calculations with statistically meaningful uncertainties are essential to guide experiments. We will discuss recent calculations of the nuclear and neutron matter equations of state at different orders of the chiral expansion. We will present applications and discuss the significance of those predictions as a foundation for future studies of convergence of the chiral perturbation series. Anticipating future experiments which may provide reliable information on the weak charge density in nuclei, we discuss the possibility of constraining the size of three-neutron forces in neutron matter. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER41270.
Perturbation theory in electron diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakken, L. N.; Marthinsen, K.; Hoeier, R.
1992-12-01
The Bloch-wave approach is used for discussing multiple inelastic electron scattering and higher-order perturbation theory in inelastic high-energy electron diffraction. In contrast to previous work, the present work describes three-dimensional diffraction so that higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) effects are incorporated. Absorption is included and eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated from a structure matrix with the inclusion of an absorptive potential. Centrosymmetric as well as non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are allowed. An iteration method with a defined generalized propagation function for solving the inelastic coupling equations is described. It is shown that a similar iteration method with the same propagation function can be used for obtaining higher-order perturbation terms for the wave-function when a perturbation is added to the crystal potential. Finally, perturbation theory by matrix calculations when a general perturbation is added to the structure matrix is considered.
Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-12-01
The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].
PROBING THE ENANTIOSELECTIVITY OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES
Up to 25% of all pesticides are chiral; that is, they exist as two mirror image isomers called enantiomers. It is known that enantiomers usually differ in their biological properties through their differential interaction with enzymes or other naturally occurring chiral molecule...
Immobilization of enzyme on chiral polyelectrolyte surface.
Ding, Chao; Sun, Hanjun; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
2017-02-01
Chiral D- and L-N-acryloyl aspartic acid (NAsp) polyelectrolyte (PE) surfaces with similar chemical compositions and physical properties but opposite chirality are designed for enzyme immobilization. Enzymes immobilized onto the chiral PE surfaces present high chiral preference, namely L-NAsp PE surface can keep most of the catalytic activity of the immobilized enzymes, however, for enzymes immobilized on D-NAsp PE surface a large decrease in catalytic activity occurred which was 11 times lower compared with L-NAsp PE surface. This phenomenon of chiral effect on enzymes immobilization can be explained by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and circular dichroism (CD) results. The results exhibited that L-NAsp PE surface could preserve most of the secondary structures of immobilized enzymes while on D-NAsp PE surface with a large conformation alteration. These chiral surface induced differences after enzyme immobilization can be further used for logic operation. These results imply a novel strategy for the design of new enzymes immobilization materials based on the chiral effect and expand the applications of enzymes in biochips, chemical transformations and chiral biodevices.
Chiral THz metamaterial with tunable optical activity
Zhou, Jiangfeng; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John; Chowdhury, Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Soukoullis, Costas M
2010-01-01
Optical activity in chiral metamaterials is demonstrated in simulation and shows actively tunable giant polarization rotation at THz frequencies. Electric current distributions show that pure chirality is achieved by our bi-Iayer chiral metamaterial design. The chirality can be optically controlled by illumination with near-infrared light. Optical activity, occurring in chiral materials such as DNA, sugar and many other bio-molecules, is a phenomenon of great importance to many areas of science including molecular biology, analytical chemistry, optoelectronics and display applications. This phenomenon is well understood at an effective medium level as a magnetic/electric moment excited by the electric/magnetic field of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. Usually, natural chiral materials exhibit very weak optical activity e.g. a gyrotropic quartz crystal. The optical activity of chiral metamaterials, however, can be five orders of magnitude stronger. Chiral metamaterials are made of sub-wavelength resonators lacking symmetry planes. The asymmetry allows magnetic moments to be excited by the electric field of the incident EM wave and vice versa. Recently, chiral metamaterials have been demonstrated and lead to prospects in giant optical activity, circular dichroism, negative refraction and reversing the Casmir force. These fascinating optical properties require strong chirality, which may be designed through the microscopic structure of chiral metamaterials. However, these metamaterials have a fixed response function, defined by the geometric structuring, which limits their ability to manipulate EM waves. Active metamaterials realize dynamic control of response functions and have produced many influential applications such as ultra-fast switching devices, frequency and phase modulation and memory devices. Introducing active designs to chiral metamaterials will give additional freedom in controlling the optical activity, and therefore enable dynamic manipulation
Cosmic chirality both true and false.
Barron, Laurence D
2012-12-01
The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life.
Chirally-sensitive electron-molecule interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiling, J. M.; Gay, T. J.
2015-09-01
All molecular forms of life have chemically-specific handedness. However, the origin of these asymmetries is not understood. A possible explanation was suggested by Vester and Ulbricht immediately following the discovery of parity violation in 1957: chiral beta radiation in cosmic rays may have preferentially destroyed one enantiomeric form of various biological precursors. In the experiments reported here, we observed chiral specificity in two electron- molecule interactions: quasi-elastic scattering and dissociative electron attachment. Using low- energy longitudinally spin-polarized (chiral) electrons as substitutes for beta rays, we found that chiral bromocamphor molecules exhibited both a transmission and dissociative electron attachment rate that depended on their handedness for a given direction of incident electron spin. Consequently, these results, especially those with dissociative electron attachment, connect the universal chiral asymmetry of the weak force with a molecular breakup process, thereby demonstrating the viability of the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis.
A liquid crystalline chirality balance for vapours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohzono, Takuya; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Fukuda, Jun-Ichi
2014-04-01
Chiral discrimination of vapours plays an important role in olfactory perception of biological systems and its realization by artificial sensors has been an intriguing challenge. Here, we report a simple method that tangibly visualizes the chirality of a diverse variety of molecules dissolved from vapours with high sensitivity, by making use of a structural change in a periodic microstructure of a nematic liquid crystal confined in open microchannels. This microstructure is accompanied by a topological line defect of a zigzag form with equal lengths of ‘zig’ and ‘zag.’ We find that a tiny amount of vapour of chiral molecules injected onto the liquid crystal induces the imbalance of ‘zig’ and ‘zag’ depending on its enantiomeric excess within a few seconds. Our liquid-crystal-based ‘chirality balance’ offers a simple, quick and versatile chirality-sensing/-screening method for gas-phase analysis (for example, for odours, environmental chemicals or drugs).
A liquid crystalline chirality balance for vapours.
Ohzono, Takuya; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Fukuda, Jun-ichi
2014-04-30
Chiral discrimination of vapours plays an important role in olfactory perception of biological systems and its realization by artificial sensors has been an intriguing challenge. Here, we report a simple method that tangibly visualizes the chirality of a diverse variety of molecules dissolved from vapours with high sensitivity, by making use of a structural change in a periodic microstructure of a nematic liquid crystal confined in open microchannels. This microstructure is accompanied by a topological line defect of a zigzag form with equal lengths of 'zig' and 'zag.' We find that a tiny amount of vapour of chiral molecules injected onto the liquid crystal induces the imbalance of 'zig' and 'zag' depending on its enantiomeric excess within a few seconds. Our liquid-crystal-based 'chirality balance' offers a simple, quick and versatile chirality-sensing/-screening method for gas-phase analysis (for example, for odours, environmental chemicals or drugs).
Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems
Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-12-01
The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions. In the quark-gluon plasma, the axial anomaly induces topological charge changing transition that results in the generation of electrical current along the magnetic field. In condensed matter systems, the chiral magnetic effect was first predicted in the gapless semiconductors with tow energy bands having pointlike degeneracies. In addition, thirty years later after this prediction, the chiral magnetic effect was finally observed in the 3Dmore » Dirac/Weyl semimetals.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Yee, Ho-Ung
2015-07-01
We compute one of the second order transport coefficients arising from the chiral anomaly in a high-temperature weakly coupled regime of quark-gluon plasma. This transport coefficient is responsible for the C P -odd current that is proportional to the time derivative of the magnetic field, and can be considered as a first correction to the chiral magnetic conductivity at finite, small frequency. We observe that this transport coefficient has a nonanalytic dependence on the coupling as ˜1 /(g4log (1 /g )) at the weak coupling regime, which necessitates a resummation of infinite ladder diagrams with leading pinch singularities to get a correct leading log result, a feature quite similar to what one finds in the computation of electric conductivity. We formulate and solve the relevant C P -odd Schwinger-Dyson equation in real-time perturbation theory that reduces to a coupled set of second order differential equations at leading log order. Our result for this second order transport coefficient indicates that chiral magnetic current has some resistance to the time change of the magnetic field; this shall be called the "chiral induction effect." We also discuss the case of color current induced by a color magnetic field.
Chiral phase transition of QCD with N f = 2 + 1 flavors from holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Danning; Huang, Mei
2017-02-01
Chiral phase transition for three-flavor N f = 2 + 1 QCD with m u = m d ≠ m s is investigated in a modified soft-wall holographic QCD model. Solving temperature dependent chiral condensates from equations of motion of the modified soft-wall model, we extract the quark mass dependence of the order of chiral phase transition in the case of N f = 2 + 1, and the result is in agreement with the "Columbia Plot", which is summarized from lattice simulations and other non-perturbative methods. First order phase transition is observed around the three flavor chiral limit m u/ d = 0, m s = 0, while at sufficient large quark masses it turns to be a crossover phase transition. The first order and crossover regions are separated by a second order phase transition line. The second order line is divided into two parts by the m u/ d = m s line, and the m s dependence of the transition temperature in these two parts are totally contrast, which might indicate that the two parts are governed by different universality classes.
U(1) chiral symmetry in a one-dimensional interacting electron system with spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taejin
2016-11-01
We study a spin-dependent Tomonaga-Luttinger model in one dimension, which describes electron transport through a single barrier. Using the Fermi-Bose equivalence in one dimension, we map the model onto a massless Thirring model with a boundary interaction. A field theoretical perturbation theory for the model has been developed, and the chiral symmetry is found to play an important role. The classical bulk action possesses a global U A (1)4 chiral symmetry because the fermion fields are massless. This global chiral symmetry is broken by the boundary interaction, and the bosonic degrees of freedom, corresponding to a chiral phase transformation, become dynamical. They acquire an additional kinetic action from the fermion path-integral measure and govern the critical behaviors of the physical operators. On the critical line where the boundary interaction becomes marginal, they decouple from the fermi fields. Consequently, the action reduces to the free-field action, which contains only a fermion bilinear boundary mass term as an interaction term. By using a renormalization group analysis, we obtain a new critical line, which differs from the previously known critical lines in the literature. The result of this work implies that the phase diagram of the one-dimensional electron system may have a richer structure than previously thought.
On Effective Degrees of Freedom at Chiral Restoration and the Vector Manifestation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rho, Mannque
2003-08-01
Recent research activities on the chiral structure of hadronic matter near the phase transition predicted by QCD and extensively looked for in terrestrial laboratories as well as in satellite observatories raise the issue of whether we have fully identified the relevant degrees of freedom involved in the transition. In this talk, I would like to discuss a recent novel approach to the issue based on the "vector manifestation" scenario discovered by Harada and Yamawaki in hidden local symmetry theory 1,2. For simplicity, I will restrict myself to two extreme scenarios: one that we shall refer to as "standard" in which pions are considered to be the only low-lying degrees of freedom and the other that could be referred to as "non-standard" in which in addition to pions, other degrees of freedom figure in the process. In particular, I shall consider the scenario that arises at one-loop order in chiral perturbation theory with hidden local symmetry Lagrangian consisting of pions as well as nearly massless vector mesons that figure importantly at the "vector manifestation (VM)" fixed point. It will be shown that if the VM is realized in nature, the chiral phase structure of hadronic matter can be much richer than that in the standard one and the chiral phase transition will be a smooth crossover: Sharp vector and scalar excitations are expected in the vicinity of the critical point. Some indirect indications that lend support to the VM scenario are discussed.
Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perelomov, A. M.
1989-03-01
We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.
FATE AND EFFECTS OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS
Enantiomers, the mirror image isomers of chiral compounds, are known to be selective in their interaction with other chiral molecules, including enzymes and other biochemicals. This holds true for pesticides, about 25% of which are chiral molecules, and other chiral environmental...
Chiral Potts spin glass in d=2 and 3 dimensions.
Çağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat
2016-09-01
The chiral spin-glass Potts system with q=3 states is studied in d=2 and 3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory and the global phase diagrams are calculated in temperature, chirality concentration p, and chirality-breaking concentration c, with determination of phase chaos and phase-boundary chaos. In d=3, the system has ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass, and disordered phases. The phase boundaries to the ferromagnetic, left- and right-chiral phases show, differently, an unusual, fibrous patchwork (microreentrances) of all four (ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass) ordered phases, especially in the multicritical region. The chaotic behavior of the interactions, under scale change, are determined in the chiral spin-glass phase and on the boundary between the chiral spin-glass and disordered phases, showing Lyapunov exponents in magnitudes reversed from the usual ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin-glass systems. At low temperatures, the boundaries of the left- and right-chiral phases become thresholded in p and c. In d=2, the chiral spin-glass Potts system does not have a spin-glass phase, consistently with the lower-critical dimension of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin glasses. The left- and right-chirally ordered phases show reentrance in chirality concentration p.
Determination of the chiral couplings L{sub 10} and C{sub 87} from semileptonic {tau} decays
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2008-12-01
Using recent precise hadronic {tau}-decay data on the V-A spectral function, and general properties of QCD such as analyticity, the operator product expansion, and chiral perturbation theory, we get accurate values for the QCD chiral order parameters L{sub 10}{sup r}(M{sub {rho}}) and C{sub 87}{sup r}(M{sub {rho}}). These two low-energy constants appear at order p{sup 4} and p{sup 6}, respectively, in the chiral perturbation theory expansion of the V-A correlator. At order p{sup 4} we obtain L{sub 10}{sup r}(M{sub {rho}})=-(5.22{+-}0.06)x10{sup -3}. Including in the analysis the two-loop (order p{sup 6}) contributions, we get L{sub 10}{sup r}(M{sub {rho}})=-(4.06{+-}0.39)x10{sup -3} and C{sub 87}{sup r}(M{sub {rho}})=(4.89{+-}0.19)x10{sup -3} GeV{sup -2}. In the SU(2) chiral effective theory, the corresponding low-energy coupling takes the value l{sub 5}=13.30{+-}0.11 at order p{sup 4}, and l{sub 5}=12.24{+-}0.21 at order p{sup 6}.
Perturbative gadgets at arbitrary orders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward
2008-06-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets have become a standard tool in the theory of quantum computation. Here we construct generalized gadgets so that one can directly obtain arbitrary k -body effective interactions from two-body Hamiltonians. These effective interactions arise from the k th order in perturbation theory.
Inflationary perturbations in bimetric gravity
Cusin, Giulia; Durrer, Ruth; Guarato, Pietro; Motta, Mariele E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch E-mail: mariele.motta@unige.ch
2015-09-01
In this paper we study the generation of primordial perturbations in a cosmological setting of bigravity during inflation. We consider a model of bigravity which can reproduce the ΛCDM background and large scale structure and a simple model of inflation with a single scalar field and a quadratic potential. Reheating is implemented with a toy-model in which the energy density of the inflaton is entirely dissipated into radiation. We present analytic and numerical results for the evolution of primordial perturbations in this cosmological setting. We find that the amplitude of tensor perturbations generated during inflation is sufficiently suppressed to avoid the effects of the tensor instability discovered in refs. [1,2] which develops during the cosmological evolution in the physical sector. We argue that from a pure analysis of the tensor perturbations this bigravity model is compatible with present observations. However, we derive rather stringent limits on inflation from the vector and scalar sectors.
Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert
1990-01-01
A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe.
Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua
2013-10-01
Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties.
Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils.
Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua
2013-10-31
Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties.
Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.
1984-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.
Chiral magnetism at oxide interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randeria, Mohit
2014-03-01
There are tantalizing hints of magnetism at the n-type LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, but the experimental evidence remains controversial in view of some of the differences between different samples and probes. I will argue that if magnetism exists at interfaces, symmetry arguments imply chiral interactions that lead to a spiral ground state in zero external field and skyrmion crystals for H ≠ 0 . I will next present a microscopic model that provides a possible mechanism for the formation of local moments. I will show that the coupling of these moments to itinerant electrons leads to ferromagnetic double exchange together with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions and an easy-plane ``compass'' anisotropy, which arise from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the lack of inversion symmetry at the interface. The compass term, often ignored in the literature on chiral magnetism, is shown to play a crucial role in determining the magnetic ground state. I will compare our results with existing torque magnetometry data on LAO/STO and try to reconcile it with scanning SQUID magnetometry. Finally, I will present the phase diagram in a field and show that easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes an unexpectedly large skyrmion crystal phase and describe its properties. (Work done in collaboration with Sumilan Banerjee, Onur Erten, Daniel Kestner and James Rowland). Supported by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035, NSF-DMR-1006532 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414.
Robust stability under additive perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.
1985-01-01
A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.
The nucleon-nucleon interaction up to sixth order in the chiral expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machleidt, Ruprecht; Nosyk, Yevgen
2016-09-01
We have calculated the nucleon-nucleon potential up to sixth order (N5LO) of chiral perturbation theory. Previous calculations extended only up to N3LO (fourth order) and typically showed a surplus of attraction, particularly, when the π- N LECs from π- N analysis were applied consistently. Furthermore, the contributions at N2LO and N3LO are both fairly sizeable, thus, raising concerns about the convergence of the chiral expansion. We show that the N4LO contribution is repulsive and, essentially, cancels the excessive attraction of N3LO. The N5LO contribution turns out to be considerably smaller than the N4LO one, hence establishing the desired trend of convergence. The predictions at N5LO are in excellent agreement with the empirical phase shifts of peripheral partial waves. Supported by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER41270.
Compact dual-band circular polarizer using twisted Hilbert-shaped chiral metamaterial.
Xu, He-Xiu; Wang, Guang-Ming; Qi, Mei Qing; Cai, Tong; Cui, Tie Jun
2013-10-21
We propose a kind of chiral metamaterial inspired from the fractal concept. The Hilbert fractal perturbation in the twisted split ring resonator element results in compact metamaterial and breaking mirror symmetry, which readily forms chirality over triple bands. The discrepancy between co-polarization conversion and cross-polarization conversion over multiple bands can be explored for multifunctional devices. A multiband circular polarizer is then numerically and experimentally studied in the X band based on the bilayered twisted Hilbert resonator with mutual 90° rotation. The ability of transforming linearly polarized incident waves to circularly polarized waves is unambiguously demonstrated with high conversion efficiency and large polarization extinction ratio of more than 20 dB across dual bands. Moreover, exceptionally strong optical activity and circular dichroism are also observed.
Chiral effective field theory predictions for muon capture on deuteron and {3}He.
Marcucci, L E; Kievsky, A; Rosati, S; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M
2012-02-03
The muon-capture reactions {2}H(μ{-},ν{μ})nn and {3}He(μ{-},ν{μ}){3}H are studied with nuclear potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LECs) c{D} and c{E}, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c{D}) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The muon-capture rates on deuteron and {3}He are predicted to be 399±3 sec{-1} and 1494±21 sec{-1}, respectively. The spread accounts for the cutoff sensitivity, as well as uncertainties in the LECs and electroweak radiative corrections. By comparing the calculated and precisely measured rates on {3}He, a value for the induced pseudoscalar form factor is obtained in good agreement with the chiral perturbation theory prediction.
Metal-insulator transition in two-dimensional random fermion systems of chiral symmetry classes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, E. J.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Protopopov, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.
2012-05-01
Field-theoretical approach to Anderson localization in 2D disordered fermionic systems of chiral symmetry classes (BDI, AIII, CII) is developed. Important representatives of these symmetry classes are random hopping models on bipartite lattices at the band center. As was found by Gade and Wegner two decades ago within the sigma-model formalism, quantum interference effects in these classes are absent to all orders of perturbation theory. We demonstrate that the quantum localization effects emerge when the theory is treated nonperturbatively. Specifically, they are controlled by topological vortexlike excitations of the sigma models. We derive renormalization-group equations including these nonperturbative contributions. Analyzing them, we find that the 2D disordered systems of chiral classes undergo a metal-insulator transition driven by topologically induced Anderson localization. We also show that the Wess-Zumino and Z2 θ terms on surfaces of 3D topological insulators (in classes AIII and CII, respectively) overpower the vortex-induced localization.
Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane
Beane, Silas R.
2013-10-15
On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.
Tuning bilayer twist using chiral counterions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, R.; Huc, I.; Schmutz, M.; Candau, S. J.; Mackintosh, F. C.
1999-06-01
From seashells to DNA, chirality is expressed at every level of biological structures. In self-assembled structures it may emerge cooperatively from chirality at the molecular scale. Amphiphilic molecules, for example, can form a variety of aggregates and mesophases that express the chirality of their constituent molecules at a supramolecular scale of micrometres (refs 1-3). Quantitative prediction of the large-scale chirality based on that at themolecular scale remains a largely unsolved problem. Furthermore, experimental control over the expression of chirality at the supramolecular level is difficult to achieve: mixing of different enantiomers usually results in phase separation. Here we present an experimental and theoretical description of a system in which chirality can be varied continuously and controllably (`tuned') in micrometre-scale structures. We observe the formation of twisted ribbons consisting of bilayers of gemini surfactants (two surfactant molecules covalently linked at their charged head groups). We find that the degree of twist and the pitch of the ribbons can be tuned by the introduction of opposite-handed chiral counterions in various proportions. This degree of control might be of practical value; for example, in the use of thehelical structures as templates for helical crystallization of macromolecules,.
Xiong, Jia-Bin; Xie, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jin-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Hai-Tao; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Yan-Song
2016-05-06
A neutral chiral receptor based on TPE cyclohexylbisurea was synthesized and could discriminate the enantiomers of many different kinds of chiral reagents, including chiral acidic compounds, basic compounds, amino acids, and even neutral alcohols. The (1)H NMR spectra disclosed that the ability of chiral recognition could be ascribed to the multiple hydrogen bonds and CH-π interactions between the TPE urea receptor and the enantiomer of the chiral guest, which led to the selective aggregation of the receptor with one of the two enantiomers. This result exhibited a great potential in enantiomer discernment and high-throughput analysis of enantiomer composition of these chiral analytes by one chiral AIE molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cossu, Guido; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Noaki, Jun-Ichi
2016-09-01
We compute the chiral condensate in 2 + 1-flavor QCD through the spectrum of low-lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator. The number of eigenvalues of the Dirac operator is evaluated using a stochastic method with an eigenvalue filtering technique on the background gauge configurations generated by lattice QCD simulations including the effects of dynamical up, down, and strange quarks described by the Möbius domain-wall fermion formulation. The low-lying spectrum is related to the chiral condensate, which is one of the leading-order low-energy constants in chiral effective theory, as dictated by the Banks-Casher relation. The spectrum shape and its dependence on the sea quark masses calculated in numerical simulations are consistent with the expectation from one-loop chiral perturbation theory. After taking the chiral limit as well as the continuum limit using the data at three lattice spacings in the range 0.080-0.045 fm, we obtain Σ(2 GeV) = 270.0(4.9) MeV, with the error combining those from statistical and various sources of systematic error. The finite volume effect is confirmed to be under control by a direct comparison of the results from two different volumes at the lightest available sea quarks corresponding to 230 MeV pions.
Extreme optical chirality of plasmonic nanohole arrays due to chiral Fano resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondratov, A. V.; Gorkunov, M. V.; Darinskii, A. N.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Rogov, O. Y.; Ezhov, A. A.; Artemov, V. V.
2016-05-01
We study the physical origin of extreme optical chirality of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in metal. We reconstruct the nanoscale relief of the hole arrays by the atomic-force microscopy and post-process the data to acquire an average unit-cell shape clear of noise and defects. For this shape, we perform the electromagnetic finite difference time domain simulations that reproduce all important features observed by the light-transmission experiments, including the notably strong circular dichroism and optical activity covering the whole range of possible values. To interpret the simulation results, we develop a chiral coupled-mode model which yields analytical expressions that fit accurately the numerical data in a broad wavelength range. Our conclusions undoubtedly link the extreme optical chirality to the plasmon resonances of chiral holes and the associated chiral Fano-type transmission resonance.
"Inherently Chiral" Ionic-Liquid Media: Effective Chiral Electroanalysis on Achiral Electrodes.
Rizzo, Simona; Arnaboldi, Serena; Mihali, Voichita; Cirilli, Roberto; Forni, Alessandra; Gennaro, Armando; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Pierini, Marco; Mussini, Patrizia Romana; Sannicolò, Francesco
2017-02-13
To achieve enantioselective electroanalysis either chiral electrodes or chiral media are needed. High enantiodiscrimination properties can be granted by the "inherent chirality" strategy of developing molecular materials in which the stereogenic element responsible for chirality coincides with the molecular portion responsible for their specific properties, an approach recently yielding outstanding performances as electrode surfaces. Inherently chiral ionic liquids (ICILs) have now been prepared starting from atropisomeric 3,3'-bicollidine, synthesized from inexpensive reagents, resolved into antipodes without need of chiral HPLC and converted into long-chain dialkyl salts with melting points below room temperature. Both the new ICILs and shorter family terms, solid at room temperature, employed as low-concentration additives in achiral ILs, afford impressive enantioselection for the enantiomers of different probes on achiral electrodes, regularly increasing with additive concentration.
Elastic waves in structurally chiral composites
Yang, Shiuhkuang.
1990-01-01
Elastic wave propagation through structurally chiral (handed) media was studied. The primary objectives are to construct structurally chiral composites and to characterize their properties. Structurally chiral composites are constructed by stacking identical uniaxial plates, whose consecutive symmetric axes describe either a right- or a left-handed spiral. A matrix representation method is used to solve the elastic wave propagation in such layered composites. Numerical computation of the plane wave reflection and transmission characteristics for chiral arrangements are compared with those for the non-chiral one. It is concluded that the co-polarized characteristics are unaffected by the structural chirality, while the cross-polarized reflected and transmitted fields are greatly influenced by it. Numerical modeling is also applied for the real samples. The polarization ellipse of the transmitted field of each sample is calculated. To verify the form chirality, four glass-reinforced chiral and non-chiral composite samples are made from helix tape, molded, debulked, and cured individually under identical temperature and pressure histories. The spiral composites are characterized using shear and longitudinal wave transducers in ultrasonic experiments. Both the material properties and the polarization ellipse of the transmitted field of each sample are measured. It is proved conclusively that left and right handedness in the microstructures of a material rotates the plane of polarization of a propagating shear wave in the opposite directions. Thus it is now possible to say that by reducing the length scale of the handed microstructures tone more appropriate to its propagating wavelength, a medium is obtained that gives rise to effects similar to optical radar and optical dichroism.
Gain of an axially slotted cylinder covered with a chiral coating and embedded in a chiral medium.
Awan, Z A
2015-07-01
The gain characteristics of an axially slotted cylinder coated with a chiral layer and placed in another chiral background have been investigated using numerical simulations. The effects of various types of chiral coatings and chiral backgrounds upon the gain pattern have been studied. It is shown that an increase in the chirality of the coating enhances the gain in the forward direction and reduces the gain in the backward direction for the fixed chirality of the background. It is also studied that, by increasing the chirality of the background medium, the gain in the backward direction also increases. It is further found that the chiral nihility coating makes the gain pattern nearly isotropic, and this gain is almost independent of the chirality of the background chiral medium.
Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Schweitzer, Peter; Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian
2014-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.
Chirality and the angular momentum of light
Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Alison M.
2017-01-01
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light–matter interactions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069764
Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality
2014-12-23
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract Title: STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Grant No.: FA9550-‐09-‐1...structural composites with tunable chiral elements has produced some impressive results in the
Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons
Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji
2016-01-22
We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.
Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.
Patel, Ramesh N
2006-11-01
Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.
Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.
Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji
2014-07-01
Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.
Edge current in a small chiral superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Asano, Yasuhiro
2016-10-01
We discuss a theoretical description of the edge current in a chiral superconductor. On the basis of the quasiclassical Green function formalism, we derive a useful expression of the chiral edge current which enable us to understand how Cooper pairs contribute to the electric current. We will show that the chiral edge current is carried by the combinations of two Cooper pairs belonging to different pairing symmetries. One Cooper pair belongs to the usual even-frequency pairing symmetry class. However, the other belongs to the odd-frequency symmetry class.
Zhang, Geng-Wu; Li, Peng-Fei; Meng, Zheng; Wang, Han-Xiao; Han, Ying; Chen, Chuan-Feng
2016-04-18
A new class of chiral macrocyclic arene composed of three chiral 2,6-dihydroxyltriptycene subunits bridged by methylene groups was designed and synthesized. Structural studies showed that the macrocyclic molecule adopts a hex-nut-like structure with a helical chiral cavity and highly fixed conformation. Efficient resolution was achieved through the introduction of chiral auxiliaries to give a couple of enantiopure macrocycles, which exhibited high enantioselectivity towards three pairs of chiral compounds containing a trimethylamino group.
Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Ming; Chen, Jing; Chong, Y. D.
2016-09-01
An exceptional point (EP) is a degeneracy occurring in a non-energy-conserving system, in which two eigenvectors of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian coalesce. We explore how EPs can be realized in a metamaterial surface, or metasurface, consisting of a pair of lossy coupled linear antennas in each unit cell. EPs appear in the eigenvectors of the transmission matrix by tuning the frequency and the coupling and loss rates of the metasurface. Each EP is associated with the appearance of a circularly polarized transmission eigenstate; hence, within the parameter space of the system, the EPs lie along pairs of curves with distinct chirality. Our results are obtained using finite-difference time-domain simulations, as well as a fitted coupled-mode theory. The coupled-mode theory agrees well with the numerical results and is capable of accurately predicting the EP f curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherrer, Arne; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Sebastiani, Daniel
2016-08-01
We report the first fully ab initio calculation of dynamical vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the liquid phase using nuclear velocity perturbation theory (NVPT) derived electronic currents. Our approach is rigorous and general and thus capable of treating weak interactions of chiral molecules as, e.g., chirality transfer from a chiral molecule to an achiral solvent. We use an implementation of the NVPT that is projected along the dynamics to obtain the current and magnetic dipole moments required for accurate intensities. The gauge problem in the liquid phase is resolved in a twofold approach. The electronic expectation values are evaluated in a distributed origin gauge, employing maximally localized Wannier orbitals. In a second step, the gauge invariant spectrum is obtained in terms of a scaled molecular moments, which allows to systematically include solvent effects while keeping a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We give a thorough analysis and discussion of this choice of gauge for the liquid phase. At low temperatures, we recover the established double harmonic approximation. The methodology is applied to chiral molecules ((S)-d2-oxirane and (R)-propylene-oxide) in the gas phase and in solution. We find an excellent agreement with the theoretical and experimental references, including the emergence of signals due to chirality transfer from the solute to the (achiral) solvent.
Scherrer, Arne; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Sebastiani, Daniel
2016-08-28
We report the first fully ab initio calculation of dynamical vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the liquid phase using nuclear velocity perturbation theory (NVPT) derived electronic currents. Our approach is rigorous and general and thus capable of treating weak interactions of chiral molecules as, e.g., chirality transfer from a chiral molecule to an achiral solvent. We use an implementation of the NVPT that is projected along the dynamics to obtain the current and magnetic dipole moments required for accurate intensities. The gauge problem in the liquid phase is resolved in a twofold approach. The electronic expectation values are evaluated in a distributed origin gauge, employing maximally localized Wannier orbitals. In a second step, the gauge invariant spectrum is obtained in terms of a scaled molecular moments, which allows to systematically include solvent effects while keeping a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We give a thorough analysis and discussion of this choice of gauge for the liquid phase. At low temperatures, we recover the established double harmonic approximation. The methodology is applied to chiral molecules ((S)-d2-oxirane and (R)-propylene-oxide) in the gas phase and in solution. We find an excellent agreement with the theoretical and experimental references, including the emergence of signals due to chirality transfer from the solute to the (achiral) solvent.
Controlling and imaging chiral spin textures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gong
Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting and holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy at National Center for Electron Microscopy, we recently observed chiral domain walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering and by forming ternary superlattices. We find that spin-textures can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed domain wall structures by controlling uniaxial strain in magnetic films. We also demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize skyrmions in magnetic multilayers without external magnetic field. These results exemplify the rich physics of chirality associated with interfaces of magnetic materials
Personal recollections on chiral symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Makoto
2016-07-01
The author's work on the mass of pseudoscalar mesons is briefly reviewed. The emergence of the study of CP violation in the renormalizable gauge theory from consideration of chiral symmetry in the quark model is discussed.
Chirality in thiolate-protected gold clusters.
Knoppe, Stefan; Bürgi, Thomas
2014-04-15
Over recent years, research on thiolate-protected gold clusters Au(m)(SR)n has gained significant interest. Milestones were the successful determination of a series of crystal structures (Au102(SR)44, Au25(SR)18, Au38(SR)24, Au36(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20). For Au102(SR)44, Au38(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20, intrinsic chirality was found. Strong Cotton effects (circular dichroism, CD) of gold clusters protected by chiral ligands have been reported a long time ago, indicating the transfer of chiral information from the ligand into the cluster core. Our lab has done extensive studies on chiral thiolate-protected gold clusters, including those protected with chiral ligands. We demonstrated that vibrational circular dichroism can serve as a useful tool for the determination of conformation of the ligand on the surface of the cluster. The first reports on crystal structures of Au102(SR)44 and Au38(SR)24 revealed the intrinsic chirality of these clusters. Their chirality mainly arises from the arrangement of the ligands on the surface of the cluster cores. As achiral ligands are used to stabilize the clusters, racemic mixtures are obtained. However, the separation of the enantiomers by HPLC was demonstrated which enabled the measurement of their CD spectra. Thermally induced inversion allows determination of the activation parameters for their racemization. The inversion demonstrates that the gold-thiolate interface is anything but fixed; in contrast, it is rather flexible. This result is of fundamental interest and needs to be considered in future applications. A second line of our research is the selective introduction of chiral, bidentate ligands into the ligand layer of intrinsically chiral gold clusters. The ligand exchange reaction is highly diastereoselective. The bidentate ligand connects two of the protecting units on the cluster surface and thus effectively stabilizes the cluster against thermally induced inversion. A minor (but significant) influence of chiral ligands to
Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values
Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions
Liao, Jinfeng
2016-12-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β^{→}|~m^{2}_{π} are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions
Liao, Jinfeng
2016-12-01
The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β→|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview onmore » the status of such efforts.« less
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of amore » super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.« less
Drag suppression in anomalous chiral media
Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi
2016-06-01
We study a heavy impurity moving longitudinal with the direction of an external magnetic field in an anomalous chiral medium. Such system would carry a non-dissipative current of chiral magnetic effect associated with the anomaly. We show, by generalizing Landau's criterion for super fluidity, that the "anomalous component" which gives rise to the anomalous transport will not contribute to the drag experienced by an impurity. We argue on a very general basis that those systems with a strong magnetic field would exhibit an interesting transport phenomenon$-$the motion of the heavy impurity is frictionless, in analogy to the case of a super fluid. Finally, we demonstrate and confirm our general results with two complementary examples: weakly coupled chiral fermion gases and strongly interacting chiral liquids.
Development of safer molecules through chirality.
Patil, P A; Kothekar, M A
2006-10-01
Many of the drugs currently used in medical practice are mixtures of enantiomers (racemates). Many a times, the two enantiomers differ in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Replacing existing racemates with single isomers has resulted in improved safety and/or efficacy profile of various racemates. In this review, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of chirality are discussed in brief, followed by an overview of some important chiral switches that have yielded safer alternatives. These include levosalbutamol, S-ketamine, levobupivacaine, S-zopiclone, levocetirizine, S-amlodipine, S-atenolol, S-metoprolol, S-omeprazole, S-pantoprazole and R-ondansetron. Few potential chiral switches under evaluation and some chiral switches that have not been successful are also discussed.
Dominant chiral optical forces in the vicinity of optical nanofibers.
Alizadeh, M H; Reinhard, B M
2016-10-15
Transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) of light and associated transverse chiral optical forces have received tremendous attention recently, as the latter may lead to an optical separation of chiral biomolecules. In this context, the relative magnitude of chiral and non-chiral forces is a challenge when implementing chiral separation schemes. In this work we have demonstrated that, by spatially separating the maxima of transverse spin density from the gradient of field intensity, it is possible to dominate chiral-specific components of the force over non-chiral ones. To that end, we studied optical nanofibers and nanowires as candidates for such a scheme and demonstrated that in their vicinity, chiral optical forces can emerge that are stronger than gradient and scattering forces. This finding may be of significance in the design of improved optical separation schemes for chiral biomolecules.
Organocatalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Axially, Planar, and Helical Chiral Compounds.
Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho
2016-02-04
Axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds are indispensable building blocks in modern organic synthesis. A wide variety of chiral ligands and catalysts were designed based on these chiral scaffolds, and these chiral ligands and catalysts were used for various catalytic asymmetric transformations to produce important chiral compounds in an optically enriched form. Furthermore, these chiral skeletons are found in the structure of biologically active natural products. Thus, the development of efficient enantioselective methods for the synthesis of these chiral compounds is an important task in the field of organic chemistry. In the last few years, organocatalyzed approaches, which are one of the most reliable catalytic asymmetric methods, became a hot topic. This Focus Review summarizes asymmetric organocatalytic methods for the synthesis of axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds as useful chiral building blocks.
Chiral extrapolation of SU(3) amplitudes
Ecker, Gerhard
2011-05-23
Approximations of chiral SU(3) amplitudes at NNLO are proposed to facilitate the extrapolation of lattice data to the physical meson masses. Inclusion of NNLO terms is essential for investigating convergence properties of chiral SU(3) and for determining low-energy constants in a controllable fashion. The approximations are tested with recent lattice data for the ratio of decay constants F{sub K}/F{sub {pi}}.
Open problems in understanding the nuclear chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Jie; Zhang, S. Q.
2010-06-01
Open problems in the interpretation of the observed pair of near-degenerate ΔI = 1 bands with the same parity as the chiral doublet bands are discussed. The ambiguities for the existing fingerprints of the chirality in atomic nuclei and problems in existing theory are discussed, including the description of quantum tunneling in the mean field approximation as well as the deformation, core polarization and configuration of the particle rotor model (PRM). Future developments of the theoretical approach are anticipated.
Poulsen, P; Kuklo, R M
2001-03-01
We have previously reported the degree of attenuation and perturbation by a Cu jet passing through Comp B explosive. Similar tests have now been performed with high explosive (HE) targets having CJ pressures higher than and lower than the CJ pressure of Comp B. The explosives were LX-14 and TNT, respectively. We found that the measured exit velocity of the jet where it transitions from perturbed to solid did not vary significantly as a function of HE type for each HE thickness. The radial momentum imparted to the perturbed jet segment did vary as a function of HE type, however, and we report the radial spreading of the jet and the penetration of a downstream target as a function of HE type and thickness.
Chiral phase from three-spin interactions in an optical lattice
D'Cruz, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2005-10-15
A spin-1/2 chain model that includes three-spin interactions can effectively describe the dynamics of two species of bosons trapped in an optical lattice with a triangular-ladder configuration. A perturbative theoretical approach and numerical study of its ground state is performed that reveals a rich variety of phases and criticalities. We identify phases with periodicity one, two, or three, as well as critical points that belong in the same universality class as the Ising or the three-state Potts model. We establish a range of parameters, corresponding to a large degeneracy present between phases with period 2 and 3, that nests a gapless incommensurate chiral phase.
Strangeness S =-1 hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei
2016-07-01
Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness S =-1 . In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the Y N scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, compared with the heavy-baryon approach. Nevertheless, the description of the experimental data remains quantitatively similar at leading order.
Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk
We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review nonlinear perturbations.
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of chiral molecules.
Fischer, Peer; Hache, François
2005-10-01
We review nonlinear optical processes that are specific to chiral molecules in solution and on surfaces. In contrast to conventional natural optical activity phenomena, which depend linearly on the electric field strength of the optical field, we discuss how optical processes that are nonlinear (quadratic, cubic, and quartic) functions of the electromagnetic field strength may probe optically active centers and chiral vibrations. We show that nonlinear techniques open entirely new ways of exploring chirality in chemical and biological systems: The cubic processes give rise to nonlinear circular dichroism and nonlinear optical rotation and make it possible to observe dynamic chiral processes at ultrafast time scales. The quadratic second-harmonic and sum-frequency-generation phenomena and the quartic processes may arise entirely in the electric-dipole approximation and do not require the use of circularly polarized light to detect chirality. They provide surface selectivity and their observables can be relatively much larger than in linear optical activity. These processes also give rise to the generation of light at a new color, and in liquids this frequency conversion only occurs if the solution is optically active. We survey recent chiral nonlinear optical experiments and give examples of their application to problems of biophysical interest.
Chirality and chiroptical properties of amyloid fibrils.
Dzwolak, Wojciech
2014-09-01
Chirality of amyloid fibrils-linear beta-sheet-rich aggregates of misfolded protein chains-often manifests in morphological traits such as helical twist visible in atomic force microscopy and in chiroptical properties accessible to vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). According to recent studies the relationship between molecular chirality of polypeptide building blocks and superstructural chirality of amyloid fibrils may be more intricate and less deterministic than previously assumed. Several puzzling experimental findings have put into question earlier intuitive ideas on: 1) the bottom-up chirality transfer upon amyloidogenic self-assembly, and 2) the structural origins of chiroptical properties of protein aggregates. For example, removal of a single amino acid residue from an amyloidogenic all-L peptide was shown to reverse handedness of fibrils. On the other hand, certain types of amyloid aggregates revealed surprisingly strong VCD spectra with the sign and shape dependent on the conditions of fibrillation. Hence, microscopic and chiroptical studies have highlighted chirality as one more aspect of polymorphism of amyloid fibrils. This brief review is intended to outline the current state of research on amyloid-like fibrils from the perspective of their structural and superstructural chirality and chiroptical properties.
A Molecular Model for Chiral Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank; Debenedetti, Pablo
In this work, we present a new class of molecular models for chiral phenomena in condensed matter systems. A key feature of these models is the ability of the four-site (tetramer) ``molecules'' to inter-convert between two distinct chiral forms (enantiomers). Given this feature, we use analytical theory and computer simulations to investigate the emergent chiral properties (including symmetry breaking) over a range of conditions. In particular, we consider the single-molecule level and condensed-phase behavior of our model system. Interestingly, we find that our liquid-phase predictions are in excellent agreement with recent experimental reports on chiral self-sorting in isotropic liquids. From this perspective, our model demonstrates accurate predictive capabilities, as well as a platform for understanding the microscopic origins of a variety of chiral phenomena. In a broader context, we anticipate that this class of models will be relevant to chirality-dominated areas such as the pharmaceutical industry and pre-biotic geochemistry.
Thermal perturbation of the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Twigg, L. W.; Endal, A. S.
1981-01-01
An investigation of thermal perturbations of the solar convective zone via changes in the mixing length parameter were carried out, with a view toward understanding the possible solar radius and luminosity changes cited in the literature. The results show that: (a) a single perturbation of alpha is probably not the cause of the solar radius change and (b) the parameter W = d lambda nR./d lambda nL. can not be characterized by a single value, as implied in recent work.
Integration of inherent and induced chirality into subphthalocyanine analogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Luyang; Qi, Dongdong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Tianyu; Han, Bing; Tang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jianzhuang
2016-06-01
Conventional conjugated systems are characteristic of only either inherent or induced chirality because of synthetic challenge in combination of chiral segment into the main chromophore. In this work, chiral binaphthyl segment is directly fused into the central chromophore of a subphthalocyanine skeleton, resulting in a novel type of chiral subphthalocyanine analogue (R/S)-1 of integrated inherent and induced chirality. Impressively, an obviously enhanced optical activity is discerned for (R/S)-1 molecules, and corresponding enhancement mechanism is elucidated in detail. The synthesis strategy based on rational molecular design will open the door towards fabrication of chiral materials with giant optical activity, which will have great potential in chiroptical devices.
Chiral medium produced by parallel electric and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggieri, Marco; Peng, Guang Xiong; Chernodub, Maxim
2016-11-01
We compute (pseudo)critical temperature, Tc, of chiral symmetry restoration for quark matter in the background of parallel electric and magnetic fields. This field configuration leads to the production of a chiral medium on a time scale τ, characterized by a nonvanishing value of the chiral density that equilibrates due to microscopic processes in the thermal bath. We estimate the relaxation time τ to be about ≈ 0:1 - 1 fm/c around the chiral crossover; then we compute the effect of the fields and of the chiral medium on Tc. We find Tc to be lowered by the external fields in the chiral medium.
The two-photon exchange contribution to muonic hydrogen from chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peset, Clara; Pineda, Antonio
2014-10-01
We compute the spin-dependent and spin-independent structure functions of the forward virtual-photon Compton tensor of the proton at O(p3) using heavy baryon effective theory including the Delta particle. We compare with previous results when existing. Using these results we obtain the leading hadronic contributions, associated to the pion and Delta particles, to the Wilson coefficients of the lepton-proton four fermion operators in NRQED. The spin-independent coefficient yields a pure prediction for the two-photon exchange contribution to the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, ΔETPE(π&Δ)=34(13) μeV. We also compute the charge,
A study of steric chirality: the chiral nematic phase of a system of chiral two-site HGO molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Szabolcs; Jackson, George
2011-03-01
The liquid crystalline phase behaviour of a chiral two-site hard Gaussian overlap fluid is examined using the well-known Parsons-Lee extension of the theory of Onsager. The hard-core model is constructed such that the vector connecting the centers of two hard Gaussian segments is perpendicular to the long axes of both segments. The microscopic chirality of the particle can be controlled with the dihedral angle between the long axes of the hard Gaussian segments, the distance between the two segments, and the length-to-breath ratios of each segment. In the framework of the Parsons-Lee approach three different types of phases are considered, namely, the isotropic liquid state, and the nematic and the chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid crystalline states. For simplicity, the orientation of the particles is restricted to the plane perpendicular to the twist axis, and the particles do not have internal freedom to rotate around their main symmetry axes. The geometric condition for the formation of a chiral nematic phase, the properties of the helical structure, and the phase boundary of the ordering transition are determined by means of a free energy minimization. It is shown that steric (shape) chirality always gives rise to a helical structure in the nematic phase, and that the low density chiral systems can undergo a transition from an isotropic liquid to a twisted nematic phase on increasing the density. Analytical expressions are obtained for the twist period (pitch) in the limit of parallel stacking of the rod-like segments in layers normal to the helical axis, which are only valid for systems characterized by weak chiral strengths. A key finding of the numerical calculations is that the pitch is very sensitive to the segment separation, but not to the density or aspect ratio. It is interesting to note that the inverse of the pitch is predicted to depend linearly on the dihedral angle in all of the cases studied.
Chiral Polymerization in Open Systems From Chiral-Selective Reaction Rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleiser, Marcelo; Nelson, Bradley J.; Walker, Sara Imari
2012-08-01
We investigate the possibility that prebiotic homochirality can be achieved exclusively through chiral-selective reaction rate parameters without any other explicit mechanism for chiral bias. Specifically, we examine an open network of polymerization reactions, where the reaction rates can have chiral-selective values. The reactions are neither autocatalytic nor do they contain explicit enantiomeric cross-inhibition terms. We are thus investigating how rare a set of chiral-selective reaction rates needs to be in order to generate a reasonable amount of chiral bias. We quantify our results adopting a statistical approach: varying both the mean value and the rms dispersion of the relevant reaction rates, we show that moderate to high levels of chiral excess can be achieved with fairly small chiral bias, below 10%. Considering the various unknowns related to prebiotic chemical networks in early Earth and the dependence of reaction rates to environmental properties such as temperature and pressure variations, we argue that homochirality could have been achieved from moderate amounts of chiral selectivity in the reaction rates.
Chiral polymerization in open systems from chiral-selective reaction rates.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Nelson, Bradley J; Walker, Sara Imari
2012-08-01
We investigate the possibility that prebiotic homochirality can be achieved exclusively through chiral-selective reaction rate parameters without any other explicit mechanism for chiral bias. Specifically, we examine an open network of polymerization reactions, where the reaction rates can have chiral-selective values. The reactions are neither autocatalytic nor do they contain explicit enantiomeric cross-inhibition terms. We are thus investigating how rare a set of chiral-selective reaction rates needs to be in order to generate a reasonable amount of chiral bias. We quantify our results adopting a statistical approach: varying both the mean value and the rms dispersion of the relevant reaction rates, we show that moderate to high levels of chiral excess can be achieved with fairly small chiral bias, below 10%. Considering the various unknowns related to prebiotic chemical networks in early Earth and the dependence of reaction rates to environmental properties such as temperature and pressure variations, we argue that homochirality could have been achieved from moderate amounts of chiral selectivity in the reaction rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhen; Du, Yu; Liu, Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Yanhui
2010-04-01
Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.
Feng, Zhang; Li, Ma; Yan, Yang; Jihai, Tang; Xiao, Li; Wanglin, Li
2013-01-01
A novel method to indicate the degree of chirality in polyaniline (PANI) was developed. The (D-camphorsulfonic acid)- and (HCl)-PANI-based electrodes exhibited significantly different electrochemical performances in D- and L-Alanine (Ala) aqueous solution, respectively, which can be used for the characterization the optical activity of chiral PANI. Cyclic voltammogram, tafel, and open circuit potential of PANI-based electrodes were measured within D- and L-Ala electrolyte solution, respectively. The open circuit potentials under different reacting conditions were analyzed by Doblhofer model formula, in which [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) was used as a parameter to characterize the degree of chirality in chiral PANI. The results showed that [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) can be increased with increasing concentrations of (1S)-(+)- and (1R)-(-)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. In addition, we detected that appropriate response time and lower temperature are necessary to improve the degree of chirality.
VHS Movies: Perturbations for Morphogenesis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, Danny L.
This paper discusses the concept of a family system in terms of an interactive system of interrelated, interdependent parts and suggests that VHS movies can act as perturbations, i.e., change promoting agents, for certain dysfunctional family systems. Several distinct characteristics of a family system are defined with particular emphasis on…
Recent Developments in Perturbative QCD
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2005-07-11
I review recent progress in perturbative QCD on two fronts: extending next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to a broader range of collider processes, and applying twistor-space methods (and related spinoffs) to computations of multi-parton scattering amplitudes.
Adaptation Strategies in Perturbed /s/
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to investigate the role of three articulatory parameters (tongue position, jaw position and tongue grooving) in the production of /s/. Six normal speakers' speech was perturbed by a palatal prosthesis. The fricative was recorded acoustically and through electromagnetic articulography in four conditions: (1) unperturbed,…
Disformal invariance of curvature perturbation
Motohashi, Hayato; White, Jonathan E-mail: jwhite@post.kek.jp
2016-02-01
We show that under a general disformal transformation the linear comoving curvature perturbation is not identically invariant, but is invariant on superhorizon scales for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's theory. The difference between disformally related curvature perturbations is found to be given in terms of the comoving density perturbation associated with a single canonical scalar field. In General Relativity it is well-known that this quantity vanishes on superhorizon scales through the Poisson equation that is obtained on combining the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, and we confirm that a similar result holds for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's scalar-tensor theory so long as the invertibility condition for the disformal transformation is satisfied. We also consider the curvature perturbation at full nonlinear order in the unitary gauge, and find that it is invariant under a general disformal transformation if we assume that an attractor regime has been reached. Finally, we also discuss the counting of degrees of freedom in theories disformally related to Horndeski's.
Basics of QCD perturbation theory
Soper, D.E.
1997-06-01
This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.
New results in perturbative QCD
Ellis, R.K.
1985-11-01
Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: (2 2) jet phenomena calculated in O( sT); new techniques for the calculation of tree graphs; and colour coherence in jet phenomena. 31 refs., 6 figs.
Murakami, Yuta; Takeda, Youhei; Minakata, Satoshi
2011-08-05
Chiral quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed diastereoselective aziridination of electron-deficient olefins that possess a chiral auxiliary with N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates was developed. The key to high stereoselectivity was found to be the employment of the "matching" stereochemical combination of chiral auxiliary/ammonium salt. For example, when 3-phenyl-(4R,7S)-4-methyl-7-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazole (L-menthopyrazole) as a chiral auxiliary and a cinchonidine-derived chiral ammonium salt as a catalyst were applied to the reaction system, perfect diastereoselectivity was realized. Furthermore, the preparation of enantiomerically pure aziridines by removal of the chiral auxiliary was demonstrated.
Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao
2015-12-01
Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule.
Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures
Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao
2015-01-01
Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule. PMID:26621558
Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures.
Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao
2015-12-01
Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule.
Phase-transfer-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral anilides.
Liu, Kun; Wu, Xiangfei; Kan, S B Jennifer; Shirakawa, Seiji; Maruoka, Keiji
2013-12-01
Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral o-iodoanilides and o-tert-butylanilides as useful chiral building blocks was achieved by means of binaphthyl-modified chiral quaternary ammonium-salt-catalyzed N-alkylations under phase-transfer conditions. The synthetic utility of axially chiral products was demonstrated in various transformations. For example, axially chiral N-allyl-o-iodoanilide was transformed to 3-methylindoline by means of radical cyclization with high chirality transfer from axial chirality to C-centered chirality. Furthermore, stereochemical information on axial chirality in o-tert-butylanilides could be used as a template to control the stereochemistry of subsequent transformations. The transition-state structure of the present phase-transfer reaction was discussed on the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of ammonium anilide, which was prepared from binaphthyl-modified chiral ammonium bromide and o-iodoanilide. The chiral tetraalkylammonium bromide as a phase-transfer catalyst recognized the steric difference between the ortho substituents on anilide to obtain high enantioselectivity. The size and structural effects of the ortho substituents on anilide were investigated, and a wide variety of axially chiral anilides that possess various functional groups could be synthesized with high enantioselectivities. This method is the only general way to access a variety of axially chiral anilides in a highly enantioselective fashion reported to date.
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Resurgence in quantum field theory: nonperturbative effects in the principal chiral model.
Cherman, Aleksey; Dorigoni, Daniele; Dunne, Gerald V; Ünsal, Mithat
2014-01-17
We explain the physical role of nonperturbative saddle points of path integrals in theories without instantons, using the example of the asymptotically free two-dimensional principal chiral model (PCM). Standard topological arguments based on homotopy considerations suggest no role for nonperturbative saddles in such theories. However, the resurgence theory, which unifies perturbative and nonperturbative physics, predicts the existence of several types of nonperturbative saddles associated with features of the large-order structure of the perturbation theory. These points are illustrated in the PCM, where we find new nonperturbative "fracton" saddle point field configurations, and suggest a quantum interpretation of previously discovered "uniton" unstable classical solutions. The fractons lead to a semiclassical realization of IR renormalons in the circle-compactified theory and yield the microscopic mechanism of the mass gap of the PCM.
B- and D-meson decay constants from three-flavor lattice QCD
Bazavov, A.; et al.
2012-06-01
We calculate the leptonic decay constants of B_{(s)} and D_{(s)} mesons in lattice QCD using staggered light quarks and Fermilab bottom and charm quarks. We compute the heavy-light meson correlation functions on the MILC asqtad-improved staggered gauge configurations which include the effects of three light dynamical sea quarks. We simulate with several values of the light valence- and sea-quark masses (down to ~m_s/10) and at three lattice spacings (a ~ 0.15, 0.12, and 0.09 fm) and extrapolate to the physical up and down quark masses and the continuum using expressions derived in heavy-light meson staggered chiral perturbation theory. We renormalize the heavy-light axial current using a mostly nonperturbative method such that only a small correction to unity must be computed in lattice perturbation theory and higher-order terms are expected to be small. We obtain f_{B^+} = 196.9(8.9) MeV, f_{B_s} = 242.0(9.5) MeV, f_{D^+} = 218.9(11.3) MeV, f_{D_s} = 260.1(10.8) MeV, and the SU(3) flavor-breaking ratios f_{B_s}/f_{B} = 1.229(26) and f_{D_s}/f_{D} = 1.188(25), where the numbers in parentheses are the total statistical and systematic uncertainties added in quadrature.
Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.
Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T
2012-01-01
Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants
Diffusion of active chiral particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sevilla, Francisco J.
2016-12-01
The diffusion of chiral active Brownian particles in three-dimensional space is studied analytically, by consideration of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of finding a particle at position x and moving along the direction v ̂ at time t , and numerically, by the use of Langevin dynamics simulations. The analysis is focused on the marginal probability density of finding a particle at a given location and at a given time (independently of its direction of motion), which is found from an infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the coefficients that appear in the multipole expansion of the probability distribution, which contains the whole kinematic information. This approach allows the explicit calculation of the time dependence of the mean-squared displacement and the time dependence of the kurtosis of the marginal probability distribution, quantities from which the effective diffusion coefficient and the "shape" of the positions distribution are examined. Oscillations between two characteristic values were found in the time evolution of the kurtosis, namely, between the value that corresponds to a Gaussian and the one that corresponds to a distribution of spherical shell shape. In the case of an ensemble of particles, each one rotating around a uniformly distributed random axis, evidence is found of the so-called effect "anomalous, yet Brownian, diffusion," for which particles follow a non-Gaussian distribution for the positions yet the mean-squared displacement is a linear function of time.
Improved Measure of Local Chirality
Terrence Draper; Andrei Alexandru; Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Nilmani Mathur; Harry B. Thacker; Sonali Tamhankar; Jianbo Zhang
2004-06-01
It is popular to probe the structure of the QCD vacuum indirectly by studying individual fermion eigenmodes, because this provides a natural way to filter out UV fluctuations. The double-peaking in the distribution of the local chiral orientation parameter (X) has been offered as evidence, by some, in support of a particular model of the vacuum. Here we caution that the X-distribution peaking varies significantly with various versions of the definition of X. Furthermore, each distribution varies little from that resulting from a random reshuffling of the left-handed (and independently the right-handed) fields, which destroys any QCD-induced left-right correlation; that is, the double-peaking is mostly a phase-space effect. We propose a new universal definition of the X parameter whose distribution is uniform for randomly reshuffled fields. Any deviations from uniformity for actual data can then be directly attributable to QCD-induced dynamics. We find that the familiar double peak disappears.
METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES
Chiral compounds exist as a pair of nonsuperimposable mirror images called enantiomers. Enantiomers have identical physical-chemical properties, but their interactions with other chiral molecules, toxicity, biodegradation, and fate are often different. Many pharmaceutical com...
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND CHIRAL CHEMISTRY: THE PYRETHROID FAMILY
Advances in chiral chromatography significantly advanced the ability to analyze individual enantiomers of chiral compounds. These techniques are being employed at the U.S. EPA for human exposure and ecological research studies. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) were measured for cisp...
Supramolecular helices: chirality transfer from conjugated molecules to structures.
Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang
2013-11-13
Different scales of chirality endow a material with many excellent properties and potential applications. In this review, using π-conjugated molecules as functional building blocks, recent progress on supramolecular helices inspired by biological helicity is summarized. First, induced chirality on conjugated polymers and small molecules is introduced. Molecular chirality can be amplified to nanostructures, superstructures, and even macroscopic structures by a self-assembly process. Then, the principles for tuning the helicity of supramolecular chirality, as well as formation of helical heterojunctions, are summarized. Finally, the potential applications of chiral structures in chiral sensing and organic electronic devices are critically reviewed. Due to recent progress in chiral structures, an interdisciplinary area called "chiral electronics" is expected to gain wide popularity in the near future.
A web site for calculating the degree of chirality.
Zayit, Amir; Pinsky, Mark; Elgavi, Hadassah; Dryzun, Chaim; Avnir, David
2011-01-01
The web site, http://www.csm.huji.ac.il/, uses the Continuous Chirality Measure to evaluate quantitatively the degree of chirality of a molecule, a structure, a fragment. The value of this measure ranges from zero, the molecule is achiral, to higher values (the upper limit is 100); the higher the chirality value, the more chiral the molecule is. The measure is based on the distance between the chiral molecule and the nearest structure that is achiral. Questions such as the following can be addressed: by how much is one molecule more chiral than the other? how does chirality change along conformational motions? is there a correlation between chirality and enantioselectivity in a series of molecules? Both elementary and advanced features are offered. Related calculation options are the symmetry measures and shape measures.
{eta}-{eta}{sup '}--glue Mixing from the Chiral Lagrangian
Mathieu, Vincent; Vento, Vicente
2011-05-23
The {eta}-{eta}{sup '} mixing from the chiral Lagrangian is reviewed. It is shown how the Feldman-Kroll-Stech ansatz can be derived from the chiral Lagrangian. The inclusion of the glueball is also discussed.
Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.
Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin
2013-04-22
Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).
Role of boundary conditions, topology, and disorder in the chiral magnetic effect in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavirad, Yahya; Sau, Jay D.
2016-09-01
Quantum field theory predicts Weyl semimetals to possess a peculiar response of the longitudinal current density to the application of a DC magnetic field. This peculiar response, known as the chiral magnetic effect (CME), has been proposed as one of the signatures of the unique chiral anomaly of Weyl nodes. Here we show that such a response can in principle exist in a model without Weyl nodes. On the other hand, such a CME is at odds with a general result showing the vanishing of the bulk current in an equilibrium system on any real material with a lattice in an external magnetic field. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction by introducing a model where a current flows in response to a magnetic field even without Weyl nodes. We point out that the previous derivation of a vanishing CME in the limit of vanishing real frequency is a consequence of the assumption of periodic boundary conditions of the system. Consistent with recent work, we found the finite frequency CME to be nonvanishing in general when there was a nonvanishing Berry curvature on the Fermi surface. This does not necessitate having a topological Berry flux as in the case of a Weyl node. Finally, we study how the perturbation theory in magnetic field might be more stable in the presence of disorder. We find that in a realistic disordered system, the chiral magnetic response is really a dynamical phenomena and vanishes in the DC limit.
Spontaneous transfer of chirality in an atropisomerically enriched two-axis system.
Barrett, Kimberly T; Metrano, Anthony J; Rablen, Paul R; Miller, Scott J
2014-05-01
One of the most well-recognized stereogenic elements in a chiral molecule is an sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom that is connected to four different substituents. Axes of chirality can also exist about bonds with hindered barriers of rotation; molecules containing such axes are known as atropisomers. Understanding the dynamics of these systems can be useful, for example, in the design of single-atropisomer drugs or molecular switches and motors. For molecules that exhibit a single axis of chirality, rotation about that axis leads to racemization as the system reaches equilibrium. Here we report a two-axis system for which an enantioselective reaction produces four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs): following a catalytic asymmetric transformation, we observe a kinetically controlled product distribution that is perturbed from the system's equilibrium position. As the system undergoes isomerization, one of the diastereomeric pairs drifts spontaneously to a higher enantiomeric ratio. In a compensatory manner, the enantiomeric ratio of the other diastereomeric pair decreases. These observations are made for a class of unsymmetrical amides that exhibits two asymmetric axes--one axis is defined through a benzamide substructure, and the other axis is associated with differentially N,N-disubstituted amides. The stereodynamics of these substrates provides an opportunity to observe a curious interplay of kinetics and thermodynamics intrinsic to a system of stereoisomers that is constrained to a situation of partial equilibrium.
Improving the Convergence of Chiral EFT for Few-Nucleon Systems
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Glockle, W.; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2003-11-01
In the past decade chiral EFT has been applied by several groups to study the properties of fewâ nucleon systems based on the original idea of Weinberg [1], see [2] for a recent review. It is of utmost importance for all these applications to verify the convergence of the lowâ momentum expansion. As pointed out by Kaiser et al. [3], nucleonâ nucleon peripheral scattering provides an excellent ground to test the convergence of the chiral expansion. Indeed, the high angular momentum scattering states are dominated by the longâ range part of the nuclear force, where chiral dynamics is important. For example, no shortâ range contact interactions (with, in general, unknown coupling constants) contribute to Dâ and higher partial waves at nextâ nextâ toâ leading order (NNLO), which allows for parameterâ free calculations. In addition, the interaction between two nucleons becomes weak due to the centrifugal barrier, so that the Sâ matrix can be obtained using perturbative methods. It was found in [3
Chiral ionic liquids: synthesis, properties, and enantiomeric recognition.
Yu, Shaofang; Lindeman, Sergey; Tran, Chieu D
2008-04-04
We have synthesized a series of structurally novel chiral ionic liquids which have a either chiral cation, chiral anion, or both. Cations are an imidazolium group, while anions are based on a borate ion with spiral structure and chiral substituents. Both (or all) stereoisomeric forms of each compound in the series can be readily synthesized in optically pure form by a simple one-step process from commercially available reagents. In addition to the ease of preparation, most of the chiral ILs in this series are liquid at room temperature with a solid to liquid transformation temperature as low as -70 degrees C and have relatively high thermal stability (up to at least 300 degrees C). Circular dichroism and X-ray crystallographic results confirm that the reaction to form the chiral spiral borate anion is stereospecific, namely, only one of two possible spiral stereoisomers was formed. Results of NMR studies including 1H{15N} heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) show that these chiral ILs exhibit intramolecular as well as intermolecular enantiomeric recognition. Intramolecularly, the chiral anion of an IL was found to exhibit chiral recognition toward the cation. Specifically, for a chiral IL composing with a chiral anion and a racemic cation, enantiomeric recognition of the chiral anion toward both enantiomers of the cation lead to pronounced differences in the NMR bands of the cation enantiomers. The chiral recognition was found to be dependent on solvent dielectric constant, concentration, and structure of the ILs. Stronger enantiomeric recognition was found in solvent with relatively lower dielectric constants (CDCl3 compared to CD3CN) and at higher concentration of ILs. Also, stronger chiral recognition was found for anions with a relatively larger substituent group (e.g., chiral anion with a phenylmethyl group exhibits stronger chiral recognition compared to that with a phenyl group, and an anion with an isobutyl group has the weakest chiral recognition
Sung, Ji Yeong; Choi, Seung Hyuck; Hyun, Myung Ho
2016-03-01
A new chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on macrocyclic amide receptor was prepared starting from (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The new CSP was successfully applied to the resolution of various N-(substituted benzoyl)-α-amino amides with reasonably good separation factors and resolutions (α = 1.75 ~ 2.97 and RS = 2.89 ~ 6.82 for 16 analytes). The new CSP was also applied to the resolution of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones and some diuretic chiral drugs including bendroflumethiazide and methylchlothiazide and metolazone. The resolution results for 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones and some diuretic chiral drugs were also reasonably good.
Rotating pigment cells exhibit an intrinsic chirality.
Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kondo, Shigeru
2015-01-01
In multicellular organisms, cell properties, such as shape, size and function are important in morphogenesis and physiological functions. Recently, 'cellular chirality' has attracted attention as a cellular property because it can cause asymmetry in the bodies of animals. In recent in vitro studies, the left-right bias of cellular migration and of autonomous arrangement of cells under some specific culture conditions were discovered. However, it is difficult to identify the molecular mechanism underlying their intrinsic chirality because the left-right bias observed to date is subtle or is manifested in the stable orientation of cells. Here, we report that zebrafish (Danio rerio) melanophores exhibit clear cellular chirality by unidirectional counterclockwise rotational movement under isolated conditions without any special settings. The chirality is intrinsic to melanophores because the direction of the cellular rotation was not affected by the type of extracellular matrix. We further found that the cellular rotation was generated as a counter action of the clockwise movement of actin cytoskeleton. It suggested that the mechanism that directs actin cytoskeleton in the clockwise direction is pivotal for determining cellular chirality.
Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles
Ai, Bao-quan
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952
[Preparations and biological properties of chiral compounds].
Sinko, Goran
2005-12-01
Enantiomers of chiral compounds may express various biological activities and also different toxicities. Examples of different pharmacological effects of some chiral drugs such as fluoxetine, penicillamine, ibuprofen and albuterol are provided in this paper. Due to possible differences in activity, the chiral drugs are required to be pure enantiomeric compounds in order to be more effective and safer to use. In the laboratory, enantiomers are mainly synthesized as racemates (an equimolar mixture of enantiomers) while in biological pathways only one enantiomeric form is produced, such as amino acids, sugars and lipids. This paper presents the principles of chirality, general information about enantiomers and their biological aspects. It gives an outline of stereoselective methods for chromatographic resolution of enantiomers with stereoselective protein stationary phases, i.e. capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The use of enzyme biotransformations (hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction) in chiral syntheses of carboxyl-, phosphoryl- or beta-hydroxy esters, alcohols, epoxides and cis-carboxyl sulphoxide is described. This article also includes an example of lipase stereoselectivity improvement by amino acid mutations within the enzyme active site.
On the chiral imbalance and Weibel instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Kaw, P. K.
2016-06-01
We study the chiral-imbalance and the Weibel instabilities in presence of the quantum anomaly using the Berry-curvature modified kinetic equation. We argue that in many realistic situations, e.g. relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both the instabilities can occur simultaneously. The Weibel instability depends on the momentum anisotropy parameter ξ and the angle (θn) between the propagation vector and the anisotropy direction. It has maximum growth rate at θn = 0 while θn = π / 2 corresponds to a damping. On the other hand the pure chiral-imbalance instability occurs in an isotropic plasma and depends on difference between the chiral chemical potentials of right and left-handed particles. It is shown that when θn = 0, only for a very small values of the anisotropic parameter ξ ∼ξc, growth rates of the both instabilities are comparable. For the cases ξc < ξ ≪ 1 or ξ ≳ 1 at θn = 0, the Weibel modes dominate over the chiral-imbalance instability if μ5 / T ≤ 1. However, when μ5 / T ≥ 1, it is possible to have dominance of the chiral-imbalance modes at certain values of θn for an arbitrary ξ.
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis
Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon
2012-01-01
The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC. PMID:22649749
Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Yip, Shiuhang Henry; Li, Peng; Sun, Dawn; Mathur, Arvind
2016-02-05
While traditional non-chlorinated Cellulose- and Amylose-derivatized phases have been used successfully in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to resolve a broad variety of chiral compounds, some chiral pharmaceutical compounds are not well resolved on these traditional chiral stationary phases (CSP) due to the lack of chiral selectivity. Since there are no universal CSP to resolve all chiral compounds, chlorinated CSP can be complementary to the non-chlorinated CSP. Chlorinated CSP such as 4-Chloro-3-methylphenyl-carbamatecellulose (Lux-Cellulose-4), 3-Chloro-4-methylphenyl-carbamatecellulose (Lux-Cellulose-2), 5-Chloro-2-methylphenyl-carbamateamylose (Lux-Amylose-2) and immobilized 3,5-dichlorophenyl-carbamatecellulose (Chiralpak IC) have provided a range of chiral recognition mechanisms which have allowed the authors to successfully achieve chiral SFC resolution on several structurally diverse compounds, which are not well resolved in the non-chlorinated CSP. In addition, chlorinated Lux-Cellulose-4, Chiralpak IC and Lux-Amylose-2 have enabled us to utilize non-alcohol solvents as sample diluents and as co-solvents to significantly improve compound solubility and selectivity. This article will discuss the challenges associated with several SFC applications on both coated and immobilized chlorinated CSP to deliver high-quality drug candidates in large quantity. The use of dichloromethane in both sample preparation and as co-solvent in CO2 to increase sample solubility will be presented in preparative example #2 and #3.
The natural and perturbed troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Pinto, J.
1978-01-01
A quantitative assessment of the chemical and climatic effects of industrial emissions into the atmosphere requires an understanding of the complex interactions of species within the atmosphere and of the atmosphere with other physical systems such as the oceans, lithosphere, and biosphere. The concentration of a particular species is determined by competition between various production and loss processes. The abundances of tropospheric gases are examined. The reactions of the members of the oxygen group are considered along with the models which have been developed to describe the involved relationships. Attention is also given to the natural carbon cycle, perturbations to the carbon cycle, the natural nitrogen cycle, perturbations to the nitrogen cycle, the hydrogen group, the sulfur group, and the halogen group.
BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem
2016-11-01
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity
Gao, Caixia; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yifu; Chen, Pisin E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu
2014-09-01
We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived.
BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem
2016-11-08
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
Buendía, Julia; Greciano, Elisa E; Sánchez, Luis
2015-12-18
The synthesis of three bis(N-annulated perylenecarboxamides) endowed with achiral or chiral side chains is reported. The restricted rotation of the perylene moieties yields atropisomers that can be separated by chiral HPLC. The CD spectra of the six stereoisomers show a dichroic pattern in a good solvent that changes drastically upon adding a poor solvent that favors the aggregation. The cooperative character of the supramolecular polymerization mechanism of 1-3 has been determined by denaturation experiments, which reveal that the formation of homochiral aggregates is favored over the formation of heterochiral aggregates. A complete set of amplification of chirality experiments have been carried out, revealing the preponderance of axial chirality over point chirality. The results presented herein shed relevant light on the structural conditions exhibited by molecular units endowed with different elements of asymmetry to generate chiral supramolecular structures and the supremacy of axial chirality over point chirality in the origin of homochirality.
Quantized Chiral Magnetic Current from Reconnections of Magnetic Flux
Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi
2016-10-20
We introduce a new mechanism for the chiral magnetic e ect that does not require an initial chirality imbalance. The chiral magnetic current is generated by reconnections of magnetic ux that change the magnetic helicity of the system. The resulting current is entirely determined by the change of magnetic helicity, and it is quantized.
R evolution: Improving perturbative QCD
Hoang, Andre H.; Jain, Ambar; Stewart, Iain W.; Scimemi, Ignazio
2010-07-01
Perturbative QCD results in the MS scheme can be dramatically improved by switching to a scheme that accounts for the dominant power law dependence on the factorization scale in the operator product expansion. We introduce the ''MSR scheme'' which achieves this in a Lorentz and gauge invariant way and has a very simple relation to MS. Results in MSR depend on a cutoff parameter R, in addition to the {mu} of MS. R variations can be used to independently estimate (i.) the size of power corrections, and (ii.) higher-order perturbative corrections (much like {mu} in MS). We give two examples at three-loop order, the ratio of mass splittings in the B*-B and D*-D systems, and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule as a function of momentum transfer Q in deep inelastic scattering. Comparing to data, the perturbative MSR results work well even for Q{approx}1 GeV, and power corrections are reduced compared to MS.
Perturbation growth in accreting filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.
2016-05-01
We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.
CHIRAL LIMIT AND LIGHT QUARK MASSES IN 2+1 FLAVOR DOMAIN WALL QCD.
SCHOLZ,E.; LIN, M.
2007-07-30
We present results for meson masses and decay constants measured on 24{sup 3} x 64 lattices using the domain wall fermion formulation with an extension of the fifth dimension of L{sub s} = 16 for N{sub f} 2 + 1 dynamical quark flavors. The lightest dynamical meson mass in our set-up is around 331MeV. while partially quenched mesons reach masses as low as 250MeV. The applicability of SU(3) x SU(3) and SU(2) x SU(2) (partially quenched) chiral perturbation theory will be compared and we quote values for the low-energy constants from both approaches. We will extract the average light quark and strange quark masses and use a non-perturbative renormalization technique (RI/MOM) to quote their physical values. The pion and kaon decay constants are determined at those values from our chiral fits and their ratio is used to obtain the CKM-matrix element |V{sub us}|. The results presented here include statistical errors only.
On the precision of chiral-dispersive calculations of ππ scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ynduráin, F. J.
2004-01-01
We evaluate two representative crossing sum rules and prove that, contrarily to claims by Ananthanarayan, Colangelo, Gasser and Leutwyler, standard Regge behaviour is perfectly compatible with low energy ππ phase shifts. We then calculate the combination 2 a0(0) - 5 a0(2) (the Olsson sum rule) and the scattering lengths and effective ranges a1, a2( I) and b1, b2( I) dispersively (with the Froissart-Gribov representation) using, at low energy, the phase shifts for ππ scattering obtained by Colangelo, Gasser and Leutwyler (CGL) from the Roy equations and chiral perturbation theory, plus experiment and Regge behaviour at high energy, or directly, using the CGL parameters for as and bs. We find mismatch, both among the CGL phases themselves and with the independent results obtained from the pion form factor. This reaches the level of several (2 to 5) standard deviations. We consider possible reasons for this mismatch, in particular in connection with an alternate set of phase shifts. We also discuss two quantities, a3 and the coefficient cπ in the pion form factor where chiral perturbation theory diverges, thus casting further doubts on the CGL analysis. The details may be found in the article with the same title by J. R. Peláez and F. J. Ynduráin, hep-ph/0304067, to appear in Physical Review D.
Chirality Change by Grinding Crystals in Solution
Viedma, Cristobal
2010-07-22
One of the greatest unsolved problems in chemistry is the origin of homochirality in the biosphere, that is, the fact that l-amino acids and d-sugars dominate in biology, while laboratory experiments with stereoselective reactions only produce racemic mixtures. Several models have been proposed to address the question of how enantiomerically pure solutions or crystalline phases could have emerged from a presumably racemic prebiotic world. Here we show that two populations of amino acid crystals of 'left' and 'right' hand cannot coexist in solution: one of the chiral populations disappears in an irreversible autocatalytic process that nurtures the other one. Final and complete chiral purity seems to be an inexorable fate in our systems, under grinding, in the course of the common process of growth-dissolution. This unexpected chiral symmetry breaking has become firmly established but the underlying mechanism is being debated and we have no definitive answer.
Chiral discrimination in platinum anticancer drugs.
Benedetti, Michele; Malina, Jaroslav; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Natile, Giovanni
2002-01-01
In this article we review the biological activity of analogs of the antitumor drug cisplatin that contain chiral amine ligands. Interaction with DNA and formation of cross-links with adjacent purine bases are considered to be the crucial steps in the antitumor activity of this class of complexes. Because double-helical DNA has a chiral structure, interaction with enantiomeric complexes of platinum should lead to diastereomeric adducts. It has been demonstrated that DNA cross-links of platinum complexes with enantiomeric amine ligands not only can exhibit different conformational features but also can be processed differently by the cellular machinery as a consequence of these conformational differences. These results expand the general knowledge of how the stereochemistry of the platinum-DNA adduct can influence the cell response and contribute to understanding the processes that are crucial for antitumor activity. The steric requirements of the chiral ligands, in terms of configuration and flexibility, are also elucidated. PMID:12426131
Subsecond chiral separations on a microchip.
Piehl, Natalia; Ludwig, Martin; Belder, Detlev
2004-11-01
Fast chiral separation of DNS-amino acids could be realized using microchip electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. For this purpose, highly sulfated cyclodextrins (HS-gamma-CD) were used as chiral selectors enabling high selectivity. Even subsecond separation of DNS-tryptophan, DNS-norleucine, DNS-phenylalanine, DNS-methionine, and DNS-aspartic acid could be achieved. Baseline separation could be accomplished within 720 ms, which is the fastest separation of enantiomers reported to date. A more complex mixture consisting of three chiral DNS-amino acids could be separated within 3.3 s utilizing a separation length of only 7 mm and an electrical field strength of 2012 V/cm.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials.
Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S
2014-07-18
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.
Planar Chiral, Ferrocene-Stabilized Silicon Cations.
Schmidt, Ruth K; Klare, Hendrik F T; Fröhlich, Roland; Oestreich, Martin
2016-04-04
The preparation of a series of planar chiral, ferrocenyl-substituted hydrosilanes as precursors of ferrocene-stabilized silicon cations is described. These molecules also feature stereogenicity at the silicon atom. The generation and (29)Si NMR spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding silicon cations is reported, and problems arising from interactions of the electron-deficient silicon atom and adjacent C(sp(3))-H bonds or aromatic π donors are discussed. These issues are overcome by tethering another substituent at the silicon atom to the ferrocene backbone. The resulting annulation also imparts conformational rigidity and steric hindrance in such a way that the central chirality at the silicon atom is set with complete diastereocontrol. These chiral Lewis acid catalysts were then tested in difficult Diels-Alder reactions, but no enantioinduction was seen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncalves, F. J. T.; Sogo, T.; Shimamoto, Y.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Nishihara, S.; Inoue, K.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Mito, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Bostrem, I. G.; Sinitsyn, V. E.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.; Kishine, J.; Togawa, Y.
2017-03-01
The magnetic resonance properties of microsized monoaxial chiral crystals of CrNb3S6 are investigated. We observed that the resonance of the chiral soliton lattice is sensitive to the polarization of the driving microwave field. When the microwave field is parallel to the helical axis, the resonance is symmetric with regards to the magnetic field direction. In contrast, asymmetric field dependence emerges when the microwave field is perpendicular to the helical axis. The robustness of the chiral magnetic order, due to topological protection, allows tuning the resonance frequency in ways hardly accessible using nanopatterned films.
Chiral Molecules Revisited by Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnell, Melanie
2014-06-01
Chiral molecules have fascinated chemists for more than 150 years. While their physical properties are to a very good approximation identical, the two enantiomers of a chiral molecule can have completely different (bio)chemical activities. For example, the right-handed enantiomer of carvone smells of spearmint while the left-handed one smells of caraway. In addition, the active components of many drugs are of one specific handedness, such as in the case of ibuprofen. However, in nature as well as in pharmaceutical applications, chiral molecules often exist in mixtures with other chiral molecules. The analysis of these complex mixtures to identify the molecular components, to determine which enantiomers are present, and to measure the enantiomeric excesses (ee) remains a challenging task for analytical chemistry, despite its importance for modern drug development. We present here a new method of differentiating enantiomers of chiral molecules in the gas phase based on broadband rotational spectroscopy. The phase of the acquired signal bares the signature of the enantiomer, as it depends upon the combined quantity, μ_a μ_b μ_c, which is of opposite sign between enantiomers. It thus also provides information on the absolute configuration of the particular enantiomer. Furthermore, the signal amplitude is proportional to the ee. A significant advantage of our technique is its inherent mixture compatibility due to the fingerprint-like character of rotational spectra. In this contribution, we will introduce the technique and present our latest results on chiral molecule spectroscopy and enantiomer differentiation. D. Patterson, M. Schnell, J.M. Doyle, Nature 497 (2013) 475-477 V.A. Shubert, D. Schmitz, D. Patterson, J.M. Doyle, M. Schnell, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 53 (2014) 1152-1155
Revealing atropisomer axial chirality in drug discovery.
LaPlante, Steven R; Edwards, Paul J; Fader, Lee D; Jakalian, Araz; Hucke, Oliver
2011-03-07
An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or diastereoisomers with their attendant different properties. Herein we introduce a strategy to reveal and classify compounds that have atropisomeric chirality. Energy barriers to axial rotation were calculated using quantum mechanics, from which predicted high barriers could be experimentally validated. A calculated rotational energy barrier of 20 kcal mol(-1) was established as a suitable threshold to distinguish between atropisomers and non-atropisomers with a prediction accuracy of 86%. This methodology was applied to subsets of drug databases in the course of which atropisomeric drugs were identified. In addition, some drugs were exposed that were not yet known to have this chiral attribute. The most valuable utility of this tool will be to predict atropisomerism along the drug discovery pathway. When used in concert with our compound classification scheme, decisions can be made during early discovery stages such as "hit-to-lead" and "lead optimization," to foresee and validate the presence of atropisomers and to exercise options of removing, further stabilizing, or rendering the chiral axis of interest more freely rotatable via SAR design, thereby decreasing this potential liability within a compound series. The strategy can also improve drug development plans, such as determining whether a drug or series should be developed as a racemic mixture or as an isolated single compound. Moreover, the work described herein can be extended to other chemical fields that require the assessment of potential chiral axes.
Chirality: a blueprint for the future.
Burke, D; Henderson, D J
2002-04-01
The chirality that is inherent in the enzyme systems of living organisms results in an abundance of enantiopure organic molecules in the living world. In addition to the optical properties first noticed by Pasteur, stereospecific interactions at recognition sites result in differences in both biological and toxicological effects. This fact underlies the continuing growth in chiral chemistry, rooted as it is in fundamental biochemistry. The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a strategic shift and embraced the wide spectrum of asymmetrical synthetic methods now available. The use of these processes in developmental synthesis and large-scale manufacturing has provided new challenges in drug discovery, motivated by a desire to improve industrial efficacy and decrease the time from the conception of a new drug to the market. The economic impact of the industrial production of chiral drugs is now huge--more than 50% of the 500 top-selling drugs were single-enantiomers in 1997. Sales have continued to increase by more than 20% for the past 6 yr and worldwide annual sales of enantiomeric drugs exceeded US$100 billion for the first time in the year 2000, chiral drugs representing close to one-third of all sales worldwide. While some 'chiral switches' may be of less apparent benefit, or indeed detrimental in some cases, encouragement by the regulatory agencies and the ability to extend the life cycle of a drug coming off patent promotes the trend. However, it may turn out to be the ability to provide chiral templates, and thereby attack the key targets of selectivity and specificity, that will lead to the greatest benefits. Research into new chemical entities that can interact specifically with enzyme families may potentially lead to new therapies for complex disease processes. As Richards has stated, the approach is designed to create a made to measure product, rather than one off the peg.
Díaz, Jairo A.; Jaramillo, Natalia A.; Murillo, Mauricio F.
2007-01-01
The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues.The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must
Díaz, Jairo A; Jaramillo, Natalia A; Murillo, Mauricio F
2007-12-12
The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must
Chirality, quantum mechanics, and biological determinism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, P. C. W.
2006-08-01
The holy grail of astrobiology is the discovery of a second sample of life that has emerged de novo, independently of life on Earth (as opposed to extraterrestrial life that shares a common origin with terrestrial life via a panspermia process). It would then be possible to separate aspects of biology that are lawlike and expected from those that are accidental and contingent, and thus to address the question of whether the laws of nature are intrinsically bio-friendly. The popular assumption that life is an almost inevitable product of physics and chemistry, and therefore widespread in the universe, is known as biological determinism. It remains an open question whether biological determinism is correct, as there is little direct evidence in its favour from fundamental physics. Homochirality is a deep property of known life, and provides an important test case for the competing ideas of contingency versus lawfulness - or chance versus necessity. Conceivably, a chiral signature is imprinted on life by fundamental physics via parity-violating mixing of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. If so, homochirality would be universal and lawlike. On the other hand, it may be the result of chance: a random molecular accident during the pre-biotic phase. If the latter explanation is correct, one could expect that a second sample of life may have opposite chiral signature even if it resembled known life in its basic biochemistry. There is thus a curious obverse relationship between chirality and biogenesis in relation to biological determinism. If the chiral signature of life is the product of chance, we may hope to discover "mirror life" (i.e. organisms with opposite chiral signature) as evidence of a second genesis, and the latter would establish that life's emergence from non-life is quasi-deterministic. On the other hand, if the chiral signature is determined by fundamental physics, then it may be much harder to establish an independent origin for extraterrestrial
Probing Chiral Interactions in Light Nuclei
Nogga, A; Barrett, B R; Meissner, U; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Kamada, H; Navratil, P; Glockle, W; Vary, J P
2004-01-08
Chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions are studied in a few-nucleon systems. We investigate the cut-off dependence and convergence with respect to the chiral expansion. It is pointed out that the spectra of light nuclei are sensitive to the three-nucleon force structure. As an example, we present calculations of the 1{sup +} and 3{sup +} states of {sup 6}Li using the no-core shell model approach. The results show contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order terms to the spectra, which are not correlated to the three-nucleon binding energy prediction.
Surface stress of stepped chiral metal surfaces.
Blanco-Rey, M; Pratt, S J; Jenkins, S J
2009-01-16
The use of surface stress as a physical probe for examining chiral effects in surfaces is proposed. First-principles calculations of the surface stress in stepped achiral and chiral bcc metal surfaces (Fe, Mo, and W) are presented. When no mirror symmetry is present, principal stress orientations are unconstrained; nevertheless, we find that the stress is smoothly varying along a suitably chosen stereographic zone of surfaces. Stress ellipses for Fe differ qualitatively from those of Mo and W, suggesting that its surface stress has a distinct origin.
Chiral Thermoelectrics with Quantum Hall Edge States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.
2015-04-01
The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.
Chirality sensing with stereodynamic biphenolate zinc complexes.
Bentley, Keith W; de Los Santos, Zeus A; Weiss, Mary J; Wolf, Christian
2015-10-01
Two bidentate ligands consisting of a fluxional polyarylacetylene framework with terminal phenol groups were synthesized. Reaction with diethylzinc gives stereodynamic complexes that undergo distinct asymmetric transformation of the first kind upon binding of chiral amines and amino alcohols. The substrate-to-ligand chirality imprinting at the zinc coordination sphere results in characteristic circular dichroism signals that can be used for direct enantiomeric excess (ee) analysis. This chemosensing approach bears potential for high-throughput ee screening with small sample amounts and reduced solvent waste compared to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography methods.
Microstrip antennas and arrays on chiral substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pozar, David M.
1992-10-01
Results are presented for isolated microstrip antennas and infinite arrays of microstrip antennas printed on chiral substrates, computed from full-wave spectral domain moment method solutions. Data for resonant length, impedance, directivity, efficiency, cross-polarization level, and scan performance are given, and compared to results obtained for a dielectric substrate of the same thickness and permittivity. It is concluded that, from the point of view of antenna characteristics, there does not seem to be any advantage to using chiral antenna substrates, while there are disadvantages in terms of increased cross-pol levels and losses due to surface wave excitation.
Chiral solidification of a phospholipid monolayer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langer, J. S.
1985-01-01
The formation of chiral solidlike domains observed by Weiss and McConnell (1984) in monolayers of depalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) floating on an air-water interface is investigated theoretically. It is proposed that the diffusion tensor for the two-dimensional fluidlike phase of the DPPC molecules has a chiral component acting perpendicular to the concentration gradient and coupled to the rotational motion of a pinwheellike molecule by the viscous forces. Diagrams are provided, and numerical estimates of the forces involved are shown to be in agreement with the observed behavior of the structures.
Generalized Bloch theorem and chiral transport phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Naoki
2015-10-01
Bloch theorem states the impossibility of persistent electric currents in the ground state of nonrelativistic fermion systems. We extend this theorem to generic systems based on the gauged particle number symmetry and study its consequences on the example of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the chiral magnetic effect can be understood as a generalization of the Bloch theorem to a nonequilibrium steady state, similarly to the integer quantum Hall effect. On the other hand, persistent axial currents are not prohibited by the Bloch theorem and they can be regarded as Pauli paramagnetism of relativistic matter. An application of the generalized Bloch theorem to quantum time crystals is also discussed.
Chirality and biaxiality in cholesteric liquid crystals.
Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V
2011-02-01
We investigate the statistical mechanics of chirality and biaxiality in liquid crystals through a variety of theoretical approaches, including Monte Carlo simulations, lattice mean-field theory, and Landau theory. All of these calculations show that there is an important interaction between cholesteric twist and biaxial order: The twist acts as a field on the biaxial order, and conversely, the biaxial order increases the twist, that is, reduces the pitch. We model the behavior of chiral biaxial liquid crystals as a function of temperature and discuss how the predictions can be tested in experiments.
Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications
Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.
2012-01-01
Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.
Supernovae, neutron stars and biomolecular chirality.
Bonner, W A; Rubenstein, E
1987-01-01
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of the origin of biomolecular chirality are reviewed briefly. Biotic and abiotic theories are evaluated critically with the conclusion that asymmetric photochemical processes with circulary polarized light (CPL), particularly asymmetric photolyses, constitute the most viable mechanisms. Solar CPL sources appear too weak and random to be effective. We suggest an alternative CPL source, namely, the synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernova explosions. This could asymmetrically process racemic compounds in the organic mantles of the dust grains in interstellar clouds, and the resulting chiral molecules could be transferred to Earth by cold accretion as the solar system periodically traverses these interstellar clouds.
Terahertz wave emission from plasmonic chiral metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, Takahiro; Tomita, Satoshi; Asai, Motoki; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Hangyo, Masanori; Yanagi, Hisao
2016-03-01
Plasmonic chiral metasurfaces with pinwheel-like structures are fabricated on silver films using a focused ion-beam milling technique. In time-domain spectroscopy, we observe terahertz (THz) wave emission from metasurfaces irradiated by a near-infrared Ti:sapphire ultrashort pulsed laser. The origin of the THz wave generation is likely to be tunnelling ionization accompanied with photoelectron acceleration by ponderomotive force. Numerical simulation is carried out toward improvement of the chiral metasurfaces for better emission of circularly polarized THz waves.
Chiral thermoelectrics with quantum Hall edge states.
Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N
2015-04-10
The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.
Band structure controlled by chiral imprinting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Garay, P.; Adrian Reyes, J.; Ramos-Garcia, R.
2007-09-01
Using the configuration of an imprinted cholesteric elastomer immersed in a racemic solvent, the authors find the solution of the boundary-value problem for the reflection and transmission of incident optical waves due to the elastomer. They show a significant width reduction of the reflection band for certain values of nematic penetration depth, which depends on the volume fraction of molecules from the solvent, whose handedness is preferably absorbed. The appearance of nested band gaps of both handednesses during the sorting mixed chiral process is also obtained. This suggests the design of chemically controlled optical filters and optically monitored chiral pumps.
Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory
Omohundro, S.
1984-08-01
We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging.
Aspects of Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horkel, Derek P.
In this thesis we describe two studies concerting lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD): first, an analysis of the phase structure of Wilson and twisted-mass fermions with isospin breaking effects, second a computational study measuring non-perturbative Greens functions. We open with a brief overview of the formalism of QCD and LQCD, focusing on the aspects necessary for understanding how a lattice computation is performed and how discretization effects can be understood. Our work in Wilson and twisted-mass fermions investigates an increasingly relevant regime where lattice simulations are performed with quarks at or near their physical masses and both the mass difference of the up and down quarks and their differing electric charges are included. Our computation of a non-perturbative Greens functions on the lattice serves as a first attempt to validate recent work by Dine et. al. [24] in which they calculate Greens functions which vanish in perturbation theory, yet have a contribution from the one instanton background. In chapter 2, we determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of non-degeneracy between the up and down quark and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the CP-violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large non-degeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the CP-violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases. In chapter 3, we extend the work in chapter 2 to include the effects of electromagnetism, so that it is applicable to recent simulations incorporating all sources of isospin breaking. For Wilson fermions, we find that the
Enantiomer separation of chiral pharmaceuticals by capillary electrochromatography.
Wistuba, D; Schurig, V
2000-04-14
Enantiomer separation of chiral pharmaceuticals by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is achieved with open-tubular capillaries (o-CEC), with packed capillaries (p-CEC) or with monolithic capillaries. In o-CEC, capillaries are coated with a thin film containing cyclodextrin derivatives, cellulose, proteins, poly-terguride or molecularly imprinted polymers as chiral selectors. In p-CEC, typical chiral HPLC stationary phases such as silica-bonded cyclodextrin or cellulose derivatives, proteins, glycoproteins, macrocyclic antibiotics, quinine-derived and 'Pirkle' selectors, polyacrylamides and molecularly imprinted polymers are used as chiral selectors. Chiral monolithic stationary phases prepared by in situ polymerization into the capillary were also developed for electrochromatographic enantiomer separation.
Disordered two-dimensional electron systems with chiral symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markoš, P.; Schweitzer, L.
2012-10-01
We review the results of our recent numerical investigations on the electronic properties of disordered two dimensional systems with chiral unitary, chiral orthogonal, and chiral symplectic symmetry. Of particular interest is the behavior of the density of states and the logarithmic scaling of the smallest Lyapunov exponents in the vicinity of the chiral quantum critical point in the band center at E=0. The observed peaks or depressions in the density of states, the distribution of the critical conductances, and the possible non-universality of the critical exponents for certain chiral unitary models are discussed.
Chiroptical studies on supramolecular chirality of molecular aggregates.
Sato, Hisako; Yajima, Tomoko; Yamagishi, Akihiko
2015-10-01
The attempts of applying chiroptical spectroscopy to supramolecular chirality are reviewed with a focus on vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Examples were taken from gels, solids, and monolayers formed by low-molecular mass weight chiral gelators. Particular attention was paid to a group of gelators with perfluoroalkyl chains. The effects of the helical conformation of the perfluoroalkyl chains on the formation of chiral architectures are reported. It is described how the conformation of a chiral gelator was determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical VCD spectra together with a model proposed for the molecular aggregation in fibrils. The results demonstrate the potential utility of the chiroptical method in analyzing organized chiral aggregates.
Dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas
Gao, M. X.; Guo, B. Peng, L.; Cai, X.
2014-11-15
The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas are derived using a simplified method and investigated in detail. With the help of the dispersion relations for each eignwave, we explore how the chiral plasmas exhibit negative refraction and investigate the frequency region for negative refraction. The results show that chirality can induce negative refraction in plasmas. Moreover, both the degree of chirality and the external magnetic field have a significant effect on the critical frequency and the bandwidth of the frequency for negative refraction in chiral plasmas. The parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.
Expanding proteomics into the analysis of chiral drugs.
Sui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianhua; Ching, Chi Bun; Chen, Wei Ning
2009-06-01
The chiralities of chiral drugs have been investigated extensively with the purpose of enlightening the role of chirality in drug action. Proteomics, though in its infancy, has recently emerged as the foremost technology in drug development research, possessing the advantage of providing more useful information about an organism than genomics, as it directly addresses the level of genome products and their interactions. In this review, we will discuss the background of chiral drug investigation from which contemporary drug chirality research has emerged, the techniques involved in proteomics technology, the application of proteomics in this exciting area, and the perspectives in future applications of this field.
Nematic twist cell: Strong chirality induced at the surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Nemitz, Ian R.; Pendery, Joel S.; Schubert, Christopher P. J.; Lemieux, Robert P.; Rosenblatt, Charles
2013-04-01
A nematic twist cell having a thickness gradient was filled with a mixture containing a configurationally achiral liquid crystal (LC) and chiral dopant. A chiral-based linear electrooptic effect was observed on application of an ac electric field. This "electroclinic effect" varied monotonically with d, changing sign at d =d0 where the chiral dopant exactly compensated the imposed twist. The results indicate that a significant chiral electrooptic effect always exists near the surfaces of a twist cell containing molecules that can be conformationally deracemized. Additionally, this approach can be used to measure the helical twisting power (HTP) of a chiral dopant in a liquid crystal.
Spintronics and Chirality: Spin Selectivity in Electron Transport Through Chiral Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H.
2015-04-01
Recent experiments have demonstrated that the electron transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the electron spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an electron's transport through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective electron transport through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggieri, M.; Peng, G. X.
2016-12-01
In this article we study the restoration of chiral symmetry at a finite temperature for quark matter with a chiral chemical potential, {μ }5, by means of a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This model allows the introduction of, in the simplest way possible, a Euclidean momentum, p E , dependent quark mass function which decays (neglecting logarithms) as 1/{p}{E}2 for large p E , in agreement with the asymptotic behaviour expected in quantum chromodynamics in the presence of a nonperturbative quark condensate. We focus on the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration in the chiral limit, T c, versus {μ }5, as well as on the order of the phase transition. We find that T c increases with {μ }5, and that the transition remains of the second order for the whole range of {μ }5 considered.
Sakamoto, Masami; Iwamoto, Takuya; Nono, Naoyuki; Ando, Masaru; Arai, Wataru; Mino, Takashi; Fujita, Tsutomu
2003-02-07
Asymmetric synthesis using frozen chirality generated by spontaneous crystallization was performed. Achiral asymmetrically substituted imide with a tetrahydronaphthyl group on the nitrogen atom crystallized in a chiral fashion, with space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). The molecular chirality generated by spontaneous crystallization was retained in cold THF. The half-life determined on the basis of decreasing optical activity followed by CD spectrometer was 7.8, 33.1, and 150.0 min at -20, -30, -40 degrees C, respectively. The energy barrier (DeltaG()) of racemization was calculated with the temperature dependence of the kinetic constant to be 18.24-18.36 kcal mol(-)(1) at 233-253 K. The memorized frozen chirality was transferred to permanent optically active alcohols by nucleophilic addition with n-buthyllithium.
HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES
High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...
Arthurs, Ross A; Ismail, Muhammad; Prior, Christopher C; Oganesyan, Vasily S; Horton, Peter N; Coles, Simon J; Richards, Christopher J
2016-02-24
Reaction of [IrCp*Cl2 ]2 with ferrocenylimines (Fc=NAr, Ar=Ph, p-MeOC6 H4 ) results in ferrocene C-H activation and the diastereoselective synthesis of half-sandwich iridacycles of relative configuration Sp *,RIr *. Extension to (S)-2-ferrocenyl-4-(1-methylethyl)oxazoline gave highly diastereoselective control over the new elements of planar chirality and metal-based pseudo-tetrahedral chirality, to give both neutral and cationic half-sandwich iridacycles of absolute configuration Sc ,Sp ,RIr . Substitution reactions proceed with retention of configuration, with the planar chirality controlling the metal-centred chirality through an iron-iridium interaction in the coordinatively unsaturated cationic intermediate.
Spintronics and chirality: spin selectivity in electron transport through chiral molecules.
Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H
2015-04-01
Recent experiments have demonstrated that the electron transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the electron spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an electron's transport through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective electron transport through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.
Synthesis of a Chiral Crystal Form of MOF-5, CMOF-5, by Chiral Induction.
Zhang, Shi-Yuan; Li, Dan; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng; Wojtas, Lukasz; Zaworotko, Michael J
2015-12-16
Chiral variants of the prototypal metal-organic framework MOF-5, Λ-CMOF-5 and Δ-CMOF-5, have been synthesized by preparing MOF-5 in the presence of L-proline or D-proline, respectively. CMOF-5 crystallizes in chiral space group P213 instead of Fm3̅m as exhibited by MOF-5. The phase purity of CMOF-5 was validated by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, N2 adsorption, microanalysis, and solid-state vibrational circular dichroism. CMOF-5 undergoes a reversible single crystal-to-single crystal phase change to MOF-5 when immersed in a variety of organic solvents, although N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) does not induce loss of chirality. Indeed, MOF-5 undergoes chiral induction when immersed in NMP, affording racemic CMOF-5.
The Chiral Quark Soliton Model for the Nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watabe, T.; Toki, H.
1992-03-01
We study the chiral invariant quark model lagrangians under the Hartree approximation for construction of a hedgehog solution with the baryon number B = 1. We take into account the Dirac sea contributions to the energy and various densities in terms of the heat-kernel method. With the parameters of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model lagrangian fixed by the meson properties, we do not find any B = 1 hedgehog solutions except for one case, even which is, however, unstable against small perturbation. We study then the Diakonov-Petrov model lagrangian, which is introduced by investigating the properties of the quark field in the instanton background in QCD. We find in this case stable hedgehog solutions under the heat-kernel regularization method in some parameter region. We study also the isoscalar-vector type (omega-meson type) correlations among quarks for the nucleon properties. The hedgehog energy, the baryon root mean square radius and the axial vector coupling constant g_{A} are calculated as a function of the omega-quark coupling strength.
Intelligent chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts.
Ariga, Katsuhiko; Richards, Gary J; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Izawa, Hironori; Hill, Jonathan P
2010-01-01
Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.
Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts
Ariga, Katsuhiko; Richards, Gary J.; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Izawa, Hironori; Hill, Jonathan P.
2010-01-01
Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized. PMID:22163577
Chiral separation by a terminal chirality triggered P-helical quinoline oligoamide foldamer.
Noguchi, Hiroki; Takafuji, Makoto; Maurizot, Victor; Huc, Ivan; Ihara, Hirotaka
2016-03-11
A P-helical quinoline oligoamide foldamer was grafted on silica and applied as an HPLC stationary phase for chiral separation. The P-handedness of the quinoline oligoamide foldamer was induced by a (1S)-camphanyl group, which was introduced at the N-terminus of a tetrameric quinoline oligoamide foldamer (Cmp-Q4). To immobilize the foldamer on porous silica particles, a trimethoxysilyl group was introduced at the opposing end of the foldamer. Elemental analysis indicated that the amount of foldamer on the silica surface was 0.57μmol/m(2). Circular dichroism and vibrational CD spectra of Cmp-Q4 and Cmp-Q4-immobilized silica (Sil-Q4-Cmp) suggested that the helical structure of Cmp-Q4 was altered on the silica surface whilst retaining a chiral structure. The chiral recognition ability of Sil-Q4-Cmp was evaluated with various aromatic enantiomers. Sil-Q4-Cmp showed enantio-selectivity for axially chiral molecules (e.g., αTrigger's base=1.26 and αBinaphthol=1.07). Sil-Q4-Cmp showed remarkable recognition of helical octameric quinoline oligoamides with isobutoxy and triethylene glycol side chains (α=10.35 and 14.98, respectively). In contrast, an (1S)-camphanyl group-immobilized porous silica showed no chiral recognition for any enantiomers tested in this study. To elucidate the chiral separation mechanism of Sil-Q4-Cmp, thermodynamic parameters were calculated using van't Hoff plots. HPLC results and thermodynamic parameters suggested that the chiral recognition of Sil-Q4-Cmp is based on the helical structure of Cmp-Q4 and other thermally dependent interactions such as hydrophobic effects associated with aromatic stacking. This work represents the first known application of aromatic foldamers in chiral separation.
New approach to a novel axially chiral ligand showing spontaneous enrichment of axial chirality.
Hasegawa, Tomokuni; Omote, Masaaki; Sato, Kazuyuki; Ando, Akira; Kumadaki, Itsumaro
2003-03-01
We have synthesized novel axially chiral ligand with two chiral centers, (R)-(R)(2)- and (S)-(S)(2)-2,2'-bis(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)biphenyl (1), which showed a high asymmetric induction when used as ligand. Here, another new approach to 1 by kinetic and thermodynamic resolution is presented which gave these ligands in a much shorter steps, in a higher yield, and in a higher enantiomeric excess.
Chiral vortical effect generated by chiral anomaly in vortex-skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volovik, G. E.
2017-03-01
We discuss the type of the general macroscopic parity-violating effects, when there is the current along the vortex, which is concentrated in the vortex core. We consider vortices in chiral superfluids with Weyl points. In the vortex core the positions of the Weyl points form the skyrmion structure. We show that the mass current concentrated in such a core is provided by the spectral flow through the Weyl points according to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw equation for chiral anomaly.
Cooperative expression of atomic chirality in inorganic nanostructures
Wang, Peng-peng; Yu, Shang-Jie; Govorov, Alexander O; Ouyang, Min
2017-01-01
Cooperative chirality phenomena extensively exist in biomolecular and organic systems via intra- and inter-molecular interactions, but study of inorganic materials has been lacking. Here we report, experimentally and theoretically, cooperative chirality in colloidal cinnabar mercury sulfide nanocrystals that originates from chirality interplay between the crystallographic lattice and geometric morphology at different length scales. A two-step synthetic scheme is developed to allow control of critical parameters of these two types of handedness, resulting in different chiral interplays expressed as observables through materials engineering. Furthermore, we adopt an electromagnetic model with the finite element method to elucidate cooperative chirality in inorganic systems, showing excellent agreement with experimental results. Our study enables an emerging class of nanostructures with tailored cooperative chirality that is vital for fundamental understanding of nanoscale chirality as well as technology applications based on new chiroptical building blocks. PMID:28148957
Cooperative expression of atomic chirality in inorganic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng-Peng; Yu, Shang-Jie; Govorov, Alexander O.; Ouyang, Min
2017-02-01
Cooperative chirality phenomena extensively exist in biomolecular and organic systems via intra- and inter-molecular interactions, but study of inorganic materials has been lacking. Here we report, experimentally and theoretically, cooperative chirality in colloidal cinnabar mercury sulfide nanocrystals that originates from chirality interplay between the crystallographic lattice and geometric morphology at different length scales. A two-step synthetic scheme is developed to allow control of critical parameters of these two types of handedness, resulting in different chiral interplays expressed as observables through materials engineering. Furthermore, we adopt an electromagnetic model with the finite element method to elucidate cooperative chirality in inorganic systems, showing excellent agreement with experimental results. Our study enables an emerging class of nanostructures with tailored cooperative chirality that is vital for fundamental understanding of nanoscale chirality as well as technology applications based on new chiroptical building blocks.
Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-12-01
In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.
Cooperative expression of atomic chirality in inorganic nanostructures.
Wang, Peng-Peng; Yu, Shang-Jie; Govorov, Alexander O; Ouyang, Min
2017-02-02
Cooperative chirality phenomena extensively exist in biomolecular and organic systems via intra- and inter-molecular interactions, but study of inorganic materials has been lacking. Here we report, experimentally and theoretically, cooperative chirality in colloidal cinnabar mercury sulfide nanocrystals that originates from chirality interplay between the crystallographic lattice and geometric morphology at different length scales. A two-step synthetic scheme is developed to allow control of critical parameters of these two types of handedness, resulting in different chiral interplays expressed as observables through materials engineering. Furthermore, we adopt an electromagnetic model with the finite element method to elucidate cooperative chirality in inorganic systems, showing excellent agreement with experimental results. Our study enables an emerging class of nanostructures with tailored cooperative chirality that is vital for fundamental understanding of nanoscale chirality as well as technology applications based on new chiroptical building blocks.
Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials
Zhao, Yang; Askarpour, Amir N.; Sun, Liuyang; Shi, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea
2017-01-01
Many naturally occurring biomolecules, such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides, are inherently chiral. Enantiomers, a pair of chiral isomers with opposite handedness, often exhibit similar physical and chemical properties due to their identical functional groups and composition, yet show different toxicity to cells. Detecting enantiomers in small quantities has an essential role in drug development to eliminate their unwanted side effects. Here we exploit strong chiral interactions with plasmonic metamaterials with specifically designed optical response to sense chiral molecules down to zeptomole levels, several orders of magnitude smaller than what is typically detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy. In particular, the measured spectra reveal opposite signs in the spectral regime directly associated with different chiral responses, providing a way to univocally assess molecular chirality. Our work introduces an ultrathin, planarized nanophotonic interface to sense chiral molecules with inherently weak circular dichroism at visible and near-infrared frequencies. PMID:28120825
Self-assembled Chiral Nanostructure as Scaffold for Asymmetric Reaction.
Jiang, Jian; Ouyang, Guanghui; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua
2017-03-25
Asymmetric reaction is one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis. While large amount of efficient molecular catalysts have been developed and applied, supramolecular and nanostructured catalysts have been attracting recent interest. In this mini review, we focused on the self-assembled chiral nanostructures and reviewed their possibility and feasibility as the enantioselective catalyst. The design concept and the requirement of the chiral scaffold as the catalysts are discussed. Based on the chirality and catalytic performance of the building molecules and the supramolecular nanostructures, the nanocatalyst is divided into chiral nanostructure driven (CND) and chiral nanostructure enhanced (CNE) enantioselective catalysts. Then, several typical self-assembled chiral nanostructures such as nanocage, nanotube, nanorod, micelles and vesicles are selected as the chiral scaffold and their catalytic behaviors for the asymmetric reactions were demonstrated. Finally, the future development of the field is also outlooked.
Enantioselective Nanoporous Carbon Based on Chiral Ionic Liquids.
Fuchs, Ido; Fechler, Nina; Antonietti, Markus; Mastai, Yitzhak
2016-01-04
One of the greatest challenges in modern chemical processing is to achieve enantiospecific control in chemical reactions using chiral media such as chiral mesoporous materials. Herein, we describe a novel and effective synthetic pathway for the preparation of enantioselective nanoporous carbon, based on chiral ionic liquids (CILs). CILs of phenylalanine (CIL(Phe)) are used as precursors for the carbonization of chiral mesoporous carbon. We employ circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and chronoamperometry in order to demonstrate the chiral nature of the mesoporous carbon. The approach presented in this paper is highly significant for the development of a new type of chiral porous materials for enantioselective chemistry. In addition, it contributes significantly to our understanding of the structure and nature of chiral nanoporous materials and surfaces.
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abuki, Hiroaki
2016-11-01
We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a "continent" of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yang; Askarpour, Amir N.; Sun, Liuyang; Shi, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea
2017-01-01
Many naturally occurring biomolecules, such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides, are inherently chiral. Enantiomers, a pair of chiral isomers with opposite handedness, often exhibit similar physical and chemical properties due to their identical functional groups and composition, yet show different toxicity to cells. Detecting enantiomers in small quantities has an essential role in drug development to eliminate their unwanted side effects. Here we exploit strong chiral interactions with plasmonic metamaterials with specifically designed optical response to sense chiral molecules down to zeptomole levels, several orders of magnitude smaller than what is typically detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy. In particular, the measured spectra reveal opposite signs in the spectral regime directly associated with different chiral responses, providing a way to univocally assess molecular chirality. Our work introduces an ultrathin, planarized nanophotonic interface to sense chiral molecules with inherently weak circular dichroism at visible and near-infrared frequencies.
Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer
Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In
2016-01-01
We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341
Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.
2011-08-01
Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the
Augé, Mylène; Feraldi-Xypolia, Alexandra; Barbazanges, Marion; Aubert, Corinne; Fensterbank, Louis; Gandon, Vincent; Kolodziej, Emilie; Ollivier, Cyril
2015-08-07
The first enantioselective metal-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition involving a double asymmetric induction has been devised. It relies on the use of an in situ generated chiral cationic rhodium(I) catalyst with a matched chiral ligand/chiral counterion pair. Careful optimization of the catalytic system, as well as of the reaction conditions, led to atroposelective [2 + 2 + 2] pyridone cycloadducts with high ee's up to 96%. This strategy outperformed those previously described involving a chiral ligand only or a chiral counterion only.
Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio
2015-12-18
The separation of enantiomeric chiral nanotubes that can form non-covalent complexes with an unlike stability upon adsorption of chiral molecules is a process of potential interest in different fields and applications. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we report in this paper a theoretical study of the adsorption and denaturation of an oligopeptide formed by 16 chiral amino acids having a helical structure in the native state on both the inner and the outer surface of the chiral (10, 20) and (20, 10) single-walled carbon nanotubes having an opposite handedness, and of the armchair (16, 16) nanotube with a similar diameter for comparison. In the final adsorbed state, the oligopeptide loses in all cases its native helical conformation, assuming elongated geometries that maximize its contact with the surface through all the 16 amino acids. We find that the complexes formed by the two chiral nanotubes and the chosen oligopeptide have a strongly unlike stability both when adsorption takes place on the outer convex surface of the nanotube, and when it occurs on the inner concave surface. Thus, our molecular simulations indicate that separation of chiral, enantiomeric carbon nanotubes for instance by chromatographic methods can indeed be carried out using oligopeptides of a sufficient length.
Chiral hexagonal cellular sandwich structures: dynamic response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spadoni, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Scarpa, F.
2005-05-01
Periodic cellular configurations with negative Poisson's ratio have attracted the attention of several researchers because of their superior dynamic characteristics. Among the geometries featuring a negative Poisson's ratio, the chiral topology possesses a geometric complexity that guarantees unique deformed configurations when excited at one of its natural frequencies. Specifically, localized deformations have been observed even at relatively low excitation frequencies. This is of particular importance as resonance can be exploited to minimize the power required for the appearance of localized deformations, thus giving practicality to the concept. The particular nature of these deformed configurations and the authority provided by the chiral geometry, suggest the application of the proposed structural configuration for the design of innovative lifting bodies, such as helicopter rotor blades or airplane wings. The dynamic characteristics of chiral structures are here investigated through a numerical model and experimental investigations. The numerical formulation uses dynamic shape functions to accurately describe the behavior of the considered structural assembly over a wide frequency range. The model is used to predict frequency response functions, and to investigate the occurrence of localized deformations. Experimental tests are also performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the model and to illustrate the peculiarities of the behavior of the considered chiral structures.
ISOSPIN BREAKING AND THE CHIRAL CONDENSATE.
CREUTZ, M.
2005-07-25
With two degenerate quarks, the chiral condensate exhibits a jump as the quark masses pass through zero. I discuss how this single transition splits into two Ising like transitions when the quarks are made non-degenerate. The order parameter is the expectation of the neutral pion field. The transitions represent long distance coherent phenomena occurring without the Dirac operator having vanishingly small eigenvalues.
Polar Superhelices in Ferroelectric Chiral Nanosprings
Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki
2016-01-01
Topological objects of nontrivial spin or dipolar field textures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, interacting with applied external fields in ferroic materials are of great scientific interest as an intriguing playground of unique physical phenomena and novel technological paradigms. The quest for new topological configurations of such swirling field textures has primarily been done for magnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, while the absence of such intrinsic chiral interactions among electric dipoles left ferroelectrics aside in this quest. Here, we demonstrate that a helical polarization coiled into another helix, namely a polar superhelix, can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanosprings. The interplay between dipolar interactions confined in the chiral geometry and the complex strain field of mixed bending and twisting induces the superhelical configuration of electric polarization. The geometrical structure of the polar superhelix gives rise to electric chiralities at two different length scales and the coexistence of three order parameters, i.e., polarization, toroidization, and hypertoroidization, both of which can be manipulated by homogeneous electric and/or mechanical fields. Our work therefore provides a new geometrical configuration of swirling dipolar fields, which offers the possibility of multiple order-parameters, and electromechanically controllable dipolar chiralities and associated electro-optical responses. PMID:27713540
A chiral soliton bag model of nucleons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi
1984-11-01
As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, a model Lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation using the hedgehog ansatz. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z=0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z=0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z=1 solution is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model.
Dispersing carbon nanotubes by chiral network surfactants.
Lin, Pengcheng; Cong, Yuehua; Zhang, Baoyan
2015-04-01
Chiral network surfactants (CNSs) possessing miscibility with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chiral materials are applied to disperse CNTs. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy is used to quantitatively determine the CNT concentration in homogeneous CNT-CNS dispersions, results indicate that CNSs with more mole fraction of polycyclic conjugated structure have better ability to load and disperse CNTs and the maximal concentration reaches 0.79 mg mL(-1). Fourier transform infrared imaging system is utilized to analyze the dispersibility of CNTs in CNT-CNS composites, and CNS with 6 mol % nonmesogens (S6) induces the best dispersibility. The CNT doped CNSs exhibit lower glass transition temperature, strengthened thermal stability, decreased the thermochromic temperature and enriched reflected colors of CNSs. Furthermore, S6 are used as a promoter to disperse CNTs in chiral host, here, a left-handed chiral liquid crystal (CLC) is selected, the miscibility between CNTs and CLCs is studied by polarized optical microscope, and CNTs can be effectively dispersed in CLCs by S6. The CNT dispersed CLCs can exhibit a faster electro-optical response process than neat CLCs.
Efficient Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Chemicals.
Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Ma, Bao-Di; Xu, Jian-He
2016-01-01
Chiral chemicals are a group of important chiral synthons for the synthesis of a series of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fine chemicals. In past decades, a number of biocatalytic approaches have been developed for the green and effective synthesis of various chiral chemicals. However, the practical application of these biocatalytic processes is still hindered by the lack of highly efficient and robust biocatalysts, which usually results in the low volumetric productivity and high cost of the bioprocesses. Further step forward of biocatalysis in industrial application strongly requires the development of versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, aiming to increase the process efficiency and facilitate the downstream processing. Recently, the fast growth of genome sequences in the database in post-genomic era offers great opportunities for accessing numerous biocatalysts with practical application potential, and the so-called genome mining approach provides time-effective and highly specific strategy for the fast identification of target enzymes with desired properties and outperforms the traditional screening of soil samples for microbial enzyme producers of interest. A number of biocatalytic processes with industrial application potential were developed thereafter. Further development of protein engineering strategies, process optimization, and cooperative work between biologists, organic chemists, and engineers is expected to make biocatalysis technology the first choice approach for the eco-friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals in the near future.
Monopoles and fractional vortices in chiral superconductors
Volovik, G. E.
2000-01-01
I discuss two exotic objects that must be experimentally identified in chiral superfluids and superconductors. These are (i) the vortex with a fractional quantum number (N = 1/2 in chiral superfluids, and N = 1/2 and N = 1/4 in chiral superconductors), which plays the part of the Alice string in relativistic theories and (ii) the hedgehog in the ^l field, which is the counterpart of the Dirac magnetic monopole. These objects of different dimensions are topologically connected. They form the combined object that is called a nexus in relativistic theories. In chiral superconductors, the nexus has magnetic charge emanating radially from the hedgehog, whereas the half-quantum vortices play the part of the Dirac string. Each half-quantum vortex supplies the fractional magnetic flux to the hedgehog, representing 1/4 of the “conventional” Dirac string. I discuss the topological interaction of the superconductor's nexus with the ‘t Hooft–Polyakov magnetic monopole, which can exist in Grand Unified Theories. The monopole and the hedgehog with the same magnetic charge are topologically confined by a piece of the Abrikosov vortex. Such confinement makes the nexus a natural trap for the magnetic monopole. Other properties of half-quantum vortices and monopoles are discussed as well, including fermion zero modes. PMID:10716980
Instanton-like solutions in chiral models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perelomov, A. M.
1981-10-01
General two-dimensional Euclidean chiral models of field theory are considered in detail. It is shown that in the case when the field takes its values in an arbitrary Kähler manifold the “duality equations” reduce to the Cauchy- Riemann equations on this manifold. For homogeneous manifolds the solutions of these equations do exist and are given by rational functions.
Chiral electrodes of magneto- electropolymerized polyaniline films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogi, I.; Watanabe, K.
2006-12-01
Polyaniline films were prepared by electropolymerization under a magnetic field of 5 T parallel (+5 T) or antiparallel (-5 T) to the faradaic currents. They were used as a modified electrode and their chiral properties were examined for L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), D-isoascorbic acid (D-AA) and L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (L-DOPA) by cyclic voltammetry. The +5T-film electrode showed different oxidation currents between L- and D-AA, and the -5T-film electrode showed opposite chirality. The redox currents of L-DOPA on the +5T-film electrode were smaller than those on the -5T-film electrode, and the results for racemic mixture of L- and D-DOPA were the same on the two electrodes. These results indicate that the Lorentz force in the electropolymerization process under magnetic fields introduces chirality to the polyaniline films and such film electrodes have the ability of chiral recognition. Figs 8, Refs 14.
Three-dimensional chiral photonic superlattices.
Thiel, M; Fischer, H; von Freymann, G; Wegener, M
2010-01-15
We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.
Leading chiral logarithms for the nucleon mass
Vladimirov, Alexey A.; Bijnens, Johan
2016-01-22
We give a short introduction to the calculation of the leading chiral logarithms, and present the results of the recent evaluation of the LLog series for the nucleon mass within the heavy baryon theory. The presented results are the first example of LLog calculation in the nucleon ChPT. We also discuss some regularities observed in the leading logarithmical series for nucleon mass.
Local topological and chiral properties of QCD.
de Forcrand, Ph.
1998-10-30
To elucidate the role played by instantons in chiral symmetry breaking, the authors explore their properties, in full QCD, around the critical temperature. They study in particular, spatial correlations between low-lying Dirac eigenmodes and instantons. Their measurements are compared with the predictions of instanton-based models.
Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons
Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro
2009-03-15
Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows one to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.
New chiral cyclooctatriene-based polycyclic architectures.
Pieters, Grégory; Gaucher, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Maurel, François; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Crassous, Jeanne; Prim, Damien
2011-08-19
The synthesis and properties of new chiral polycyclic architectures that display both helicity and a saddle-type shape are described. The enantiomers have been separated, and their absolute configuration was determined by VCD and ECD. The unprecedented molecular architecture is based on a cyclooctatriene core surrounded by an association of benzo[c]fluorene and ortho-phenylene units.
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls.
Jué, Emilie; Safeer, C K; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2016-03-01
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics, current-induced spin-orbit torques and some topological magnetic structures. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. ).