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Sample records for sub-resolution multiphase interstellar

  1. Multiphase Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Some Recent Results from Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-06-01

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. This review article presents a brief outline of some of the basic ideas of radio astronomical observations and data analysis, summarizes the results from these recent observations, and discusses possible implications of the results. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at different temperature. The thermal steady state model predicts that the multiphase neutral gas will exist in cold and warm phase with temperature below 200 K and above 5000 K respectively. However, these observations clearly show the presence of a large fraction of gas in the intermediate unstable phase. These results raise serious doubt about the validity of the standard model, and highlight the necessity of alternative theoretical models. Interestingly, numerical simulations suggest that some of the observational results can be explained consistently by including the effects of turbulence in the models of the multiphase medium.

  2. Black hole feedback in a multiphase interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei; Hobbs, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are thought to regulate the growth of SMBHs and host galaxies, resulting in a number of observational correlations. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the impact of a thermalized UFO on the ambient gas in the inner part of the host galaxy. Our results depend strongly on whether the gas is homogeneous or clumpy. In the former case all of the ambient gas is driven outward rapidly as expected based on commonly used energy budget arguments, while in the latter the flows of mass and energy de-couple. Carrying most of the energy, the shocked UFO escapes from the bulge via paths of least resistance, taking with it only the low-density phase of the host. Most of the mass is however in the high-density phase, and is affected by the UFO much less strongly, and may even continue to flow inwards. We suggest that the UFO energy leakage through the pores in the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) may explain why observed SMBHs are so massive despite their overwhelmingly large energy production rates. The multiphase ISM effects reported here are probably under-resolved in cosmological simulations but may be included in prescriptions for active galactic nuclei feedback in future simulations and in semi-analytical models.

  3. The distribution of mean and fluctuating magnetic fields in the multiphase interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evirgen, C. C.; Gent, F. A.; Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A.; Bushby, P.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the effects of the multiphase structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) on galactic magnetic fields. Basing our analysis on compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulations of supernova-driven turbulence in the ISM, we investigate the properties of both the mean and fluctuating components of the magnetic field. We find that the mean magnetic field preferentially resides in the warm phase and is generally absent from the hot phase. The fluctuating magnetic field does not show such pronounced sensitivity to the multiphase structure.

  4. The Evolution of Dust in the Multiphase Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Slavin, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Interstellar dust has a profound effect on the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) and on the processes by which stars form from it. Dust obscures regions of star formation from view, and the uncertain quantities of elements in dust makes it difficult to measure accurately the abundances of the elements in low density regions. Despite the central importance of dust in astrophysics, we cannot answer some of the most basic questions about it: Why is it that most of the refractory elements are in dust grains? What determines the sizes of interstellar grains? It has been the goal of our proposed theoretical investigations to address these questions by studying the destruction of interstellar grains, and to develop observational diagnostics that can test the models we develop.

  5. Galactic Winds and Cosmic Ray Transport in a Multiphase Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Ryan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Hsiang-Yi, Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Making up roughly one third the pressure budget of the ISM, cosmic rays are likely to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Recent 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations have shown that advected cosmic rays puff up galactic disks and suppress star formation. Additionally, cosmic rays diffusing away from the galactic midplane can drive gas out of the galaxy with mass loss rates comparable to the star formation rate, thus regulating star formation. Yet, the impact of cosmic rays decoupling from cold, neutral gas in a multiphase interstellar medium has hithertofore not been studied. Preliminary work suggests that cosmic ray decoupling produces significantly more explosive feedback, dramatically affecting the evolution of the ISM and the efficiency of cosmic ray driven outflows.

  6. Ram-pressure stripping of the multiphase interstellar medium of the Virgo cluster elliptical galaxy M86 (NGC 4406)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, David A.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Stern, C.

    1991-01-01

    The available infrared, optical, and X-ray data on the elliptical galaxy M86, which is experiencing strong ram-pressure stripping in the intracluster medium of the Virgo Cluster, are analyzed. A significant component of infrared 60 micron emission displaced from the center of the galaxy is found. The displaced 60 micron emission lies on the optical major axis of the galaxy in the direction of perturbations to the optical isophotes and is coincident with a small feature in X-ray emission southwest of the X-ray plume. The displaced infrared emission is interpreted in terms of collisionally heated dust exposed to hot gas where ram pressure and turbulence are disrupting the stripped interstellar medium of the galaxy. The displacement of the outer optical isophotes in the direction of the stripped gas in suggested to be due to reflection of star-light on the dust grains. Ram pressure has separated and exposed the various components of the multiphase interstellar medium of M86, enabling these constituents to be identified and analyzed separately for the first time in an elliptical galaxy.

  7. Ram-pressure stripping of the multiphase interstellar medium of the Virgo cluster elliptical galaxy M86 (NGC 4406)

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.A.; Fabian, A.C.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Stern, C. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1991-07-01

    The available infrared, optical, and X-ray data on the elliptical galaxy M86, which is experiencing strong ram-pressure stripping in the intracluster medium of the Virgo Cluster, are analyzed. A significant component of infrared 60 micron emission displaced from the center of the galaxy is found. The displaced 60 micron emission lies on the optical major axis of the galaxy in the direction of perturbations to the optical isophotes and is coincident with a small feature in X-ray emission southwest of the X-ray plume. The displaced infrared emission is interpreted in terms of collisionally heated dust exposed to hot gas where ram pressure and turbulence are disrupting the stripped interstellar medium of the galaxy. The displacement of the outer optical isophotes in the direction of the stripped gas in suggested to be due to reflection of star-light on the dust grains. Ram pressure has separated and exposed the various components of the multiphase interstellar medium of M86, enabling these constituents to be identified and analyzed separately for the first time in an elliptical galaxy. 31 refs.

  8. Long-term evolution of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the multiphase interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2013-12-01

    Supersonic turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to decay rapidly within a flow crossing time irrespective of the degree of magnetization. However, this general consensus of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence relies on local isothermal simulations, which are unable to take into account the roles of the global structures of magnetic fields and the ISM. Utilizing three-dimensional MHD simulations including interstellar cooling and heating, we investigate decaying MHD turbulence within cold neutral medium sheets embedded in a warm neutral medium. The early evolution of turbulent kinetic energy is consistent with previous results for decaying compressible MHD turbulence characterized by rapid energy decay with a power-law form of E∝t {sup –1} and by a short decay time compared with the flow crossing time. If initial magnetic fields are strong and perpendicular to the sheet, however, long-term evolution of the kinetic energy shows that a significant amount of turbulent energy (∼0.2E {sub 0}) still remains even after 10 flow crossing times for models with periodic boundary conditions. The decay rate is also greatly reduced as the field strength increases for such initial and boundary conditions, but not if the boundary conditions are those for a completely isolated sheet. We analyze velocity power spectra of the remaining turbulence to show that in-plane, incompressible motions parallel to the sheet dominate at later times.

  9. Star formation and multi-phase interstellar medium in the first galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotti, M.; Parry, O.; Polisensky, E.; Bovill, M.

    Star formation and metal enrichment in the first galaxies is discussed emphasizing similarities to the properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Universe. I present preliminary results from new radiation-hydrodynamic cosmological simulations for the formation of the first galaxies performed with the ART code. The simulations include a detailed model for star formation in a multi-phase ISM, including H_2 formation catalyzed by H- and on dust grains. The first metals are provided by Population III stars, while Population II star formation takes place in resolved molecular clouds. The properties of the first galaxies in these new simulations are in agreement with previous lower resolution simulations in which was found remarkable similarities between the fossils of the first galaxies and the faintest dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group.

  10. The interstellar medium in Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies - II. Multiphase gas content and ISM conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Cormier, Diane; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Nario; Young, Lisa; Bendo, George J.; Boquien, Médéric; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Wilson, Christine D.

    2017-03-01

    We make an inventory of the interstellar medium material in three low-metallicity dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205). Ancillary H I, CO, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, Hα and X-ray observations are combined to trace the atomic, cold and warm molecular, ionized and hot gas phases. We present new Nobeyama CO(1-0) observations and Herschel SPIRE FTS [C I] observations of NGC 205 to revise its molecular gas content. We derive total gas masses of Mg = 1.9-5.5 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 185 and Mg = 8.6-25.0 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 205. Non-detections combine to an upper limit on the gas mass of Mg ≤ 0.3-2.2 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 147. The observed gas reservoirs are significantly lower compared to the expected gas masses based on a simple closed-box model that accounts for the gas mass returned by planetary nebulae and supernovae. The gas-to-dust mass ratios GDR ∼ 37-107 and 48-139 are also considerably lower compared to the expected GDR ∼ 370 and 520 for the low metal abundances in NGC 185 (0.36 Z⊙) and NGC 205 (0.25 Z⊙), respectively. To simultaneously account for the gas deficiency and low gas-to-dust ratios, we require an efficient removal of a large gas fraction and a longer dust survival time (∼1.6 Gyr). We believe that efficient galactic winds (combined with heating of gas to sufficiently high temperatures in order for it to escape from the galaxy) and/or environmental interactions with neighbouring galaxies are responsible for the gas removal from NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205.

  11. Gas Properties and Implications for Galactic Star Formation in Numerical Models of the Turbulent, Multiphase Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroshi; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2009-03-01

    Using numerical simulations of galactic disks that resolve scales from ~1 to several hundred pc, we investigate dynamical properties of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in which turbulence is driven by feedback from star formation. We focus on effects of H II regions by implementing a recipe for intense heating confined within dense, self-gravitating regions. Our models are two dimensional, representing radial-vertical slices through the disk, and include sheared background rotation of the gas, vertical stratification, heating and cooling to yield temperatures T ~ 10 - 104 K, and conduction that resolves thermal instabilities on our numerical grid. Each simulation evolves to reach a quasi-steady state, for which we analyze the time-averaged properties of the gas. In our suite of models, three parameters (the gas surface density Σ, the stellar volume density ρ*, and the local angular rotation rate Ω) are separately controlled in order to explore environmental dependences. Among other statistical measures, we evaluate turbulent amplitudes, virial ratios, Toomre Q parameters including turbulence, and the mass fractions at different densities. We find that the dense gas (n>100 cm-3) has turbulence levels similar to those observed in giant molecular clouds and virial ratios ~1-2. Our models show that the Toomre Q parameter in the dense gas evolves to values near unity; this demonstrates self-regulation via turbulent feedback. We also test how the surface star formation rate ΣSFR depends on Σ, ρ*, and Ω. Under the assumption that the star formation rate (SFR) is proportional to the amount of gas at densities above a threshold n th divided by the free-fall time at that threshold, we find that ΣSFR vprop Σ1+p with 1 + p~ 1.2-1.4 when n th = 102 or 103 cm-3, consistent with observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relations. Estimates of SFRs based on large-scale properties (the orbital time, the Jeans time, or the free-fall time at the mean density within a scale height

  12. The nature of the interstellar medium of the starburst low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11: a multi-phase model of the infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Abel, N.; Hony, S.; Galliano, F.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Galametz, M.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Parkin, T. J.; Rémy, A.; Sauvage, M.; Spinoglio, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Wu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The low-metallicity interstellar medium (ISM) is profoundly different from that of normal systems, being clumpy with low dust abundance and little CO-traced molecular gas. Yet many dwarf galaxies in the nearby universe are actively forming stars. As the complex ISM phases are spatially mixed with each other, detailed modeling is needed to understand the gas emission and subsequent composition and structure of the ISM. Aims: Our goal is to describe the multi-phase ISM of the infrared bright low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11, dissecting the photoionised and photodissociated gas components. Methods: We present observations of the mid-infrared and far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines obtained with the Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/PACS spectrometers. We use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to methodically model the ionised and neutral gas from which these lines originate. Results: We find that the mid- and far-infrared lines account for ~1% of the total infrared luminosity LTIR, acting as major coolants of the gas. Haro 11 is undergoing a phase of intense star formation, as traced by the brightest line, [O iii] 88 μm, with L [O III] /LTIR ~ 0.3%, and high ratios of [Ne iii]/[Ne ii] and [S iv]/[S iii]. Due to their different origins, the observed lines require a multi-phase modeling comprising: a compact H ii region, dense fragmented photodissociation regions (PDRs), a diffuse extended low-ionisation/neutral gas which has a volume filling factor of at least 90%, and porous warm dust in proximity to the stellar source. For a more realistic picture of the ISM of Haro 11 we would need to model the clumpy source and gas structures. We combine these 4 model components to explain the emission of 17 spectral lines, investigate the global energy balance of the galaxy through its spectral energy distribution, and establish a phase mass inventory. While the ionic emission lines of Haro 11 essentially originate from the dense H ii region component, a diffuse low

  13. Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong.

  14. Interstellar Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    This review describes our current understanding of interstellar extinction. This differ substantially from the ideas of the 20th century. With infrared surveys of hundreds of millions of stars over the entire sky, such as 2MASS, SPITZER-IRAC, and WISE, we have looked at the densest and most rarefied regions of the interstellar medium at distances of a few kpc from the Sun. Observations at infrared and microwave wavelengths, where the bulk of the interstellar dust absorbs and radiates, have brought us closer to an understanding of the distribution of the dust particles on scales of the Galaxy and the universe. We are in the midst of a scientific revolution in our understanding of the interstellar medium and dust. Progress in, and the key results of, this revolution are still difficult to predict. Nevertheless, (a) a physically justified model has been developed for the spatial distribution of absorbing material over the nearest few kiloparsecs, including the Gould belt as a dust container, which gives an accurate estimate of the extinction for any object just by its galactic coordinates. It is also clear that (b) the interstellar medium contains roughly half the mass of matter in the galactic vicinity of the solar system (the other half is made up of stars, their remnants, and dark matter) and (c) the interstellar medium and, especially, dust, differ substantially in different regions of space and deep space cannot be understood by only studying near space.

  15. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  16. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  17. Simulating realistic disc galaxies with a novel sub-resolution ISM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murante, Giuseppe; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Tornatore, Luca; Dolag, Klaus; Goz, David

    2015-02-01

    We present results of cosmological simulations of disc galaxies carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code, where star formation and stellar feedback are described using our MUlti Phase Particle Integrator model. This description is based on a simple multiphase model of the interstellar medium at unresolved scales, where mass and energy flows among the components are explicitly followed by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Thermal energy from supernovae is injected into the local hot phase, so as to avoid that it is promptly radiated away. A kinetic feedback prescription generates the massive outflows needed to avoid the overproduction of stars. We use two sets of zoomed-in initial conditions of isolated cosmological haloes with masses (2-3) × 1012 M⊙, both available at several resolution levels. In all cases we obtain spiral galaxies with small bulge-over-total stellar mass ratios (B/T ˜ 0.2), extended stellar and gas discs, flat rotation curves and realistic values of stellar masses. Gas profiles are relatively flat, molecular gas is found to dominate at the centre of galaxies, with star formation rates following the observed Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. Stars kinematically belonging to the bulge form early, while disc stars show a clear inside-out formation pattern and mostly form after redshift z = 2. However, the baryon conversion efficiencies in our simulations differ from the relation given by Moster et al. at a 3σ level, thus indicating that our stellar discs are still too massive for the dark matter halo in which they reside. Results are found to be remarkably stable against resolution. This further demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out simulations producing a realistic population of galaxies within representative cosmological volumes, at a relatively modest resolution.

  18. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  19. Selecting multiphase pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Prang, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    Multiphase pumps in petroleum applications today must handle liquid products containing large amounts of gas, and often including water and sand as well. In the past, gas was commonly separated and flared off at the well head, and only liquid product was piped along for further processing. Using this setup, processing the gas as well as the liquid requires separators, compressors and dual pipelines. Rotary two-screw units are ideal for multiphase use, as they can pump any product that can be introduced into the suction passages of their screws. These devices also effectively handle heat generation from compressed gases. To select units for multiphase applications, an engineer should be familiar with these pumps and how they work. This article discusses rotary-screw pumps and how to effectively select a unit for multiphase service.

  20. Interstellar isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D.; Mclean, D.; Herbst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Both observational and theoretical studies of molecular clouds are hindered by many difficulties. One way to partially circumvent the difficulties of characterizing the chemistry within these objects is to study the relative abundances of isomers which are synthesized from a common set of precursors. Unfortunately, only one such system has been confirmed, the HCN/HNC pair of isomers. While the basic outlines of its chemistry have been known for some years, there are still many aspects of the chemistry which are unclear. Another potential pair of isomers is HCO+/HOC+; HCO+ is an abundant instellar molecule and a tentative identification of HOC+ has been made in Sgr B2. This identification is being challenged, however, based on theoretical and laboratory evidence that HOC+ reacts with H2. Another potential pair of interstellar isomers is methyl cyanide (CH3CN, acetonitrile) and methyl isocyanide (CH3NC). The cyanide is well known, however the isocyanide has yet to be observed despite theoretical predictions that appreciable quantities should be present.

  1. Interstellar Predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.; Lee, M.

    Although chemosynthesis and photosynthesis can theoretically supply enough energy for intelligence, for reasons elucidated here, heterotrophy and specifically phagotrophy (ingestion of prey) are likely to make predation a characteristic of life and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). Here, the Earth's biota is used to consider the nature of interstellar predation. The ability of the ETI to directly ingest a biota will be determined by the chiral preference of the ETI, the compatibility of the biochemistry used in life on Earth with the molecules required by the ETI and the potential toxicity of the macromolecules. If chirality is determined by astrophysical factors and not by the specificities of terrestrial origins of life and if molecules found in terrestrial organisms are also represented in ETIs (which could plausibly include hydrated carbohydrides and many amino acids that are similar or identical to amino acids found in meteoritic or cometary material) then the Earth might represent a universally appreciated resource. The Earth's biota could be used as an energy supply or, if other forms of technology have advanced to the point where bioreactors can be exclusively used to supply a civilization with food, as a culinary curiosity. Even in the absence of metabolic compatibility, technology can be used to extract useful products from an undigestible biota, similarly to the industrial biotransformation of cellulose. The value of the resource will also be determined by the availability of prey. Planets at stages in biological evolution where the surface is dominated by just one or several large (>5kg), abundant, easily captured organisms are particu- larly attractive to predators because harvesting techniques can be standardized. We discuss implications for exobiology and the `Fermi Paradox'.

  2. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  3. Multiphase pumping - operation & control

    SciTech Connect

    Salis, J. de; Marolies, C. de; Falcimaigne, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews field issues related to the planning, installation and operation of the helico-axial multiphase pumps. Interest for multiphase production, which leads to simpler and smaller in-field installations, is primarily dictated by the need for more a cost effective production system. Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid/gas mixture to be transported over long distances without the need for prior separation. The Poseidon helico-axial pumps, under normal operating conditions, are largely unaffected by process fluctuations at pump inlet (changes in pressure, liquid or gas flow rate). They have demonstrated a stable behavior (self-adaptive capability with regards to instantaneous changes). A multiphase pump set is designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. An important issue related to pump operability and flexibility has to do with the driver selection: fixed speed vs. variable speed. In some cases a fixed speed drive provides sufficient operational flexibility. In other cases variable speed can be chosen. Pump operation & control strategies are presented and discussed.

  4. Gullfaks multiphase booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Vangen, G.; Carstensen, C.; Bakken, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    A Poseidon Multiphase Pump has been Installed and is presently running on Statoil`s Gullfaks A platform in the North Sea, giving additional pressure to one of the wells. The main objective of this work has been to qualify the Poseidon Booster Technology, technically and operationally, and to provide a reliable and industrialized tool for multiphase boosting, either sub sea or installed topside a platform. The paper gives a brief summary of the project and describes the Poseidon pump, the platform installation and outlines the experience and results from the ongoing qualification test. The Gullfaks booster, as delivered by Framo Engineering AS, has up to January 1995 accumulated 2,400 running hours. The booster is fully integrated into the production systems on the platform. The daily operations are carried out from the central control room by the ordinary platform staff. The objectives of the test program have so far been successfully fulfilled. Multiphase booster technology combined with progress in multiphase flow technology will have a significant impact on development and production of smaller oil and gas fields that today are assumed to be non-profitable.

  5. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  6. NASA's IBEX Observes Interstellar Matter

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has directly sampled multiple heavy elements from the Local Interstellar Cloud for the first time. It turns out that this interstellar material is not like...

  7. Hydrodynamical Coupling of Mass and Momentum in Multiphase Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.

    2017-01-01

    Using a set of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with the Cholla code, we investigate how mass and momentum couple to the multiphase components of galactic winds. The simulations model the interaction between a hot wind driven by supernova explosions and a cooler, denser cloud of interstellar or circumgalactic media. By resolving scales of {{Δ }}x< 0.1 pc over > 100 pc distances, our calculations capture how the cloud disruption leads to a distribution of densities and temperatures in the resulting multiphase outflow and quantify the mass and momentum associated with each phase. We find that the multiphase wind contains comparable mass and momenta in phases over a wide range of densities and temperatures extending from the hot wind (n≈ {10}-2.5 {{cm}}-3, T≈ {10}6.5 K) to the coldest components (n≈ {10}2 {{cm}}-3, T≈ {10}2 K). We further find that the momentum distributes roughly in proportion to the mass in each phase, and the mass loading of the hot phase by the destruction of cold, dense material is an efficient process. These results provide new insight into the physical origin of observed multiphase galactic outflows and inform galaxy formation models that include coarser treatments of galactic winds. Our results confirm that cool gas observed in outflows at large distances from the galaxy (≳ 1 kpc) likely does not originate through the entrainment of cold material near the central starburst.

  8. Boussard Interstellar Ramjet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Boussard Interstellar Ramjet engine concept uses interstellar hydrogen scooped up from its environment as the spacecraft passes by to provide propellant mass. The hydrogen is then ionized and then collected by an electromagentic field. In this image, an onboard laser is uded to heat the plasma, and the laser or electron beam is used to trigger fusion pulses thereby creating propulsion.

  9. The problem of optimal placement of sub-resolution assist features (SRAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Maharaj; Mansfield, Scott; Liebmann, Lars; Lvov, Alexey; Papadapoulou, Evanthia; Lavin, Mark; Zhao, Zengqin

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we present a formulation of the Sub-Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) placement problem as a geometric optimization problem. We present three independent geometric methodologies that use the above formulation to optimize SRAF placements under mask and lithographic process constraints. Traditional rules-based methodology, are mainly one dimensional in nature. These methods, though apparently very simple, has proven to be inadequate for complex two-dimensional layouts. The methodologies presented in this paper, on the other hand, are inherently two-dimensional and attempt to maximize SRAF coverage on real and complex designs, and minimizes mask rule and lithographic violations.

  10. Composite multiphase groundwater model

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joon Hyun.

    1989-01-01

    A general comprehensive mathematical model using the composite multi-phase approach to describe groundwater flow and pollution was developed. The comprehensive governing equation was derived from the simple mass balance of chemical species over all the phases in schematic elementary volume, and traditional ground water governing equations are explained from it. An attempt was made to include the complicated aspects of physical chemical and biological processes such as mass fraction, compressibility, capillarity, dispersion, gravity, relative permeability, viscosity, sorption, interfacial mass change and chemical and biological reactions. To make the analysis possible, assumptions have been made for continuous flow of each phase and instantaneous equilibrium for partition. The resulting system of nonlinear governing and constitutive equations was solved numerically. To handle the irregular geometry, complex boundary conditions and many different governing equations with simple modifications, the upstream weighted finite element method was adopted. By using the dynamic allocation of arrays, the code is flexible to work on an IBM 3090 Vector Facility, workstations and PC's for one, two and three dimensional problems. To reduce the computation time and storage requirements, decoupling of the system equations, banded global matrix and vector and parallel processing were used. The program was structured to facilitate inclusion of additional future constitutive equations. To demonstrate the model's versatility, several hypothetical problems were simulated: unsaturated flow through an embankment; one and two dimensional solute transport; one, two, three dimensional multiphase flow; composite multiphase flow and contaminant migration. The instability and convergence criteria of the nonlinear problems were studied. Parameter dependency of the model was also studied.

  11. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  12. INTERSTELLAR ANALOGS FROM DEFECTIVE CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES ACCOUNT FOR INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Zhenquan; Abe, Hiroya; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Ohara, Satoshi; Chihara, Hiroki; Koike, Chiyoe; Kaneko, Kenji

    2010-11-15

    Because interstellar dust is closely related to the evolution of matter in the galactic environment and many other astrophysical phenomena, the laboratory synthesis of interstellar dust analogs has received significant attention over the past decade. To simulate the ultraviolet (UV) interstellar extinction feature at 217.5 nm originating from carbonaceous interstellar dust, many reports focused on the UV absorption properties of laboratory-synthesized interstellar dust analogs. However, no general relation has been established between UV interstellar extinction and artificial interstellar dust analogs. Here, we show that defective carbon nanostructures prepared by high-energy collisions exhibit a UV absorption feature at 220 nm which we suggest accounts for the UV interstellar extinction at 217.5 nm. The morphology of some carbon nanostructures is similar to that of nanocarbons discovered in the Allende meteorite. The similarity between the absorption feature of the defective carbon nanostructures and UV interstellar extinction indicates a strong correlation between the defective carbon nanostructures and interstellar dust.

  13. Interstellar fullerene compounds and diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the presence of fullerenes in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been confirmed and new findings suggest that these fullerenes may possibly form from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ISM. Moreover, the first confirmed identification of two strong diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) with the fullerene, C60+, connects the long standing suggestion that various fullerenes could be DIB carriers. These new discoveries justify reassessing the overall importance of interstellar fullerene compounds, including fullerenes of various sizes with endohedral or exohedral inclusions and heterofullerenes (EEHFs). The phenomenology of fullerene compounds is complex. In addition to fullerene formation in grain shattering, fullerene formation from fully dehydrogenated PAHs in diffuse interstellar clouds could perhaps transform a significant percentage of the tail of low-mass PAH distribution into fullerenes including EEHFs. But many uncertain processes make it extremely difficult to assess their expected abundance, composition and size distribution, except for the substantial abundance measured for C60+. EEHFs share many properties with pure fullerenes, such as C60, as regards stability, formation/destruction and chemical processes, as well as many basic spectral features. Because DIBs are ubiquitous in all lines of sight in the ISM, we address several questions about the interstellar importance of various EEHFs, especially as possible carriers of diffuse interstellar bands. Specifically, we discuss basic interstellar properties and the likely contributions of fullerenes of various sizes and their charged counterparts such as C60+, and then in turn: 1) metallofullerenes; 2) heterofullerenes; 3) fulleranes; 4) fullerene-PAH compounds; 5) H2@C60. From this reassessment of the literature and from combining it with known DIB line identifications, we conclude that the general landscape of interstellar fullerene compounds is probably much richer than heretofore realized

  14. Presolar/Interstellar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review much of our current understanding of the origins, nature, and evolution of materials in circumstellar and interstellar space. I will begin by familiarizing the audience with some of the nomenclature associated the field, reviewing the lifecycle of dust in space, and pointing out where the speakers that follow will address portions of the lifecycle in greater detail. I will then address the different techniques used to study interstellar materials, paying particular attention to (i) telescopic remote sensing of the dust currently in interstellar space, (ii) laboratory studies of individual interstellar grains found in meteorites and other extraterrestrial materials, and (iii) laboratory simulation experiments. To complete the talk, I will focus on the nature of interstellar organic compounds as a particular example of how these disparate techniques can be used to improve our understanding of interstellar matter. While interstellar organics will be addressed in general, particular attention will be made to that portion of the organic inventory that may play a role in the origin and evolution of life on planetary surfaces.

  15. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  16. Interstellar chemistry - Polycyanoacetylene formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.; Young, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that interstellar polycyanoacetylenes are formed not on dust grains by catalytic buildup or by dissociation of longer molecules, but rather by gas phase ion-molecule reactions. The primary evidence for this view is the detection of deuterated cyanoacetylene in an interstellar cloud. It is also argued that the relative abundance of successive homologs of polycyanoacetylenes rules out the grain catalysis theory.

  17. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  18. Discovery of interstellar rubidium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Smith, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Interstellar rubidium is detected through observations of the resonance line of Rb I at 7800 A towards zeta Oph. The abundance ratio of rubidium to potassium is estimated to be approximately solar, and if rubidium is generally found to have an abundance similar to potassium, it is indicated that the local interstellar medium is well mixed with a wide variety of the products of nucleosynthesis.

  19. Interstellar magnesium abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, M. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An improved evaluation of the Mg II 1240 A doublet oscillator strength is used in conjunction with recently published Copernicus observations to derive accurate Mg II column densities toward 74 stars. These imply an average of 40 percent of interstellar magnesium is in the gaseous phase. Magnesium depletion is examined as a function of various interstellar extinction and density parameters, and the results are briefly discussed in terms of current depletion theories.

  20. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  1. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  2. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: (1) objectives, (2) approach and techniques adopted, (3) adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), and (4) results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a

  3. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  4. Interstellar H(3)(+).

    PubMed

    Oka, Takeshi

    2006-08-15

    Protonated molecular hydrogen, H(3)(+), is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is the most abundantly produced interstellar molecule, next only to H(2), although its steady state concentration is low because of its extremely high chemical reactivity. H(3)(+) is a strong acid (proton donor) and initiates chains of ion-molecule reactions in interstellar space thus leading to formation of complex molecules. Here, I summarize the understandings on this fundamental species in interstellar space obtained from our infrared observations since its discovery in 1996 and discuss the recent observations and analyses of H(3)(+) in the Central Molecular Zone near the Galatic center that led to a revelation of a vast amount of warm and diffuse gas existing in the region.

  5. Interstellar H3+

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Protonated molecular hydrogen, H3+, is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is the most abundantly produced interstellar molecule, next only to H2, although its steady state concentration is low because of its extremely high chemical reactivity. H3+ is a strong acid (proton donor) and initiates chains of ion-molecule reactions in interstellar space thus leading to formation of complex molecules. Here, I summarize the understandings on this fundamental species in interstellar space obtained from our infrared observations since its discovery in 1996 and discuss the recent observations and analyses of H3+ in the Central Molecular Zone near the Galatic center that led to a revelation of a vast amount of warm and diffuse gas existing in the region. PMID:16894171

  6. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  7. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  8. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  9. Interstellar Grain Mantles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F.; Goebel, J.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Dhendecourt, L. B.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for determining the composition of small dust grains in interstellar matter are discussed. The best way to study the composition of interstellar grain mantles is by infrared spectroscopy. The absorption features in a complete infrared spectrum from 2 to 15 microns can be used as fingerprints to identify the absorbing molecule. Ground-based observations around 3 microns confirmed the presence of H2O ice in interstellar grain mantles, through the detection of the 3.08 micron OH stretching vibration. The detection of other molecules, in particular the carbon bearing molecules, is however hampered by atmospheric absorption in the 5-8 micron region and the presence of the strong ice and silicate bands, which dominate the 3 and 10 micron region respectively. Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the 5-8 micron region of the spectrum are therefore extremely important to determine the composition of interstellar grain mantles. The 5 to 8 micron spectra of molecular cloud sources was obtained using a 24 detector grating spectrometer. An important characteristic of this spectrometer is that the whole spectrum is obtained simultaneously. It is therefore relatively easy to correct for atmospheric transmission.

  10. Interstellar molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Bally, J

    1986-04-11

    The interstellar medium in our galaxy contains matter in a variety of states ranging from hot plasma to cold and dusty molecular gas. The molecular phase consists of giant clouds, which are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the galaxy, the primary reservoir of material for the ongoing birth of new stars, and the medium regulating the evolution of galactic disks.

  11. Evolution of Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Lou J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    During the past two decades observations combined with laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the raw materials from which planets, comets and stars form. Most interstellar material is concentrated in large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by dust-grain and gas-phase reactions. Gaseous species striking the cold (10K) dust stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with UV photolysis, produces a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. Ices in molecular clouds contain the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, H2, and perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as more complex species. The evidence for these compounds, as well as carbon-rich materials, will be reviewed and the possible connections with comets and meteorites will be presented in the first part of the talk . The second part of the presentation will focus on interstellar/precometary ice photochemical evolution and the species likely to be found in comets. The chemical composition and photochemical evolution of realistic interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs will be discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of these ices produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and more complex molecules. When ices representative of interstellar grains and comets are exposed to UV radiation at low temperature a series of moderately complex organic molecules are formed in the ice including: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=N (nitriles). Several of these are already known to be in the interstellar medium, and their presence indicates the importance of grain processing. After warming to room temperature an organic residue remains. This is composed primarily of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), with lesser amounts of polyoxymethylene-related species (POMs), amides, and ketones. This is in sharp contrast to the organic residues produced by

  12. Interstellar dust at our doorstep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Interstellar dust has long been researched by astronomical methods to learn about its size distribution, grain properties and composition. However, interstellar dust grains also move through the solar system. They were detected for the first time in-situ with the Ulysses dust detector in 1993. In addition, in 2006, the Stardust mission returned three interstellar dust grain candidates back to Earth after a collection period of 195 days. In this talk we elaborate on how the current in-situ ISD measurement methods are a valuable addition to the knowledge about interstellar dust inferred from classical astronomy. We also discuss the role of interstellar dust dynamics and simulations herein.

  13. Sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) printing prediction using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chin Boon; Koh, Kar Kit; Zhang, Dongqing; Foong, Yee Mei

    2015-03-01

    In optical proximity correction (OPC), the sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) has been used to enhance the process window of main structures. However, the printing of SRAF on wafer is undesirable as this may adversely degrade the overall process yield if it is transferred into the final pattern. A reasonably accurate prediction model is needed during OPC to ensure that the SRAF placement and size have no risk of SRAF printing. Current common practice in OPC is either using the main OPC model or model threshold adjustment (MTA) solution to predict the SRAF printing. This paper studies the feasibility of SRAF printing prediction using logistic regression (LR). Logistic regression is a probabilistic classification model that gives discrete binary outputs after receiving sufficient input variables from SRAF printing conditions. In the application of SRAF printing prediction, the binary outputs can be treated as 1 for SRAFPrinting and 0 for No-SRAF-Printing. The experimental work was performed using a 20nm line/space process layer. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of SRAF printing prediction using LR approach outperforms MTA solution. Overall error rate of as low as calibration 2% and verification 5% was achieved by LR approach compared to calibration 6% and verification 15% for MTA solution. In addition, the performance of LR approach was found to be relatively independent and consistent across different resist image planes compared to MTA solution.

  14. DETERMINATION OF SUB-RESOLUTION STRUCTURE OF A JET BY SOLAR MAGNETOSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Verth, G.; McLaughlin, J. A. E-mail: gary.verth@northumbria.ac.uk

    2012-01-01

    A thin dark thread is observed in a UV/EUV solar jet in the 171 A, 193 A, and 211 A, and partially in 304 A. The dark thread appears to originate in the chromosphere but its temperature does not appear to lie within the passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We therefore implement solar magnetoseismology to estimate the plasma parameters of the dark thread. A propagating kink (transverse) wave is observed to travel along the dark thread. The wave is tracked over a range of {approx}7000 km by placing multiple slits along the axis of the dark thread. The phase speed and amplitude of the wave are estimated and magnetoseismological theory is employed to determine the plasma parameters. We are able to estimate the plasma temperature, density gradient, magnetic field gradient, and sub-resolution expansion of the dark thread. The dark thread is found to be cool, T {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}, with both strong density and magnetic field gradients. The expansion of the flux tube along its length is {approx}300-400 km.

  15. Search for interstellar adenine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Majumdar, Liton; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2015-05-01

    It is long debated if pre-biotic molecules are indeed present in the interstellar medium. Despite substantial works pointing to their existence, pre-biotic molecules are yet to be discovered with a complete confidence. In this paper, our main aim is to study the chemical evolution of interstellar adenine under various circumstances. We prepare a large gas-grain chemical network by considering various pathways for the formation of adenine. Majumdar et al. (New Astron. 20:15, 2013) proposed that in the absence of adenine detection, one could try to trace two precursors of adenine, namely, HCCN and NH2CN. Recently Merz et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 118:3637-3644, 2014), proposed another route for the formation of adenine in interstellar condition. They proposed two more precursor molecules. But it was not verified by any accurate gas-grain chemical model. Neither was it known if the production rate would be high or low. Our paper fills this important gap. We include this new pathways to find that the contribution through this pathways for the formation of Adenine is the most dominant one in the context of interstellar medium. We propose that observers may look for the two precursors (C3NH and HNCNH) in the interstellar media which are equally important for predicting abundances of adenine. We perform quantum chemical calculations to find out spectral properties of adenine and its two new precursor molecules in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter region. Our present study would be useful for predicting abundance of adenine.

  16. Confirmation of interstellar methylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.

    1995-01-01

    Four spectral emission features of the N(sub KK) = 4(sub 04) -3(sub 13) rotational transition of methylene (CH2) have been detected at signal levels 5-7 sigma above noise toward the hot core of the Orion-KL nebula and the molecular cloud in proximity to the continuum source W51 M. Specifically, in both sources we have resolved the F = 6-5, 5-4, and 4-3 hyperfine transitions of the J = 5-4 fine-structure levels and detected the blended hyperfine structure of the J = 4-3 fine structure levels. At the J = 3-2 fine-structure levels, we have observed new transitions of NS, a known interstellar molecule, which severely contaminates the search for CH2 hyperfine transitions. These new sensitive observations finally confirm the existence of interstellar CH2 which was tentatively reported by us some years ago.

  17. Detecting interstellar migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Pazmino, John

    1997-01-01

    Interstellar migrations may occur when a civilization's star enters the red giant phase, thereby dooming the life-bearing planet. Ecologically self-contained 'world ships', massing billions of kilograms and propelled by hyperthin, space manufactured solar sails thousands of kilometers in diameter unfurled near the home star are possible vehicles to transfer a threatened civilization to a neighboring star. Consideration of the nearest red giants reveals that Pollux is the nearest formerly solar-type red giant. Known stellar neighbors of Pollux are surveyed to determine likely directions for an interstellar migration departing Pollux. Such migrations might consist of many world ships launched over millennia on voyages of about 1000 terrestrial-year duration; discovery of such events will be serendipitous. The difficulties of observing solar-sail star ships near Pollux are considered. A facility dedicated to imaging extrasolar planets within 10 parsecs might be capable of detecting these large spacecraft.

  18. Interstellar hydrogen sulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen sulfide is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.

  19. Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

  20. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  1. Innovative interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Tom; Roelof, Edmond C.; Gruntman, Mike; Gloeckler, George; Koehn, Patrick L.; Kurth, William S.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Leary, James C.; Anderson, Brian J.

    2006-09-01

    An interstellar ``precursor'' mission has been under discussion in the scientific community for at least 30 years. Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements that such a mission can provide. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is being studied under a NASA ``Vision Mission'' grant. Speed is provided by a combination of a high-energy launch, using current launch vehicle technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration provided by an ion thruster running off electricity provided by advanced radioisotope electric generators. A payload of ten instruments with an aggregate mass of ~35 kg and requiring ~30 W has been carefully chosen to address the compelling science questions. The nominal 20-day launch window opens on 22 October 2014 followed by a Jupiter gravity assist on 5 February 2016. The REP system accelerates the spacecraft to a ``burnout'' speed of 7.8 AU per year at 104 AU on 13 October 2032 (Voyager 1's current speed is ~3.6 AU/yr). The spacecraft will return at least 500 bits per second from at least 200 AU ~30 years after launch. Additional (backup) launch opportunities occur every 13 months to early 2018. In addition to addressing basic heliospheric science, the mission will ensure continued information on the far-heliospheric galactic cosmic ray population after the Voyagers have fallen silent and as the era of human Mars exploration begins.

  2. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  4. Visualizing Interstellar's Wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Oliver; von Tunzelmann, Eugénie; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S.

    2015-06-01

    Christopher Nolan's science fiction movie Interstellar offers a variety of opportunities for students in elementary courses on general relativity theory. This paper describes such opportunities, including: (i) At the motivational level, the manner in which elementary relativity concepts underlie the wormhole visualizations seen in the movie; (ii) At the briefest computational level, instructive calculations with simple but intriguing wormhole metrics, including, e.g., constructing embedding diagrams for the three-parameter wormhole that was used by our visual effects team and Christopher Nolan in scoping out possible wormhole geometries for the movie; (iii) Combining the proper reference frame of a camera with solutions of the geodesic equation, to construct a light-ray-tracing map backward in time from a camera's local sky to a wormhole's two celestial spheres; (iv) Implementing this map, for example, in Mathematica, Maple or Matlab, and using that implementation to construct images of what a camera sees when near or inside a wormhole; (v) With the student's implementation, exploring how the wormhole's three parameters influence what the camera sees—which is precisely how Christopher Nolan, using our implementation, chose the parameters for Interstellar's wormhole; (vi) Using the student's implementation, exploring the wormhole's Einstein ring and particularly the peculiar motions of star images near the ring, and exploring what it looks like to travel through a wormhole.

  5. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-01-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  6. Interstellar carbon in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swart, P. K.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Murchison and Allende chondrites contain up to 5 parts per million carbon that is enriched in carbon-13 by up to +1100 per mil (the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 is approximately 42, compared to 88 to 93 for terrestrial carbon). This 'heavy' carbon is associated with neon-22 and with anomalous krypton and xenon showing the signature of the s-process (neutron capture on a slow time scale). It apparently represents interstellar grains ejected from late-type stars. A second anomalous xenon component ('CCFXe') is associated with a distinctive, light carbon (depleted in carbon-13 by 38 per mil), which, however, falls within the terrestrial range and hence may be of either local or exotic origin.

  7. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  8. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Heck, P. R.; Jillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Hudson, B.; Huss, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  9. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Brian

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources.

  10. Germanium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D.; Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia De; Kress, Joel D.; Rudin, Sven P.

    2014-05-07

    A new SESAME multiphase germanium equation of state (EOS) has been developed using the best available experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The equilibrium EOS includes the Ge I (diamond), the Ge II (β-Sn) and the liquid phases. The foundation of the EOS is based on density functional theory calculations which are used to determine the cold curve and the Debye temperature. Results are compared to Hugoniot data through the solid-solid and solid-liquid transitions. We propose some experiments to better understand the dynamics of this element

  11. Report on Multiphase Flow Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on a multiphase flow panel. The topics include: 1) Discussion of Priorities; 2) Critical Issues Reduced Gravity Instabilities; 3) Severely Limiting Phase Separation; 4) Severely-Limiting Phase Change; 5) Enhancements; 6) Awareness Instabilities; 7) Awareness; 8) Methods of Resolution; 9) 2008 Space Flight; 10) 2003-2008 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 11) 2003-2008 Other; 12) 2009-2015 Space Flight; 13) 2009-2015 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 14) 2009-2015 Other; and 15) 2016.

  12. Germanium multiphase equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, S. D.; De Lorenzi-Venneri, G.; Kress, J. D.; Rudin, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    A new SESAME multiphase germanium equation of state (EOS) has been developed utilizing the best available experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The equilibrium EOS includes the Ge I (diamond), the Ge II (β-Sn) and the liquid phases. The foundation of the EOS is based on density functional theory calculations which are used to determine the cold curve and the Debye temperature. Results are compared to Hugoniot data through the solid-solid and solid-liquid transitions. We propose some experiments to better understand the dynamics of this element.

  13. Germanium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott; Kress, Joel; Rudin, Sven; de Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Germanium equation of state (EOS) has been developed utilizing the best experimental data and theoretical calculations. The equilibrium EOS includes the GeI (diamond), GeII (beta-Sn) and liquid phases. We will also explore the meta-stable GeIII (tetragonal) phase of germanium. The theoretical calculations used in constraining the EOS are based on quantum molecular dynamics and density functional theory phonon calculations. We propose some physics rich experiments to better understand the dynamics of this element.

  14. Turbulent Mixing of Multiphase Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Y.-N.; Ferziger, J.; Ham, F. E.; Herrmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Thus we conduct numerical simulations of multiphase fluids stirred by two-dimensional turbulence to assess the possibility of self-similar drop size distribution in turbulence. In our turbulence simulations, we also explore the non-diffusive limit, where molecular mobility for the interface is vanishing. Special care is needed to transport the non-diffusive interface. Numerically, we use the particle level set method to evolve the interface. Instead of using the usual methods to calculate the surface tension force from the level set function, we reconstruct the interface based on phase- field modeling, and calculate the continuum surface tension forcing from the reconstructed interface.

  15. Theoretical Modeling of Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Gas phase processes that may build large carbon-chain species in cold molecular clouds will be summarized. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can lead to a large variety of organic species, and models of molecule formation by atom additions to multiply-bonded molecules will be presented. The subsequent desorption of these mixed molecular ices can initiate a distinctive organic chemistry in hot molecular cores. The general ion-molecule pathways leading to even larger organics will be outlined. The predictions of this theory will be compared with observations to show how possible organic formation pathways in the interstellar medium may be constrained. In particular, the success of the theory in explaining trends in the known interstellar organics, in predicting recently-detected interstellar molecules, and, just as importantly, non-detections, will be discussed.

  16. The violent interstellar medium in Milky-Way like disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoline Walch, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    Molecular clouds are cold, dense, and turbulent filamentary structures that condense out of the multi-phase interstellar medium. They are also the sites of star formation. The minority of new-born stars is massive, but these stars are particularly important for the fate of their parental molecular clouds as their feedback drives turbulence and regulates star formation.I will present results from the SILCC project (SImulating the Life Cycle of molecular Clouds), in which we study the formation and dispersal of molecular clouds within the multi-phase ISM using high-performance, three-dimensional simulations of representative pieces of disk galaxies. Apart from stellar feedback, self-gravity, an external stellar potential, and magnetic fields, we employ an accurate description of gas heating and cooling as well as a small chemical network including molecule formation and (self-)shielding from the interstellar radiation field. We study the impact of the supernova rate and the positioning of the supernova explosions with respect to the molecular gas in a well defined set of simulations. This allows us to draw conclusions on structure of the multi-phase ISM, the amount of molecular gas formed, and the onset of galactic outflows. Furthermore, we show how important stellar wind feedback is for regulating star formation in these disks.

  17. The Interstellar Conspiracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    If we were designing a human-carrying starship that could be launched in the not-too-distant future, it would almost certainly not use a warp drive to instantaneously bounce around the universe, as is done in Isaac Asimov's classic Foundation series or in episodes of Star Trek or Star Wars. Sadly, those starships that seem to be within technological reach could not even travel at high relativistic speeds, as does the interstellar ramjet in Poul Anderson's Tau Zero. Warp-speeds seem to be well outside the realm of currently understood physical law; proton-fusing ramjets may never be technologically feasible. Perhaps fortunately in our terrorist-plagued world, the economics of antimatter may never be attractive for large-scale starship propulsion. But interstellar travel will be possible within a few centuries, although it will certainly not be as fast as we might prefer. If humans learn how to hibernate, perhaps we will sleep our way to the stars, as do the crew in A. E. van Vogt's Far Centaurus. However, as discussed in a landmark paper in The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, the most feasible approach to transporting a small human population to the planets (if any) of Alpha Centauri is the worldship. Such craft have often been featured in science fiction. See for example Arthur C. Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, and Robert A. Heinlein's Orphans of the Sky. Worldships are essentially mobile versions of the O Neill free-space habitats. Constructed mostly from lunar and/or asteroidal materials, these solar-powered, multi-kilometer-dimension structures could house 10,000 to 100,000 humans in Earth-approximating environments. Artificial gravity would be provided by habitat rotation, and cosmic ray shielding would be provided by passive methods, such as habitat atmosphere and mass shielding, or magnetic fields. A late 21st century space-habitat venture might support itself economically by constructing large solar-powered satellites to beam energy back to

  18. Interstellar Glycolaldehyde: The First Sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.

    2000-09-01

    Interstellar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N) by means of millimeter-wave rotational transitions. Glycolaldehyde is an important biomarker since it is structurally the simplest member of the monosaccharide sugars that heretofore have gone undetected in interstellar clouds. There is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds. It may be that the typical environment of dense interstellar clouds is favorable to glycolaldehyde synthesis by means of the polymerization of formaldehyde (H2CO) molecules either on grain surfaces or in the gas phase. Alternatively, we speculate that glycolaldehyde and other complex molecules may undergo assembly from functional molecular groups on grain surfaces. Utilizing common chemical precursors, a chance process could account for the high degree of isomerism observed in complex interstellar molecules (e.g., methyl formate, acetic acid, and glycolaldehyde). This work suggests that the phenomenon of isomerism be investigated further as a means of potentially constraining interstellar chemistry routes for those individual sources where the condition of good source-beam coupling can be achieved.

  19. Interstellar molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    1986-04-01

    The physical properties of the molecular phase of the interstellar medium are studied with regard to star formation and the structure of the Galaxy. Most observations of molecular clouds are made with single-dish, high-surface precision radio telescopes, with the best resolution attainable at 0.2 to 1 arcmin; the smallest structures that can be resolved are of order 10 to the 17th cm in diameter. It is now believed that: (1) most of the mass of the Galaxy is in the form of giant molecular clouds; (2) the largest clouds and those responsible for most massive star formation are concentrated in spiral arms; (3) the molecular clouds are the sites of perpetual star formation, and are significant in the chemical evolution of the Galaxy; (4) giant molecular clouds determine the evolution of the kinematic properties of galactic disk stars; (5) the total gas content is diminishing with time; and (6) most clouds have supersonic internal motions and do not form stars on a free-fall time scale. It is concluded that though progress has been made, more advanced instruments are needed to inspect the processes operating within stellar nurseries and to study the distribution of the molecular clouds in more distant galaxies. Instruments presently under construction which are designed to meet these ends are presented.

  20. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  1. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a

  2. Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling.

  3. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  4. Origins Space Telescope: Interstellar Medium, Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multi-phase ISM; connecting physics at all scales, from galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over cosmic time and trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds, to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself in order to understand the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets.

  5. Reactive multiphase flow simulation workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    VanderHeyden, W.B.

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on computer simulation of reactive multiphase flow was held on May 18 and 19, 1995 in the Computational Testbed for Industry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Approximately 35 to 40 people attended the workshop. This included 21 participants from 12 companies representing the petroleum, chemical, environmental and consumer products industries, two representatives from the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies and several from Los Alamos. The dialog at the meeting suggested that reactive multiphase flow simulation represents an excellent candidate for government/industry/academia collaborative research. A white paper on a potential consortium for reactive multiphase flow with input from workshop participants will be issued separately.

  6. Multiphase Flow Analysis in Hydra-TH

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Francois, Marianne M.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2012-06-20

    This talk presents an overview of the multiphase flow efforts with Hydra-TH. The presentation begins with a definition of the requirements and design principles for multiphase flow relevant to CASL-centric problems. A brief survey of existing codes and their solution algorithms is presented before turning the model formulation selected for Hydra-TH. The issues of hyperbolicity and wellposedness are outlined, and a three candidate solution algorithms are discussed. The development status of Hydra-TH for multiphase flow is then presented with a brief summary and discussion of future directions for this work.

  7. Interstellar Propulsion Research Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is actively conducting advanced propulsion research and technology development in various in-space transportation technologies with potential application to interstellar missions and precursors. Within the last few years, interest in the scientific community in interstellar missions as well as outer heliospheric missions, which could function as interstellar precursor missions, has increased. A mission definition team was charted by NASA to define such a precursor, The Interstellar Probe, which resulted in a prioritization of relatively near-term transportation technologies to support its potential implementation. In addition, the goal of finding and ultimately imaging extra solar planets has raised the issue of our complete inability to mount an expedition to such as planet, should one be found. Even contemplating such a mission with today's technology is a stretch of the imagination. However, there are several propulsion concepts, based on known physics, that have promise to enable interstellar exploration in the future. NASA is making small, incremental investments in some key advanced propulsion technologies in an effort to advance their state-of-the-art in support potential future mission needs. These technologies, and their relative maturity, are described.

  8. Interstellar neutrals in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E. )

    1989-03-01

    The solar system is moving through the interstellar medium with a velocity of about 20 km/s. The neutral interstellar gas, which thereby penetrates the heliosphere, is subject to ionization by solar UV radiation, charge exchange with the solar wind, and electron collisions. The newly created ions are then picked by the solar wind through interaction of interstellar neutrals with the interplanetary magnetic field. The pick-up ions with their peculiar elemental composition probably also constitute the source particles of the Anomalous Cosmic Ray Component (ACR). In this report descriptions of the interaction with the solar wind are reviewed. While most of the constituents are already ionized far beyond the orbit of the Earth, neutral helium (because of its high ionization potential) approaches the Sun to {lt}1 AU. The pick-up of interstellar He{sup +} ions has recently been directly observed for the first time. The observed velocity distribution of He{sup +} extending up to twice the solar wind velocity can be explained in terms of pitch angle scattering of the ions probably by interplanetary Alven waves and subsequent adiabatic cooling in the expanding solar wind. Thermal coupling of the He{sup +} to the solar wind is negligible in the inner heliosphere. Detailed studies of the pick-up distribution provide a method to investigate the interplanetary propagation parameters and the state of the local interstellar medium.

  9. Correlation properties of interstellar dust: Diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a research program in which an attempt was made to establish the physical nature of the interstellar grains, and the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands, by comparing relations between different observed properties; the properties used include the extinction in the optical and ultraviolet (including wavelength 2200 and the far-UV rise), cloud density, atomic depletions, and strengths of the diffuse bands. Observations and also data from literature were used, selecting particularly sight-lines where some observed property was found to have anomalous behavior.

  10. The neutral atomic phases of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, M. G.; Hollenbach, D.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of the diffuse interstellar medium. Our method incorporates a new photoelectric heating rate from small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that accounts for a size distribution of particles extending from 100 to 3 A radius. We also include a detailed treatment of the ionization rates and heating due to the soft X-ray background and due to cosmic rays. Phase diagrams (thermal pressure P versus hydrogen density n) are presented for gas that is illuminated by local interstellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) and X-ray radiation fields. A stable two-phase medium is produced with thermal pressure in the range P/k approximately = to 10(exp 3-4) K/cc. We demonstrate that photoelectric heating from PAHs dominates in the warm neutral phase (WNM) and cold neutral phase (CNM). If the C II (158 micrometers cooling per hydrogen nucleus in the solar neighborhood represents an average value for the Galaxy, we predict L(sub CII) approximately = to 7 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosities from the CNM in the Galaxy, comparable to that observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). We discuss the dependence of the results on absorbing column density, gas phase abundances, dust abundances and metallicity, FUV field, and the X-ray radiation field. These results will be useful in modeling the multiphase structure of high-velocity clouds in the halo, the interstellar matter (ISM) at other galactocentric radii, and the ISM in external galaxies and galactic nuclei.

  11. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  12. Shock Driven Multiphase Instabilities in Scramjet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) arise in many applications from dust production in supernovae to ejecta distribution in explosions. At the limit of small, fast reacting particles the instability evolves similar to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability. However, as additional particle effects such as lag, phase change, and collisions become significant the required parameter space becomes much larger and the instability deviates significantly from the RM instability. In scramjet engines the SDMI arises during a cold start where liquid fuel droplets are injected and processed by shock and expansion waves. In this case the particle evaporation and mixing is important to starting and sustaining combustion, but the particles are large and slow to react, creating significant multiphase effects. This talk will examine multiphase mixing in scramjet relevant conditions in 3D multiphase hydrodynamic simulations using the FLASH code from the University of Chicago FLASH center.

  13. Measuring Interstellar Inheritance and Its Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Ciesla, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    CIs, chondrite matrices and IDP accreted ~10 % of pristine interstellar material (ices, silicates, organics). The non-solar O isotopic compositions of most solar materials reflect early heating of interstellar dust and ices in FU Orionis outbursts.

  14. The formation of interstellar jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Canto, J.; Rozyczka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of interstellar jets by convergence of supersonic conical flows and the further dynamical evolution of these jets are investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations. The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. Strong radiative cooling is shown to result in jets with Mach numbers 2.5-29 propagating to lengths 50-100 times their original widths, with condensation of swept-up interstellar matter at Mach 5 or greater. The characteristics of so-called molecular outflows are well reproduced by the simulations of low-Mach-number and quasi-adiabatic jets.

  15. Interstellar helium in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Lange, J. J.; Scherb, F.

    1972-01-01

    The velocity distribution function of He(+) in the solar wind at 1 AU is calculated with the assumption that the source is photoionization of a cold (T = 100 K), neutral interstellar wind. If the spiral magnetic field is noise free, the velocity distribution is diffuse and would not produce a peak at 4(E over Q) sub H in an E over Q particle spectrum. If the velocity of the interstellar wind with respect to the sun lies in the ecliptic, a large variation of the He(+) number density with respect to ecliptic longitude is expected.

  16. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  17. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewedpublicationsbytheauthorand/orFredHoyle. Theprevailingreluctancetoaccepttheseclear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance - a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  18. Electric propulsion and interstellar flight

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two general classes of interstellar space-flights are defined: endothermic and exothermic. Endothermic methods utilize power sources external to the vehicle and associated technology. Faster exothermic methods utilize on-board propulsive power sources or energy-beam technology. Various proposed endothermic electric propulsion methods are described. These include solar electric rockets, mass drivers, and ramjets. A review of previously suggested exothermic electric propulsion methods is presented. Following this review is a detailed discussion of possible near future application of the beamed-laser ramjet, mainly for ultimate relativistic travel. Electric/magnetic techniques offer an excellent possibility for decelerating an interstellar vehicle, regardless of the acceleration technique. 20 references.

  19. Infrared emission from interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between PAHs and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of PAHs, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to PAHs with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.

  20. An update on subsea multiphase pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Colombi, P.; De Donno, S.

    1996-02-01

    Agip SpA anticipates that subsea multiphase production, based on long-distance transportation of untreated oilwell fluids--namely, oil, water, and gas, will be an efficient tool for the exploitation of deepwater and marginal fields. In 1990, at the Trecate onshore oil field, Agip completed long-term testing of a multiphase screw pump, which confirmed commercial surface applications. Agip then integrated a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin-screw pump into a subsea multiphase boosting unit that was installed at the Prezioso field, offshore Sicily, in 1994 That was the first subsea installation of an electrically driven multi-phase pump operating with live oil. Agip began endurance testing of the pumping system in January 1995 and by last November, the cumulated period of running reached 3,500 hours with no evidence of pump-capacity reduction. Testing focused on boosting at high gas-void fraction and oil viscosity, operation at variable motor speed for pump control, pump control by means of throttling valves, direct interaction of the pumping system with both wells and the multiphase export line, variation of the lube-oil pressure across seals and bearings, and the evaluation of any degradation effect on the pump flow capacity over time. This paper reviews the design and performance of this pump and applicability to other offshore projects.

  1. On the question of interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Arguments are presented which show that motives for interstellar travel by advanced technological civilizations based on an extrapolation of earth's history may be quite invalid. In addition, it is proposed that interstellar travel is so enormously expensive and perhaps so hazardous, that advanced civilizations do not engage in such practices because of the ease of information transfer via interstellar communication.

  2. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  3. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  4. Low-Mach-number turbulence in interstellar gas revealed by radio polarization gradients.

    PubMed

    Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Burkhart, B; Newton-McGee, K J; Ekers, R D; Lazarian, A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Robishaw, T; Dickey, J M; Green, A J

    2011-10-05

    The interstellar medium of the Milky Way is multiphase, magnetized and turbulent. Turbulence in the interstellar medium produces a global cascade of random gas motions, spanning scales ranging from 100 parsecs to 1,000 kilometres (ref. 4). Fundamental parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the sonic Mach number (the speed of sound) have been difficult to determine, because observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motion. Observations of linear polarization and Faraday rotation in radio emission from the Milky Way have identified unusual polarized structures that often have no counterparts in the total radiation intensity or at other wavelengths, and whose physical significance has been unclear. Here we report that the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q, U), where Q and U are parameters describing the polarization state of radiation, provides an image of magnetized turbulence in diffuse, ionized gas, manifested as a complex filamentary web of discontinuities in gas density and magnetic field. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that turbulence in the warm, ionized medium has a relatively low sonic Mach number, M(s) ≲ 2. The development of statistical tools for the analysis of polarization gradients will allow accurate determinations of the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength in interstellar turbulence over a wide range of conditions.

  5. All-aqueous multiphase microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Sauret, Alban; Cheung Shum, Ho

    2013-01-01

    Immiscible aqueous phases, formed by dissolving incompatible solutes in water, have been used in green chemical synthesis, molecular extraction and mimicking of cellular cytoplasm. Recently, a microfluidic approach has been introduced to generate all-aqueous emulsions and jets based on these immiscible aqueous phases; due to their biocompatibility, these all-aqueous structures have shown great promises as templates for fabricating biomaterials. The physico-chemical nature of interfaces between two immiscible aqueous phases leads to unique interfacial properties, such as an ultra-low interfacial tension. Strategies to manipulate components and direct their assembly at these interfaces needs to be explored. In this paper, we review progress on the topic over the past few years, with a focus on the fabrication and stabilization of all-aqueous structures in a multiphase microfluidic platform. We also discuss future efforts needed from the perspectives of fluidic physics, materials engineering, and biology for fulfilling potential applications ranging from materials fabrication to biomedical engineering. PMID:24454609

  6. Measurement in multiphase reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is presented of diagnostic techniques and measurements made in multiphase reacting flows. The special problems encountered by the presence of liquid droplets, soot and solid particles in high temperature chemically reacting turbulent environments are outlined. The principal measurement techniques that have been tested in spray flames are spark photography, laser anemometry, thermocouples and suction probes. Spark photography provides measurement of drop size, drop size distribution, drop velocity, and angle of flight. Photographs are analysed automatically by image analysers. Photographic techniques are reliable, inexpensive and proved. Laser anemometers have been developed for simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of individual particles in sprays under conditions of vaporization and combustion. Particle/gas velocity differentials, particle Reynolds numbers, local drag coefficients and direct measurement of vaporization rates can be made by laser anemometry. Gas temperature in sprays is determined by direct in situ measurement of time constants immediately prior to measurement with compensation and signal analysis by micro-processors. Gas concentration is measured by suction probes and gas phase chromatography. Measurements of particle size, particle velocity, gas temperature, and gas concentration made in airblast and pressure atomised liquid spray flames are presented.

  7. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  8. Term Projects on Interstellar Comets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, John E.

    1975-01-01

    Presents two calculations of the probability of detection of an interstellar comet, under the hypothesis that such comets would escape from comet clouds similar to that believed to surround the sun. Proposes three problems, each of which would be a reasonable term project for a motivated undergraduate. (Author/MLH)

  9. Isotopic Fractionation in Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Isotopically fractionated material is found in many solar system objects, including meteorites and comets. It is thought, in some cases, to trace interstellar material that was incorporated into the solar sys tem without undergoing significant processing. In this poster, we sho w the results of several models of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon f ractionation in proto-stellar cores.

  10. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  11. PAHs in Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in translucent interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral PAHs must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (PAH features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral PAHs exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral PAHs in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. // Reference: F. Salama et al. (2011) ApJ. 728 (1), 154 // Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA's Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. J.K. acknowledges the financial support of the Polish State (grant N203 012 32/1550). The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.

  12. Numerical simulations of impacts involving porous bodies. I. Implementing sub-resolution porosity in a 3D SPH hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, Martin; Benz, Willy; Michel, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) impact code to include the effect of porosity at a sub-resolution scale by adapting the so-called P-alpha model. Many small bodies in the different populations of asteroids and comets are believed to contain a high degree of porosity and the determination of both their collisional evolution and the outcome of their disruption requires that the effect of porosity is taken into account in the computation of those processes. Here, we present our model and show how porosity interfaces with the elastic-perfectly plastic material description and the brittle fracture model generally used to simulate the fragmentation of non-porous rocky bodies. We investigate various compaction models and discuss their suitability to simulate the compaction of (highly) porous material. Then, we perform simple test cases where we compare results of the simulations to the theoretical solutions. We also present a Deep Impact-like simulation to show the effect of porosity on the outcome of an impact. Detailed validation tests will be presented in a next paper by comparison with high-velocity laboratory experiments on porous materials [Jutzi et al., in preparation]. Once validated at small scales, our new impact code can then be used at larger scales to study impacts and collisions involving brittle solids including porosity, such as the parent bodies of C-type asteroid families or cometary materials, both in the strength- and in the gravity-dominated regime.

  13. Influence of the active nucleus on the multiphase interstellar medium in NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Weisheit, Jon; Cecil, Gerald; Sokolowski, James

    1993-01-01

    The luminous spiral NGC 1068 has now been imaged from x-ray to radio wavelengths at comparably high resolution (approximately less than 5 in. FWHM). The bolometric luminosity of this well-known Seyfert is shared almost equally between the active nucleus and an extended 'starburst' disk. In an ongoing study, we are investigating the relative importance of the nucleus and the disk in powering the wide range of energetic activity observed throughout the galaxy. Our detailed analysis brings together a wealth of data: ROSAT HRI observations, VLA lambda lambda 6-20 cu cm and OVRO interferometry, lambda lambda 0.4-10.8 micron imaging, and Fabry-Perot spectrophotometry.

  14. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  15. EDITORIAL: Measurement techniques for multiphase flows Measurement techniques for multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi

    2009-11-01

    Research on multiphase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing and so on. Multiphase flows originally have nonlinear features because of multiphase systems. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The nonlinear interaction causes the multiphase flows to be very complicated. Therefore techniques for measuring multiphase flows are very useful in helping to understand the nonlinear phenomena. The state-of-the-art measurement techniques were presented and discussed at the sixth International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (ISMTMF2008) held in Okinawa, Japan, on 15-17 December 2008. This special feature of Measurement Science and Technology includes selected papers from ISMTMF2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China, Japan and many western Pacific countries have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for over 1000 years. Much technical and scientific information was exchanged at the symposium in Okinawa. The proceedings of ISMTMF2008 apart from these special featured papers were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 147 (2009). We would like to express special thanks to all the contributors to the symposium and this special feature. This special feature will be a milestone in measurement techniques for multiphase flows.

  16. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  17. Diffuse Interstellar Bands in Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Sarre, P.; Marshall, C. C. M.; Spekkens, K.; de Naray, R. Kuzio

    Recent Fabry-Pérot observations towards the galaxy NGC 1325 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) led to the serendipitous discovery of an emission feature centered at 661.3 nm arising from material in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy; this emission feature lies at the wavelength of one of the sharper and stronger diffuse bands normally seen in absorption. The flux of the feature is 4.2 +/- 0.5 × 10-18 es-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. It appears that this is the first observation of emission from a diffuse band carrier in the ISM, excited in this case by the interstellar radiation field. We present the discovery spectra and describe follow-up measurements proposed for SALT.

  18. Ionization in nearby interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Fowler, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to dielectric recombination, neutral magnesium represents an important tracer for the warm low-density gas around the solar system. New Mg I 2852 absorption-line data from IUE are presented, including detections in a few stars within 40 pc of the sun. The absence of detectable Mg I in Alpha CMa and other stars sets limits on the combined size and electron density of the interstellar cloud which gives rise to the local interstellar wind. For a cloud radius greater than 1 pc and density of 0.1/cu cm, the local cloud has a low fractional ionization, n(e)/n(tot) less than 0.05, if magnesium is undepleted, equilibrium conditions prevail, the cloud temperature is 11,750 K, and 80 percent of the magnesium in the sightline is Mg II.

  19. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  20. CaFe interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Kozak, M.; Gnaciński, P.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Krełowski, J.

    2007-07-01

    A new kind of interstellar cloud is proposed. These are rare (just a few examples among ~300 lines of sight) objects with the CaI 4227-Å, FeI 3720-Å and 3860-Å lines stronger than those of KI (near 7699 Å) and NaI (near 3302 Å). We propose the name `CaFe' for these clouds. Apparently they occupy different volumes from the well-known interstellar HI clouds where the KI and ultraviolet NaI lines are dominant features. In the CaFe clouds we have not found either detectable molecular features (CH, CN) or diffuse interstellar bands which, as commonly believed, are carried by some complex, organic molecules. We have found the CaFe clouds only along sightlines toward hot, luminous (and thus distant) objects with high rates of mass loss. In principle, the observed gas-phase interstellar abundances reflect the combined effects of the nucleosynthetic history of the material, the depletion of heavy elements into dust grains and the ionization state of these elements which may depend on irradiation by neighbouring stars. Based on data collected using the Maestro spectrograph at the Terskol 2-m telescope, Russia; and on data collected using the ESO Feros spectrograph; and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility acquired with the UVES spectrograph, Chile. E-mail: `arctur'@rambler.ru (AB); marizak@astri.uni.torun.pl (MK); pg@iftia.univ.gda.pl (PG); gala@boao.re.kr (GAG); ybialets@eso.org (YB); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)

  1. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  2. Silicon chemistry in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    Interstellar SiO was discovered shortly after CO but it has been detected mainly in high density and high temperature regions associated with outflow sources. A new model of interstellar silicon chemistry that explains the lack of SiO detections in cold clouds is presented which contains an exponential temperature dependence for the SiO abundance. A key aspect of the model is the sensitivity of SiO production by neutral silicon reactions to density and temperature, which arises from the dependence of the rate coefficients on the population of the excited fine structure levels of the silicon atom. This effect was originally pointed out in the context of neutral reactions of carbon and oxygen by Graff, who noted that the leading term in neutral atom-molecule interactions involves the quadrupole moment of the atom. Similar to the case of carbon, the requirement that Si has a quadrupole moment requires population of the J = 1 level, which lies 111K above the J = 0 ground state and has a critical density n(cr) equal to or greater than 10(6)/cu cm. The SiO abundance then has a temperature dependence proportional to exp(-111/T) and a quadratic density dependence for n less than n(cr). As part of the explanation of the lack of SiO detections at low temperatures and densities, this model also emphasizes the small efficiencies of the production routes and the correspondingly long times needed to reach equilibrium. Measurements of the abundance of SiO, in conjunction with theory, can provide information on the physical properties of interstellar clouds such as the abundances of oxygen bearing molecules and the depletion of interstellar silicon.

  3. RUBIDIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Kyle M.; Federman, S. R.; Knauth, David C.; Lambert, David L. E-mail: steven.federman@utoledo.ed E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2009-11-20

    We present observations of interstellar rubidium toward o Per, zeta Per, AE Aur, HD 147889, chi Oph, zeta Oph, and 20 Aql. Theory suggests that stable {sup 85}Rb and long-lived {sup 87}Rb are produced predominantly by high-mass stars, through a combination of the weak s- and r-processes. The {sup 85}Rb/{sup 87}Rb ratio was determined from measurements of the Rb I line at 7800 A and was compared to the solar system meteoritic ratio of 2.59. Within 1sigma uncertainties, all directions except HD 147889 have Rb isotope ratios consistent with the solar system value. The ratio toward HD 147889 is much lower than the meteoritic value and similar to that toward rho Oph A; both lines of sight probe the Rho Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. The earlier result was attributed to a deficit of r-processed {sup 85}Rb. Our larger sample suggests instead that {sup 87}Rb is enhanced in these two lines of sight. When the total elemental abundance of Rb is compared to the K elemental abundance, the interstellar Rb/K ratio is significantly lower than the meteoritic ratio for all the sight lines in this study. Available interstellar samples for other s- and r- process elements are used to help interpret these results.

  4. Multiphase pumps make field wells more economic

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, M.; Mabes, T.

    1995-11-01

    While proposed applications of multiphase (MP) pumps in subsea developments have generated much publicity, particularly in Europe, applications on a smaller scale in several remote and/or marginal well situations have been quietly improving producing operations. This short article describes one such application in Alberta, Canada, in which a simple, screw-type multiphase pump installation solved well flow problems for Imperial Oil Resources. Bornemann Pumps Inc., supplier for equipment for this application says more than 40 such pumps have been delivered for various field problem solutions in eight countries. Basic design and function of the rotary screw type MP pump used in these applications are overviewed below.

  5. Fullerenes and Buckyonions in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias Groth, S.

    2004-09-01

    We have studied the contribution of single fullerenes and buckyonions to the interstellar extinction. The photoabsorption spectra of these molecules is predicted and compared with some of the most relevant features of interstellar extinction, the UV bump, far UV rise and the diffuse interstellar bands. We conclude that fullerenes and buckyonions may explain these features and make a preliminary estimate of the carbon fraction locked in these molecules.

  6. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Houches, Les

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss the many different manifestation of interstellar dust, and current dust models that satisfy interstellar extinction, diffuse infrared emission, and interstellar abundances constraints. Dust is made predominantly in AGB stars and Type I1 supernovae, and I will present observational evidence for the presence of dust in these sources. I will then present chemical evolution models that follow the abundance of dust which is determined by the combined processes of formation, destruction by interstellar shock waves, and accretion in molecular clouds. The model will be applied to the evolution of PAHs and the evolution of dust in the high-redshift galaxy (z=6.42) JD11.

  7. Structure and Dynamics of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Moles, Mariano; Melnick, Jorge

    Here for the first time is a book that treats practically all aspects of modern research in interstellar matter astrophysics. 20 review articles and 40 carefully selected and refereed papers give a thorough overview of the field and convey the flavor of enthusiastic colloquium discussions to the reader. The book includes sections on: - Molecular clouds, star formation and HII regions - Mechanical energy sources - Discs, outflows, jets and HH objects - The Orion Nebula - The extragalactic interstellar medium - Interstellar matter at high galactic latitudes - The structure of the interstellar medium

  8. Interstellar and interplanetary solids in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartois, Emmanuel; Alata, Ivan; Engrand, Cécile; Brunetto, Rosario; Duprat, Jean; Pino, Thomas; Quirico, Eric; Remusat, Laurent; Bardin, Noémie; Mostefaoui, Smail; Morinaud, Gilles; Crane, Bruno; Szwec, Nicolas; Delauche, Lucie; Jamme, Frédéric; Sandt, Christophe; Dumas, Paul

    The composition of interstellar matter is driven by environmental parameters and results from extreme interstellar medium physico-chemical conditions. Astrochemists must rely on remote observations to monitor and analyze the interstellar solids composition. They bring additional information from the study of analogues produced in the laboratory, placed in simulated space environments. Planetologists and cosmochemists access and spectroscopically examine collected extraterrestrial material in the laboratory. Diffuse interstellar medium and molecular clouds observations set constraints on the composition of organic solids that can then be compared with collected extraterrestrial materials analyses, to shed light on their possible links.

  9. Multiphase Instabilities in Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S. ``Bala''

    2015-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of particles is a complex multiphase phenomenon that can be observed in volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as multiphase explosives. As the layer of particles moves outward at high speed, it undergoes complex interactions with the blast-wave structure following the reaction of the energetic material. Particularly in this work, we are interested in the multiphase flow instabilities related to Richmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RM) instabilities (in the gas phase and particulate phase), which take place as the particle layer disperses. These types of instabilities are known to depend on initial conditions for a relatively long time of their evolution. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, we study the growth of these instabilities and their dependence on initial conditions related to the particulate phase - namely, (i) particle size, (ii) initial distribution, and (iii) mass ratio (particles to explosive). Additional complexities associated with compaction of the layer of particles are avoided here by limiting the simulations to modest initial volume fraction of particles. A detailed analysis of the initial conditions and its effects on multiphase RM/RT-like instabilities in the context of an explosive dispersal of particles is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  10. Ultrasonic rate measurement of multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dannert, D.A.; Horne, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    On of the most important tools in production logging and well testing is the downhole flowmeter. Unfortunately, existing tools are inaccurate outside of an idealized single phase flow, regime. Spinner tools are inaccurate at extremely high or low, flow rates and when the flow rate is variable. Radioactive tracer tools have similar inaccuracies and are extremely sensitive to the flow regime. Both tools completely fail in the presence of multiphase flow, whether gas/ oil, gas/water or fluid/solid. Downhole flowmetering is important for locating producing zones and thief zones and monitoring production and injection rates. The effects of stimulation can also be determined. This goal of this project is the investigation of accurate downhole flowmetering techniques for all single phase flow regimes and multiphase flows. The measurement method investigated in this report is the use of ultrasound. There are two ways to use ultrasound for fluid velocity measurement. The first method, examined in Chapter 2, is the contrapropagation, or transit-time, method which compares travel times with and against fluid flow. Chapter 3 details the second method which measures the Doppler frequency shift of a reflected sound wave in the moving fluid. Both of these technologies need to be incorporated in order to build a true multiphase flowmeter. Chapter 4 describes the proposed downhole multiphase flowmeter. It has many advantages besides the ones previously mentioned and is in full in that chapter.

  11. Multi-Phase Driver Education Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District, Hurst, TX.

    For use in planning and conducting functional multi-phase driver education programs, this teacher's guide consists of four phases of instruction: classroom activities, simulated application, in-car range practice, and in-car public practice. Contents are divided into three instructional sections, with the first combining the classroom activities…

  12. Multiphase flow and transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1989-08-01

    Multiphase flow and transport of compositionally complex fluids in geologic media is of importance in a number of applied problems which have major social and economic effects. In petroleum reservoir engineering, efficient recovery of energy reserves is the principal goal. Unfortunately, some of these hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals often find their way unwanted into the soils and groundwater supplies. Removal in the latter case is predicated on ensuring the public health and safety. In this paper, principles of modeling fluid flow in systems containing up to three fluid phases (namely, water, air, and organic liquid) are described. Solution of the governing equations for multiphase flow requires knowledge of functional relationships between fluid pressures, saturations, and permeabilities which may be formulated on the basis of conceptual models of fluid-porous media interactions. Mechanisms of transport in multicomponent multiphase systems in which species may partition between phases are also described, and the governing equations are presented for the case in which local phase equilibrium may be assumed. A number of hypothetical numerical problems are presented to illustrate the physical behavior of systems in which multiphase flow and transport arise.

  13. A Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott; Greeff, Carl

    2009-06-01

    A new SESAME multiphase gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes two of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga III) and a fluid phase. The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We will also explore refreezing via isentropic release and compression.

  14. GE Healthcare launches multiphase advertising effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    GE Healthcare has launched a multi-phase marketing campaign aimed at promoting the technological breakthroughs and state-of-the-art equipment that it provides hospitals and health systems to ensure that patients are given the best care possible. The campaign boasts four new commercials and an interactive Web site designed to illustrate healthy living on a global scale.

  15. Cavitation and multiphase flow forum - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, O

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on cavitation phenomena. Topics include: multiphase flow, the two-phase water hammer in a nuclear power plant, phase separation of dispersed annular flow, liquid films, shock waves propagating through two-phase magnetic fluid, venturimeters, gas-particle flows, particle-wall interactions, and the evaluation of wear in centrifugal slurry pumps.

  16. Multiphase railgun systems - A new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. K.; Weldon, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates multiphase railguns powered by multiphase compulsators. The polyphase system offers several advantages over the single phase system. The multiphase compulsator relaxes the strong dependence between the current pulse width necessary for the railgun and the design parameters of the generator (number or poles, rotor diameter, and tip speed) thus allowing the compulsator to be designed for optimum power density and electromechanical energy conversion. The paper examines in particular the two, three and six phase systems. The authors also explore different methods of achieving high acceleration ratios in multiphase railgun systems. Some of the methods analyzed are ramping up the field current of the compulsator to counter the back electromotive force of the gun, utilizing a railgun with varying inductance per unit length (L'), and using an external variable inductor in series with the compulsator. The different features of each method are highlighted using simulation results. Special attention is devoted to the external series inductor method which uses a rotary flux compressor. Simulation results indicate an encouraging acceleration ratio of 0.7 for a muzzle energy of 9 MJ. A disk configuration is envisioned for the flux compressor.

  17. Quantification of sub-resolution porosity in carbonate rocks by applying high-salinity contrast brine using X-ray microtomography differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qingyang; Al-Khulaifi, Yousef; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-10-01

    Characterisation of the pore space in carbonate reservoirs and aquifers is of utmost importance in a number of applications such as enhanced oil recovery, geological carbon storage and contaminant transport. We present a new experimental methodology that uses high-salinity contrast brine and differential imaging acquired by X-ray tomography to non-invasively obtain three-dimensional spatially resolved information on porosity and connectivity of two rock samples, Portland and Estaillades limestones, including sub-resolution micro-porosity. We demonstrate that by injecting 30 wt% KI brine solution, a sufficiently high phase contrast can be achieved allowing accurate three-phase segmentation based on differential imaging. This results in spatially resolved maps of the solid grain phase, sub-resolution micro-pores within the grains, and macro-pores. The total porosity values from the three-phase segmentation for two carbonate rock samples are shown to be in good agreement with Helium porosity measurements. Furthermore, our flow-based method allows for an accurate estimate of pore connectivity and a distribution of porosity within the sub-resolution pores.

  18. Modeling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Dobbs, Clare; Jenkins, Edward B.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM) using hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] and the local gas density n({{H}}) that we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The relation predicted by the models reproduces the slope of -0.5 for the observed relation in cold clouds, which is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by dust growth. We find that growth occurs in the cold medium for all adopted values of the minimum grain size a min from 1 to 5 nm. For the classical cutoff of {a}\\min =5 {nm}, the Coulomb repulsion results in slower accretion and higher [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] than the observed values. For {a}\\min ≲ 3 {nm}, the Coulomb interactions enhance the growth rate, steepen the slope of the [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}]-n({{H}}) relation, and provide a better match to observations. The rates of dust re-formation in the ISM by far exceed the rates of dust production by stellar sources. After the initial 140 Myr, the cycle of matter in and out of dust reaches a steady state, in which the dust growth balances the destruction on a similar timescale of 350 Myr.

  19. Multiphase Ozonolysis of Aqueous α-Terpineol.

    PubMed

    Leviss, Dani H; Van Ry, Daryl A; Hinrichs, Ryan Z

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase ozonolysis of aqueous organics presents a potential pathway for the formation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). We investigated the multiphase ozonolysis of α-terpineol, an oxygenated derivative of limonene, and found that the reaction products and kinetics differ from the gas-phase ozonolysis of α-terpineol. One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies along with GC-MS identified the aqueous ozonolysis reaction products as trans- and cis-lactols [4-(5-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuran-3-yl)butan-2-one] and a lactone [4-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(3-oxobutyl)-valeric acid gamma-lactone], which accounted for 46%, 27%, and 20% of the observed products, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide was also formed in 10% yield consistent with a mechanism involving decomposition of hydroxyl hydroperoxide intermediates followed by hemiacetal ring closure. Multiphase reaction kinetics at gaseous ozone concentrations of 131, 480, and 965 parts-per-billion were analyzed using a resistance model of net ozone uptake and found the second-order rate coefficient for the aqueous reaction of α-terpineol + O3 to be 9.9(±3.3) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Multiphase ozonolysis will therefore be competitive with multiphase oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (OH) and ozonolysis of gaseous α-terpineol. We also measured product yields for the heterogeneous ozonolysis of α-terpineol adsorbed on glass, NaCl, and kaolinite, and identified the same three major products but with an increasing lactone yield of 33, 49, and 55% on these substrates, respectively.

  20. Herschel Observations of Interstellar Chloronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Roueff, Evelyne; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Indriolo, Nick; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Larsson, Bengt; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Monje, Raquel; Nagy, Zsófia; Phillips, Thomas G.; Sandqvist, Aage; Sonnentrucker, Paule; van der Tak, Floris; Wolfire, Mark G.

    2012-03-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H2Cl+) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s-1 cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H35 2Cl+ and para-H37 2Cl+ isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 111-000 transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for ~4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of ~2 × 1013 cm-2 and ~1.2 × 1013 cm-2, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H35 2Cl+ line strengths toward H2 Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor ~10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  2. Probing the diffuse interstellar medium with diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    For a century already, a large number of absorption bands have been known at optical wavelengths, called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). While their carriers remain unidentified, the relative strengths of these bands in various environments make them interesting new probes of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We present the results from two large, dedicated campaigns to map the ISM using DIBs measured in the high signal-to-noise spectra of hundreds of early-type stars: [1] in and around the Local Bubble using ESO's New Technology Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope, and [2] across both Magellanic Clouds using the Very Large Telescope and the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We discuss the implications for the structure and dynamics of the ISM, as well as the constraints these maps place on the nature of the carriers of the DIBs. Partial results have appeared in the recent literature (van Loon et al. 2013; Farhang et al. 2015a,b; Bailey, PhD thesis 2014) with the remainder being prepared for publication now.

  3. Cosmic ray sampling of a clumpy interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Boettcher, Erin; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Yoast-Hull, Tova M.

    2013-12-10

    How cosmic rays sample the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) in starburst galaxies has important implications for many science goals, including evaluating the cosmic ray calorimeter model for these systems, predicting their neutrino fluxes, and modeling their winds. Here, we use Monte Carlo simulations to study cosmic ray sampling of a simple, two-phase ISM under conditions similar to those of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The assumption that cosmic rays sample the mean density of the ISM in the starburst region is assessed over a multi-dimensional parameter space where we vary the number of molecular clouds, the galactic wind speed, the extent to which the magnetic field is tangled, and the cosmic ray injection mechanism. We evaluate the ratio of the emissivity from pion production in molecular clouds to the emissivity that would be observed if the cosmic rays sampled the mean density, and seek areas of parameter space where this ratio differs significantly from unity. The assumption that cosmic rays sample the mean density holds over much of parameter space; however, this assumption begins to break down for high cloud density, injection close to the clouds, and a very tangled magnetic field. We conclude by evaluating the extent to which our simulated starburst region behaves as a proton calorimeter and constructing the time-dependent spectrum of a burst of cosmic rays.

  4. Simulation of optical interstellar scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, F.; Moniez, M.; Ansari, R.; Rahvar, S.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: Stars twinkle because their light propagates through the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected on a longer time scale when the light of remote stars crosses an interstellar turbulent molecular cloud, but it has never been observed at optical wavelengths. The aim of the study described in this paper is to fully simulate the scintillation process, starting from the molecular cloud description as a fractal object, ending with the simulations of fluctuating stellar light curves. Methods: Fast Fourier transforms are first used to simulate fractal clouds. Then, the illumination pattern resulting from the crossing of background star light through these refractive clouds is calculated from a Fresnel integral that also uses fast Fourier transform techniques. Regularisation procedure and computing limitations are discussed, along with the effect of spatial and temporal coherency (source size and wavelength passband). Results: We quantify the expected modulation index of stellar light curves as a function of the turbulence strength - characterised by the diffraction radius Rdiff - and the projected source size, introduce the timing aspects, and establish connections between the light curve observables and the refractive cloud. We extend our discussion to clouds with different structure functions from Kolmogorov-type turbulence. Conclusions: Our study confirms that current telescopes of ~4 m with fast-readout, wide-field detectors have the capability of discovering the first interstellar optical scintillation effects. We also show that this effect should be unambiguously distinguished from any other type of variability through the observation of desynchronised light curves, simultaneously measured by two distant telescopes.

  5. Components in interstellar molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, L., Jr.; Morton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for precise spectrophotometric measurements of the profiles of selected Lyman absorption lines produced by hydrogen molecules in various rotational levels along the line of sight to 13 stars which have shown some evidence for an increase in line width with increasing rotational quantum number (J). The line profiles were measured by multiple scans with the Copernicus satellite telescope. Based on analysis of the radial velocities, derivations of the column densities, and line-profile fitting, the following conclusions are made: (1) the increase in interstellar H2 line width with increasing J results from the presence of the most shortward component, which is relatively weak at low J but becomes more important at higher J; (2) the relative column densities found for the different J levels in each component may be fitted by a theoretical model in which rotational excitation is due to absorption of UV photons followed by radiative quadrupole spontaneous transitions or collisionally induced downward transitions between different J levels; (3) the atomic hydrogen density is between 300 and 1000 per cu cm in the most shortward component for each of three stars; (4) the approaching gas which produces each shortward component must be in the form of thin sheets; and (5) the sheets are the compressed gas behind a shock front moving through the interstellar medium.

  6. Interstellar Material towards eta UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Welty, D. E.; Johns-Krull, C.

    1999-05-01

    The star eta UMa (B3 V, vsini=205 km s(-1) , d=31 pc, l=101(o) , b=+65(o) ) samples nearby interstellar gas in a high latitude direction relatively devoid of material. IMAPS, Hubble GHRS Echelle, and ground based optical data are combined to present a comprehensive picture of the interstellar material (ISM) in this direction. Two main components dominate: the blue-shifted component which appears to be ionized, and the dominant, red-shifted, component which exhibits a low electron density ( ~ 0.2 cm(-3) ). However, the Mg(o/Mg^+) ratio and C(+) fine-structure lines yield different ionizations, depending on the adopted temperature, similar to differences found in the diffuse material towards 23 Ori (Welty et al. 1999). The IMAPS and GHRS data give C, N, O, and Fe column densities, which form the basis for calculating the gas-to-dust mass ratio for the main component using a ``missing mass'' calculation combined with an assumed reference abundance (Frisch et al. 1999). Comparing the eta UMa value with other diffuse cloud values then further constrains uncertainties in N(H(o) ) values for this sightline.

  7. Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Draine, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of ≃4.5 Å, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges, particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If ≳10% of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

  8. Photodissociation of interstellar N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Heays, A. N.; Visser, R.; Ubachs, W.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Molecular nitrogen is one of the key species in the chemistry of interstellar clouds and protoplanetary disks, but its photodissociation under interstellar conditions has never been properly studied. The partitioning of nitrogen between N and N2 controls the formation of more complex prebiotic nitrogen-containing species. Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a better understanding of the interstellar N2 photodissociation processes based on recent detailed theoretical and experimental work and to provide accurate rates for use in chemical models. Methods: We used an approach similar to that adopted for CO in which we simulated the full high-resolution line-by-line absorption + dissociation spectrum of N2 over the relevant 912-1000 Å wavelength range, by using a quantum-mechanical model which solves the coupled-channels Schrödinger equation. The simulated N2 spectra were compared with the absorption spectra of H2, H, CO, and dust to compute photodissociation rates in various radiation fields and shielding functions. The effects of the new rates in interstellar cloud models were illustrated for diffuse and translucent clouds, a dense photon dominated region and a protoplanetary disk. Results: The unattenuated photodissociation rate in the Draine (1978, ApJS, 36, 595) radiation field assuming an N2 excitation temperature of 50 K is 1.65 × 10-10 s-1, with an uncertainty of only 10%. Most of the photodissociation occurs through bands in the 957-980 Å range. The N2 rate depends slightly on the temperature through the variation of predissociation probabilities with rotational quantum number for some bands. Shielding functions are provided for a range of H2 and H column densities, with H2 being much more effective than H in reducing the N2 rate inside a cloud. Shielding by CO is not effective. The new rates are 28% lower than the previously recommended values. Nevertheless, diffuse cloud models still fail to reproduce the possible detection of interstellar N2

  9. Interstellar Neutral Gas Flow Measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Implications on Interstellar Medium and Heliosphere Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokol, J.; Wurz, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow tra-jectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Surprisingly, the initial quantita-tive analysis resulted in a somewhat different interstellar flow vector with noticeably lower speed than obtained previously. In comparison with astronomical observations of the flow vectors of neighboring interstellar clouds, this result locates the solar system within the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), contrary to the previous determination, which indicated values between the LIC and the G-Cloud. This year, the fifth season is being accumulated, providing a database over increasing solar activity and with varying view-ing strategies. These recurring observations of the interstellar flow pattern and its spatial distribution allow us to consolidate the derived physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium. We can also track variations in the flow at 1 AU that may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization and radiation pressure for H and explore any other variations of the neutral gas flow. Based on the angular distributions in latitude and longitude, the neutral flow observations also indicate the presence of a secondary compo-nent for most of the species, which most probably stems from charge exchange with ions in the outer heliosheath. We will review our observations and discuss implications for the LIC and its interaction with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improv-ing analysis techniques.

  10. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  11. A Gallium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D; Greeff, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniol data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression.

  12. NMR studies of multiphase flows II

    SciTech Connect

    Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E.

    1995-12-31

    NMR techniques for measurements of spatial distribution of material phase, velocity and velocity fluctuation are being developed and refined. Versions of these techniques which provide time average liquid fraction and fluid phase velocity have been applied to several concentrated suspension systems which will not be discussed extensively here. Technical developments required to further extend the use of NMR to the multi-phase flow arena and to provide measurements of previously unobtainable parameters are the focus of this report.

  13. a Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott D.; Greeff, Carl W.

    2009-12-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. It includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression. We predict an unusual spontaneous spreading of low pressure shocks from STP.

  14. Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpyn, Zuleima

    2015-01-31

    This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.

  15. Polarimetry of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The talk will review what is known about the composition of ices and organics in the dense and diffuse interstellar media (ISM). Mixed molecular ices make up a significant fraction of the solid materials in dense molecular clouds and it is now known that thermal and radiation processing of these ices results in the production of more complex organic species, some of which may survive transport into forming stellar systems and the diffuse ISM. Molecular species identified in interstellar ices include H2O, CH3OH, CO, CH4, CO2, and somewhat surprisingly, H2. Theoretical and laboratory studies of the processing of interstellar analog ices containing these species indicate that species like HCO, H2CO, CH3, and NH3 are readily made and should also be present. The irradiation of mixed molecular ices containing these species, when followed by warming, leads to the production of a large variety of more complex species, including ethanol (CH3CH2OH), formamide (HC(=O)NH2), acetamide (CH3C(=O)NH2), nitriles or isonitriles (R-CN or R-NC hexamethylenetetramine (HMT; C6H12N4), a number of polymeric species related to polyoxymethylene [POM,(-CH2O-)n], and ketones {R-C(=O)-R'}. Spectral studies of dust in the diffuse ISM indicate the presence of fairly complex organics, some of which may be related to the organics produced in dense molecular clouds. Spectral comparisons indicate that the diffuse ISM organics may be quite similar to meteoritic kerogens, i.e. they may consist largely of aromatic moieties interlinked by short aliphatic bridges. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that the galactic distribution of this material closely matches that of silicates, but does not correlate directly with visual extinction. This implies that a large fraction of the visual extinction is caused by a material other than these organics and silicates and that this other material has a significantly different distribution within the galaxy.

  16. Multiphase booster ups production from subsea well

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Rogn South subsea well has the world`s first commercial subsea multiphase boosting system. The well produces to A/S Norske Shell`s Draugen field, in the Norwegian Sea. The Smubs (Shell multiphase underwater booster station) provides additional energy to transport a mixture of gas and liquids over long distances. This reduces the back pressure on the reservoir to potentially enhance both production and recovery. In-house Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM) has studied estimated facility costs and performance for a multiphase boosting system for a typical small (50 million bbl) field between 20--50 km from a host facility in water depths between 150--1,000 m. The studies showed that technical costs per barrel of oil produced could be cut by up to 30% compared to conventional technology. The Smubs main features are: A single retrievable cartridge that houses all active components susceptible to wear; No orientation requirements for the pump cartridge unit; No orientation requirements for the pump cartridge unit; Hydraulically set and tested seals; and Vertical installation and retrieval with a single tool, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) only for a monitoring.

  17. Optimizing multiphase aquifer remediation using ITOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1994-06-01

    The T2VOC computer model for simulating the transport of organic chemical contaminants in non-isothermal multiphase systems has been coupled to the ITOUGH2 code which solves parameter optimization problems. This allows one to use nonlinear programming and simulated annealing techniques to solve groundwater management problems, i.e. the optimization of multiphase aquifer remediation. This report contains three illustrative examples to demonstrate the optimization of remediation operations by means of simulation-minimization techniques. The code iteratively determines an optimal remediation strategy (e.g. pumping schedule) which minimizes, for instance, pumping and energy costs, the time for cleanup, and residual contamination. While minimizing the objective function is straightforward, the relative weighting of different performance measures--e.g. pumping costs versus cleanup time versus residual contaminant content--is subject to a management decision process. The intended audience of this report is someone who is familiar with numerical modeling of multiphase flow of contaminants, and who might actually use T2VOC in conjunction with ITOUGH2 to optimize the design of aquifer remediation operations.

  18. Investigation of ultraviolet interstellar extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, C.; Haramundanis, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results concerning interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet are reported. These results were initially obtained by using data from main-sequence stars and were extended to include supergiants and emission stars. The principal finding of the analysis of ultraviolet extinction is not only that it is wavelength dependent, but that if changes with galactic longitude in the U3 passband (lambda sub eff = 1621 A); it does not change significantly in the U2 passband (lambda sub eff = 2308 A). Where data are available in the U4 passband (lambda sub eff = 1537 A), they confirm the rapid rise of extinction in the ultraviolet found by other investigators. However, in all cases, emission stars must be used with great caution. It is important to realize that while extinction continues to rise toward shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet, including the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths measured (1100 A), it no longer plays an important role in the X-ray region (50 A).

  19. Interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Interstellar extinction curves over the region 3600-1100 A for 17 stars are presented. The observations were made by the two Wisconsin spectrometers onboard the OAO-2 with spectral resolutions of 10 A and 20 A. The extinction curves generally show a pronounced maximum at 2175 plus or minus 25 A, a broad minimum in the region 1800-1350 A, and finally a rapid rise to the far ultraviolet. Large extinction variations from star to star are found, especially in the far ultraviolet; however, with only two possible exceptions in this sample, the wavelength at the maximum of the extinction bump is essentially constant. These data are combined with visual and infrared observations to display the extinction behavior over a range in wavelength of about a factor of 20.

  20. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of approximately 3 x 10(exp -10) relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for approximately 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (approximately 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 nm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H2 that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  1. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of about 3 x 10 (exp -10) relative to H, If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for about 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (about 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 mm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H, that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  2. Abundance fluctuations in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of abundances within the interstellar medium is reviewed. It appears that interstellar abundances within 1 kpc of the Sun are uniform to within a factor of two or three, but it is not yet possible to determine whether there are real fluctuations at this level except for deuterium for which the factor of two variations appear to be real. Establishing the level of local fluctuations in the abundances is of considerable importance for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood, the evolution of the interstellar medium and the formation of stars.

  3. Local interstellar medium and modeling the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkiewicz, R.; Barnes, A.; Spreiter, J. R.

    2000-11-01

    We use the best currently available estimates for interstellar parameters to update and expand the earlier study of Ratkiewicz et al. [1998]. We report (1) a more complete survey of the morphology of the heliosphere and the ways it may be modified by variation of external interstellar parameters, (2) a detailed classification of the several asymmetries and distortions associated with exterior field-flow obliquity, including cross sections of the three-dimensional structure in all three principal planes, (3) an analysis of the transition from supermagnetosonic to nearly transmagnetosonic flow, and (4) specific results for the heliosphere for the best current understanding of conditions in the local interstellar medium.

  4. The interstellar connection to solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; Hage, Joniek

    1991-01-01

    Solar system bodies such as comets and meteorites are examined for interstellar signatures which may ultimately indicate what the protoplanetary nebula conditions were at the time the bodies formed. This involves retracing the sequence starting with a dense interstellar cloud, through the accretion disk phase of the protoplanetary nebula to the various steps in the aggregation process and finally to the physical and chemical metamorphic processes in the final body during the subsequent 4.55 billion years. Models of interstellar dust and comets which aid in such analysis are presented.

  5. Speckles in interstellar radio-wave scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, K. M.; Gwinn, C. R.; Reynolds, J.; King, E. A.; Jauncey, D.; Nicholson, G.; Flanagan, C.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of speckles in the scattering disk of the Vela pulsar are presented and speckle techniques for studying and circumventing scattering of radio waves by the turbulent interstellar plasma are discussed. The speckle pattern contains, in a hologrammatic fashion, complete information on the structure of the radio source as well as the distribution of the scattering material. Speckle observations of interstellar scattering of radio waves are difficult because of their characteristically short timescales and narrow bandwidths. Here, first observations are presented, taken at 13 cm wavelength with elements of the SHEVE VLBI network, of speckles in interstellar scattering.

  6. Interstellar grains: Effect of inclusions on extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, N.; Gupta, R.; Vaidya, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    A composite dust grain model which simultaneously explains the observed interstellar extinction, polarization, IR emission and the abundance constraints, is required. We present a composite grain model, which is made up of a host silicate oblate spheroid and graphite inclusions. The interstellar extinction curve is evaluated in the spectral region 3.4-0.1 μm using the extinction efficiencies of composite spheroidal grains for three axial ratios. Extinction curves are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The model curves are subsequently compared with the average observed interstellar extinction curve and with an extinction curve derived from the IUE catalogue data.

  7. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.

    1978-01-01

    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  8. Multiphase pumps and flow meters avoid platform construction

    SciTech Connect

    Elde, J.

    1999-02-01

    One of the newest wrinkles in efficiency in BP`s Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) is the system for moving multiphase oil, water and gas fluids from the Machar satellite field to the Marnock Central Processing Facility (CPF). Using water-turbine-driven multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, the system moves fluid with no need for a production platform. In addition, BP has designed the installation so it reduces and controls water coning, thereby increasing recoverable reserves. Both subsea multiphase booster stations (SMUBS) and meters grew out of extensive development work and experience at Framo Engineering AS (Framo) in multiphase meters and multiphase pump systems for subsea installation. Multiphase meter development began in 1990 and the first subsea multiphase meters were installed in the East Spar Project in Australia in 1996. By September 1998, the meters had been operating successfully for more than 1 year. A single multiphase meter installed in Marathon`s West Brae Project has also successfully operated for more than 1 year. Subsea meters for ETAP were installed and began operating in July 1998.

  9. Interstellar material in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    All the substance of the Earth and other terrestrial planets once existed in the form of interstellar grains and gas. A major aspect of solar system formation (and undoubtedly of star formation generally) is the complex series of processes that converted infalling interstellar grains into planets. A cryptic record of these processes is preserved in certain samples of planetary materials, such as chondritic meteorites, that were preserved in a relatively unchanged form since the beginning. It is to be expected that some of these primitive materials might contain or even consist of preserved presolar interstellar grains. The identification and study of such grains, the ancestors of our planetary system, is a matter of intense interest. Types of primitive material accessible or potentially accessible, and component of or relationship to presolar interstellar grains are discussed.

  10. Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory measurements confirm that a 'buckyball' ion is responsible for two near-infrared absorption features found in spectra of the interstellar medium, casting light on a century-old astrochemical mystery. See Letter p.322

  11. Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the notion of an abundant population of large, carbon rich molecules in the ISM was considered preposterous. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of PAC - shockingly large molecules by previous interstellar chemistry standards - are recognized throughout the Universe. In this paper, we will examine the interstellar PAC model and its importance to astrophysics, including: (1) the evidence which led to inception of the model; (2) the ensuing laboratory and theoretical studies of the fundamental spectroscopic properties of PAC by which the model has been refined and extended; and (3) a few examples of how the model is being exploited to derive insight into the nature of the interstellar PAC population.

  12. A Proposal for an Interstellar Rosetta Stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, S.

    2010-04-01

    Interstellar radio messages is our only, and probably best, way to communicate with another alien civilisation. Since the delay of communication over long distance is considerable, the content of the broadcast is very important.

  13. Cosmocultural Evolution: Cosmic Motivation for Interstellar Travel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.

    Motivations for interstellar travel can vary widely from practical survival motivations to wider-ranging moral obligations to future generations. But it may also be fruitful to explore what, if any, "cosmic" relevance there may be regarding interstellar travel. Cosmocultural evolution can be defined as the coevolution of cosmos and culture, with cultural evolution playing an important and perhaps critical role in the overall evolution of the universe. Strong versions of cosmocultural evolution might suggest that cultural evolution may have unlimited potential as a cosmic force. In such a worldview, the advancement of cultural beings throughout the universe could have significant cosmic relevance, perhaps providing additional motivation for interstellar travel. This paper will explore some potential philosophical and policy implications for interstellar travel of a cosmocultural evolutionary perspective and other related concepts, including some from a recent NASA book, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context.

  14. Observations of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, R.; Heiles, C.; Troland, T.

    This article describes how interstellar magnetic fields are detected, measured, and mapped, the results of such observations, and the role played by interstellar magnetic fields in the physics of the interstellar medium. A goal of the observations is the measurement of the morphology and strengths of the uniform (Bu) and random (Br) components of magnetic fields. Observational techniques probe either the component of B parallel to the line of sight (B_parallel) or in the plane of the sky (B_⊥). Tracers of B_parallel are Faraday rotation of the position angle of linearly polarized radiation and Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. Tracers of B_⊥ are the strength of synchrotron radiation and linear polarization of syn chrotron radiation and of emission or absorption from dust and spectral lines. Starlight polarization shows that on large spatial scales the Galactic magnetic field is not heavily tangled (B_u/B_r ≈ 0.7 - 1.0), that the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane near the plane, that the local field points approximately along the local spiral arm (pitch angle 9.4(°) , center of curvature 7.8 kpc distant towards ℓ ≈ -15.4(°) ), and that off the Galactic plane there is considerable small-scale structure to the field. Galactic synchrotron emission shows magnetic spiral arms with a total strength B_t ≈ 6 #55G and B_u ≈ 4 #55G. Pulsar data show evidence for reversals of the field direction with Galactic radius and yield B_r ≈ 5 #55G and B_u ≈ 1.5 #55G; the morphology of the large-scale mean field is consistent with dynamo generation. H I Zeeman detections for diffuse clouds yield B_parallel char 126 5 - 20 #55G with many limits B_parallel #55G. A recent survey of Galactic H I in absorption against extragalactic sources confirms the result that the fields in diffuse clouds are often quite weak. The critical parameter for evaluating the importance of magnetic fields in star formation is the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux, M

  15. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  16. The interstellar gas experiment: Analysis in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, F.; Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Eugster, O.

    1992-01-01

    The interstellar gas experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils in order to collect neutral interstellar particles which penetrate the solar system due to their motion relative to the sun. These atoms were entrapped in the collecting foils along with precipitating magnetospheric ions and with ambient atmospheric atoms. For the entire duration of the LDEF mission, seven of the foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft. In the mass spectrometric analysis of the trapped noble gas component, we detected the He-3, He-4, Ne-20, and Ne-22 isotopes. In order to infer the isotopic ratios in the interstellar medium from the measured concentrations found in the foil piece, several lines of investigation had to be initiated. The flux of incident noble gas atoms from the ambient atmosphere was estimated by detailed calculations. The contributions proved to be negligible, supporting the experimental evidence. Foil and machine backgrounds for the four isotopes which were measured had to be assessed individually. While this was easy for He-4, spurious foil background of He-3 had to be monitored carefully by analyzing unflown foil pieces. Trapped Ne concentrations are not far above the background. During the flight, a stuck electrical relay precluded the foil-trays from sequencing as designed. Therefore, we could not use the seasonal variation of the direction of the incoming interstellar atoms to make the distinction between interstellar and magnetospheric components of the trapped particles. Instead, we had to try the method of stepwise heating to extract the interstellar component at lower temperatures than we use to extract the magnetospheric component (the interstellars hit the foil with lower energies than most of the magnetospherics). New limiting values for the isotopic composition of the interstellar medium, unavailable yet from any other method of measurement, are emerging from this analysis.

  17. The Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Contributed papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Drawing a coherent picture of the observational characteristics of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB's) and the physical and chemical properties of its proposed carriers was the focus of this NASA sponsored conference. Information relating to absoption spectra, diffuse radiation carriers, carbon compounds, stellar composition, and interstellar extinction involving T-Tauri stars, Reflection Nebulae, Red Giants, and accretion discs are discussed from those papers presented at the conference, which are included in this analytic.

  18. Amino Acid Formation on Interstellar Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Barbier, B.; Brack, A.; Thiemann, W.; Goesmann, F.; Rosenbauer, H.

    2003-04-01

    In the dense interstellar medium dust particles accrete ice layers of known molecular composition. In the diffuse interstellar medium these ice layers are subjected to energetic UV-irradiation. Here, photoreactions form complex organic molecules. The interstellar processes were recently successfully simulated in two laboratories. At NASA Ames Research Center three amino acids were detected in interstellar ice analogues [1], contemporaneously, our European team reported on the identification of 16 amino acids therein [2]. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins in living organisms. The identification of amino acids on the simulated icy surface of interstellar dust particles strongly supports the assumption that the precursor molecules of life were delivered from interstellar and interplanetary space via (micro-) meteorites and/or comets to the earyl Earth. The results shall be verified by the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission Rosetta [3]. [1] M.P. Bernstein, J.P. Dworkin, S.A. Sandford, G.W. Cooper, L.J. Allamandola: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 401-403. [2] G.M. Muñoz Caro, U.J. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, B. Barbier, A. Arcones Sergovia, H. Rosenbauer, W.H.-P. Thiemann, A. Brack, J.M. Greenberg: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 403-406. [3] U. Meierhenrich, W.H.-P. Thiemann, H. Rosenbauer: itshape Chirality \\upshape 11 (1999), 575-582.

  19. On the Nature of Interstellar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, C.

    Data on interstellar extinction are interpreted to imply an identification of interstellar grains with naturally freeze-dried bacteria and algae. The total mass of such bacterial and algal cells in the galaxy is enormous, ~1040 g. The identification is based on Mie scattering calculations for an experimentally determined size distribution of bacteria. Agreement between our model calculations and astronomical data is remarkably precise over the wavelength intervals 1 μ-1 < λ-1 < 1.94 μ-1 and 2.5 μ-1 < λ-1 < 3.0 μ-1. Over the more restricted waveband 4000-5000 Å an excess interstellar absorption is found which is in uncannily close agreement with the absorption properties of phytoplankton pigments. The strongest of the diffuse interstellar bands are provisionally assigned to carotenoid-chlorophyll pigment complexes such as exist in algae and pigmented bacteria. The λ2200 Å interstellar absorption feature could be due to `degraded' cellulose strands which form spherical graphitic particles, but could equally well be due to protein-lipid-nucleic acid complexes in bacteria and viruses. Interstellar extinction at wavelengths λ < 1800 Å could be due to scattering by virus particles.

  20. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  1. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  2. Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

  3. Interstellar Transfer of Planetary Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Max K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Panspermia theories require the transport of micro-organisms in a viable form from one astronomical location to another. The evidence of material ejection from planetary surfaces, of dynamical orbit evolution and of potential survival on landing is setting a firm basis for interplanetary panspermia. Pathways for interstellar panspermia are less clear. We compare the direct route, whereby life-bearing planetary ejecta exit the solar system and risk radiation hazards en route to nearby stellar systems, and an indirect route whereby ejecta hitch a ride within the shielded environment of comets of the Edgeworth- Kuiper Belt that are subsequently expelled from the solar system. We identify solutions to the delivery problem. Delivery to fully-fledged planetary systems of either the direct ejecta or the ejecta borne by comets depends on dynamical capture and is of very low efficiency. However, delivery into a proto-planetary disc of an early solar-type nebula and into pre-stellar molecular clouds is effective, because the solid grains efficiently sputter the incoming material in hypervelocity collisions. The total mass of terrestrial fertile material delivered to nearby pre-stellar systems as the solar system moves through the galaxy is from kilogrammes up to a tonne. Subject to further study of bio-viability under irradiation and fragmenting collisions, a few kg of original grains and sputtered fragments could be sufficient to seed the planetary system with a wide range of solar system micro-organisms.

  4. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençaǧa, Deniz; Carbon, Duane F.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  5. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Gencaga, Deniz; Knuth, Kevin H.; Carbon, Duane F.

    2008-11-06

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  6. Complex Organics from Laboratory Simulated Interstellar Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Many of the volatiles in interstellar dense clouds exist in ices surrounding dust grains. The low temperatures of these ices (T < 50 K) preclude most chemical reactions, but photolysis can drive reactions that produce a suite of new species, many of which are complex organics. We study the UV and proton radiation processing of interstellar ice analogs to explore links between interstellar chemistry, the organics in comets and meteorites, and the origin of life on Earth. The high D/H ratios in some interstellar species, and the knowledge that many of the organics in primitive meteorites are D-enriched, suggest that such links are plausible. Once identified, these species may serve as markers of interstellar heritage of cometary dust and meteorites. Of particular interest are our findings that UV photolysis of interstellar ice analogs produce molecules of importance in current living organisms, including quinones, amphiphiles, and amino acids. Quinones are essential in vital metabolic roles such as electron transport. Studies show that quinones should be made wherever polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are photolyzed in interstellar ices. In the case of anthracene-containing ices, we have observed the production of 9-anthrone and 9,10 anthraquinone, both of which have been observed in the Murchison meteorite. Amphiphiles are also made when mixed molecular ices are photolyzed. These amphiphiles self-assemble into fluorescent vesicles when placed in liquid water, as do Murchison extracts. Both have the ability to trap an ionic dye. Photolysis of plausible ices can also produce alanine, serine, and glycine as well as a number of small alcohols and amines. Flash heating of the room temperature residue generated by such experiments generates mass spectral distributions similar to those of IDPs. The detection of high D/H ratios in some interstellar molecular species, and the knowledge that many of the organics, such as hydroxy and amino acids, in primitive meteorites are D

  7. Oscillatory multiphase flow strategy for chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-07-19

    Continuous multiphase flow strategies are commonly employed for high-throughput parameter screening of physical, chemical, and biological processes as well as continuous preparation of a wide range of fine chemicals and micro/nano particles with processing times up to 10 min. The inter-dependency of mixing and residence times, and their direct correlation with reactor length have limited the adaptation of multiphase flow strategies for studies of processes with relatively long processing times (0.5-24 h). In this frontier article, we describe an oscillatory multiphase flow strategy to decouple mixing and residence times and enable investigation of longer timescale experiments than typically feasible with conventional continuous multiphase flow approaches. We review current oscillatory multiphase flow technologies, provide an overview of the advancements of this relatively new strategy in chemistry and biology, and close with a perspective on future opportunities.

  8. Multiphase equation of state for iron

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, G I

    1993-02-01

    The PANDA code is used to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) table for iron. Separate EOS tables were first constructed for each of the individual phases. The phase diagram and multiphase EOS were then determined from the Helmholtz free energies. The model includes four solid phases ([alpha],[gamma], [delta], and [var epsilon]) and a fluid phase (including the liquid, vapor, and supercritical regions). The model gives good agreement with experimental thermophysical data, static compression data, phase boundaries, and shock-wave measurements. Contributions from thermal electronic excitation, computed from a quantum-statistical-mechanical model, were found to be very important. This EOS covers a wide range of densities (0--1000 g/cm[sup 3]) and temperatures (0--1.2[times]10[sup 7] K). It is also applicable to RHA steel. The new EOS is used in hydrocode simulations of plate impact experiments, a nylon ball impact on steel, and the shaped charge perforation of an RHA plate. The new EOS table can be accessed through the SNL-SESAME library as material number 2150.

  9. Multiphasic Scaffolds for Periodontal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovski, S.; Vaquette, C.; Gronthos, S.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Bartold, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor–based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials. PMID:25139362

  10. Multiphasic scaffolds for periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ivanovski, S; Vaquette, C; Gronthos, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bartold, P M

    2014-12-01

    For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor-based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials.

  11. Multiphase rotodynamic pumps extend their operating capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Falcimaigne, J.; Durando, P.; Loupias, M.; Vilagines, R.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the main features of the P302 multiphase pump and presents some results of bench tests carried out to check its hydraulic performances. The P302 is a rotodynamic helico-axial pump based on the Poseidon pumping technology. It is equipped with water lubricated bearings and driven by a high speed electrical motor. The pump was designed to work with a suction pressure much lower than the P300 prototype and to deliver a higher compression ratio. It has fifteen stages of compression cells, in three different series. Before installing the pump on an onshore production site for endurance tests with actual field fluids, the steady-state behavior and the transient responses of the pump were characterized on the IFP multiphase loop at Solaize (France). The pump was tested both with single phase fluids (liquid or gas) and a diphasic mixture (fuel-oil and nitrogen) at various GVF and suction pressures. In the paper, theoretical predictions are compared to measured data. The good results of these tests confirmed the soundness and versatility of the Poseidon hydraulics and also the calculation model ability to predict accurately the performances of rotodynamic pump over a wide range of operating conditions.

  12. Modeling multiphase flow using fluctuating hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Garcia, Alejandro L; Donev, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Fluctuating hydrodynamics provides a model for fluids at mesoscopic scales where thermal fluctuations can have a significant impact on the behavior of the system. Here we investigate a model for fluctuating hydrodynamics of a single-component, multiphase flow in the neighborhood of the critical point. The system is modeled using a compressible flow formulation with a van der Waals equation of state, incorporating a Korteweg stress term to treat interfacial tension. We present a numerical algorithm for modeling this system based on an extension of algorithms developed for fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal fluids. The scheme is validated by comparison of measured structure factors and capillary wave spectra with equilibrium theory. We also present several nonequilibrium examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm to model multiphase fluid phenomena in a neighborhood of the critical point. These examples include a study of the impact of fluctuations on the spinodal decomposition following a rapid quench, as well as the piston effect in a cavity with supercooled walls. The conclusion in both cases is that thermal fluctuations affect the size and growth of the domains in off-critical quenches.

  13. Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A long-term laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these carbon molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The laboratory results will be discussed as well as the implications for astronomy and for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. We will also present the new generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

  14. Laboratory Studies of Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a

  15. Summer School on Interstellar Processes: Abstracts of contributed papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J. (Editor); Thronson, H. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Summer School on Interstellar Processes was held to discuss the current understanding of the interstellar medium and to analyze the basic physical processes underlying interstellar phenomena. Extended abstracts of the contributed papers given at the meeting are presented. Many of the papers concerned the local structure and kinematics of the interstellar medium and focused on such objects as star formation regions, molecular clouds, HII regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants, and shock waves. Other papers studied the galactic-scale structure of the interstellar medium either in the Milky Way or other galaxies. Some emphasis was given to observations of interstellar grains and

  16. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  17. Excitation of interstellar hydrogen chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufild, David A.; Green, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    We have computed new rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of HCl by He, in the close-coupled formalism and using an interaction potential determined recently by Willey, Choong, & DeLucia. Results have been obtained for temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. With the use of the infinite order sudden approximation, we have derived approximate expressions of general applicability which may be used to estimate how the rate constant for a transition (J to J prime) is apportioned among the various hyperfine states F prime of the final state J prime. Using these new rate coefficients, we have obtained predictions for the HCl rotational line strengths expected from a dense clump of interstellar gas, as a function of the HCl fractional abundance. Over a wide range of HCl abundances, we have found that the line luminosities are proportional to abundance(exp 2/3), a general result which can be explained using a simple analytical approximation. Our model for the excitation of HCl within a dense molecular cloud core indicates that the J = 1 goes to 0 line strengths measured by Blake, Keene, & Phillips toward the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) imply a fractional abundance n(HCl)/n(H2) approximately 2 x 10(exp -9), a value which amounts to only approximately 0.3% of the cosmic abundance of chlorine nuclei. Given a fractional abundance of 2 x 10(exp -9), the contribution of HCl emission to the total radiative cooling of a dense clump is small. For Orion, we predict a flux approximately 10(exp -19) W/sq cm for the HCl J = 3 goes to 2 line near 159.8 micrometers, suggesting that the strength of this line could be measured using the Infrared Space Observatory.

  18. The Organic Component of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, chemical structure, and formation of organic matter in the interstellar medium are important to our understanding of the overall evolution of dust. The exchange of dust between the dense and diffuse interstellar medium, and the effects of processing on dust within dense clouds will affect the inventory of material available for incorporation into newly forming star and planetary systems. Observational ground-based studies have confirmed the widespread distribution of the 3.4 pm absorption band attributed to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the diffuse interstellar medium of our own galaxy, and in the dusty spectra of a few nearby galaxies, while space based observations from IS0 probed the signatures of corresponding mid-infrared features. Laboratory experiments which utilize both thermal processes and energetic processing by high energy photons and cosmic rays, produce candidate materials which offer close matches to the observed diffuse interstellar medium and extragalactic hydrocarbon absorption features. Through an analysis of the 4000 to 1000 cm (2.5 to 10 micrometers) region of the spectrum of diffuse interstellar medium (DISM) dust compared with the spectra of thirteen chemical entities produced in the laboratory which serve as analogs to the interstellar material, significant constraints have been placed on the applicability of proposed candidate materials to explain the interstellar features. The results indicate that the organic refractory material in the diffuse interstellar medium is predominantly hydrocarbon in nature, possessing little nitrogen or oxygen, with the carbon distributed between the aromatic and aliphatic forms. Long alkane chains H3C-(CH2),- with n much greater than 4 or 5 are not major constituents of this material. Comparisons to laboratory analogs indicate the DISM organic material resembles plasma processed pure hydrocarbon residues much more so than energetically processed ice residues. This result is consistent with a

  19. A Laboratory Route to Interstellar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Broekhuizen, Fleur Antoinette

    2005-06-01

    The formation of snow and ice has always intrigued humans and challenged them to study these phenomena. Every snowflake has its own unique history of formation, but no two are alike. Like snow-crystals, interstellar ices consist predominantly of water (H2O), but also contain significant fractions of other molecules such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methanol (CH3OH), and traces of dinitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). The presence, or absence, of a molecule in the ice strongly depends on the environmental conditions. Vice versa, these molecules have an influence on their environment as well. Hence, the chemical composition and the structure of interstellar ices are thought to contain valuable information about the past and the future of interstellar regions, and it is for this reason that interstellar ices are simulated and studied under laboratory conditions. The present thesis contains a study of laboratory analogs of interstellar ices and presents a newly developed apparatus that provides a novel laboratory route to investigate the properties of these ices in more detail than has previously been possible.

  20. Prospective of Photon Propulsion for Interstellar Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Young K.

    Mastering photon propulsion is proposed to be the key to overcoming the limit of the current propulsion technology based on conventional rocketry and potentially opening a new space era. A perspective on photon propulsion is presented here to elucidate that interstellar manned roundtrip flight could be achievable in a century within a frame of exiting scientific principles, once the required existing technologies are further developed. It is shown that the developmental pathway towards the interstellar flight demands not only technological breakthroughs, but consistent long-term world-scale economic interest and investment. Such interest and investment will result from positive financial returns from routine interstellar commutes that can transport highly valuable commodities in a profitable manner. The Photonic Railway, a permanent energy-efficient transportation structure based on the Beamed-Laser Propulsion (BLP) by Forward and the Photonic Laser Thruster (PLT) by the author, is proposed to enable such routine interstellar commutes via Spacetrains. A four-phased evolutionary developmental pathway towards the Interstellar Photonic Railway is proposed. Each phase poses evolutionary, yet daunting, technological and financial challenges that need to be overcome within each time frame of 20 _ 30 years, and is projected to generate multitudes of applications that would lead to sustainable reinvestment into its development. If successfully developed, the Photonic Railway would bring about a quantum leap in the human economic and social interests in space from explorations to terraforming, mining, colonization, and permanent habitation in exoplanets.

  1. Composition, structure and chemistry of interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1986-01-01

    The observational constraints on the composition of the interstellar dust are analyzed. The dust in the diffuse interstellar medium consists of a mixture of stardust (amorphous silicates, amorphous carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and graphite) and interstellar medium dust (organic refractory material). Stardust seems to dominate in the local diffuse interstellar medium. Inside molecular clouds, however, icy grain mantles are also important. The structural differences between crystalline and amorphous materials, which lead to differences in the optical properties, are discussed. The astrophysical consequences are briefly examined. The physical principles of grain surface chemistry are discussed and applied to the formation of molecular hydrogen and icy grain mantles inside dense molecular clouds. Transformation of these icy grain mantles into the organic refractory dust component observed in the diffuse interstellar medium requires ultraviolet sources inside molecular clouds as well as radical diffusion promoted by transient heating of the mantle. The latter process also returns a considerable fraction of the molecules in the grain mantle to the gas phase.

  2. Innovative Interstellar Explorer (I2E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L.; Gold, R. E.; Krimigis, T.; Roelof, E. C.; Gruntman, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Koehn, P. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Oleson, S. R.; Fiehler, D. I.; Horanyi, M.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leary, J. C.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-12-01

    An interstellar "precursor" mission has been under discussion in the scientific community for almost 30 years. Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium and the nature of the very local interstellar medium (VLISM) itself can only be answered with the in situ measurements from a probe penetrating into interstellar space. The problem is the development of a probe that can provide the required measurements and can reach a heliocentric distance of at least 200 astronomical units (AU) in a "reasonable" time. High-performance radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are enabling for our approach: The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is being studied under a NASA "Vision Mission" grant. Speed is provided by a combination of a high-energy launch, a Jupiter gravity assist, and long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration provided by a kilowatt-class ion thruster running off electricity provided by an RPS. Such an approach relies upon known technology for most subsystems and upon current launch vehicles for speed. A payload of nine instruments with an aggregate mass of about 35 kg and requiring 30 W has been carefully chosen to address the compelling science questions. We describe the mission and system that can reach 200 AU in a 30-year flight time.

  3. Organic molecules in translucent interstellar clouds.

    PubMed

    Krełowski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Absorption spectra of translucent interstellar clouds contain many known molecular bands of CN, CH+, CH, OH, OH(+), NH, C2 and C3. Moreover, one can observe more than 400 unidentified absorption features, known as diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), commonly believed to be carried by complex, carbon-bearing molecules. DIBs have been observed in extragalactic sources as well. High S/N spectra allow to determine precisely the corresponding column densities of the identified molecules, rotational temperatures which differ significantly from object to object in cases of centrosymmetric molecular species, and even the (12)C/(13)C abundance ratio. Despite many laboratory based studies of possible DIB carriers, it has not been possible to unambiguously link these bands to specific species. An identification of DIBs would substantially contribute to our understanding of chemical processes in the diffuse interstellar medium. The presence of substructures inside DIB profiles supports the idea that DIBs are very likely features of gas phase molecules. So far only three out of more than 400 DIBs have been linked to specific molecules but none of these links was confirmed beyond doubt. A DIB identification clearly requires a close cooperation between observers and experimentalists. The review presents the state-of-the-art of the investigations of the chemistry of interstellar translucent clouds i.e. how far our observations are sufficient to allow some hints concerning the chemistry of, the most common in the Galaxy, translucent interstellar clouds, likely situated quite far from the sources of radiation (stars).

  4. Positron annihilation in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Ramaty, Reuven; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Positronium formation and annihilation are studied in a model for the interstellar medium consisting of cold cloud cores, warm partially ionized cloud envelopes, and hot intercloud gas. The gamma-ray spectra resulting from positron annihilation in these components of the interstellar medium are calculated. The spectra from the individual components are then combined, using two limiting assumptions for the propagation of the positrons, namely, that the positrons propagate freely throughout the interstellar medium, and that the positrons are excluded from the cold cloud cores. In the first case, the bulk of the positrons annihilate in the cloud cores and the annihilation line exhibits broad wings resulting from the annihilation of positronium formed by charge exchange in flight. In the second case, the positrons annihilate mainly in the warm envelopes, and the line wings are suppressed.

  5. Long-Term Perspectives on Interstellar Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    Realizing interstellar travel by machines or living beings will require not only scientific and technological progress, but also a shared secular belief among a determined minority that this enterprise is important for the human future. Their efforts may have to extend beyond individual human lifetimes. Historical perspectives, on both the past and the future, are proposed. Interstellar probes could be a more thorough way of searching for alien forms of life and intelligence in nearby systems, particularly if there were intelligent beings there who did not employ technologies our astronomical observing devices can detect from here. Perspectives on the ethical, policy, and design issues of such close encounters with alien life and intelligence are presented. Ways of accelerating the coming of interstellar probes are suggested.

  6. Synthesis of prebiotic glycerol in interstellar ices.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ralf I; Maity, Surajit; Jones, Brant M

    2015-01-02

    Contemporary mechanisms for the spontaneous formation of glycerol have not been able to explain its existence on early Earth. The exogenous origin and delivery of organic molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation since biorelevant molecules like amino acids, carboxylic acids, and alkylphosphonic acids have been recovered from carbonaceous chondrites. Reported herein is the first in situ identification of glycerol, the key building block of all cellular membranes, formed by exposure of methanol-based - interstellar model ices to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. These results provide compelling evidence that the radiation-induced formation of glycerol in low-temperature interstellar model ices is facile. Synthesized on interstellar grains and eventually incorporated into the "building material" of solar systems, biorelevant molecules such as glycerol could have been dispensed to habitable planets such as early Earth by comets and meteorites.

  7. Observations of interstellar chlorine and phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Copernicus observations of interstellar Cl I, Cl II, and P II UV lines toward 10 stars are reported. Column densities are estimated for each species, and upper limits are computed for HCl column densities. Derivation of the gas-phase abundances of chlorine and phosphorus indicates that the averages of both the chlorine and the phosphorus logarithmic abundances relative to hydrogen are between 5.0 and 5.1. It is suggested that interstellar chlorine may be depleted by about a factor of 3 relative to the solar abundance and that interstellar phosphorus is depleted by a factor of 2 to 3. The results are shown to support the prediction that chlorine is ionized in regions containing primarily atomic oxygen and is neutral in regions where there is a significant amount of molecular hydrogen. The photoionization rate of neutral chlorine toward 15 Mon is estimated, and it is concluded that most chlorine is contained within the gas phase.

  8. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  9. PAH in the laboratory and interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using PAH containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil PAH material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar PAH theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium.

  10. Global impacts of multiphase oxalate production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, Holger; Taraborrelli, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    Fine mode atmospheric aerosols are dominated by the organic fraction. A large fraction of these organic compounds consists of oxalates and carboxylic acids. Some of these compounds are produced in the gas phase and then subsequently partition into aerosol particles whereas others are produced directly in the aqueous phase in either cloud droplets or deliquesced aerosol particles. In this study we investigate the contribution of oxalates to the global organic aerosol burden using a comprehensive atmospheric chemistry general circulation model including explicit multiphase chemistry schemes for clouds and aerosols. For that purpose the aqueous phase chemistry has been augmented by a mechanism for oxalates, combined with a consistent gas phase chemistry of corresponding oxidation products from isoprene degradation. Using these tools we will present an analysis of both budget and transport estimates which provide indications for the climate impact of these compounds.

  11. Large Interface Simulation in Multiphase Flow Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, Aparicio; Coste, Pierre; Pigny, Sylvain; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2006-07-01

    An attempt to represent multiphase multi-scale flow, filling the gap between Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and averaged approaches, is the purpose of this paper. We present a kind of Large Interface (LI) simulation formalism obtained after a filtering process on local instantaneous conservation equations of the two-fluid model which distinguishes between small scales and large scales contributions. LI surface tension force is also taken into account. Small scale dynamics call for modelization and large scale for simulation. Joined to this formalism, a criterion to recognize LI's is developed. It is used in an interface recognition algorithm which is qualified on a sloshing case and a bubble oscillation under zero-gravity. This method is applied to a rising bubble in a pool that collapses at a free surface and to a square-base basin experiment where splashing and sloshing at the free surface are the main break-up phenomena. (authors)

  12. Gas Kinematics in the Multiphase Circumgalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Murphy, Michael T.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Charlton, Jane C.; Evans, Jessica L.

    2017-03-01

    We use high-resolution Keck, VLT, or Hubble Space Telescope spectra of background quasars to examine the kinematic properties of the multiphase, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium in the outskirts of galaxies at 0.08 < z gal < 1.0, focusing on the low-ionization Mgii and high-ionization Ovi doublets. The absorption kinematics of low-ionization gas in the circumgalactic medium depend strongly on the star formation activity and the location about the host galaxy, where the largest velocity dispersions are associated with blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis. Conversely, high-ionization gas kinematics are independent of galaxy star formation activity and orientation.

  13. Multiphase flows in confinement with complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Pradas, Marc; Vaes, Urbain; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of immiscible fluids in confinement is crucial in numerous applications such as oil recovery, fuel cells and the rapidly growing field of microfluidics. Complexities such as microstructures, chemical-topographical heterogeneities or porous membranes, can often induce non-trivial effects such as critical phenomena and phase transitions . The dynamics of confined multiphase flows may be efficiently described using diffuse-interface theory, leading to the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes(CHNS) equations with Cahn wetting boundary conditions. Here we outline an efficient numerical method to solve the CHNS equations using advanced geometry-capturing mesh techniques both in two and three dimensional scenarios. The methodology is applied to two different systems: a droplet on a spatially chemical-topographical heterogeneous substrateand a microfluidic separator.

  14. Gasificaton Transport: A Multiphase CFD Approach & Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitri Gidaspow; Veeraya Jiradilok; Mayank Kashyap; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2009-02-14

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive theories for the dispersion and mass transfer coefficients and to measure them in the turbulent fluidization regime, using existing facilities. A second objective was to use our multiphase CFD tools to suggest optimized gasifier designs consistent with aims of Future Gen. We have shown that the kinetic theory based CFD codes correctly compute: (1) Dispersion coefficients; and (2) Mass transfer coefficients. Hence, the kinetic theory based CFD codes can be used for fluidized bed reactor design without any such inputs. We have also suggested a new energy efficient method of gasifying coal and producing electricity using a molten carbonate fuel cell. The principal product of this new scheme is carbon dioxide which can be converted into useful products such as marble, as is done very slowly in nature. We believe this scheme is a lot better than the canceled FutureGen, since the carbon dioxide is safely sequestered.

  15. Spatial Distributions and Interstellar Reaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Steber, Amanda L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Spezzano, Silvia; McCarthy, Michael C.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2011-05-01

    Methyl formate presents a challenge for the conventional chemical mechanisms assumed to guide interstellar organic chemistry. Previous studies of potential formation pathways for methyl formate in interstellar clouds ruled out gas-phase chemistry as a major production route, and more recent chemical kinetics models indicate that it may form efficiently from radical-radical chemistry on ice surfaces. Yet, recent chemical imaging studies of methyl formate and molecules potentially related to its formation suggest that it may form through previously unexplored gas-phase chemistry. Motivated by these findings, two new gas-phase ion-molecule formation routes are proposed and characterized using electronic structure theory with conformational specificity. The proposed reactions, acid-catalyzed Fisher esterification and methyl cation transfer, both produce the less stable trans-conformational isomer of protonated methyl formate in relatively high abundance under the kinetically controlled conditions relevant to interstellar chemistry. Gas-phase neutral methyl formate can be produced from its protonated counterpart through either a dissociative electron recombination reaction or a proton transfer reaction to a molecule with larger proton affinity. Retention (or partial retention) of the conformation in these neutralization reactions would yield trans-methyl formate in an abundance that exceeds predictions under thermodynamic equilibrium at typical interstellar temperatures of interstellar clouds. Motivated by new theoretical predictions, the rotational spectrum of trans-methyl formate has been measured for the first time in the laboratory, and seven lines have now been detected in the interstellar medium using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope.

  16. HST STIS Observations of Interstellar Chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Valerie Rose; Dirks, Cody; Meyer, David M.; Cartledge, Stefan I. B.

    2017-01-01

    Among the dominant ions of abundant elements in the diffuse interstellar medium, only chlorine (Cl II) has a rapid exothermic reaction with molecular hydrogen (H2) that should lead to the dominance of its atomic form (Cl I) in clouds where most of the hydrogen is in H2. We present the results of an archival study of the interstellar Cl I λ1347.24 absorption observed at high spectral resolution toward 41 stars with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our key goals in this survey are to explore the relationship between interstellar N(Cl I) and N(H2) with a larger sample and a larger N(H2) range (16.44 < log N(H2) < 20.87) than the Copernicus interstellar survey of Moomey et al. (2012). We additionally contrast it with the high-z QSO damped Lyman-alpha system (DLA) findings of Balashev et al. (2015). We find that for log N(H2) > 19.0, the HST STIS sample is consistent with the Copernicus data and high-z DLA samples in indicating a linear trend of increasing N(Cl I) with increasing N(H2). Furthermore, all of the interstellar sightlines with log f(H2) > -0.5 have log N(Cl I) > 13.5, and those with log f(H2) < -1.5 have log N(Cl I) < 13.5, where f(H2)=2N(H2)/[2N(H2)+N(H I)] is the fractional amount of H2 in H. Consequently, observations of interstellar Cl I can potentially trace the H2 fraction of the “CO-dark” gas marking the transition between diffuse atomic and dense CO molecular clouds.

  17. Interstellar Travel. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning travel between the stars. Topics include cost considerations, hyperspace navigation, exploration, and propulsion systems for vehicles to be used in interstellar travel. Human factor issues and social aspects of interstellar travel are also discussed.

  18. Preliminary Examination of the Interstellar Collector of Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J. C.; Brownlee, D. E.; Butterworth, A. L.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A. T.; Leroux, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE), which will use non-destructive, non-invasive techniques to identify and characterize candidate interstellar impacts in the Stardust aerogel and foil collectors.

  19. Process tomography applied to multi-phase flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakowski, T.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the state of the art in measuring multi-phase flows by using tomographic techniques. The results presented show a wide range of industrial applications of process tomography from the nuclear and chemical to the food industry. This is illustrated by examples of the application of various tomographic sensors to the measurement of geometric or kinematic parameters of multi-phase flows. An application of process tomography for the validation of computational fluid dynamic models and the possibility of constructing a flowmeter for multi-phase flow are addressed.

  20. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

  1. Interstellar magnetic field effects on the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkiewicz, Romana; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; McKenzie, James F.; Webb, Gary M.

    2003-09-01

    This paper summarizes the numerical results obtained by three-dimensional MHD simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and interstellar medium in Ratkiewicz and Ben-Jaffel [2002], Ratkiewicz and McKenzie [2002], and Ratkiewicz and Webb [2002]. We analyze the configuration in which Maxwell stresses lead to squeezing and/or pushing the heliospheric boundary. In particular, we explain the mechanism giving rise to a suction effect of the heliopause. Numerical results for the case of aligned interstellar MHD flow are compared with previous studies.

  2. Indirect observation of unobservable interstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, E.; Green, S.; Thaddeus, P.; Klemperer, W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the abundances of neutral non-polar interstellar molecules unobservable by radio astronomy can be systematically determined by radio observation of the protonated ions. As an example, observed N2H(+) column densities are analyzed to infer molecular nitrogen abundances in dense interstellar clouds. The chemistries and expected densities of the protonated ions of O2, C2, CO2, C2H2 and CH4 are then discussed. Microwave transition frequencies fo HCO2(+) and C2H3(+) are estimated, and a preliminary astronomical search for HCO2(+) is described.

  3. Electron energy loss spectrometry of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) measurements on diamond residues from carbonaceous meteorites designed to elucidate the structure and composition of interstellar diamonds. Dynamic effective medium theory is used to model the dielectric properties of the diamonds and in particular to synthesize the observed spectra as mixtures of diamond and various pi-bonded carbons. The results are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the idea that diamonds and their surfaces are the only contributors to the electron energy loss spectra of the diamond residues and that these peculiar spectra are the result of the exceptionally small grain size and large specific surface area of the interstellar diamonds.

  4. Problems of Interplanetary and Interstellar Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, John

    2008-01-01

    If and when interplanetary and interstellar trade develops, it will be novel in two respects. First, the distances and time spans involved will reduce all or nearly all trade to the exchange of intangible goods. That threatens the possibility of conducting business in a genuinely common currency and of enforcing debt agreements, especially those involving sovereign debt. Second, interstellar trade suggests trade between humans and aliens. Cultural distance is a probable obstacle to initiating and sustaining such trade. Such exchange also threatens the release of new and potentially toxic memes.

  5. Diffuse interstellar bands in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, O.; Henning, Thomas; Pfau, Werner; Stognienko, R.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code for radiation transport calculations is used to compare the profiles of the lambda lambda 5780 and 6613 Angstrom diffuse interstellar bands in the transmitted and the reflected light of a star embedded within an optically thin dust cloud. In addition, the behavior of polarization across the bands were calculated. The wavelength dependent complex indices of refraction across the bands were derived from the embedded cavity model. In view of the existence of different families of diffuse interstellar bands the question of other parameters of influence is addressed in short.

  6. Deflection of the Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Flow Across the Heliospheric Interface: an Interstellar Magnetic Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Eric, Q.; Jean-Loup, B.; Dimitra, K.; Risto, P.

    2005-05-01

    Analyses of SOHO-SWAN observations show that the interstellar neutral H flow direction differs by about 4 degrees from the neutral He flow direction recently derived with an unprecedented accuracy using combined data sets (Mobius et al, 2004). The most likely explanation is a distortion of the heliospheric interface under the action of an inclined interstellar magnetic field, with imprints of the distorsion on the neutral H flow due to charge-transfer reactions between H atoms and ions. The direction of the ambient interstellar magnetic field and the heliospheric shape can be derived from the observed deviation. Implications for Voyager trajectories are discussed.

  7. Comets, carbonaceous chondrites, and interstellar clouds: Condensation of carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Comets, carbonaceous chondrites, and interstellar clouds are discussed in relation to information on interstellar dust. The formation and presence of carbon in stars, comets, and meteorites is investigated. The existence of graphite in the interstellar medium, though it is predicted from thermodynamic calculations, is questioned and the form of carbon contained in comets is considered.

  8. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination II: Curating the Interstellar Dust Collector, Picokeystones, and Sources of Impact Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Gainsforth, Zack; Butterworth, Anna L.; Bastien, Ronald K.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the inherent difficulties that arise during "ground truth" characterization of the Stardust interstellar dust collector. The challenge of identifying contemporary interstellar dust impact tracks in aerogel is described within the context of background spacecraft secondaries and possible interplanetary dust particles and beta-meteoroids. In addition, the extraction of microscopic dust embedded in aerogel is technically challenging. Specifically, we provide a detailed description of the sample preparation techniques developed to address the unique goals and restrictions of the Interstellar Preliminary Exam. These sample preparation requirements and the scarcity of candidate interstellar impact tracks exacerbate the difficulties. We also illustrate the role of initial optical imaging with critically important examples, and summarize the overall processing of the collection to date.

  9. Signal generator converts direct current to multiphase supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baude, J.

    1967-01-01

    Multiphase wave generator uses multivibrators in a feedback control mode that produces output signal pairs that are impressed on the primary windings of inverter transformers sequentially with a 120 degree phase shift from each other.

  10. Multi-Phase Extraction: State-of-the-Practice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the state-of-the-practice for multi-phase extraction (MPE) of contaminated soil and groundwater, focusing primarily on the application and use of MPE at sites with halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  11. A model for multiphase flows through poroelastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, Goodarz; Mazaheri, Ali Reza; Smith, D.H

    2003-01-01

    A continuum model for multiphase fluid mixture flows through poroelastic media is presented. The basic conservation laws developed via a volume averaging technique are considered. Effects of phasic equilibrated forces are included in the model. Based on the thermodynamics of the multiphase mixture flows, appropriate constitutive equations are formulated. The entropy inequality is exploited, and the method of Lagrangian multiplier is used along with the phasic conservation laws to derive the constitutive equations for the phasic stress tensors, equilibrated stress vectors, and the interactions terms. The special cases of wave propagation in poroelastic media saturated with multiphase fluids, and multiphase flows through porous media, are studied. It is shown that the present theory leads to the extended Darcy’s law and contains, as a special case, Biot’s theory of saturated poroelastic media.

  12. Multiphase pumping: The lessons of long-term field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elf-Aquitaine, E.L.; Taiani, S.

    1995-12-31

    The field testing of a POSEIDON rotodynamic helicoaxial pump (P302) manufactured by SULZER is being conducted since June 1994 on the Elf Aquitaine`s onshore site of the PECORADE oil field located in the south-west of France. This one-year testing program is aimed at qualifying this design of multiphase pump for future field applications. The multiphase pump has been previously tested at the IFP`s test loop of SOLAIZE for factory acceptance and performance test. This paper describes the PECORADE multiphase loop, the multiphase pump testing procedures and the results obtained in the field of performance, sensitivity, and endurance. The operational and maintenance lessons to be learned from this long-term field testing are presented from the point of view of the operator.

  13. A Fission-Powered Interstellar Precursor Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; West, J.L.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-10-28

    An 'interstellar precursor mission' lays the groundwork for eventual interstellar exploration by studying the interstellar medium and by stretching technologies that have potential application for eventual interstellar exploration. The numerous scientific goals for such a mission include generating a 3-D stellar map of our galaxy, studying Kuiper-belt and Oort cloud objects, and observing distant objects using the sun's gravitational lens as the primary of an enormous telescope. System equations are developed for a space tug which propels a 2500-kg scientific payload to 550 astronomical units in about 20 years. The tug to transport this payload uses electric propulsion with an Isp of 15,000 seconds and a fission reactor with a closed Brayton cycle to genemte the electricity. The optimal configuration may be to thrust for only about 6 years and then coast for the remaining 14 pars. This spacecraft does not require any physics breakthroughs or major advances in technology. The fission power syslem can be engineered and built by drawing upon known technologies developed for relatgd systems over the past 40 years. The tug system would eventually reach 1000 a.u in 33 years, and would have adequate power to relay large amounts of data throughout its journey.

  14. A fission-powered interstellar precursor mission

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Lenard, Roger X.; Wright, Steven A. West, John L.

    1999-01-01

    An {open_quotes}interstellar precursor mission{close_quotes} lays the groundwork for eventual interstellar exploration by studying the interstellar medium and by stretching technologies that have potential application for eventual interstellar exploration. The numerous scientific goals for such a mission include generating a 3-D stellar map of our galaxy, studying Kuiper-belt and Oort cloud objects, and observing distant objects using the sun{close_quote}s gravitational lens as the primary of an enormous telescope. System equations are developed for a space tug which propels a 2500-kg scientific payload to 550 astronomical units in about 20 years. The tug to transport this payload uses electric propulsion with an lsp of 15,000 seconds and a fission reactor with a closed Brayton cycle to generate the electricity. The optimal configuration may be to thrust for only about 6 years and then coast for the remaining 14 years. This spacecraft does not require any physics breakthroughs or major advances in technology. The fission power system can be engineered and built by drawing upon known technologies developed for related systems over the past 40 years. The tug system would eventually reach 1000 a.u in 33 years, and would have adequate power to relay large amounts of data throughout its journey. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  16. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    PubMed Central

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N2 formation are inefficient, we argue that N2 does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH3 should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. PMID:22689957

  17. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-02-20

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma beta-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  18. THE AGE OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR BUBBLE

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2011-05-15

    The Local Interstellar Bubble is an irregular region from 50 to 150 pc from the Sun in which the interstellar gas density is 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} of that outside the bubble and the interstellar temperature is 10{sup 6} K. Evidently most of the gas was swept out by one or more supernovae. I explored the stellar contents and ages of the region from visual double stars, spectroscopic doubles, single stars, open clusters, emission regions, X-ray stars, planetary nebulae, and pulsars. The bubble has three sub-regions. The region toward the galactic center has stars as early as O9.5 V and with ages of 2-4 M yr. It also has a pulsar (PSRJ1856-3754) with a spin-down age of 3.76 Myr. That pulsar is likely to be the remnant of the supernova that drove away most of the gas. The central lobe has stars as early as B7 V and therefore an age of about 160 Myr or less. The Pleiades lobe has stars as early as B3 and therefore an age of about 50 Myr. There are no obvious pulsars that resulted from the supernovae that cleared out those areas. As found previously by Welsh and Lallement, the bubble has five B stars along its perimeter that show high-temperature ions of O VI and C II along their lines of sight, confirming its high interstellar temperature.

  19. The Voyager Journey to Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. C.

    Launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the two Voyager spacecraft continued their journeys beyond the planets as they searched for the heliopause, the boundary between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. After traveling more than 23 billion kilometers, Voyager 1 left the heliosphere on August 25, 2012, and began returning the first in-situ observations of local interstellar space. Voyager 1 found a wall of interstellar plasma beyond the heliopause with a density forty times greater than inside and an interstellar magnetic field that is compressed and wrapped around the outside. Voyager 1 also observed the energy spectrum of low energy galactic cosmic ray protons that are excluded from the heliosphere by solar modulation, finding a peak intensity at ˜30 MeV. that is ten times the maximum intensity at 1 AU that occurs at ˜300 MeV. An overview of the journey and the new aspects of the interaction of the sun and the nearby region of the Milky Way will be discussed.

  20. Legal challenges in realizing interstellar initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Suzanne M.; Osmond, Elizabeth B.; Urrutia, Manuel C.

    Legal aspects of interstellar exploration and travel are examined. The concept of a space management and legal infrastructure is discussed. Attention is given to space law applicable to social customs, birth, citizenship, ownership, the right to protect one's property and life through insurance, commercial endeavors, colonial government, law and order, space debris, hazardous wastes, and burial and inheritance.

  1. The Age of the Local Interstellar Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2011-05-01

    The Local Interstellar Bubble is an irregular region from 50 to 150 pc from the Sun in which the interstellar gas density is 10-2-10-3 of that outside the bubble and the interstellar temperature is 106 K. Evidently most of the gas was swept out by one or more supernovae. I explored the stellar contents and ages of the region from visual double stars, spectroscopic doubles, single stars, open clusters, emission regions, X-ray stars, planetary nebulae, and pulsars. The bubble has three sub-regions. The region toward the galactic center has stars as early as O9.5 V and with ages of 2-4 M yr. It also has a pulsar (PSRJ1856-3754) with a spin-down age of 3.76 Myr. That pulsar is likely to be the remnant of the supernova that drove away most of the gas. The central lobe has stars as early as B7 V and therefore an age of about 160 Myr or less. The Pleiades lobe has stars as early as B3 and therefore an age of about 50 Myr. There are no obvious pulsars that resulted from the supernovae that cleared out those areas. As found previously by Welsh & Lallement, the bubble has five B stars along its perimeter that show high-temperature ions of O VI and C II along their lines of sight, confirming its high interstellar temperature.

  2. Low energy gamma ray attenuation in multiphase water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1990-01-01

    A gauging system is proposed to enable monitoring of slush density, solid-liquid interface, and slush level as well as its flow rate. It is based on the principle that the electromagnetic radiation mass attenuation coefficient of a multiphase chemical compound is constant for all relative phase concentrations. Results showing the essential constancy of mass attenuation coefficients for single-phase water vapor, liquid water, ice, and multiphase mixtures of water/ice are described.

  3. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination III: Infrared spectroscopic analysis of interstellar dust candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Flynn, George J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Frank, David R.; Gainsforth, Zack; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; von Korff, Joshua; Westphal, Andrew J.; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Under the auspices of the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination, picokeystones extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector were examined with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy to establish whether they contained extraterrestrial organic material. The picokeystones were found to be contaminated with varying concentrations and speciation of organics in the native aerogel, which hindered the search for organics in the interstellar dust candidates. Furthermore, examination of the picokeystones prior to and post X-ray microprobe analyses yielded evidence of beam damage in the form of organic deposition or modification, particularly with hard X-ray synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. From these results, it is clear that considerable care must be taken to interpret any organics that might be in interstellar dust particles. For the interstellar candidates examined thus far, however, there is no clear evidence of extraterrestrial organics associated with the track and/or terminal particles. However, we detected organic matter associated with the terminal particle in Track 37, likely a secondary impact from the Al-deck of the sample return capsule, demonstrating the ability of synchrotron FTIR to detect organic matter in small particles within picokeystones from the Stardust interstellar dust collector.

  4. Effects of mechanical interaction between the interstellar medium and comets

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.A.

    1986-11-01

    The present treatment of the mechanical interaction of Oort Cloud comets with the interstellar medium gives attention to the importance of the accretion of interstellar material onto comets, as well as to the erosion of cometary surfaces by impacting interstellar grains and the consequences of these interactions. Scaling analyses indicate that collisions with interstellar grains can furnish a potent evolutionary mechanism in the modification of cometary surfaces; this factor may also contribute a substantial number of low mass particulated to the interstellar medium. 48 references.

  5. TRIANGULATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-11-01

    Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to triangulate the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.

  6. Quasar Absorption Lines from Radiative Shocks: Implications for Multiphase Outflows and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, C.-A.

    2012-08-01

    Photoionization modeling of certain low-ionization broad absorption lines in quasars implies very compact (ΔR ˜0.01 pc), galaxy-scale (R˜ kpc) absorbers blueshifted by several 1000 km s-1. While these are likely signatures of quasar outflows, the lifetimes of such compact absorbers are too short for them to be direct ejecta from a nuclear wind. Instead, I argue that the absorbing clouds must be transient and created in situ. Following arguments detailed by Faucher-Giguère, Quataert, & Murray (2011), I show that a model in which the cool absorbers form in radiative shocks arising when a quasar blast wave impacts an interstellar cloud along the line of sight successfully explains the key observed properties. Using this radiative shock model, the outflow kinetic luminosities for three luminous quasars are estimated to be Ėk ≍ 2-5% LAGN (with corresponding momentum fluxes Ṗ ≍2-15 LAGN/c), consistent with feedback models of the M-σ relation. These energetics are similar to those recently inferred of molecular outflows in local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and in post-starburt winds, suggesting that active galactic nuclei (AGN) are capable of driving such outflows. Radiative shocks probably affect the multiphase structure of outflows in a range of other systems, potentially including narrower and higher-ionization quasar absorption lines, and compact intergalactic absorbers ejected by star formation and/or AGN activity.

  7. POROSITY AND BAND-STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF MULTI-PHASE COMPOSITE ICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Fransen, Coen; Cazaux, Stéphanie; Linnartz, Harold; Maté, Belén; Ortigoso, Juan; Pilling, Sergio; Rocha, Will Robson Monteiro

    2015-11-20

    We use experimental mid-infrared optical constants and extended effective medium approximations to determine the porosity and the band strengths of multi-phase composite ices grown at 30 K. A set of porous H{sub 2}O:CH{sub 4} ices are taken as a prototypical example. As a benchmark and proof of concept, the stoichiometry of the ice constituents is retreived with good accuracy from the refractive indices and the extinction coefficients of the reference binary ice mixtures with known compositions. Accurate band strengths are then calculated from experimental mid-infrared spectra of complex ices. We notice that the presence of pores has only a small effect on the overall band strengths, whereas a water dilution can considerably alter them. Different levels of porosity are observed depending on the abundance of methane used as a gas contaminant premixed with water prior to background deposition. The absorption profiles are also found to vary with deposition rate. To explain this, we use Monte Carlo simulations and we observe that the deposition rate strongly affects the pore size distribution as well as the ice morphology through reorganization processes. Extrapolated to genuine interstellar ices, the methodology presented in this paper can be used to evaluate the porosity and to quantify the relative abundances from observational data.

  8. Energy Dissipation in Multi-phase Infalling Clouds in Galaxy Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S D; Lin, D C

    2004-06-15

    During the epoch of large galaxy formation, thermal instability leads to the formation of a population of cool fragments which are embedded within a background of tenuous hot gas. The hot gas attains a quasi hydrostatic equilibrium. Although the cool clouds are pressure confined by the hot gas, they fall into the galactic potential, subject to drag from the hot gas. The release of gravitational energy due to the infall of the cool clouds is first converted into their kinetic energy which is subsequently dissipated as heat. The cool clouds therefore represent a potentially significant energy source for the background hot gas, depending upon the ratio of thermal energy deposited within the clouds versus the hot gas. In this paper, we show that most of dissipated energy is deposited in to the tenuous hot halo gas, which provides a source of internal energy to replenish its loss in the hot gas through Bremsstrahlung cooling and conduction into the cool clouds. Through this process, the multi-phase structure of the interstellar medium is maintained.

  9. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  10. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  11. Detection of organic matter in interstellar grains.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Y J

    1997-06-01

    Star formation and the subsequent evolution of planetary systems occurs in dense molecular clouds, which are comprised, in part, of interstellar dust grains gathered from the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). Radio observations of the interstellar medium reveal the presence of organic molecules in the gas phase and infrared observational studies provide details concerning the solid-state features in dust grains. In particular, a series of absorption bands have been observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1) towards bright infrared objects which are seen through large column densities of interstellar dust. Comparisons of organic residues, produced under a variety of laboratory conditions, to the diffuse interstellar medium observations have shown that aliphatic hydrocarbon grains are responsible for the spectral absorption features observed near 3.4 microns (approximately 2940 cm-1). These hydrocarbons appear to carry the -CH2- and -CH3 functional groups in the abundance ratio CH2/CH3 approximately 2.5, and the amount of carbon tied up in this component is greater than 4% of the cosmic carbon available. On a galactic scale, the strength of the 3.4 microns band does not scale linearly with visual extinction, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the Galactic Center. A similar trend is noted in the strength of the Si-O absorption band near 9.7 microns. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of grains with silicate cores and refractory organic mantles. The ubiquity of the hydrocarbon features seen in the near infrared near 3.4 microns throughout out Galaxy and in other galaxies demonstrates the widespread availability of such material for incorporation into the many newly forming planetary systems. The similarity of the 3.4 microns features in any organic material with aliphatic hydrocarbons underscores the need for complete astronomical observational

  12. Shock driven multiphase flow with particle evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Jeevan; McFarland, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    The computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase system with particle evaporation is presented. The particle evaporation modifies the evolution of the interface due to the addition of the vapor phase to the gas. The effects can be quantitatively measured by studying various gas parameters like density, temperature, vorticity and particle properties like diameter and temperature. In addition, the size distribution of particles also modifies the development of instability as the larger size particles damp the evolution of interface in comparison to the smaller size particles. The simulation results are presented to study these effects using FLASH developed at the FLASH Center at the University of Chicago. The capabilities of FLASH for particle modeling were extended using the Particle in Cell (PIC) technique for coupling of mass, momentum, and energy between the particle and carrier gas. A seeded cylinder of gas with particles having either a single radius or a distribution of radii was studied. The enstrophy production and destruction mechanisms were explored to understand the reason for change in vorticity with particle size.

  13. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  14. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  15. The Multi-phase Cold Fountain in M82 Revealed by a Wide, Sensitive Map of the Molecular Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Martini, Paul; Roussel, Hélène; Sandstrom, Karin; Ott, Jürgen; Weiss, Axel; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Schuster, Karl; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2015-12-01

    We present a wide area (≈8 × 8 kpc), sensitive map of CO (2-1) emission around the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Molecular gas extends far beyond the stellar disk, including emission associated with the well-known outflow as far as 3 kpc from M82's midplane. Kinematic signatures of the outflow are visible in both the CO and H i emission: both tracers show a minor axis velocity gradient and together they show double peaked profiles, consistent with a hot outflow bounded by a cone made of a mix of atomic and molecular gas. Combining our CO and H i data with observations of the dust continuum, we study the changing properties of the cold outflow as it leaves the disk. While H2 dominates the ISM near the disk, the dominant phase of the cool medium changes as it leaves the galaxy and becomes mostly atomic after about a kpc. Several arguments suggest that regardless of phase, the mass in the cold outflow does not make it far from the disk; the mass flux through surfaces above the disk appears to decline with a projected scale length of ≈1-2 kpc. The cool material must also end up distributed over a much wider angle than the hot outflow based on the nearly circular isophotes of dust and CO at low intensity and the declining rotation velocities as a function of height from the plane. The minor axis of M82 appears so striking at many wavelengths because the interface between the hot wind cavity and the cool gas produces Hα, hot dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and scattered UV light. We also show the level at which a face-on version of M82 would be detectable as an outflow based on unresolved spectroscopy. Finally, we consider multiple constraints on the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, which must change across the galaxy but appears to be only a factor of ≈2 lower than the Galactic value in the outflow.

  16. THE MULTI-PHASE COLD FOUNTAIN IN M82 REVEALED BY A WIDE, SENSITIVE MAP OF THE MOLECULAR INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Martini, Paul; Walter, Fabian; Roussel, Hélène; Sandstrom, Karin; Ott, Jürgen; Weiss, Axel; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Schuster, Karl; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2015-12-01

    We present a wide area (≈8 × 8 kpc), sensitive map of CO (2–1) emission around the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Molecular gas extends far beyond the stellar disk, including emission associated with the well-known outflow as far as 3 kpc from M82's midplane. Kinematic signatures of the outflow are visible in both the CO and H i emission: both tracers show a minor axis velocity gradient and together they show double peaked profiles, consistent with a hot outflow bounded by a cone made of a mix of atomic and molecular gas. Combining our CO and H i data with observations of the dust continuum, we study the changing properties of the cold outflow as it leaves the disk. While H{sub 2} dominates the ISM near the disk, the dominant phase of the cool medium changes as it leaves the galaxy and becomes mostly atomic after about a kpc. Several arguments suggest that regardless of phase, the mass in the cold outflow does not make it far from the disk; the mass flux through surfaces above the disk appears to decline with a projected scale length of ≈1–2 kpc. The cool material must also end up distributed over a much wider angle than the hot outflow based on the nearly circular isophotes of dust and CO at low intensity and the declining rotation velocities as a function of height from the plane. The minor axis of M82 appears so striking at many wavelengths because the interface between the hot wind cavity and the cool gas produces Hα, hot dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and scattered UV light. We also show the level at which a face-on version of M82 would be detectable as an outflow based on unresolved spectroscopy. Finally, we consider multiple constraints on the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, which must change across the galaxy but appears to be only a factor of ≈2 lower than the Galactic value in the outflow.

  17. Infrared Emission From Interstellar PAHs, New Probes of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in the understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational IR astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely unknown and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, impossibly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong. PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. Aromatic carbon-rich materials ranging in size from PAHs and PAH nanoclusters, to sub-micron and micron-sized dust grains represent an important component of the ISM. These species: (1) dominate the heating and cooling of interstellar clouds via energetic photoelectron ejection and infrared (IR) emission; (2) moderate the ionization balance in photodissociation regions and molecular clouds; (3) moderate the composition of the gas phase and play an important role in determining the chemistry of the ISM; (4) contribute to the interstellar extinction in the near IR, visible, and UV spectral regions; and (5) convert UV, visible, and near-IR radiation to mid- and far-IR radiation in the ISM and, as such, are responsible for the well known, widespread family of mid-IR emission features with major components near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns.

  18. Interstellar Probe: The Next Step To Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-07-01

    In the years following the discovery of the solar wind, the term "heliosphere" was coined and defined as "the region of interplanetary space where the solar wind is flowing supersonically." In June 1971, with the development of the Pioneer probes to Jupiter and beyond well underway, a session of the American Astronautical Society meeting considered scientific exploration reaching beyond the solar system and into the interstellar medium. Despite many discussions, studies, and meetings since, the most recent held under the auspices of the Keck Institute for Space Studies (8-11 September 2014 and 13-15 January 2015), such missions have been relegated to the '"future" due to the large distances and solar system escape speeds contemplated for their execution. In the meantime, the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), consisting of the twin Voyager spacecraft almost 40 years since their respective launches, are making inroads into this region beyond the termination shock of the solar wind, a new region of the solid bodies of the solar system has been opened by the New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system, and the Cassini Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) and Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have remotely sensed neutral atoms that have provided significant clues to the global structure of the interaction of the solar wind and interstellar medium. It is now time for a dedicated mission to the regime beyond the solar system to explore our galactic environment. A first, near-term implementation can be carried out with the near-current flight system technology. What is also clear is that the high speeds required will limit the spacecraft to a relatively small mass of no more than ~500 kg, regardless of the propulsion details. The recent success of the New Horizons mission at the Pluto system illustrates that with modern technologies, such spacecraft sizes can still accommodate the means to produce paradigm-shifting science, providing for a compelling scientific mission. The

  19. New observations of interstellar organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Matthews, H. E.; Minh, Y. C.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here are new observations of 3-carbon-containing interstellar molecules which play an important role in the chemistry of dense molecular clouds: protonated carbon dioxide, formic acid, and propynal. In 1984 a new oxide of carbon, C3O, was discovered in the interstellar medium (Matthews et al. 1984; Brown et al. 1985). Theoretical models suggest that C3O is produced by dissociative electron recombination with the ion H3C3O+. Although no laboratory data for the branching ratios of such a recombination exist, it seemed to us likely that additional products would include H2C3O. This molecule has more than one isomeric form, but one stable species is propynal (HC2CHO), which had been suggested as a possible interstellar molecule by Winnewisser (1973). In observations at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 43 m telescope in Green Bank earlier this year, researchers detected a line in the cold cloud TMC-1 which they assign to the 2(0,2)-1(0,1) transition of propynal. The observed line agrees with the laboratory frequency to well within the experimental uncertainty a few parts in 10 to the 7th power. Researchers sought and failed to detect the corresponding 2(1,1)-1(1,0) line, which is understandable given the presence of both a and b components of the electric dipole moment in propynal. The b type transitions will drain population from energy levels with K(sub p) does not equal 0 into the K(sub p) equal 0 stack. If the researchers' assignment is correct, this is the first interstellar detection of propynal. Assuming typical rotational temperatures for TMC-1 and that the line is optically thin, the column density determined is about 5 times 10 to the 12th power cm to the -2nd power, or about three times that for C3O. Formic acid (HCOOH) was the first organic acid to be observed in the interstellar medium, in the Galactic center source Sgr B2. The only other interstellar detection has been recently made in the giant molecular cloud in Orion. As part of the

  20. Galactic civilizations: Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.

  1. Isotope Fractionation in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets. It is thought, in some cases, to trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. We will present the results of models of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon fractionation chemistry in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and compared to the ratios measured in molecular clouds, comets and meteoritic material. These models make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations, particularly with ALMA.

  2. CHIPS: The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, W. V.; Hurwitz, M.; Jelinsky, P.; Welsh, B. Y.; Edelstein, J. E.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; McKee, C. F.; Malina, R. F.; Hawkins, I.; Vallerga, J. V.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Slavin, J.

    1998-12-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS), a University-Class Explorer (UNEX) mission, will carry out all-sky spectroscopy of the diffuse background at wavelengths from 90 to 260 Angstroms with a peak resolution of lambda / 150 (about 0.5 eV). CHIPS data will help determine the electron temperature, ionization conditions, and cooling mechanisms of the million-degree plasma believed to fill the local interstellar bubble. The majority of the luminosity from diffuse million-degree plasma is expected to emerge in the poorly-explored CHIPS band, making CHIPS data of relevance in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical environments. The compact CHIPS instrument will be accommodated aboard a commercial FAISAT communications spacecraft currently scheduled for launch in mid to late 2001.

  3. Absorbing ice model of interstellar grains.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Jackson, W. M.; Donn, B. D.

    1971-01-01

    Extinction curves have been calculated for Mie scattering by grains with a refractive index m equals to n - ik, where n was between 1.3 and 2.0 and k varied from 0 to 0.5. A good fit for the observed interstellar extinction in the wavelength region of 0.1 to 2.0 microns was obtained for particles with a radius of 0.1 micron and m equal to 1.3 - 0.2i. Inclusion of the changes in the refractive index in the vacuum ultraviolet region due to the strong absorptions of methane, ammonia and water does not appreciably alter these results. Theoretical extinction curves for the composite medium of H2O, NH3, CH4, and graphite show a general agreement with the observed interstellar reddening curve over the whole spectral range, in addition to producing kinks in the far-ultraviolet region.

  4. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  5. Organic Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Deamer, David W.; Elsila, Jamie; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been significant sources of organic compounds on the early Earth. Ices on grains in interstellar dense molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules as well as aromatic molecules of various sizes. While in these clouds the icy grains are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic radiation which produces more complex organic molecules. ID We have run laboratory simulations to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated photolytically in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming various realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ices with and without polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at approx. 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with LTV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp: The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by laser desorption mass spectrometry. The residue contains several classes of compounds which may be of prebiotic significance.

  6. Organic Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Deamer, David W.; Elsila, Jamie; Zare, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    Comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been significant sources of organic compounds on the early Earth. Ices on grains in interstellar dense molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules as well as aromatic molecules of various sizes. While in these clouds the icy grains are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic radiation which produces more complex organic molecules. We have run laboratory simulations to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated photolytically in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming various realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ices with and without polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at approx. 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with UV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp. The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by laser desorption mass spectrometry. The residue contains several classes of compounds which may be of prebiotic significance.

  7. Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Families and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krełowski, J.

    2014-02-01

    The term ``families of diffuse bands'' (DIBs) appeared in 1986/87 when my collaborators: Gordon A.H. Walker, Bengt E. Westerlund and I found that the strength ratio of the major DIBs 5780 and 5797 is heavily variable. We proved that at the same E(B-V) the DIB intensities may vary by as much as a factor of three or more. A similar result was published by Karl Josafatsson and Ted Snow soon after. A decade later, we proved (with Chris Sneden) that certain DIB strength ratios seem to be related to intensities of the known features of simple molecular species; this led to the introduction of the so called σ and ζ type interstellar clouds. The former are characterized by very weak molecular features (but broad DIBs - very strong) while the latter by rather strong bands of simple radicals and weak broad DIBs. Currently we face a bunch of questions: are the DIB intensities related to those of certain molecular species, e.g. C2 as suggested by Lew Hobbs' and Ted Snow's group? Do the DIB profiles, found to be complex by Peter Sarre, depend on e.g. the rotational temperatures of simple, linear carbon species? Do the DIB profiles depend on the irradiation of interstellar clouds by nearby stars? The relative DIB strengths as well as those of the simple radicals seem to be related to the shapes of interstellar extinction curves. We thus face three players in the interstellar translucent clouds: dust particles, simple radicals and the DIB carriers. Apparently, their mutual relations depend on local physical parameters of intervening clouds; these relations are not clear yet.

  8. Stochastic histories of refractory interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Clayton, Donald D.

    1988-01-01

    Histories of refractory interstellar dust particles (IDPs) are calculated. The profile of a particle population is assembled from a large number of stochastic, or Monte Carlo, histories of single particles; the probabilities for each of the events that may befall a given particle are specified, and the particle's history is unfolded by a sequence of random numbers. The assumptions that are made and the techniques of the calculation are described together with the results obtained. Several technical demonstrations are presented.

  9. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

  10. Workshop on Scientific Issues in Multiphase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    2003-01-02

    This report outlines scientific issues whose resolution will help advance and define the field of multiphase flow. It presents the findings of four study groups and of a workshop sponsored by the Program on Engineering Physics of the Department of Energy. The reason why multiphase flows are much more difficult to analyze than single phase flows is that the phases assume a large number of complicated configurations. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the understanding of why the phases configure in a certain way is the principal scientific issue. Research is needed which identifies the microphysics controlling the organization of the phases, which develops physical models for the resultant multi-scale interactions and which tests their validity in integrative experiments/theories that look at the behavior of a system. New experimental techniques and recently developed direct numerical simulations will play important roles in this endeavor. In gas-liquid flows a top priority is to develop an understanding of why the liquid phase in quasi fully-developed pipe flow changes from one configuration to another. Mixing flows offer a more complicated situation in which several patterns can exist at the same time. They introduce new physical challenges. A second priority is to provide a quantitative description of the phase distribution for selected fully-developed flows and for simple mixing flows (that could include heat transfer and phase change). Microphysical problems of interest are identified – including the coupling of molecular and macroscopic behavior that can be observed in many situations and the formation/destruction of interfaces in the coalescence/breakup of drops and bubbles. Solid-fluid flows offer a simpler system in that interfaces are not changing. However, a variety of patterns exist, that depend on the properties of the particles, their concentration and the Reynolds number characterizing the relative velocity. A top priority is the

  11. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

  12. Low Frequency Interstellar Scattering and Pulsar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio astronomy at frequencies from 2 to 30 MHz challenges time tested methods for extracting usable information from observations. One fundamental reason for this is that propagation effects due to the magnetoionic ionosphere, interplanetary medium, and interstellar matter (ISM) increase strongly with wavelength. The problems associated with interstellar scattering off of small scale irregularities in the electron density are addressed. What is known about interstellar scattering is summarized on the basis of high frequency observations, including scintillation and temporal broadening of pulsars and angular broadening of various galactic and extragalactic radio sources. Then those high frequency phenomena are addressed that are important or detectable at low frequencies. The radio sky becomes much simpler at low frequencies, most pulsars will not be seen as time varying sources, intensity variations will be quenched or will occur on time scales much longer than a human lifetime, and many sources will be angularly broadened and/or absorbed into the noise. Angular broadening measurements will help delineate the galactic distribution and power spectrum of small scale electron density irregularities.

  13. H3+ in the diffuse interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Harvey S

    2006-11-15

    Three forms of solely hydrogen-bearing molecules--H2, HD and H3+--are observed in diffuse or optically transparent interstellar clouds. Although no comprehensive theory exists for the diffuse interstellar medium or its chemistry, the abundances of these species can generally be accommodated locally within the existing static equilibrium frameworks for heating/cooling, H2-formation on large grains, etc. with one modification demanded equally by observations of HD and H3+, i.e. a pervasive low-level source of H and H2 ionization ca 10 times faster than the usual cosmic ray ionization rate zetaH = 10(-17) s(-1) per free H-atom. We discuss this situation with reference to observation and time-dependent modelling of H2 and H3+ formation. While not wishing to appear ungrateful for the success of what are very simplistic notions of the interstellar medium, we point out several reasons not to feel smug. The equilibrium conditions which foster high H2 and H3+ abundances are very slow to appear and these same simple ideas of static equilibrium cannot explain any, but a few, of the simplest of the trace species, which are ubiquitously embedded in H2-bearing diffuse gases.

  14. Studying the spatial distribution of interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Helen J.; Werner, Michael W.; Allen, C.; Henry, R. C.; Kimble, R.; Wofford, J.; Murthy, Jayant

    1989-01-01

    The spacial distribution of interstellar dust reflects both interstellar dynamics and the processes which form and destroy dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). The IRAS survey, because of its high sensitivity to thermal emission from dust in the IR, provides new approaches to determining the spatial distribution of dust. The initial results are reported of an attempt to use the IRAS data to probe the spatial distribution of dust - by searching for thermal emission from dust in the vicinity of bright stars. These results show that this technique (which relies on finding IR emission associated with randomly selected stars) can ultimately be used to study the distribution of dust in the ISM. The density of the cloud producing the IR emission may be derived by assuming that the dust is at its projected distance from the star and that the heating is due to the star's (known) radiation field. The heating radiation is folded into a grain model, and the number of emitting grains adjusted to reproduce the observed energy distribution. It is noted that this technique is capable in principle of detecting dust densities much lower than those typical of the cirrus clouds.

  15. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  16. Interstellar and Planetary Analogs in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the unique capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation (UV, charged particles) with molecular species (neutral molecules, radicals and ions) and carbonaceous grains in the Solar System and in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber, a laboratory chamber where interstellar and planetary analogs are generated, processed and analyzed. It is composed of a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion in a plasma cavity coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. This setup allows the study of molecules, ions and solids under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate some interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments providing new fundamental insights on the molecular level into the processes that are critical to the chemistry in the ISM, circumstellar and planet forming regions, and on icy objects in the Solar System. Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid particles from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres.

  17. Studies of sulphur containing model interstellar ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Burke, D. J.; Edridge, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    Sulphur bearing species have long been proposed as good evolutionary tracers of star forming regions. The abundance of sulphur containing molecules varies by large amounts during the evolution of a proto-star and hence astronomical models are very sensitive to the amount of sulphur present and to its chemical composition. Interstellar observations have identified a range of sulphur containing species including SO, SO2, H2S, CS and OCS (amongst others). To try to understand the role of sulphur containing species in interstellar ices, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of the adsorption and desorption of a range of sulphur-containing model ices on a carbonaceous dust grain analogue surface (graphite) held at 14 K. Ices consisting of pure sulphur-containing molecules, sulphur-containing molecules adsorbed on top of amorphous solid water ice, mixed ices containing water ices and sulphur-species, all adsorbed on graphite, have been investigated. Ultra-high vacuum techniques have been used to model the low pressure conditions of interstellar space and a combination of surface infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS - reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the behaviour of the ices.

  18. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, Kristin

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer.

  19. Thermal phases of interstellar and quasar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepp, S.; Mccray, R.; Shull, J. M.; Woods, D. T.; Kallman, T.

    1985-01-01

    Interstellar gas may be in a variety of thermal phases, depending on how it is heated and ionized; here a unified picture of the equation of state of interstellar and quasar gas is presented for a variety of such mechanisms over a broad range of temperatures, densities, and column densities of absorbing matter. It is found that for select ranges of gas pressure, photoionizing flux, and heating, three thermally stable phases are allowed: coronal gas (T above 100,000 K); warm gas (T about 10,000 K); and cold gas (T less than 100 K). With attenuation of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation, the cold phase may undergo a transition to molecules. In quasar broad-line clouds, this transition occurs at column density N(H) = about 10 to the 23rd/sq cm and could result in warm molecular cores and observable emission from H2 and OH. The underlying atomic physics behind each of these phase transitions and their relevance to interstellar matter and quasars are discussed.

  20. Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to PAH's was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of PAH's and PAH-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of PAH's in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest PAH's being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on PAH's taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of PAH's will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.

  1. Theoretical studies in interstellar cloud chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Prasad, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    This final report represents the completion of the three tasks under the purchase order no. SCPDE5620,1,2F. Chemical composition of gravitationally contracting, but otherwise quiescent, interstellar clouds and of interstellar clouds traversed by high velocity shocks, were modeled in a comprehensive manner that represents a significant progress in modeling these objects. The evolutionary chemical modeling, done under this NASA contract, represents a notable advance over the 'classical' fixed condition equilibrium models because the evolutionary models consider not only the chemical processes but also the dynamical processes by which the dark interstellar clouds may have assumed their present state. The shock calculations, being reported here, are important because they extend the limited chemical composition derivable from dynamical calculations for the total density and temperature structures behind the shock front. In order to be tractable, the dynamical calculations must severely simplify the chemistry. The present shock calculations take the shock profiles from the dynamical calculations and derive chemical composition in a comprehensive manner. The results of the present modeling study are still to be analyzed with reference to astronomical observational data and other contemporary model predictions. As far as humanly possible, this analysis will be continued with CRE's (Creative Research Enterprises's) IR&D resources, until a sponsor is found.

  2. Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.

  3. Interstellar medium. Pseudo-three-dimensional maps of the diffuse interstellar band at 862 nm.

    PubMed

    Kos, Janez; Zwitter, Tomaž; Wyse, Rosemary; Bienaymé, Olivier; Binney, James; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Kenneth; Gibson, Brad K; Gilmore, Gerry; Grebel, Eva K; Helmi, Amina; Kordopatis, Georges; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio; Parker, Quentin; Reid, Warren A; Seabroke, George; Sharma, Sanjib; Siebert, Arnaud; Siviero, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Matthias; Watson, Fred G; Williams, Mary E K

    2014-08-15

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption lines observed in visual and near-infrared spectra of stars. Understanding their origin in the interstellar medium is one of the oldest problems in astronomical spectroscopy, as DIBs have been known since 1922. In a completely new approach to understanding DIBs, we combined information from nearly 500,000 stellar spectra obtained by the massive spectroscopic survey RAVE (Radial Velocity Experiment) to produce the first pseudo-three-dimensional map of the strength of the DIB at 8620 angstroms covering the nearest 3 kiloparsecs from the Sun, and show that it follows our independently constructed spatial distribution of extinction by interstellar dust along the Galactic plane. Despite having a similar distribution in the Galactic plane, the DIB 8620 carrier has a significantly larger vertical scale height than the dust. Even if one DIB may not represent the general DIB population, our observations outline the future direction of DIB research.

  4. Collection of interstellar gas on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häberli, Roman M.; Reber, Martin J.; Bassi, Marco L.

    1997-09-01

    The isotopic composition of He and Ne in the local interstellar medium (LISM) is of great scientific interest, since it will help us to understand the chemical evolution of our galaxy since the formation of the solar system 4.6 × 10 9 years ago. In addition, the He isotope ratio is of cosmological interest as it is linked to primordial (Big Bang) nucleosynthesis and gives us a clue to the baryon density in the universe. To measure the abundance of He and Ne and their isotopes in situ in the interstellar gas is very ambitious due to the low density. Remote sensing, however, gives us only little information on the isotopic composition. Currently, most of the information on He and Ne isotopes comes from the measurement of pick-up ions and of the anomalous component of the cosmic rays, however, the measurement errors are still too high to reach firm conclusions. Recently, a novel measurement method has been proposed, using the foil collection technique and the Moon as a collection platform (Reber et al., 1995). In this notice a detailed description of the experiment is given. The foil collection technique uses thin metallic foils to trap the atoms which impinge on the foil. After retrieval of the foil the trapped particles are extracted by stepwise heating and the released atoms can be analysed using laboratory mass spectrometers. This technique was applied for the first time to successfully measure the noble gas composition of the solar wind (Geiss et al., 1970, 1972). (Interestingly enough, this experiment has been carried out on the Moon as well.) It has been tried before to measure the composition of the interstellar gas applying the foil collection method on an Earth orbiting satellite. However, in this case the measurements might be contaminated by the high fluxes of magnetospheric particles. It is shown that by using the Moon as a platform to collect the interstellar atoms one can overcome these difficulties. The experiment has to be carried out during the

  5. The Ingenious Theory of Interstellar Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Arun; Ganapathy, Rohan M.

    This paper extends interplanetary trade theory to an interstellar setting. It is chiefly concerned with the following question: How should interest charges on goods in transit be computed when the goods travel at speeds close to the actual speed of light? This is a problem because the time taken in transit will appear less to an observer travelling with the goods than to a stationary observer. An innovative and ingenious solution is derived from the economic theory, and two useless but TRUE theorems are proved. The interstellar trade would happen in such a way that two time frames must be considered namely that of the stationary observer whose time runs faster compared to the time frame of the observer in transit The interest in a given trade is purely based on the time taken for the debtor to pay the amount, once the goods have been delivered by the seller. But, in case of interstellar trade, the interest to be calculated in between two time frames would lead to the question of which time frame to be considered and moreover, the time taken for the goods to reach the destination is signicantly prolonged compared to the interplanetary trade, which means, even the slightest variations in the interest rate would be magnied. Apart from this, various new factors arise while calculating the interest. The factors include the time value of money, and the risk of variation in demand for goods, the risk of interspace accidents causing loss of the goods and the rate of perish-ability in case of organic goods. The first two factors considered, for which the time frame of the stationary observer is considered and the factors such as the risk of accidents and the rate of perish-ability of the goods are considered based on the time frame of the observer in transit's point of view. The reasons for such considerations and various assumptions on these concepts are dealt in this paper. The theorems that are formulated in this paper would provide the interstellar traders a basic

  6. New Large Interstellar Molecules Detected with the GBT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Jan M.

    2005-01-01

    At present, more than 135 different molecules have been identified in interstellar clouds. The newest instrument in the interstellar molecule search arsenal is the recently commissioned Green Bank Telescope (GBT). In 2004, the large aldehydes propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) were the first new interstellar molecules discovered with the GBT. At the same time, the GBT was used to observe interstellar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which is the simplest possible aldehyde sugar; interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), which is the sugar alcohol of glycolaldehyde; and interstellar methylcyanodiacetylene (CH3C5N). These new GBT observations suggest that successive atomic addition reactions are common in the formation of larger related species. The observations will be presented and discussed.

  7. A Cell-Centered Multiphase ALE Scheme With Structural Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Timothy Alan

    2012-04-16

    A novel computational scheme has been developed for simulating compressible multiphase flows interacting with solid structures. The multiphase fluid is computed using a Godunov-type finite-volume method. This has been extended to allow computations on moving meshes using a direct arbitrary-Eulerian- Lagrangian (ALE) scheme. The method has been implemented within a Lagrangian hydrocode, which allows modeling the interaction with Lagrangian structural regions. Although the above scheme is general enough for use on many applications, the ultimate goal of the research is the simulation of heterogeneous energetic material, such as explosives or propellants. The method is powerful enough for application to all stages of the problem, including the initial burning of the material, the propagation of blast waves, and interaction with surrounding structures. The method has been tested on a number of canonical multiphase tests as well as fluid-structure interaction problems.

  8. Investigation on the gas pockets in a rotodynamic multiphase pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Y. J.; Cai, S. J.; Zhu, H. W.; Zhang, Y. X.

    2016-05-01

    The appearance of gas pockets has an obvious impact on the performance of the rotodynamic multiphase pump. In order to study the formation of gas pockets in the pump and its effects on pump's performance, the unsteady numerical simulation and the visualization experiments were done to investigate gas pockets in a three-stage rotodynamic multiphase pump developed by authors. Meanwhile, the mixture of water and air was selected as the medium. According to the distributions of pressure, gas volume fraction and velocity vector in three compression cells in unsteady flow process, the process of the formation of gas pockets in the pump were analysed generally. The visualization experiments were used to verify the validity of the numerical simulation. The results will be benefit for the hydraulic design of the compression cell of rotodynamic multiphase pump.

  9. Unusual relative strengths of the diffuse interstellar bands in some interstellar dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krelowski, J.; Walker, G. A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the diffuse interstellar features (DIBs) in the spectra of certain stars at high galactic latitudes (1 is greater than 15 degrees) are unusually weak or absent while others have the strength expected for their color excess. In some cases the stars are probably reddened by single interstellar clouds. There appear to be three families of DIBs. The effects of these families are examined. The existance of the three families implies that at least three agents cause the DIBs and that the proportions of the agents or the physical conditions giving rise to the DIBs can vary from cloud to cloud.

  10. Assessment of detectability of neutral interstellar deuterium by IBEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Möbius, E.; Rodríguez, D. F.; Wurz, P.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The abundance of deuterium in the interstellar gas in front of the Sun gives insight into the processes of filtration of neutral interstellar species through the heliospheric interface and potentially into the chemical evolution of the Galactic gas. Aims: We investigate the possibility of detection of neutral interstellar deuterium at 1 AU from the Sun by direct sampling by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Methods: Using both previous and the most recent determinations of the flow parameters of neutral gas in the local interstellar cloud (LIC) and an observation-based model of solar radiation pressure and ionization in the heliosphere, we simulated the flux of neutral interstellar D at IBEX for the actual measurement conditions. We assessed the number of interstellar D atom counts expected during the first three years of IBEX operation. We also simulated the observations expected during an epoch of high solar activity. In addition, we calculated the expected counts of D atoms from the thin terrestrial water layer covering the IBEX-Lo conversion surface, sputtered by neutral interstellar He atoms. Results: Most D counts registered by IBEX-Lo are expected to come from the water layer, exceeding the interstellar signal by 2 orders of magnitude. However, the sputtering should stop once the Earth leaves the portion of orbit traversed by interstellar He atoms. We identify seasons during the year when mostly the genuine interstellar D atoms are expected in the signal. During the first 3 years of IBEX operations about 2 detectable interstellar D atoms are expected. This number is comparable to the expected number of sputtered D atoms registered during the same time intervals. Conclusions: The most favorable conditions for the detection occur during low solar activity, in an interval including March and April each year. The detection chances could be improved by extending the instrument duty cycle, say, by making observations in the special deuterium mode

  11. Multi-phase SPH modelling of violent hydrodynamics on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokos, Athanasios; Rogers, Benedict D.; Stansby, Peter K.; Domínguez, José M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the acceleration of multi-phase smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using a graphics processing unit (GPU) enabling large numbers of particles (10-20 million) to be simulated on just a single GPU card. With novel hardware architectures such as a GPU, the optimum approach to implement a multi-phase scheme presents some new challenges. Many more particles must be included in the calculation and there are very different speeds of sound in each phase with the largest speed of sound determining the time step. This requires efficient computation. To take full advantage of the hardware acceleration provided by a single GPU for a multi-phase simulation, four different algorithms are investigated: conditional statements, binary operators, separate particle lists and an intermediate global function. Runtime results show that the optimum approach needs to employ separate cell and neighbour lists for each phase. The profiler shows that this approach leads to a reduction in both memory transactions and arithmetic operations giving significant runtime gains. The four different algorithms are compared to the efficiency of the optimised single-phase GPU code, DualSPHysics, for 2-D and 3-D simulations which indicate that the multi-phase functionality has a significant computational overhead. A comparison with an optimised CPU code shows a speed up of an order of magnitude over an OpenMP simulation with 8 threads and two orders of magnitude over a single thread simulation. A demonstration of the multi-phase SPH GPU code is provided by a 3-D dam break case impacting an obstacle. This shows better agreement with experimental results than an equivalent single-phase code. The multi-phase GPU code enables a convergence study to be undertaken on a single GPU with a large number of particles that otherwise would have required large high performance computing resources.

  12. National laboratories` capabilities summaries for the DOE Virtual Center for Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Virtual Center For Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD) integrates and develops the resources of industry, government, academia, and professional societies to enable reliable analysis in multiphase computational fluid dynamics. The primary means of the VCMD focus will be by the creation, support, and validation of a computerized simulation capability for multiphase flow and multiphase flow applications. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the National Laboratories in this effort.

  13. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cem Sarica; Holden Zhang

    2006-05-31

    The developments of oil and gas fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) will become more common in the future. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas, oil and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. Recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications, including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is crucial for any multiphase separation technique, either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole, to know inlet conditions such as flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. Therefore, the development of a new generation of multiphase flow predictive tools is needed. The overall objective of the proposed study is to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). In the current multiphase modeling approach, flow pattern and flow behavior (pressure gradient and phase fractions) prediction modeling are separated. Thus, different models based on different physics are employed, causing inaccuracies and discontinuities. Moreover, oil and water are treated as a pseudo single phase, ignoring the distinct characteristics of both oil and water, and often resulting in inaccurate design that leads to operational problems. In this study, a new model is being developed through a theoretical and experimental study employing a revolutionary approach. The

  14. Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Peter

    Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational

  15. Evaluation of Two Lattice Boltzmann Models for Multiphase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuling; Shan, Xiaowen; Zou, Qisu; Doolen, Gary D.; Soll, Wendy E.

    1997-12-01

    Two lattice Boltzmann models for multiphase flows, the immiscible fluid model proposed by Rothman and Keller (R-K) and the multicomponent nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model by Shan and Chen (S-C), are studied numerically to compare their abilities to simulate the physics of multiphase flows. The test problem is the simulation of a static bubble. Isotropy, strength of surface tension, thickness of the interface, spurious currents, Laplace's law, and steadiness of the bubble are examined. The results show that the S-C model is a major improvement over the R-K model.

  16. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  17. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  18. Analysis of "Midnight" Tracks in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector: Possible Discovery of a Contemporary Interstellar Dust Grain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajit, S.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferrior, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Hoppe, P.; Hudson, B.; Kearsley, A.; Lai, B.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2) day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques.

  19. Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).

  20. Are Silicon Nanoparticles an Interstellar Dust Component?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen; Draine, B. T.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (SNPs) with oxide coatings have been proposed as the source of the observed ``extended red emission'' (ERE) from interstellar dust. We calculate the thermal emission expected from such particles, both in a reflection nebula such as NGC 2023 and in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). It is shown that Si/SiO2 SNPs (both neutral and charged) would produce a strong emission feature at 20 μm. The observational upper limit on the 20 μm feature in NGC 2023 imposes an upper limit of less than 0.2 parts per million in Si/SiO2 SNPs. The observed ERE intensity from NGC 2023 then gives a lower bound on the product ηPLf0, where ηPL<1 is the photoluminescence efficiency for a neutral SNP and f0<=1 is the fraction of SNPs that are uncharged. For foreground extinction A0.68μm=1.2mag, we find ηPLf0>0.24 for Si/SiO2 SNPs in NGC 2023. Measurement of the R-band extinction toward the ERE-emitting region could strengthen this lower limit. The ERE emissivity of the diffuse interstellar medium appears to require >~42% of solar Si abundance in Si/SiO2 SNPs even with ηPLf0=1. We predict IR emission spectra and show that DIRBE photometry appears to rule out such high abundances of free-flying SNPs in the diffuse ISM. We conclude that if the ERE is due to SNPs, they must be either in clusters or attached to larger grains.

  1. Solar lens mission concept for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Turyshev, Slava; Shao, Michael; Zhang, Qicheng

    2015-09-01

    The long standing approach to space travel has been to incorporate massive on-board electronics, probes and propellants to achieve space exploration. This approach has led to many great achievements in science, but will never help to explore the interstellar medium. Fortunately, a paradigm shift is upon us in how a spacecraft is constructed and propelled. This paper describes a mission concept to get to our Sun's Gravity Lens at 550AU in less than 10 years. It will be done by using DE-STAR, a scalable solar-powered phased-array laser in Earth Orbit, as a directed energy photon drive of low-mass wafersats. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] With recent technologies a complete mission can be placed on a wafer including, power from an embedded radio nuclear thermal generator (RTG), PV, laser communications, imaging, photon thrusters for attitude control and other sensors. As one example, a futuristic 200 MW laser array consisting of 1 - 10 kw meter scale sub elements with a 100m baseline can propel a 10 gram wafer scale spacecraft with a 3m laser sail to 60AU/Year. Directed energy propulsion of low-mass spacecraft gives us an opportunity to capture images of Alpha Centauri and its planets, detailed imaging of the cosmic microwave background, set up interstellar communications by using gravity lenses around nearby stars to boost signals from interstellar probes, and much more. This system offers a very large range of missions allowing hundreds of wafer scale payload launches per day to reach this cosmological data reservoir. Directed Energy Propulsion is the only current technology that can provide a near-term path to utilize our Sun's Gravity Lens.

  2. The Interstellar Gas Experiment: Analysis in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, F.; Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Eugster, O.

    1993-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils aboard the LDEF spacecraft in low Earth orbit in order to collect neutral interstellar particles which penetrate the solar system due to their motion relative to the sun. By mechanical penetration these atoms were imbedded in the collecting foils along with precipitating magnetospheric ions and, possibly, with ambient atmospheric atoms. During the entire LDEF mission, seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft. After the foils were returned to Earth, a mass spectrometric analysis of the noble gas component of the trapped particles was begun. The isotopes of He-3, He-4, Ne-20, and Ne-22 were detected. We have given a first account of the experiment. In order to infer the isotopic ratios in the interstellar medium from the concentrations found in the foils, several lines of investigation had to be initiated. The flux of ambient atmospheric noble gas atoms moving toward the foils due to the orbital motion of LDEF was estimated by detailed calculations. Any of these particles which evaded the baffles in the IGE collector could be entrapped in the foils as a background flux. However, the calculations have shown that this flux is negligible, which was the intent of the experiment hardware design. This conclusion is supported by the measurements. However, both the concentration of trapped helium and its impact energy indicate that the flux of magnetospheric ions which was captured was larger than had been expected. In fact, it appears that the magnetospheric particles constitute the largest fraction of the particles in the foils. Since little is known about this particle flux, their presence in the IGE foils appears fortunate. The analysis of these particles provides information about their isotropic composition and average flux.

  3. Les Johnson Views Interstellar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Interstellar Propulsion Research department are proposing different solutions to combustion propellants for future space travel. One alternative being tested is the solar sail. The idea is, once deployed, the sail will allow solar winds to propel a spacecraft away from Earth and towards its destination. This would allow a spacecraft to travel indefinitely without the need to refuel during its ong journey. Thin reflective sails could be propelled through space by sunlight, microwave beams, or laser beams, just as the wind pushes sailboats on Earth. The sail will be the largest spacecraft ever built, sparning 440 yards, twice the diameter of the Louisiana Super Dome. Construction materials are being tested in a simulated space environment, where they are exposed to harsh conditions to test their performance and durability in extremely hot and cold temperatures. A leading candidate for the construction material is a carbon fiber material whose density is less than 1/10 ounce per square yard, the equivalent of flattening one raisin to the point that it covers a square yard. In space, the material would unfurl like a fan when it is deployed from an expendable rocket. This photo shows Les Johnson, manager of MSFC's Interstellar Propulsion Research Center holding the rigid, lightweight carbon fiber. An artist's concept of the sail is on the right. Mankind's first venture outside of our solar system is proposed for launch in a 2010 timeframe. An interstellar probe, powered by the fastest spacecraft ever flown, will zoom toward the stars at 58 miles per second. It will cover the distance from New York to Los Angeles in less than a minute and will travel over 23 billion miles beyond the edge of the solar system.

  4. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: SIX YEARS OF DIRECT SAMPLING BY IBEX

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Schwadron, N. A. E-mail: sfuselier@swri.edu; and others

    2015-10-15

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been directly observing neutral atoms from the local interstellar medium for the last six years (2009–2014). This paper ties together the 14 studies in this Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Special Issue, which collectively describe the IBEX interstellar neutral results from this epoch and provide a number of other relevant theoretical and observational results. Interstellar neutrals interact with each other and with the ionized portion of the interstellar population in the “pristine” interstellar medium ahead of the heliosphere. Then, in the heliosphere's close vicinity, the interstellar medium begins to interact with escaping heliospheric neutrals. In this study, we compare the results from two major analysis approaches led by IBEX groups in New Hampshire and Warsaw. We also directly address the question of the distance upstream to the pristine interstellar medium and adjust both sets of results to a common distance of ∼1000 AU. The two analysis approaches are quite different, but yield fully consistent measurements of the interstellar He flow properties, further validating our findings. While detailed error bars are given for both approaches, we recommend that for most purposes, the community use “working values” of ∼25.4 km s{sup −1}, ∼75.°7 ecliptic inflow longitude, ∼ −5.°1 ecliptic inflow latitude, and ∼7500 K temperature at ∼1000 AU upstream. Finally, we briefly address future opportunities for even better interstellar neutral observations to be provided by the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe mission, which was recommended as the next major Heliophysics mission by the NRC's 2013 Decadal Survey.

  5. A Search for Interstellar Carbon-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccitelli, Dana; Richter, Matthew J.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    Carbon-60 has been proposed as a potentially important interstellar molecule. While there is a mounting body of indirect evidence suggesting that interstellar C60 exists, no direct spectroscopic detection toward an astronomical object has been made.We present here the results of our search for interstellar C60 in five sources using TEXES (the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph; Lacy et al. 2002). 1. Introduction The discovery of Buckminsterfullerene, C60, by Kroto et al. (1985) launched a new branch of chemical research. It is sometimes forgotten that the impetus for the experimental discovery of "buckyballs" was an attempt to understand the formation of long-chain carbon molecules in interstellar and circumstellar material. The stability of the molecule was recognized immediately and led to the suggestion that C60 may be widely distributed in the interstellar medium. Currently, only indirect evidence exists for interstellar C60. Because the ionization potential of C60 is relatively low the majority of C60 along optical/UV lines-of-sight will be ionized. Two electronic transitions of C60+, observed in rare gas matrices, lie near two diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) near 9600Å (Foing & Ehrenfreund 1997). Detecting neutral C60 may be easier toward an embedded source using infrared vibrational bands, such as the one near 1184 cm-1 (&lambda=8.45 μm). The exact location and width of the band depends on the gas temperature. Assuming the average temperature is fairly low (T<100 K), the band structure should be be fairly narrow, which argues for high spectral resolution. 2. Observations We searched for the C60 1184 cm-1 vibrational band in three high- extinction molecular cloud sources (AFGL 2136, AFGL 2591, NGC 7538 IRS 1), the mass-loss star NML Cygni, and R Corona Borealis.We used TEXES, the Texas Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph, a high resolution, mid-IR spectrograph (Lacy et al. 2002) on the 3m NASA IRTF. In highresolution mode, TEXES provides resolving

  6. Discovery of two distorted interstellar bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Sofia, S.

    1978-01-01

    During an extensive program of direct imagery of emission nebulae, arcuate structures were found around two stars. A well-defined shock-like structure was found about the T-Orionis variable LL Orionis, located to the side of the Orion Nebula. A less extensive shock-like structure was also found about the runaway star zeta Ophiuchus. These structures can best be described in terms of distorted interstellar bubbles. A direct consequence of this interpretation is an independent estimate of the rates of mass loss for these stars.

  7. Non-equilibrium processes in interstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelnitskiy, V. S.

    1979-01-01

    The types of nonequilibrium emission and absorption by interstellar molecules are summarized. The observed brightness emission temperatures of compact OH and H2O sources are discussed using the concept of maser amplification. A single thermodynamic approach was used in which masers and anti-masers are considered as heat engines for the theoretical interpretation of the cosmic maser and anti-maser phenomena. The requirements for different models of pumping are formulated and a classification is suggested for the mechanisms of pumping, according to the source and discharge of energy.

  8. Engineering planetary lasers for interstellar communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Mumma, Michael J.; Donaldson, Bruce K.

    1992-01-01

    Spacefaring skills evolved in the twenty-first century will enable missions of unprecedented complexity. One such elaborate project might be to develop tools for efficient interstellar data transfer. Informational links to other star systems would facilitate eventual human expansion beyond our solar system, as well as intercourse with potential extraterrestrial intelligence. This paper reports the major findings of a 600-page, 3-year, NASA-funded study examining in quantitative detail the requirements, some seemingly feasible methods, and implications of achieving reliable extrasolar communications.

  9. Can spores survive in interstellar space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, P.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the effects of very low temperature and UV radiation, characteristic of the interstellar medium, on the survival of bacteria. In the most general space environment, 10 percent survival times are only of the order of hundreds of years, too short for panspermia to work. In a substantial fraction of space within dark clouds, however, it is shown that, even with conservative figures, survival times as long as millions to tens of millions of years are attainable. In such conditions, clouds could transport organisms from one solar system to another in times significantly shorter than the mean survival time. This occurs with significant probability.

  10. Interstellar scattering of the Vela pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The frequency dependence of the parameters of interstellar scattering between 837 and 8085 MHz for the Vela pulsar are consistent with thin-screen models of strong scattering. The magnitudes of the parameters indicate an anomalous turbulence along the path when they are compared with results for other pulsars with comparable column densities of free electrons in the line of sight. This anomaly is due presumably to the Gum Nebula. The decorrelation frequency, appropriately defined, is related to the pulse broadening time by 2 pi as predicted theoretically.

  11. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field behind the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D.; Andersson, B. G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A.; Fu, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) controlling the configuration of the "ribbon" of energetic neutral atoms discovered by IBEX, and the ISMF in deep space, can be probed with polarized starlight. Starlight is polarized in a dichroic interstellar medium formed by interstellar dust grains that are aligned with respect to the ISMF. Our ongoing survey of polarized starlight traces the ISMF within 40 parsecs. The local ISMF direction was evaluated using the weighted means of the linear polarization vectors. The dominant nearby magnetic field direction is within 7.6 (+14.9,-7.6) degrees of the ISMF direction that is traced by the IBEX ribbon. A low level of random magnetic turbulence is obtained from the polarization data that best trace the IBEX ribbon field direction, 9 (+/-1) deg, which explains the continuity of the IBEX ISMF out into space where it can be traced by starlight polarization. The ISMF direction is perpendicular to the velocity of the cloud around the heliosphere, and it orders the kinematics of the other local interstellar clouds. These results are obtained only after a well-defined subset of the polarization data is omitted from the sample. A separate analysis shows that these polarization vectors are oriented toward the upwind direction of the interstellar gas flowing into the heliosphere. This group of polarization data traces an elongated filamentary-type feature that is perpendicular to the hydrogen deflection plane. We suggest a heliosheath origin for the grains that create this polarized feature. One characteristic shown by the polarization and IBEX field directions is that the ribbon ISMF extends to the boundaries of the BICEP2 region where the polarized CMB background has been studied. Inside of the BICEP2 region other nearby magnetic components are also present. The sightline toward the star Capella suggests that the polarization mechanism is very efficient in this nearby cloud.

  12. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  13. Multiphase complete exchange on Paragon, SP2 and CS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1995-01-01

    The overhead of interprocessor communication is a major factor in limiting the performance of parallel computer systems. The complete exchange is the severest communication pattern in that it requires each processor to send a distinct message to every other processor. This pattern is at the heart of many important parallel applications. On hypercubes, multiphase complete exchange has been developed and shown to provide optimal performance over varying message sizes. Most commercial multicomputer systems do not have a hypercube interconnect. However, they use special purpose hardware and dedicated communication processors to achieve very high performance communication and can be made to emulate the hypercube quite well. Multiphase complete exchange has been implemented on three contemporary parallel architectures: the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2 and Meiko CS-2. The essential features of these machines are described and their basic interprocessor communication overheads are discussed. The performance of multiphase complete exchange is evaluated on each machine. It is shown that the theoretical ideas developed for hypercubes are also applicable in practice to these machines and that multiphase complete exchange can lead to major savings in execution time over traditional solutions.

  14. KINEMATIC MODELING OF MULTIPHASE SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was the development of a computationally efficient simulation model for multiphase flow of organic hazardous waste constituents in the shallow soil environment. Such a model is appropriate for investigation of fate and transport of organic chemicals intr...

  15. Applying uncertainty quantification to multiphase flow computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gel, A; Garg, R; Tong, C; Shahnam, M; Guenther, C

    2013-07-01

    Multiphase computational fluid dynamics plays a major role in design and optimization of fossil fuel based reactors. There is a growing interest in accounting for the influence of uncertainties associated with physical systems to increase the reliability of computational simulation based engineering analysis. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has recently undertaken an initiative to characterize uncertainties associated with computer simulation of reacting multiphase flows encountered in energy producing systems such as a coal gasifier. The current work presents the preliminary results in applying non-intrusive parametric uncertainty quantification and propagation techniques with NETL's open-source multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX. For this purpose an open-source uncertainty quantification toolkit, PSUADE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been interfaced with MFIX software. In this study, the sources of uncertainty associated with numerical approximation and model form have been neglected, and only the model input parametric uncertainty with forward propagation has been investigated by constructing a surrogate model based on data-fitted response surface for a multiphase flow demonstration problem. Monte Carlo simulation was employed for forward propagation of the aleatory type input uncertainties. Several insights gained based on the outcome of these simulations are presented such as how inadequate characterization of uncertainties can affect the reliability of the prediction results. Also a global sensitivity study using Sobol' indices was performed to better understand the contribution of input parameters to the variability observed in response variable.

  16. Multiphase pump field trials demonstrate practical applications for the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dal Porto, D.F.; Larson, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    The results of two multiphase pump field trials are presented. One field trial was conducted offshore on a platform in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). It is a low pressure boost (100 psi) application involving gas lifted wells. The other field trial was conducted onshore in an oil field in Alberta, Canada. This multiphase pump was designed for a high pressure boost (850 psi) capability with primarily rod pumped wells feeding the suction of the pump. The offshore pump was sized to handle the flow from one well. By lowering the back-pressure on the well, increased production was realized. The increased flow from one of the wells far surpassed the predicted quantity. Early problems with the double mechanical seal system were overcome and a new, simplified single mechanical seal system has been designed and installed. The onshore multiphase pump clearly demonstrated that a twin screw pump can operate reliably in a field environment, even under severe slug flow conditions. The trial indicated that a considerable portion of the liquid in the recycle stream (required because of the high gas fraction of the multiphase fluid from the field) flashes into gas which occupies more volume in the pump than if it remained liquid. This decreased the capability of the pump to handle net flow from the field. These conditions motivated a re-evaluation of the pump sizing techniques. Performance data and lessons learned information are presented for both field trials.

  17. 9th International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2016)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-12

    International Conference on Multiphase Flows Event Dates: May 22-27, 2016 Event City and Country: Florence, Italy Grantee (Name and Contact ...and Contact Information): Alfredo Soldati (Tel +39 0432 558020, Fax +39 0432 558027, E-mail: soldati@uniud.it) ONRG CSP Grant Number: N62909-16-1

  18. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  19. A New Multiphase Equation of State for Composition B

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Joshua Damon; Margevicius, Madeline Alma

    2016-07-25

    We describe the construction of a complete equation of state for the high explosive Composition B in its unreacted (inert) form, as well as chemical equilibrium calculations of its detonation products. The multiphase reactant EOS is of SESAME type, and was calibrated to ambient thermal and mechanical data, the shock initiation experiments of Dattelbaum, et al., and the melt line of trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  20. Multiphase production systems R and D state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Bratu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Studies and developments concerning multiphase production prompted a significant effort in R and D areas of pipeline flow behavior, pumps, instrumentation and fluids process (hydrates and paraffin deposition). Multiphase flow in pipelines network in steady and transient conditions is still a basic goal; experimental correlations and computer codes are now in validation phase using field data banks. Multiphase pumps groups development reaches the industrial phase; the rotodynamic pump (Poseidon) and the volumetric twin-screw booster (Novopignone, Bornemann) prototypes were recently tested on actual fields. Dedicated to measure mixture flow rates, the instrumentation is still an uneven development. A lot of instruments are commercially ready, but their accuracy, stability, intrusive character or operational difficulties delay extensive field application. An important feature is related to the process of complex fluids in operational conditions that involves hydrates and paraffin deposit formation. Studies and experimental approach are focused on physico-chemical mechanism of deposit build-up pipeline multiphase flow configurations (including solid phase) and additives (dispersants, kinetic or combined).

  1. Determination of Interstellar O Parameters Using the First Two Years of Data From the Interstellar Boundary Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Möbius, E.; McComas, D. J.; Bochsler, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Frisch, P.; Müller, H.-R.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The direct measurements of interstellar matter by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission have opened a new and important chapter in our study of the interactions that control the boundaries of our heliosphere. Here we derive for the quantitative information about interstellar O flow parameters from IBEX low-energy neutral atom data for the first time. Specifically, we derive a relatively narrow four-dimensional parameter tube along which interstellar O flow parameters must lie. Along the parameter tube, we find a large uncertainty in interstellar O flow longitude, 76.°0 ± 3.°4 from χ 2 analysis and 76.°5 ± 6.°2 from a maximum likelihood fit, which is statistically consistent with the flow longitude derived for interstellar He, 75.°6 ± 1.°4. The best-fit O and He temperatures are almost identical at a reference flow longitude of 76°, which provides a strong indication that the local interstellar plasma near the Sun is relatively unaffected by turbulent heating. However, key differences include an oxygen parameter tube for the interstellar speed (relation between speed and longitude) that has higher speeds than those in the corresponding parameter tube for He, and an upstream flow latitude for oxygen that is southward of the upstream flow latitude for helium. Both of these differences are likely the result of enhanced filtration of interstellar oxygen due to its charge-exchange ionization rate, which is higher than that for helium. Furthermore, we derive an interstellar O density near the termination shock of {5.8}-0.8+0.9× {10}-5 cm-3 that, within uncertainties, is consistent with previous estimates. Thus, we use IBEX data to probe the interstellar properties of oxygen.

  2. O vi Emission from the Supernovae-regulated Interstellar Medium: Simulation versus Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Bryan, Greg L.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-01-01

    The O vi λλ1032, 1038 Å doublet emission traces collisionally ionized gas with T≈ {10}5.5 K, where the cooling curve peaks for metal-enriched plasma. This warm-hot phase is usually not well-resolved in numerical simulations of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), but can be responsible for a significant fraction of the emitted energy. Comparing simulated O vi emission to observations is therefore a valuable test of whether simulations predict reasonable cooling rates from this phase. We calculate O vi λ1032 Å emission, assuming collisional ionization equilibrium, for our small-box simulations of the stratified ISM regulated by supernovae. We find that the agreement is very good for our solar neighborhood model, both in terms of emission flux and mean O vi density seen in absorption. We explore runs with higher surface densities and find that, in our simulations, the O vi emission from the disk scales roughly linearly with the star formation rate. Observations of O vi emission are rare for external galaxies, but our results do not show obvious inconsistency with the existing data. Assuming the solar metallicity, O vi emission from the galaxy disk in our simulations accounts for roughly 0.5% of supernovae heating.

  3. Fulleranes and Carbon Nanostructures in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Cataldo, Franco

    We review the potential contribution of single fullerenes and buckyonions to interstellar extinction. Photoabsorption spectra of these molecules are compared with some of the most relevant features of interstellar extinction, the UV bump, the far UV rise and the diffuse interstellar bands. According to semiempirical models, photoabsorption by fullerenes (single and multishell) could explain the shape, width and peak energy of the most prominent feature of the interstellar absorption, the UV bump at 2,175 Å. Other weaker transitions are predicted in the optical and near-infrared providing a potential explanation for diffuse interstellar bands. In particular, several fullerenes could contribute to the well known strong DIB at 4,430 Å comparing cross sections and available data for this DIB and the UV bump we estimate a density of fullerenes in the diffuse interstellar medium of 0.1-0.2 ppm. These molecules could then be a major reservoir for interstellar carbon. We give an estimation of the carbon fraction locked in these molecules. We discuss the rotation rates and electric dipole emission of hydrogenated icosahedral fullerenes in various phases of the interstellar medium. These molecules could be the carriers of the anomalous microwave emission detected by Watson et al. (Astrophys. J. 624:L89, 2005) in the Perseus molecular complex and Cassasus et al. (2006) in the dark cloud LDN 1622. Hydrogenated forms of fullerenes may account for the dust-correlated microwave emission detected in our Galaxy by Cosmic Microwave Background experiments.

  4. Supersonic turbulence and structure of interstellar molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Nordlund, Ake; Padoan, Paolo

    2002-07-15

    The interstellar medium provides a unique laboratory for highly supersonic, driven hydrodynamic turbulence. We propose a theory of such turbulence, test it by numerical simulations, and use the results to explain observational scaling properties of interstellar molecular clouds, the regions where stars are born.

  5. The Submillimeter-wave Rotational Spectra of Interstellar Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.; Butler, R. A. H.; Winnewisser, M.; Winnewisser, G.; Fuchs, U.; Groner, P.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss past and recent progress in our long-term laboratory program concerning the submillimeter-wave rotational spectroscopy of known and likely interstellar molecules, especially those associated with regions of high-mass star formation. Our program on the use of spectroscopy to study rotationally inelastic collisions of interstellar interest is also briefly mentioned.

  6. Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    1988-01-01

    The Catalog of Open Clusters and Associated Interstellar Matter summarizes observations of 128 open clusters and their associated ionized, atomic, and molecular iinterstellar matter. Cluster sizes, distances, radial velocities, ages, and masses, and the radial velocities and masses of associated interstellar medium components, are given. The database contains information from approximately 400 references published in the scientific literature before 1988.

  7. Editorial: Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX): Direct Sampling of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.

    2012-02-01

    This special supplement issue of the Astrophysical Journal comprises six coordinated papers that provide the first detailed analyses of the direct sampling of interstellar neutral atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Interstellar atoms are the detritus of older stars—their stellar winds, novae, and supernovae—spread across the galaxy, which fill the vast interstellar space between the stars. The very local interstellar medium around the Sun is filled with both ionized and neutral atoms with approximately equal numbers, and occasional ionization, charge exchange, and recombination makes them a single interacting material over large distances. IBEX (McComas et al. 2009a) is a NASA Small Explorer mission with the sole, focused science objective to discover the global interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium; this objective has primarily been achieved by taking the first global energetic neutral atom (ENA) images, which provide detailed ENA fluxes and energy spectra over all look directions in space. IBEX was launched 2008 October 19 and subsequently maneuvered into a high-altitude, highly elliptical (~15,000 × 300,000 km), roughly week-long orbit. The payload comprises two very high sensitivity, single-pixel ENA cameras: IBEX-Hi (Funsten et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~300 eV to 6 keV, and IBEX-Lo (Fuselier et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~10 eV to 2 keV. The initial IBEX ENA results were published together in a special issue of Science magazine (McComas et al. 2009b; Funsten et al. 2009b; Fuselier et al. 2009b; Schwadron et al. 2009). Since then there have been numerous additional studies of the IBEX ENA observations of the heliosphere, as well as ENAs from the Moon and Earth's magnetosphere (see recent review by McComas et al. 2011 and references therein). Prior to IBEX, the only interstellar neutral atoms to be directly sampled were He, observed by the Ulysses spacecraft a decade ago (Witte et al. 1996

  8. Impact of sorption phenomena on multiphase conveying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatesuer, Florian; Groth, Tillmann; Reichwage, Mark; Mewes, Dieter; Luke, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    Twin-screw multiphase pumps are employed increasingly to convey multiphase mixtures of crude oil, accompanying fluids, associated gas and solid particles. They are positive displacement pumps and suitable for handling products containing liquid accompanied by large amounts of gas. Experimental investigations on the conveying characteristic, namely measuring the delivered volume flow as a function of the pressure difference, provide results for selected mixtures. By means of the on hand work, the influence of sorption phenomena occurring due to pressure variations alongside the conveying process on the conveying characteristics of twin-screw pumps delivering mixtures of oil and gases is measured. The employed gases are air and carbon dioxide, which differ strongly in solubility in oil. All experiments are conducted in a closed loop test facility, where oil and gas volume flows are mixed before the inlet and separated after the outlet of the multiphase pump. In order to simulate the influence of the suction side pressure drop in the reservoir on the conveying characteristic, packed beds are employed as oil-filed model. Sorption processes inside of the oil-field model and within the multiphase pump affect the conveying behaviour significantly. The two-phase flow in the inlet and outlet pipe is visualised by means of a capacitance tomography system. Results show that the oil fraction of the total delivered volume flow is decreased due to desorption at the pump inlet. The gas fraction at the pump outlet is further decreased due to absorption. Experimental results are compared to calculated solubilities of the on-hand gases in oil and to the theoretically derived gas volume flow fraction expected at the multiphase pump.

  9. The experience from field operation of a subsea multiphase booster

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, S.; Colombi, P.; Chiesa, G.; Ferrari Aggradi, G.

    1995-12-31

    The subsea multiphase production -- based on the transportation over long distance of the untreated oil-well fluids (oil, water and gas) -- is expected to be one of the most efficient tool for economic exploitation of deep offshore and marginal fields. A long term testing campaign on a multiphase screw pump was successfully completed in 1990 at the AGIP Trecate onshore oil field and the results confirmed the industrial viability for such a kind of equipment for surface application. Then, a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin screw pump has been integrated into a Subsea Multiphase Boosting Unit and installed on the Prezioso Field, offshore Sicily, in Summer 1994. Long term testing under real operating conditions were initiated after a successful start-up of the Unit. To the Authors` knowledge, this is the first world-wide subsea installation of an electrically driven multiphase pump operating with live oil. The paper presents first a description of the marine twin screw pump concept adopted for the subsea application including the main features of the complete boosting unit and the adopted solutions to allow it to operate under different conditions. Then, the project implementation activities from the onshore integration through the installation, commissioning and start-up operations are described. Moreover, the results of the initial functional tests are discussed with particular reference to the screw pump hydraulic performance as well as to the behavior of the pump pressure compensation and seal/lube oil systems. Transient and steady state conditions experienced by the system are finally characterized and the early evidences of its long term performance are discussed.

  10. Properties of the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dring, Andrew R.

    1998-07-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), defined roughly as the region within 200 pc of the Sun, and list the best values for the physical properties of the LISM. We find that the LISM is a very low density environment with a neutral hydrogen density of 0.01 cm-3 with a temperature of roughly 106 K and is probably the remnant of a supernova explosion. Within this hot ionized medium exist many small partially ionized clouds with neutral hydrogen densities of order 0.1 cm-3 and temperatures around 8000 K. The best studied of these clouds is the one in which our Sun resides, termed the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC). Because the Sun lies inside the LIC, it is seen in absorption in nearly all directions allowing a fairly accurate determination of the LIC's space motion through Doppler triangulation. The LIC is moving at 27 ± 3 km s-1 in the direction Galactic langitude = 184 ± 3o and Galactic latitude = [-]16/pm3o. The measured deuterium to hydrogen ratio for the LIC along every sightline is consistent with a value of 1.6×10-5, the best determined value being the beta Cas line of sight with D/H = 1.7/pm0.3×10-5. We also present evidence for a stellar hydrogen wall around the star epsilon Eri.

  11. Sending and searching for interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander L.

    2008-09-01

    There is a close interrelation between searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) and messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI). For example, the answers to the questions "Where to search" and "Where to send" are equivalent, in that both require an identical selection from the same target star lists. Similar considerations lead to a strategy of time synchronization between sending and searching. Both SETI and METI use large reflectors. The concept of "magic frequencies" may be applicable to both SETI and METI. Efforts to understand an alien civilization's interstellar messages (IMs), and efforts to compose our own IMs so they will be easily understood by unfamiliar extraterrestrials, are mutually complementary. Furthermore, the METI-question: "How can we benefit from sending IMs, if a response may come only thousands of years later?" begs an equivalent SETI-question: "How can we benefit from searching, if it is impossible now to perceive the motivations and feelings of those who may have sent messages in the distant past?" A joint consideration of the theoretical and the practical aspects of both sending and searching for IMs, in the framework of a unified, disciplined scientific approach, can be quite fruitful. We seek to resolve the cultural disconnect between those who advocate sending interstellar messages, and others who anathematize those who would transmit.

  12. A Search for Interstellar Monohydric Thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Das, Amaresh; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Etim, Emmanuel E.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2017-02-01

    It has been pointed out by various astronomers that a very interesting relationship exists between interstellar alcohols and the corresponding thiols (sulfur analog of alcohols) as far as the spectroscopic properties and chemical abundances are concerned. Monohydric alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are widely observed and 1-propanol was recently claimed to have been seen in Orion KL. Among the monohydric thiols, methanethiol (chemical analog of methanol) has been firmly detected in Orion KL and Sgr B2(N2) and ethanethiol (chemical analog of ethanol) has been observed in Sgr B2(N2), though the confirmation of this detection is yet to come. It is very likely that higher order thiols could be observed in these regions. In this paper, we study the formation of monohydric alcohols and their thiol analogs. Based on our quantum chemical calculation and chemical modeling, we find that the Tg conformer of 1-propanethiol is a good candidate of astronomical interest. We present various spectroscopically relevant parameters of this molecule to assist in its future detection in the interstellar medium.

  13. Unresolved velocity structure in diffuse interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, John H.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations of interstellar absorption lines of CH and CN toward Zeta Oph obtained by Crane et al. (1986), and Palazzi et al. (1988), exhibit line widths that suggest thermal line broadening at high temperature, T about 1200 K. Observations of CO line emission at 2.6 mm toward Zeta Oph (Langer et al.,1987) indicate that the molecular gas resides in four distinct velocity components that span less than 3 km/s in Doppler velocity. Simulated CH and CN absorption line profiles are compared for high-temperature (T = 1200 K) thermal broadening and for a combination of low-temperature (T = 50 K) thermal plus turbulent broadening. It is shown that the two broadening models reproduce existing observations comparably well and are virtually indistinguishable at a lambda/Delta-lambda ratio of about 100,000. The observed differences in the CH and CN line widths may reflect slightly different distributions of those molecules along the line of sight. The simulations use very recent, improved laboratory spectroscopic data on CH (Bernath). Some related consequences of such unresolved velocity structure on the ultraviolet absorption lines of CO are examined. Indirect diagnostics of temperature in the Zeta Oph cloud favor low-temperature thermal plus turbulent broadening, and the implied rate of dissipation of turbulence is in harmony with estimates of the global input of mechanical energy into to interstellar medium.

  14. Cometary Silicates: Interstellar and Nebular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence for interstellar material in comets is deduced from IR spectra, insitu measurements of Halley, and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs). IR spectra of comets reveal the spectrally active minerals: amorphous carbon, amorphous silicates, and (in some comets) crystalline silicates. Evidence suggests amorphous silicates are of interstellar origin while crystalline silicates are of nebular origin. 10 microns spectra of comets and submicron amorphous silicate spherules in CP IDPs have shapes similar to lines-of-sight through the ISM. Thermal emission models of cometary IR spectra require Fe-bearing amorphous silicates. Fe-bearing amorphous silicates may be Fe-bearing crystalline silicates formed in AGB outflows that are amorphized through He+ ion bombardment in supernova shocks in the ISM. Crystalline silicates in comets, as revealed by IR spectra, and their apparent absence in the ISM, argues for their nebular origin. The high temperatures (less than l000 K) at which crystals form or are annealed occur in the inner nebula or in nebular shocks in the 5-10 AU region. Oxygen isotope studies of CP IDPs show by mass only 1 % of the silicate crystals are of AGB origin. Together this suggests crystalline silicates in comets are probably primitive grains from the early solar nebula.

  15. Formation of Benzene in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Brant M.; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander M.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Crim, F. Fleming (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related species have been suggested to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block-the aromatic benzene molecule-has remained elusive for decades. Here we demonstrate in crossed molecular beam experiments combined with electronic structure and statistical calculations that benzene (C6H6) can be synthesized via the barrierless, exoergic reaction of the ethynyl radical and 1,3- butadiene, C2H + H2CCHCHCH2 --> C6H6, + H, under single collision conditions. This reaction portrays the simplest representative of a reaction class in which aromatic molecules with a benzene core can be formed from acyclic precursors via barrierless reactions of ethynyl radicals with substituted 1,3-butadlene molecules. Unique gas-grain astrochemical models imply that this low-temperature route controls the synthesis of the very first aromatic ring from acyclic precursors in cold molecular clouds, such as in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Rapid, subsequent barrierless reactions of benzene with ethynyl radicals can lead to naphthalene-like structures thus effectively propagating the ethynyl-radical mediated formation of aromatic molecules in the interstellar medium.

  16. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  17. Graphene Solar Photon Sails and Interstellar Arks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    2014-06-01

    A review of conceptual interstellar generation ships is followed by a presentation of optical and thermal properties of graphene and a discussion of kinematics/thermal-aspects of the solar-acceleration phase of a starship propelled by a graphene hollowbody solar-photon sail. The spacecraft departs from an initially parabolic solar orbit and the sail is oriented normal to the Sun during solar-acceleration. Perihelion is constrained to 0.1 AU because humans can tolerate ~3g for several hours without lasting effects. The 5 × 106 kg payload mass and 9.16 × 106 kg sail mass are applied as cosmic-ray shielding for the ship's 20-50 person population during the ~1,400-year cruise phase. Artificial gravity, the Coriolis Effect, closed-environment agriculture, illumination, on-board energy requirements, thermal dissipation, and hygiene/recreation are considered in a discussion of habitat design. Many concepts for mid-course trajectory correction are discussed including a new one that expels mass collected by a Cassenti toroidal ion scoop in a direction normal to the ship's trajectory. Although acceleration is affected by the unfurled sail, other options are discussed, as is the problem of protection from interstellar-dust erosion. As well as presenting the total mass budget, the conclusion reviews published variations and modifications on the generation-ship theme.

  18. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  19. Hydrodynamical Modeling of the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Jonathan David

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) provide us with the opportunity to make progress in understanding a wide range of physical processes that operate in the diffuse insterstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. The LISM includes a large bubble of hot, supernova created gas, known as the Local Bubble, and several low density, warm clouds close to the Sun, known as the Complex of Local Insterstellar Clouds (CLIC). The CLIC includes the Local Interstellar Cloud that surrounds and confines the heliosphere and is the source of neutral H and He that has been detected flowing into the Solar System. Several important questions remain unanswered about the LISM including how the Local Bubble formed, how the CLIC got to be inside the Local Bubble, and what are the ongoing interactions of the hot gas with the CLIC gas. We report on our progress in creating numerical hydrodynamical models of the LISM that aim to help us to understand the wide range of observations we have of the CLIC and the Local Bubble and the origins and evolution of the LISM.

  20. Observational Evidence for Radiative Interstellar Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.; Potter, S. B.; Andersson, B.; Potter, S.

    2011-11-01

    The alignment mechanisms of interstellar dust grains is a long standing astrophysical problem. Interstellar polarization was first discovered in 1949 and soon thereafter attributed to dichroic extinction caused by asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. For a long time the alignment mechanism was thought to involve paramagnetic relaxation in rapidly spinning dust grains. Modern theory indicates that the classical alignment mechanisms are likely not efficient, but rather favor alignment through direct radiative torques. We have used multi-band polarimetry towards stars probing six nearby clouds to show that the wavelength of maximum polarization is linearly correlated with the visual extinction (Andersson & Potter 2007; AP07; where further details can be found). We find a universal relation with a common positive slope between the clouds and a DC offset correlated with the average of the total-to-selective extinction < RV > . These results provide strong observational support for radiatively driven grain alignment. Recent observations of an additional set of ≍60 sightlines in the Taurus cloud confirm and strengthen these results.

  1. PRECURSORS TO INTERSTELLAR SHOCKS OF SOLAR ORIGIN

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2015-08-20

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the “foreshock” that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.

  2. Formation of benzene in the interstellar medium

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brant M.; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander M.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related species have been suggested to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block—the aromatic benzene molecule—has remained elusive for decades. Here we demonstrate in crossed molecular beam experiments combined with electronic structure and statistical calculations that benzene (C6H6) can be synthesized via the barrierless, exoergic reaction of the ethynyl radical and 1,3-butadiene, C2H + H2CCHCHCH2 → C6H6 + H, under single collision conditions. This reaction portrays the simplest representative of a reaction class in which aromatic molecules with a benzene core can be formed from acyclic precursors via barrierless reactions of ethynyl radicals with substituted 1,3-butadiene molecules. Unique gas-grain astrochemical models imply that this low-temperature route controls the synthesis of the very first aromatic ring from acyclic precursors in cold molecular clouds, such as in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Rapid, subsequent barrierless reactions of benzene with ethynyl radicals can lead to naphthalene-like structures thus effectively propagating the ethynyl-radical mediated formation of aromatic molecules in the interstellar medium. PMID:21187430

  3. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  4. The Age of the Local Interstellar Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Local Interstellar Bubble is an irregular-shaped region that happens to be centered on the Sun. It has minimum and maximum radii of 50 and 150 pc. The density inside the bubble is 1/200 of that outside and the temperature is about 1 million K. Therefore the density times the temperature at the borders is constant, so the bubble is stable and can be very old. It was evidently cleared of interstellar gas by one or more supernovae. Because of the low density, no new stars could have been formed in the bubble since the supernovae explosions. We looked for the youngest stars within the bubble. In the central region they are B7 so that region is about 160 million years old. The Pleiades lobe has B3 stars so it is about 60 million years old. The lobe toward the galactic center has O9.5 stars so it is about 4 million years old. In fact, it has a pulsar with a spin-down time of 3.76 million years, so that must be the remnant of the supernova that created that region. The bubble has measureable OVI and CII lines, but no HI, confirming its high temperature. The Sun was probably formed elsewhere and happened to drift into the bubble some millions of years ago. The full text of this talk was published in the Astronomical Journal (Abt 2011).

  5. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HYDROGEN SAMPLED IN SITU BY IBEX

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Rodriguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Moebius, Eberhard; Schwadron, Nathan; Kucharek, Harald; Leonard, Trevor; Bzowski, Maciej; Fuselier, Stephen; Crew, Geoff; McComas, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen gas is the dominant component of the local interstellar medium. However, owing to ionization and interaction with the heliosphere, direct sampling of neutral hydrogen in the inner heliosphere is more difficult than sampling the local interstellar neutral helium, which penetrates deep into the heliosphere. In this paper, we report on the first detailed analysis of the direct sampling of neutral hydrogen from the local interstellar medium. We confirm that the arrival direction of hydrogen is offset from that of the local helium component. We further report the discovery of a variation of the penetrating hydrogen over the first two years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer observations. Observations are consistent with hydrogen experiencing an effective ratio of outward solar radiation pressure to inward gravitational force greater than unity ({mu} > 1); the temporal change observed in the local interstellar hydrogen flux can be explained with solar variability.

  6. Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

  7. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field causing the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Andersson, B.-G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A. J.; Fu, C.-W.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) near the heliosphere is a fundamental component of the solar galactic environment that can only be studied using polarized starlight. The results of an ongoing survey of the linear polarizations of local stars are analyzed with the goal of linking the ISMF that shapes the heliosphere to the nearby field in interstellar space. We present new results on the direction of the magnetic field within 40 pc obtained from analyzing polarization data using a merit function that determines the field direction that provides the best fit to the polarization data. Multiple magnetic components are identified, including a dominant interstellar field, {B}{POL}, that is aligned with the direction ℓ, b = 36.°2, 49.°0 (±16.°0). Stars tracing {B}{POL} have the same mean distance as stars that do not trace {B}{POL}, but show weaker average polarizations consistent with a smaller column density of polarizing material. {B}{POL} is aligned with the ISMF traced by the IBEX Ribbon to within {7.6}-7.6+14.9 degrees. The variations in the polarization position angle directions derived from the data that best match {B}{POL} indicate a low level of magnetic turbulence, ˜9° ± 1°. The direction of {B}{POL} is obtained after excluding polarization data tracing a separate magnetic structure that appears to be associated with interstellar dust deflected around the heliosphere. The velocities of local interstellar clouds relative to the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) increase with the angles between the LSR velocities and {B}{POL}, indicating that the kinematics of local interstellar material is ordered by the ISMF. The Loop I superbubble that extends close to the Sun contains dust that reddens starlight and whose distance is determined by the color excess E(B - V) of starlight. Polarizations caused by grains aligned with respect to {B}{POL} are consistent with the location of the Sun in the rim of the Loop I superbubble. An angle of {76

  8. Collisional Transitions in Interstellar Asymmetric Top Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    2012-07-01

    For the study of a molecule in interstellar space or in circumstellar envelopes of an evolved star, one has to deal with a multi-level system in the molecule. These levels are connected through radiative as well as collisional transitions. The NLTE effects in a molecule come in the picture only when collisional transitions are present. Computation of collisional rates is quite cumbersome task. Besides emission and absorption, two anomalous phenomena: (i) MASER action and (ii) Anomalous absorption (Absorption against the CMB) are shown by some molecules in interstellar space. Both of these phenomena are good examples of NLTE prevailing in the interstellar space and circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. In the present talk, we shall discuss about the collisional transitions between rotational levels in a molecule. The collisional rate coefficients for the rotational transition J τ → J' τ' at the kinetic temperature T, averaged over the Maxwellian distribution are C(J τ → J' τ'|T) = \\Big(\\frac{8 k T}{π μ}\\Big)^{1/2} \\Big(\\frac{1}{k T}\\Big)^2 \\int_0^\\infty σ (J τ → J' τ'|E) E {e}^{-E/kT} {d} E where μ is the reduced mass of the system and the cross section σ(J τ → J' τ'|E) for the transition is \\begin{eqnarray} σ (J τ → J' τ'|E) = \\sum_{L M M'} S(J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M') q(L, M, M'|E) The q(L, M, M'|E) are the parameters which can be obtained from the software MOLSCAT. The spectroscopic coefficients, S ( J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M'), depend on the wave-functions of the molecules and on the angular momentum coupling factors: S(J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M') = \\sum_{p, p', q, q'} g^p_{J τ} g^q_{J τ} g^{p'}_{J' τ'} g^{q'}_{J' τ'} \\big \\big Here, \\big represents the Clebsch-Gorden coefficient. The g-coefficients can be obtained from laboratory analysis of the molecule and the parameters q(L, M, M'|E) can be obtained with the help of the software MOLSCAT for a

  9. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Opher, M.; Kasper, J.; Mewaldt, R.; Moebius, E.; Spence, H. E.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2016-11-01

    Our piece of cosmic real estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX is the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies (˜5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. This paper summarizes the next quantum leap enabled by IMAP that will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX and INCA will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal, with unprecedented resolution, global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. Voyager 2 moves outward in the same region of sky covered by a portion of the IBEX ribbon. Voyager 2’s plasma measurements will create singular opportunities for discovery in the context of IMAP's global measurements. IMAP, like ACE before, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive measurements of interstellar neutral atoms and pickup ions, the solar wind distribution, composition, and magnetic field, as well as suprathermal ion, energetic

  10. AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian; Bzowski, Maciej; McComas, David

    2012-02-01

    The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

  11. New Interstellar Dust Models Consistent with Interstellar Extinction, Emission and Abundances Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubko, V.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present new interstellar dust models that are consistent with both, the FUV to near-IR extinction and infrared (IR) emission measurements from the diffuse interstellar medium. The models are characterized by different dust compositions and abundances. The problem we solve consists of determining the size distribution of the various dust components of the model. This problem is a typical ill-posed inversion problem which we solve using the regularization approach. We reproduce the Li Draine (2001, ApJ, 554, 778) results, however their model requires an excessive amount of interstellar silicon (48 ppM of hydrogen compared to the 36 ppM available for an ISM of solar composition) to be locked up in dust. We found that dust models consisting of PAHs, amorphous silicate, graphite, and composite grains made up from silicates, organic refractory, and water ice, provide an improved fit to the extinction and IR emission measurements, while still requiring a subsolar amount of silicon to be in the dust. This research was supported by NASA Astrophysical Theory Program NRA 99-OSS-01.

  12. Molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M.; Robinson, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified H2 formation mechanism is proposed in which small interstellar grains furnish the reaction sites. This mechanism results in a maximum value for the rate constant of about 2 by 10 to the -18th power per cu cm/sec for dark clouds at 10 K. Also, the nascent molecules are ejected in excited states, in qualitative agreement with Copernicus observations. A time-dependent treatment of the chemical evolution of a dark cloud with little or no ionizing radiation shows that the clouds require more than 10 million years to achieve chemical equilibrium. The observed residual atomic hydrogen in several dark clouds suggests that the clouds are 1 to 10 million years old. Other consequences of the temporal cloud model are in accord with astronomical observations.

  13. SPIRE spectroscopy of the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habart, E.; Dartois, E.; Abergel, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Naylor, D.; Polehampton, E.; Joblin, C.

    2010-12-01

    The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board Herschel allows us, for the first time, to simultaneously measure the complete far-infrared spectrum from 194 to 671 μm. A wealth of rotational lines of CO (and its isotopologues), fine structure lines of C^0 and N^+, and emission lines from radicals and molecules has been observed towards several galactic regions and nearby galaxies. The strengths of the atomic and molecular lines place fundamental constraints on the physical conditions but also the chemistry of the interstellar medium. FTS mapping capabilities are also extremely powerful in characterizing the spatial morphology of the extended region and understand how the gas properties vary within the studied region. Here, we present a first analysis of SPIRE spectroscopic observations of the prototypical Orion Bar photodissociation region.

  14. Optically thick ablation fronts. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konigl, A.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of optically thick ablation fronts such as interstellar clouds are analyzed. Attention is given to cold clumps in both planar and spherical geometries and modifications caused by accelerations in a gravitational field or by evaporation of the clumps when encountered hot gas. The effects of ablation on the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are examined in both linear and nonlinear regimes. The results of the calculations are applied to the astrophysical phenomena of cold clumps immersed in a supersonic flow, optically thick jets, and ablation in stellar envelopes. Evaporation in an optically thick front is projected to be orders of magnitude larger than evaporation in electron-conduction fronts in optically thin conditions. The optically thick processes could then be useful for modeling flows from, e.g., newly formed stars and active galactic nuclei.

  15. The mass spectrum of interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, John M.; Garwood, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The abundances of diffuse clouds and molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy and at the solar circle are compared. Using results of recent low-latitude 21 cm absorption studies, the number of diffuse clouds per kiloparsec along the line of sight is derived as a function of the cloud column density, under two assumptions relating cloud densities and temperatures. The density of clouds is derived as a function of cloud mass. The results are consistent with a single, continuous mass spectrum for interstellar clouds from less than 1 solar mass to 1,000,000 solar masses, with perhaps a change of slope at masses where the atomic and molecular mass fractions are roughly equal.

  16. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  17. Scattering by interstellar graphite dust analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Gazi A.; Gogoi, Ankur

    2014-10-01

    The analysis of optical scattering data of interstellar carbonaceous graphite dust analog at 543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm laser wavelengths by using an original laboratory light scattering setup is presented. The setup primarily consisted of a laser source, optical units, aerosol sprayer, data acquisition system and associated instrumentation. The instrument measured scattered light signals from 10° to 170° in steps of 1°. The results of the measurements of the volume scattering function β(θ) and degree of linear polarization P(θ) of the carbonaceous graphite dust particles that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer were subsequently compared with theoretically generated Mie plots with estimated parameters.

  18. Spin-related magnetism of interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.; De, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and internal magnetic fields due to the spin of electrically charged elongated nonmagnetic interstellar grains in kinetic equilibrium with their surroundings are computed for the grain-size range from 0.01 to 1.0 micron. It is shown that the induced magnetic moments and internal magnetic fields of charged spinning nonmagnetic grains of arbitrary composition and prolate spheroidal shape can be appreciable, possibly even exceeding 0.01 emu/cu cm for 0.01-micron grains. The results indicate that virtually all grains smaller than 0.1 micron in mean diameter, and all elongated grains smaller than about 1 micron in length, are immersed in local magnetic fields due to spin that are much larger than the ambient galactic field. Some implications of this effect are discussed in relation to the polarization of starlight by aligned dust grains and the primordial remanent magnetization found in primitive carbonaceous chondrites.

  19. A survey of ultraviolet interstellar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Spitzer, L., Jr.; York, D. G.; Hill, J. K.; Savage, B. D.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A telescope-spectrometer on the Copernicus spacecraft made possible the measurement of many ultraviolet absorption lines produced by the interstellar gas. The present survey provides data on ultraviolet absorption lines in the spectra of 88 early-type stars. The stars observed are divided into four classes, including reddened stars, unreddened bright stars, moderately reddened bright stars, and unreddened and moderately reddened faint stars. Data are presented for equivalent width, W, radial velocity V, and rms line width, D, taking into account some 10 to 20 lines of N I, O I, Si II, P II, S II, Cl I, Cl II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II, Cu II, and H2. The data are based on multiple scans for each line. Attention is given to details of observations, the data reduction procedure, and the computation of equivalent width, mean velocity, and velocity dispersion.

  20. A radio search for interstellar phosphorus compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    The J = 1-0 and 3-2 transitions of phosphorus nitride, PN, with resolvable hyperfine components at 46.99 GHz and blended components at 140.97 GHz, and transitions of phosphine, PH3, at 47.39 and 46.94 GHz, arising from a small induced dipole moment, have been searched for but not found in interstellar molecular clouds. The J = 3/2-1/2, F - 3/2-3/2 transition of nitric oxide, NO, and the J(K-K+) = 16(4, 12) -15(5, 11) transition of sulfur dioxide, SO2, have been detected in Orion and Sagittarius B2. An unidentified emission line, U140921.8 MHz, has been observed in IRC + 10216.

  1. Interstellar H_3^+: Herzberg and Hydrogenic Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi

    2000-06-01

    Gerhard Herzberg was fascinated by the physics of hydrogen throughout his life (1,2) and studied spectra of a variety of hydrogenic species including H, H^-, H_2, H2 ^+ and H_3^+. He was the first to advocate the importance of spectroscopy of H_3^+, both from astronomical and chemical points of view. I shall talk on how his idea and enthusiasm have been succeeded by the younger generation and led to the detection of the laboratory spectrum of H_3^+, as well as to the detection of H_3^+ in astronomical objects such as planetary ionospheres, molecular clouds, and the diffuse interstellar medium. 1. G. Herzberg, Trans. R. Soc. Can. 5: 3 (1967). 2. G. Herzberg, Trans. R. Soc. Can. 20: 151 (1982).

  2. Modelling Study of Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) , including both the E- and Z- isomers, were detected towards the star-forming region Sgr B2(N) using the GBT PRIMOS data (Loomis et al 2013), and were recently imaged by the ACTA (Corby et al. 2015). These aldimines can serve as precursors of biological molecules such as amino acids thus are considered prebiotic molecules in interstellar medium. In this study, we present chemical simulations of ethanimine with various physical conditions. From models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, calculated ethanimine abundances show reasonable agreement with observed values, while the translucent cloud models yield much lower abundances. These results agree with locations suggested by observations that ethanimine isomers were detected in the foreground of the shells of the hot core.

  3. Ortho and parahydrogen in interstellar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, R. R.; Harteck, P.

    1979-01-01

    The ortho/para molecular hydrogen ratio in the interstellar medium is considered. It is shown that the ortho/para ratio will be 3:1 in practically all chemical reactions, even at relatively low temperatures. Two examples of exothermic processes that will result in the formation of a 3:1 ortho:para ratio, corresponding to a high-temperature equilibrium, are examined: H2 formation via three-body or surface recombination and catalytic recombination involving electrons and H(-) ions. Gas-phase scrambling ion reactions are also discussed, and it is suggested that virtually all the H2 equilibrated via scrambling reactions involving H(+) and H3(+) ions should exist as parahydrogen in the J ? 0 quantum state. Arguments are given that deuterium cannot interfere with the long scrambling chain that results in parahydrogen formation.

  4. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  5. The nature and origin of interstellar diamond.

    PubMed

    Blake, D F; Freund, F; Krishnan, K F; Echer, C J; Shipp, R; Bunch, T E; Tielens, A G; Lipari, R J; Hetherington, C J; Chang, S

    1988-04-14

    Microscopic diamond was recently discovered in oxidized acid residues from several carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (for example, the C delta component of the Allende meteorite). Some of the reported properties of C delta seem in conflict with those expected of diamond. Here we present high spatial resolution analytical data which may help to explain such results. The C delta diamond is an extremely fine-grained (0.5-10 nm) single-phase material, but surface and interfacial carbon atoms, which may comprise as much as 25% of the total, impart an 'amorphous' character to some spectral data. These data support the proposed high-pressure conversion of amorphous carbon and graphite into diamonds due to grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium although a low-pressure mechanism of formation cannot be ruled out.

  6. Diffuse interstellar bands: a comprehensive laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Fred M

    2006-12-01

    As a result of the search for the identity of the chromophores responsible for producing the diffuse interstellar bands, a comprehensive exposition of experimental data is presented, which implicates the following molecules: (1) The extremely stable organic molecules, magnesium tetrabenzoporphyrin (MgTBP) and H(2)TBP. (2) A paraffin matrix (referred to as "grains") containing TBPs. (3) A low concentration of pyridine (also within the grains), whose transmission window at 2175 A, accounts for the ubiquitous UV bump. The blue emission spectra associated with the central star, HD44179, of the Red Rectangle displays the fluorescence excitation spectra of bare MgTBP. This unique spectrum matches the low temperature lab data of MgTBP in the vapor phase. An effective grain temperature of 2.728 K (+/-0.008) was deduced, based on MgTBP's lowest measured vibrational state of 341 GHz.

  7. A speckle hologram of the interstellar plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, K. M.; Gwinn, C. R.; Reynolds, J.; King, E. A.; Jauncey, D.; Flanagan, C.; Nicolson, G.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of a speckle hologram of scattering material along the line of sight to the Vela pulsar indicate that this material is concentrated in the Vela supernova remnant, deep within the Gum Nebula. The speckle hologram is observed through the amplitude and phase variations of the interferometric cross-power spectrum with time and frequency. These variations describe the density fluctuations of the interstellar plasma, in a holographic fashion. The decorrelation due to the phase variations of the speckles yields the angular size of the scattering disk; comparison with the bandwidth of their amplitude variations yields a characteristic distance from earth to the scattering material of 0.81 +/- 0.03 of the distance from earth to the pulsar. This result is consistent with theories of irregularities associated with particle acceleration in shocks in supernova remnants.

  8. Sun Focus Comes First, Interstellar Comes Second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    of focal spheres) between 550 and 17,000 AU, thus located much beyond the well known Kuiper Belt of small bodies, remnants from the Solar System's formation, located between 30 to 55 AU.There is an even more important question, tough, that we face in this paper: how to INSURE any future interstellar radio links between the solar system and future interstellar probes. We show by calculations that only exploiting the gravitational lens of the Sun as a huge antenna we will be able to achieve such an interstellar link. In other words, we calculate the Bit Error Rate (BER) across interstellar distances both with and without using the gravitational lens effect of the Sun. The conclusion is that only when we will exploit the Sun as a gravitational lens we will be able to communicate with our own probes (or with nearby Aliens) across the distances of even the nearest stars to us in the Galaxy, and that at a reasonable Bit Error Rate.

  9. Searching for Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication, this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  10. Searching for cost-optimized interstellar beacons.

    PubMed

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  11. Searching for Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arriarrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  12. The Local Interstellar Medium Legacy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, B.

    We propose to provide a legacy database of far ultraviolet absorption spectra (912 - 1100AA) of 44 bright early-type B stars residing within sim 50pc of the Sun. These spectra will primarily be used to map the physical and chemical characteristics of the neutral and ionized interstellar gas that lies both within and just beyond the contours of the Local Bubble region. Of particular importance will be the detection of the OVI ion, which is known to trace highly ionized, hot (sim 300,000K) interstellar gas. We shall produce plots of the spatial distribution of the OVI ion with respect to the cold and dense neutral boundary to the rarefied Local Bubble cavity. This information will provide new insights into the possible production mechanisms for this ion that is widely believed to be formed at the conductive interfaces of evaporating gas clouds. Our database will also allow study of the spatial distribution of the ions of ArI, OI, FeII, CII, CIII, NI and NII, such that both diffuse neutral and ionized local gas can be probed in order to determine if photo-ionization conditions dominate within the local cavity. These data will also allow an investigation of the gas phase element abundances in the local gas, such that we will be able to compare their relative depletion patterns with both the galactic disk and halo gas. In addition to these prime science objectives these data will also provide a large database of observations of local H_2 molecular absorption, as well as a large, high SN set of early-type star spectra that can be modelled with appropriate stellar atmospheres.

  13. TRES Survey of Variable Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Charles; Milisavljevic, Dan; Crabtree, Kyle; Johansen, Sommer; Patnaude, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features commonly observed in optical/near-infrared spectra of stars and thought to be associated with polyatomic molecules that comprise a significant reservoir of organic material in the universe. However, because the central wavelengths of DIBs do not correspond with electronic transitions of known atomic or molecular species, the specific physical nature of their carriers remains inconclusive despite decades of observational, theoretical, and experimental research. It is well established that DIB carriers must be located in the interstellar medium, but the recent discovery of time-varying DIBs in the spectra of the extragalactic supernova SN 2012ap suggests that some may be created in massive star environments. We report evidence of short time-scale (˜1-60 days) variations in DIB absorption line substructure toward 3 of 17 massive stars observed as part of a pathfinder survey of variable DIBs. The detections are made in high-resolution optical spectra (R ˜ 44000) from the Tillinghast Reflection Echelle Spectrograph on the 1.5m Tillinghast telescope at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona. Our detections have signal-to-noise ratios of 5-15 around the features of interest, and are thus considered significant but requiring further investigation. We find that these changes are potentially consistent with interactions between stellar winds and DIB carriers in close proximity. Our findings motivate a larger survey to further characterize these variations and may establish a powerful new method for probing the poorly understood physical characteristics of DIB carriers.

  14. Realistic Detectability of Close Interstellar Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathaniel V.; Ragozzine, Darin; Granvik, Mikael; Stephens, Denise C.

    2016-07-01

    During the planet formation process, billions of comets are created and ejected into interstellar space. The detection and characterization of such interstellar comets (ICs) (also known as extra-solar planetesimals or extra-solar comets) would give us in situ information about the efficiency and properties of planet formation throughout the galaxy. However, no ICs have ever been detected, despite the fact that their hyperbolic orbits would make them readily identifiable as unrelated to the solar system. Moro-Martín et al. have made a detailed and reasonable estimate of the properties of the IC population. We extend their estimates of detectability with a numerical model that allows us to consider “close” ICs, e.g., those that come within the orbit of Jupiter. We include several constraints on a “detectable” object that allow for realistic estimates of the frequency of detections expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other surveys. The influence of several of the assumed model parameters on the frequency of detections is explored in detail. Based on the expectation from Moro-Martín et al., we expect that LSST will detect 0.001-10 ICs during its nominal 10 year lifetime, with most of the uncertainty from the unknown number density of small (nuclei of ˜0.1-1 km) ICs. Both asteroid and comet cases are considered, where the latter includes various empirical prescriptions of brightening. Using simulated LSST-like astrometric data, we study the problem of orbit determination for these bodies, finding that LSST could identify their orbits as hyperbolic and determine an ephemeris sufficiently accurate for follow-up in about 4-7 days. We give the hyperbolic orbital parameters of the most detectable ICs. Taking the results into consideration, we give recommendations to future searches for ICs.

  15. The chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The basic theme of this program is the study of molecular complexity and evolution in interstellar and circumstellar clouds incorporating the biogenic elements. Recent results include the identification of a new astronomical carbon-chain molecule, C4Si. This species was detected in the envelope expelled from the evolved star IRC+10216 in observations at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. C4Si is the carrier of six unidentified lines which had previously been observed. This detection reveals the existence of a new series of carbon-chain molecules, C sub n Si (n equals 1, 2, 4). Such molecules may well be formed from the reaction of Si(+) with acetylene and acetylene derivatives. Other recent research has concentrated on the chemical composition of the cold, dark interstellar clouds, the nearest dense molecular clouds to the solar system. Such regions have very low kinetic temperatures, on the order of 10 K, and are known to be formation sites for solar-type stars. We have recently identified for the first time in such regions the species of H2S, NO, HCOOH (formic acid). The H2S abundance appears to exceed that predicted by gas-phase models of ion-molecule chemistry, perhaps suggesting the importance of synthesis on grain surfaces. Additional observations in dark clouds have studied the ratio of ortho- to para-thioformaldehyde. Since this ratio is expected to be unaffected by both radiative and ordinary collisional processes in the cloud, it may well reflect the formation conditions for this molecule. The ratio is observed to depart from that expected under conditions of chemical equilibrium at formation, perhaps reflecting efficient interchange between cold dust grains in the gas phase.

  16. Diffuse Interstellar Bands in NGC 1448

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollerman, J.; Cox, N.; Mattila, S.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kaper, L.; Leibundgut, B.; Lundqvist, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present spectroscopic VLT/UVES observations of two emerging supernovae, the Type Ia SN 2001el and the Type II SN 2003hn, in the spiral galaxy NGC 1448. Our high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra display atomic lines of Ca II, Na I, Ti II and K I in the host galaxy. In the line of sight towards SN 2001el, we also detect over a dozen diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) within NGC 1448. These DIBs have strengths comparable to low reddening galactic lines of sight, albeit with some variations. In particular, a good match is found with the line of sight towards the σ type diffuse cloud (HD 144217). The DIBs towards SN 2003hn are significantly weaker, and this line of sight has also lower sodium column density. The DIB central velocities show that the DIBs towards SN 2001el are closely related to the strongest interstellar Ca II and Na I components, indicating that the DIBs are preferentially produced in the same cloud. The ratio of the λ 5797 and λ 5780 DIB strengths (r ˜ 0.14) suggests a rather strong UV field in the DIB environment towards SN 2001el. We also note that the extinction estimates obtained from the sodium lines using multiple line fitting agree with reddening estimates based on the colors of the Type Ia SN 2001el. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programmes 67.D-0227 and 71.D-0033). Table \\ref{tb:ISfit} and Figs. \\ref{fig:IS_MW} and \\ref{fig:6284} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  17. From Interstellar PAHs and Ices to the Origin of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of dust in the diffuse ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. In dense molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by earlier interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this lecture will describe how infrared studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations, have revealed the composition of interstellar ices (the building blocks of comets) and the high abundance and nature of interstellar PAHs. The laboratory database has now enabled us to gain insight into the identities, concentrations, and physical state of many interstellar materials. Within a dense molecular cloud, and especially in the solar nebula during the star and planet formation stage, the materials frozen into interstellar/precometary ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light, producing more complex molecules. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and the possible role of these compounds on the early Earth. As these materials are thought to be the building

  18. The study of multiphase flow control during odor reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehan; Yu, Hao; Fan, Danjun; He, Meiqiu

    2014-04-01

    Odor reproduction, is the use of the chemical composition of the basic components of odor recipe, according to a certain proportion, to control the flow of the various components, which make them sufficiently blended to achieve reproduction. In this paper, reproducing method is to find the corresponding liquid flavor, and then based on chemical flavor recipes, using flowmeters to control the chemical composition of the liquid flavor ratio. In the proportional control, the liquid chemical composition is very likely to be volatile, so that the proportional control is multiphase flow control. Measurement of the flow control will directly affect the odor reproducible results. Using electronic nose to obtain reproducible odor data, and then use pattern recognition algorithm to determine reproducible results. The experimental results can be achieved on the process of odor components multiphase flow proportional control parameter adjustment.

  19. Tabular Multiphase Equations of State for Metals and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, Pavel R.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.

    2007-12-01

    We present a method of interpolation of thermodynamic functions calculated by means of a multiphase equation of state for metals. The method takes into account melting, evaporation and sublimation phase transitions. It can be also applied in metastable regions of phase diagram including those under negative pressures. The method allows one to unambiguously determine the phase state of a given point of phase diagram. Several applications of the tabular multiphase equations of state are considered: simulation of the initial stage of electrical explosion of metal wires, formation of striations, interaction of intense laser pulses with matter etc. Information about phase state in every point of the flux allows us to study phase transition waves, apply different destruction criteria and analyze processes in metastable regions.

  20. Shock wave experiments to examine the multiphase properties of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific need to obtain new data to constrain and refine next generation multi-phase equation-of-state (EOS) for metals. Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries, determine transition kinetic times, and to obtain EOS and Hugoniot data for relevant phases. The objectives of the current work was to examine the multiphase properties for cerium including the dynamic melt boundary and the low-pressure solid-solid phase transition through the critical point. These objectives were addressed by performing plate impact experiment that used multiple experimental configuration including front-surface impact experiments to directly measure transition kinetics, multislug experiments that used the overtake method to measure sound speeds at pressure, and preheat experiments to map out phase boundaries. Preliminary data and analysis obtained for cerium will be presented.

  1. Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.

  2. Fitting of a multiphase equation of state with swarm intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, G. A.; Christie, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrocode calculations require knowledge of the variation of pressure of a material with density and temperature, which is given by the equation of state. An accurate model needs to account for discontinuities in energy, density and properties of a material across a phase boundary. When generating a multiphase equation of state the modeller attempts to balance the agreement between the available data for compression, expansion and phase boundary location. However, this can prove difficult because minor adjustments in the equation of state for a single phase can have a large impact on the overall phase diagram. This paper describes how combining statistical-mechanics-based condensed matter physics models with a stochastic analysis technique called particle swarm optimisation, yields multiphase equations of state which give good agreement with experiment over a wide range of pressure-temperature space. Aluminium and tin are used as test cases in the proof of principle described in this paper.

  3. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  4. Fitting of a multiphase equation of state with swarm intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cox, G A; Christie, M A

    2015-10-14

    Hydrocode calculations require knowledge of the variation of pressure of a material with density and temperature, which is given by the equation of state. An accurate model needs to account for discontinuities in energy, density and properties of a material across a phase boundary. When generating a multiphase equation of state the modeller attempts to balance the agreement between the available data for compression, expansion and phase boundary location. However, this can prove difficult because minor adjustments in the equation of state for a single phase can have a large impact on the overall phase diagram. This paper describes how combining statistical-mechanics-based condensed matter physics models with a stochastic analysis technique called particle swarm optimisation, yields multiphase equations of state which give good agreement with experiment over a wide range of pressure-temperature space. Aluminium and tin are used as test cases in the proof of principle described in this paper.

  5. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, J.A.; Rittner, M.N.; Youngdahl, C.J.; Weertman, J.R.

    1998-03-17

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound. 6 figs.

  6. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Rittner, Mindy N.; Youngdahl, Carl J.; Weertman, Julia R.

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound.

  7. Monte-Carlo histories of refractory interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Liffman, K.

    1988-01-01

    Monte-carlo histories of 6 x 10 to the 6th individual dust particles injected uniformly from stars into the interstellar medium during a 6 x 10 to the 9th year history are calculated. The particles are given a two-phase internal structure of successive thermal condensates, and are distributed in initial radius as 1/a-cubed over the value of a between 0.01 and 0.1 micron. The evolution of this system illustrates the distinction between several different lifetimes for interstellar dust. Most are destroyed, but some grow in size. Several important consequences for interstellar dust are described.

  8. X-ray Haloes and Scattering by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2003-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred f r o m the general extinction of starlight, the diffuse infrared emission, and the elemental abundance constraints. X-ray haloes around X-ray sources, produced by small angle scattering from intervening interstellar dust particles provide a new probe into the nature of interstellar dust. In this talk I will review the physics of X-ray scattering by dust particles, and present an analysis of dust properties around select X-ray sources.

  9. X-ray Haloes and Scattering by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2003-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred from the general extinction of starlight, the diffuse infrared emission, and the elemental abundance constraints. X-ray haloes around X-ray sources, produced by small angle scattering from intervening interstellar dust particles provide a new probe into the nature of interstellar dust. In this talk I will review the physics of X-ray scattering by dust particles, and present an analysis of dust properties around select X-ray sources.

  10. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  11. Interstellar Hydrogen Gas Entering the Heliosphere: Four Years of IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the heliosphere unimpeded by solar wind and heliopause magnetic fields. Observations of this gas have determined the relative motion of our sun and the interstellar medium as well as properties of this medium. We report here on direct observations of interstellar neutral Hydrogen by NASA's IBEX satellite over four years of operation. The observed flux at 1AU is not constant but varies due to solar variability which affects the ionization rate and the radiation pressure. Further, the direction of the H flux is offset from other species. We explain these observations in the context of low energy neutral atom sensors developed at the University of Bern in Switzerland.

  12. Applications of the Electrodynamic Tether to Interstellar Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Johnson, Les

    2005-01-01

    After considering relevant properties of the local interstellar medium and defining a sample interstellar mission, this paper considers possible interstellar applications of the electrodynamic tether, or EDT. These include use of the EDT to provide on-board power and affect trajectory modifications and direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration. It is demonstrated that comparatively modest EDTs can provide substantial quantities of on-board power, if combined with a large-area electron-collection device such as the Cassenti toroidal-field ramscoop. More substantial tethers can be used to accomplish large-radius thrustless turns. Direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration is apparently infeasible.

  13. Photoabsorption and photodissociation of molecules important in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Long C.; Suto, Masako

    1989-01-01

    Photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of molecules important in the interstellar medium were measured in the 90 to 200 nm region using synchrotron radiation, excimer laser, and condensed discharge lamps as light sources. The quantitative spectroscopic data are currently needed for the modeling of formation and destruction rates of molecules by the interstellar radiation field. Fluorescences from excited photofragments produced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation of molecules are dispersed to identify the emitting species. The fluorescence data are useful for the identification of emission sources in interstellar clouds.

  14. Photoabsorption and photodissociation of molecules important in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    In the period from May 15, 1985 to May 14, 1986, the photoabsorption and photodissociation cross sections of the interstellar radical of SO and the interstellar molecules of HCl, H2CO, and CH3CN were measured and the results were reported in scientific papers. In the meantime, a windowless apparatus is used to measure the photoabsorption and photodissociation cross sections of CO in the 90-105 nm region. The optical data obtained in this research program are needed for the determination of the formation and destruction rates of molecules and radicals in the interstellar medium. Accomplishments in this research period are summarized below.

  15. AN UPPER BOUND TO THE SPACE DENSITY OF INTERSTELLAR COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.

    2011-05-15

    Two well-studied white dwarfs with helium-dominated atmospheres (DBs) each possess less hydrogen than carried by a single average-mass comet. Plausibly, the wind rates from these stars are low enough that most accreted hydrogen remains with the star. If so, and presuming their nominal effective temperatures, then these DBs have faced minimal impact by interstellar comets during their 50 Myr cooling age; interstellar iceballs with radii between 10 m and 2 km contain less than 1% of all interstellar oxygen. This analysis suggests that most stars do not produce comets at the rate predicted by 'optimistic' scenarios for the formation of the Oort Cloud.

  16. SEARCHING FOR NAPHTHALENE CATION ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Searles, Justin M.; Destree, Joshua D.; Snow, Theodore P.; Salama, Farid; York, Donald G.; Dahlstrom, Julie E-mail: destree@colorado.edu E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov E-mail: jdahlstrom1@carthage.edu

    2011-05-01

    Interstellar naphthalene cations (C{sub 10}H{sup +}{sub 8}) have been proposed by a study to be the carriers of a small number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Using an archive of high signal-to-noise spectra obtained at the Apache Point Observatory, we used two methods to test the hypothesis. Both methods failed to detect significant absorption at lab wavelengths of interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra. We thereby conclude that C{sub 10}H{sup +}{sub 8} is not a DIB carrier in typical reddened sight lines.

  17. Diatoms on earth, comets, Europa and in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Hoover, M. J.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Al-Mufti, S.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a close correspondence between the measured infrared properties of diatoms and the infrared spectrum of interstellar dust as observed in the Trapezium nebula and toward the galactic center source GC-IRS 7. Diatoms and bacteria also exhibit an absorbance peak near 2200 A, which is found to agree with the observed ultraviolet absorbance properties of interstellar grains. The observational data are reviewed, and the known properties of diatoms and bacteria are considered. It is suggested that these characteristics are consistent with the concept of a cosmic microbiological system in which these or similar microorganisms might exist on comets, Europa and in interstellar space.

  18. Modelling interstellar organics: relevance for the identification of unidentified interstellar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloci, Giuliano

    2003-02-01

    This thesis is part of the research activity of the Astrochemistry Group of the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory and the Physics Department at the University of Cagliari. The subjects of this work are two specific astrophysical problems concerning the Interstellar Medium (ISM) analysis: 1) the identification of Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) - Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs); 2) the identification of the Extended Red Emission (ERE). A new theoretical approach to the spectroscopic identification of these specific Unidentified Interstellar Features is presented.Concerning the DIBs-UIBs, this work is an extension of a computational Monte-Carlo model developed in the past few years by our group (Mulas G. A&A 1998,338,243) with the aim to integrate quantum-chemical ab initio tecnhiques in it and thus produce a self-contained molecular simulator. Concerning ERE, a general recipe is developed in order to extrapolate the expected photoluminescence of small particles starting from available laboratory results obtained on bulk samples. All the numerical results were obtained for interstellar carbonaceous compounds, hence the title ``Modelling interstellar organics'' given to the thesis. In particular, a specific molecule belonging to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is chosen as a test case to discuss the PAHs-DIBs-UIBs proposal, while the optical properties of laboratory samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) are used to obtain numerical results to be compared with luminescence phenomena such as ERE originating from some solid component of the ISM. The introductive chapter is intended to introduce the unfamiliar reader to the specific topic under study, and a short overview of the scientific scenario involved is given. Then, Part I and II discuss separately the two models above and represent the body of the work; each chapter follows a standard article format: introduction, theoretical method, numerical results, discussion and

  19. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  20. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  1. Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Technology, 160:119– 150, 2000. [32] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. C. Mongia . Large eddy simulations of a gas turbine combustor flow. Combustion Science and...structures and shock induced heating can trigger ignition, combustion and turbulent flame propagation. In this research, a new and an efficient...Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows Suresh Menon and Franklin Génin Computational Combustion Laboratory School of Aerospace

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of multiphase flow in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Amir; Tchelepi, Hamdi; Cinar, Yildiray

    2008-11-01

    We present laboratory scale experiments and network simulations to investigate the influence of capillary, gravitational and viscous forces on multiphase flow in disordered microscopic media. Two-dimensional experiments, which are performed in a vertical glass bead pack to understand microscopic behavior, demonstrate the existence of small scale instability that is analyzed with the theory of invasion percolation. Numerical simulations based on pore networks are carried out to help investigate the possibility of developing effective conservation laws at the macroscopic scale.

  3. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  4. Enhanced Light Scattering of Secondary Organic Aerosols by Multiphase Reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Junling; Liggio, John; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa; Liu, Qifan; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Li, Jiangjun; Peng, Chao; Jing, Bo; Wang, Dong; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-02-07

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) plays a pivotal role in visibility and radiative forcing, both of which are intrinsically linked to the refractive index (RI). While previous studies have focused on the RI of SOA from traditional formation processes, the effect of multiphase reactions on the RI has not been considered. Here, we investigate the effects of multiphase processes on the RI and light-extinction of m-xylene-derived SOA, a common type of anthropogenic SOA. We find that multiphase reactions in the presence of liquid water lead to the formation of oligomers from intermediate products such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, resulting in a large enhancement in the RI and light-scattering of this SOA. These reactions will result in increases in light-scattering efficiency and direct radiative forcing of approximately 20%-90%. These findings improve our understanding of SOA optical properties and have significant implications for evaluating the impacts of SOA on the rapid formation of regional haze, global radiative balance, and climate change.

  5. Multiphase fluid simulation tools for winning remediation solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Deschaine, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Releases of petroleum product such as gasoline and diesel fuels from normal operating practices to aquifers are common. The costs to remediate these releases can run in the billions of dollars. Solutions to remediate these releases usually consist of some form of multiphase (air, water, oil) fluid movement, whether it be a multiphase high vacuum extraction system, bioslurping, groundwater pump and treat system, an air sparging system, a soil vapor extraction system, a free product recovery system, bioremediation or the like. The software being tested in Test Drive, Multiphase Organic Vacuum Enhanced Recovery Simulator (MOVER) is a computer simulation tool that will give the practitioner the ability to design high vacuum enhanced multiple phase recovery systems and bioslurping systems, which are often the low cost effective remediation approach. It will also allow for the comparison of various proposed remediation approaches and technologies so the best solution can be chosen for a site. This is a key competitive advantage to translate conceptual ideas into winning bids.

  6. Microstructure-based modelling of multiphase materials and complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Ewald; Wesenjak, Robert; Fillafer, Alexander; Meier, Felix; Krempaszky, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Micromechanical approaches are frequently employed to monitor local and global field quantities and their evolution under varying mechanical and/or thermal loading scenarios. In this contribution, an overview on important methods is given that are currently used to gain insight into the deformational and failure behaviour of multiphase materials and complex structures. First, techniques to represent material microstructures are reviewed. It is common to either digitise images of real microstructures or generate virtual 2D or 3D microstructures using automated procedures (e.g. Voronoï tessellation) for grain generation and colouring algorithms for phase assignment. While the former method allows to capture exactly all features of the microstructure at hand with respect to its morphological and topological features, the latter method opens up the possibility for parametric studies with respect to the influence of individual microstructure features on the local and global stress and strain response. Several applications of these approaches are presented, comprising low and high strain behaviour of multiphase steels, failure and fracture behaviour of multiphase materials and the evolution of surface roughening of the aluminium top metallisation of semiconductor devices.

  7. Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Benzhong; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid–fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate’s affinity to the invading fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms—cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)—responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge—from pore filling to postbridging—are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions. PMID:27559089

  8. Backflow in twin-screw-type multiphase pump

    SciTech Connect

    Egashira, Kazuyuki; Shoda, Shinji; Tochikawa, Tetsuro; Furukawa, Akinori

    1998-02-01

    The performance of a twin-screw-type multiphase pump was investigated from the viewpoints of backflow in a gap along the twin-screw shafts and of scaleup parameters. Although both the backflow and the scaleup parameters have been recognized as important factors in developing multiphase pumps, they have not yet been clarified. The twin-screw pump was equipped with pressure sensors, set in the multiphase-test facility, and experimented with under various conditions to clarify the relationship between backflow rates and factors such as differential pressure, gas-void fractions (GVF`s), and the rotation speed of the shaft. A physical model was proposed with the empirical relationship of pressure distribution along the screw, and was successfully associated with scaleup parameters, such as the geometrical data of the twin-screw pump. Then it was used successfully to simulate the backflow in twin-screw pumps on relatively broad experimental conditions, judging from the comparison between the model and the experimental data.

  9. Success grows in pumping high-gas-fraction multiphase fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.

    1999-07-01

    Judging from the reports from user companies and discussions at the pump symposium following the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference, three kinds of pumps have now progressed to the point where they might be considered commercial and have demonstrated their ability to handle a variety of multiphase flows. These are twin screw, progressive cavity, and helico-axial (H-A) pumps. The twin-screw and progressive cavity (PC) pumps are positive displacement. They develop pressure hydrostatically and are less sensitive to density changes. The H-A type is a centrifugal pump which develops pressure dynamically and is highly sensitive to variation in density which is a characteristic of a multiphase flow stream. Now that the technical hurdles are better understood, it is time to look at economic viability. The close links between inlet pressure, gas volumes, and cost can be demonstrated and general cost relationships can be suggested. This discussion focuses on surface applications using twin-screw pumps that have the most applications and data highlighting actual field experience of major oil and gas companies who benefit from this type of multiphase technology.

  10. Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Multiphase Mo Silicide Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherly, L.; Liu, C.T.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-11-30

    Multiphase Mo silicide alloys containing T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}), Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo phases where prepared by both melting and casting (M and C) and powder metallurgical (PM) processes. Glassy phases are observed in PM materials but not in M and C materials. Microstructural studies indicate that the primary phase is Mo-rich solid solution in alloys containing {le}(9.4Si+13.8B, at. %) and T2 in alloys with {ge}(9.8Si+14.6B). An eutectic composition is estimated to be close to Mo-9.6Si-14.2B. The mechanical properties of multiphase silicide alloys were determined by hardness, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. The multiphase alloy MSB-18 (Mo-9.4Si-13.8B) possesses a flexure strength distinctly higher than that of MoSi{sub 2} and other Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicide alloys containing no Mo particles. Also, MSB-18 is tougher than MoSi{sub 2} by a factor of 4.

  11. Fiber-Optical Sensors: Basics and Applications in Multiphase Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyang; Yang, Chao; Yang, Shifang; Li, Guozheng

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a brief introduction on the basics of fiber-optical sensors and an overview focused on the applications to measurements in multiphase reactors. The most commonly principle utilized is laser back scattering, which is also the foundation for almost all current probes used in multiphase reactors. The fiber-optical probe techniques in two-phase reactors are more developed than those in three-phase reactors. There are many studies on the measurement of gas holdup using fiber-optical probes in three-phase fluidized beds, but negative interference of particles on probe function was less studied. The interactions between solids and probe tips were less studied because glass beads etc. were always used as the solid phase. The vision probes may be the most promising for simultaneous measurements of gas dispersion and solids suspension in three-phase reactors. Thus, the following techniques of the fiber-optical probes in multiphase reactors should be developed further: (1) online measuring techniques under nearly industrial operating conditions; (2) corresponding signal data processing techniques; (3) joint application with other measuring techniques.

  12. Modeling hyperelasticity in non-equilibrium multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hank, Sarah; Favrie, Nicolas; Massoni, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this article is the construction of a multiphase hyperelastic model. The Eulerian formulation of the hyperelasticity represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. This model is constructed with an elegant approach where the specific energy is given in separable form. The system admits 14 eigenvalues with 7 characteristic eigenfields. The associated Riemann problem is not easy to solve because of the presence of 7 waves. The shear waves are very diffusive when dealing with the full system. In this paper, we use a splitting approach to solve the whole system using 3 sub-systems. This method reduces the diffusion of the shear waves while allowing to use a classical approximate Riemann solver. The multiphase model is obtained by adapting the discrete equations method. This approach involves an additional equation governing the evolution of a phase function relative to the presence of a phase in a cell. The system is integrated over a multiphase volume control. Finally, each phase admits its own equations system composed of three sub-systems. One and three dimensional test cases are presented.

  13. Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng

    2010-03-01

    Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.

  14. Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng

    2009-12-01

    Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.

  15. Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, Ruben; Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid-fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate's affinity to the injected fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms-cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)-responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge-from pore-filling to post-bridging-are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions.

  16. Aluminum Foils of the Stardust Interstellar Collector: The Challenge of Recognizing Micrometer-sized Impact Craters made by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Westphal, A. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary Examination (PE) of the Stardust cometary collector revealed material embedded in aerogel and on aluminium (Al) foil. Large numbers of sub-micrometer impact craters gave size, structural and compositional information. With experience of finding and analyzing the picogram to nanogram mass remains of cometary particles, are we now ready for PE of the Interstellar (IS) collector? Possible interstellar particle (ISP) tracks in the aerogel are being identified by the stardust@home team. We are now assessing challenges facing PE of Al foils from the interstellar collector.

  17. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen Beyond the Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Models of solar wind interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium usually disregard ionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms beyond the solar wind termination shock. If and when included, the effects of ionization in the heliospheric interface region are often obscured by complexities of the interaction. This work assesses the importance of interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath. Photoionization could be accounted for in a straightforward way. In contrast, electron impact ionization is largely unknown because of poorly understood energy transfer to electrons at the termination shock and beyond. We first estimate the effect of photoionization and then use it as a yardstick to assess the role of electron impact ionization. The physical estimates show that ionization of interstellar hydrogen may lead to significant mass loading in the inner heliosheath which would slow down plasma flowing toward the heliotail and deplete populations of nonthermal protons, with the corresponding effect on heliospheric fluxes of energetic neutral atoms.

  18. Evidence for biodegradation products in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Kani; Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    The interstellar absorption band centred on 2175 Å that is conventionally attributed to monodisperse graphite spheres of radii 0.02 μm is more plausibly explained as arising from biologically derived aromatic molecules. On the basis of panspermia models, interstellar dust includes a substantial fraction of biomaterial in various stages of degradation. We have modeled such an ensemble of degraded biomaterial with laboratory spectroscopy of algae, grass pigments, bituminous coal and anthracite. The average ulrtraviolet absorption profile for these materials is centred at 2175 Å with a full width at half maximum of 250 Å, in precise agreement with the interstellar extinction observations. Mid-infrared spectra also display general concordance with the unidentified interstellar absorption features found in a wide variety of astronomoical sources.

  19. The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of contributed papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J. (Editor); Thronson, Harley A., Jr. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Wyoming Conference entitled, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies, was held on July 3 to 7, 1989, to discuss the current understanding of the interstellar medium in external galaxies and to analyze the basic physical processes underlying interstellar phenomena. The papers covered a broad range of research on the gas and dust in external galaxies and focused on such topics as the distribution and morphology of the atomic, molecular, and dust components; the dynamics of the gas and the role of the magnetic field in the dynamics; elemental abundances and gas depletions in the atomic and ionized components; cooling flows; star formation; the correlation of the nonthermal radio continuum with the cool component of the interstellar medium; the origin and effect of hot galactic halos; the absorption line systems seen in distant quasars; and the effect of galactic collisions.

  20. Local interstellar medium and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.

    1985-01-01

    The recent improvement of the calibration of the galaxy counts used as an interstellar absorption tracer modifies significantly the picture of the local interstellar medium (ISM). Consequently, previous analyses of the gamma ray emission from the local ISM involving galaxy counts have to be revised. The implications regarding the cosmic ray (CR) density in the local ISM are considered and in particular within Loop I, a nearby supernova remnant (SNR).

  1. The interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.

    1972-01-01

    The expected characteristics of the solar wind, extrapolated from the vicinity of the earth are described. Several models are examined for the interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar plasma and magnetic field. Various aspects of the penetration of neutral interstellar gas into the solar wind are considered. The dynamic effects of the neutral gas on the solar wind are described. Problems associated with the interaction of cosmic rays with the solar wind are discussed.

  2. On the detection of rubidium in diffuse interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sneden, C.; Schempp, W. V.; Smith, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    A search for absorption from neutral rubidium at 7800 A was conducted. No evidence for absorption to a 3 sigma limit of less than 1.5 mA was seen in the diffuse interstellar gas toward the stars omicron Persei, zeta Persei, and zeta Ophiuchi. Present results do not confirm the detection by Jura and Smith (1981) toward zeta Oph. A possible reason for the discrepancy is presented. In light of the present measurements, the abundance of interstellar rubidium in reconsidered.

  3. Centrosymmetric molecules as possible carriers of diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak, M.; Schmidt, M. R.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Musaev, F. A.; Betelesky, Y.; Krełowski, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present new data with interstellar C2 (Phillips bands A 1 Πu-X1 Σ+g), from observations made with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the European Southern Observatory. We have determined the interstellar column densities and excitation temperatures of C2 for nine Galactic lines. For seven of these, C2 has never been observed before, so in this case the still small sample of interstellar clouds (26 lines of sight), where a detailed analysis of C2 excitation has been made, has increased significantly. This paper is a continuation of previous works where interstellar molecules (C2 and diffuse interstellar bands) have been analysed. Because the sample of interstellar clouds with C2 has increased, we can show that the width and shape of the profiles of some diffuse interstellar bands (6196 and 5797 Å) apparently depend on the gas kinetic and rotational temperatures of C2; the profiles are broader because of the higher values of the gas kinetic and rotational temperatures of C2. There are also diffuse interstellar bands (4964 and 5850 Å) for which this effect does not exist. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 266.D-5655(A), 67.C-0281(A), 71.C-0513(C), 67.D-0439(A) and 082.C-0566(A) and at La Silla under programme IDs 078.C-0403(A), 076.C-0164(A) and 073.C-0337(A). Also based on observations made with the 1.8-m telescope in South Korea and the 2-m telescope at the International Centre for Astronomical and Medico-Ecological Research, Terskol, Russia. E-mail: kazmierczak@astri.uni.torun.pl (MK); schmidt@ncac.torun.pl (MRS); runizag@gmail.com (GAG); ybialets@eso.org (YB); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)

  4. Correlation between molecular lines and diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczerba, Richard; Krelowski, J.; Walker, G. A. H.; Kennelly, E. T.; Sneden, C.; Volk, Kevin; Hill, G.

    1994-01-01

    Observations are presented of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB's) at 4726, 4763, and 4789 A and at 5780 and 5797 A together with the ultraviolet lines of CH and CN molecules for stars with different shapes of UV extinction curve. The new results concerning the relationship between different characteristics of the interstellar clouds; molecular lines, blue and yellow DIB's, and UV extinction curves are discussed.

  5. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies (~5-55 KeV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX and INCA will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal in unprecedented resolution global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. The "A" in IMAP refers to acceleration of energetic particles. With its combination of highly sensitive pickup and suprathermal ion sensors, IMAP will provide the species and spectral coverage as well as unprecedented temporal resolution to associate emerging suprathermal tails with interplanetary structures and discover underlying physical acceleration processes. These key measurements will provide what has been a critical missing piece of suprathermal seed particles in our understanding of particle acceleration to high

  6. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  7. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  8. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  9. The interstellar conundrum: a survey of concepts and proposed solutions.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Paul A

    2005-12-01

    Once considered intractable, the problem of interstellar flight is slowly yielding to analysis. Although manned missions to the stars are exceedingly improbable in this century, the possibility of interstellar robotic probes should not be ruled out. Recent laboratory work and theoretical analysis suggest several near-term technologies that could, given the development of an adequate space-based infrastructure, provide the needed propulsion. Laser-driven lightsails offer the key advantage of leaving the fuel behind, with the laser beam focused by a large Fresnel lens in the outer Solar System. Perhaps more efficient is the use of a particle beam to boost a spacecraft by interacting with its magnetic sail, the latter a system already under intense scrutiny. Variations on "pellet" propulsion using macroscopic objects continue to surface, their mass converted to energy as they arrive at the departing starship. Interstellar flight will be both difficult and expensive, although it can no longer be considered an impossibility. This paper examines the above concepts and relates them to older ideas, such as the Bussard ramjet, that are currently out of favor. The vibrancy of interstellar flight studies is its syncretism-it was through analysis of the drag problem in fusion ramjet designs that a practical means of decelerating an interstellar probe by deployment of a magnetic sail emerged. The intermingling of such ideas offers the hope of robust hybrid concepts that may make interstellar flight a reality.

  10. Matrix isolation as a tool for studying interstellar chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, David W.; Ortman, Bryan J.; Hauge, Robert H.; Margrave, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Since the identification of the OH radical as an interstellar species, over 50 molecular species were identified as interstellar denizens. While identification of new species appears straightforward, an explanation for their mechanisms of formation is not. Most astronomers concede that large bodies like interstellar dust grains are necessary for adsorption of molecules and their energies of reactions, but many of the mechanistic steps are unknown and speculative. It is proposed that data from matrix isolation experiments involving the reactions of refractory materials (especially C, Si, and Fe atoms and clusters) with small molecules (mainly H2, H2O, CO, CO2) are particularly applicable to explaining mechanistic details of likely interstellar chemical reactions. In many cases, matrix isolation techniques are the sole method of studying such reactions; also in many cases, complexations and bond rearrangements yield molecules never before observed. The study of these reactions thus provides a logical basis for the mechanisms of interstellar reactions. A list of reactions is presented that would simulate interstellar chemical reactions. These reactions were studied using FTIR-matrix isolation techniques.

  11. Stardust@home: A Massively Distributed Public Search for Interstellar Dust in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, Andrew J.; Butterworth, Anna L.; Snead, Christopher J.; Craig, Nahide; Anderson, David; Jones, Steven M.; Brownlee, Donald E.; Farnsworth, Richard; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust mission will return the first samples from a solid solar system body beyond the Moon. Stardust was in the news in January 2004, when it encountered comet Wild2 and captured a sample of cometary dust. But Stardust carries an equally important payload: the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust ever collected. Although it is known that interstellar (IS) dust penetrates into the inner solar system [2, 3], to date not even a single contemporary interstellar dust particle has been captured and analyzed in the laboratory. Stardust uses aerogel collectors to capture dust samples. Identification of interstellar dust impacts in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector probably cannot be automated, but will require the expertise of the human eye. However, the labor required for visual scanning of the entire collector would exceed the resources of any reasonably-sized research group. We are developing a project to recruit the public in the search for interstellar dust, based in part on the wildly popular SETI@home project, which has five million subscribers. We call the project Stardust@home. Using sophisticated chemical separation techniques, certain types of refractory ancient IS particles (so-called presolar grains) have been isolated from primitive meteorites (e.g., [4] ). Recently, presolar grains have been identified in Interplanetary Dust Particles[6]. Because these grains are not isolated chemically, but are recognized only by their unusual isotopic compositions, they are probably less biased than presolar grains isolated from meteorites. However, it is entirely possible that the typical interstellar dust particle is isotopically solar in composition. The Stardust collection of interstellar dust will be the first truly unbiased one.

  12. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX):Imaging The Global Interaction Between The HeliosphereAnd The Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Eberhard; McComas, D.; IBEX Team

    2006-06-01

    The sole scientific objective of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is investigation of the global interaction between the heliosphere and the interstellar cloud. The solar wind carves out a void - the heliosphere - into the surrounding interstellar plasma. At a distance of about 100 AU the solar wind slows down to subsonic speed, thus forming the termination shock. Here ions are accelerated, preferably those created from inflowing interstellar gas and picked up by the solar wind. Through charge exchange with interstellar gas accelerated ions form energetic neutral at-oms (ENA), which - if released towards Earth - will arrive on a straight trajectory, carrying information on energy spectra and spatial distribution of these ions. Because the sun moves relative to the local interstellar cloud at about 26 km/s a neutral wind blows through our solar system, and this gas flow can be directly probed for several species near Earth. IBEX will address the following key questions: (I) What is the global strength and structure of the termination shock? (II) How are energetic protons accelerated at the termination shock? (III) What are the global properties of the solar wind flow beyond the termination shock and in the heliotail? (IV) How does the interstellar flow interact with the heliosphere beyond the heliopause? To answer these questions IBEX will take global images of the termination shock over the energy range 10 - 6000 eV and capture the interstellar O inflow with two highly sensitive energetic neutral atom ENA cameras. The payload and the spacecraft are currently under development for flight with the launch scheduled for June 2008. By then IBEX will join the Great Sun Solar System Observatory that consists of the Voyagers, Ulysses, and several spacecraft at 1 AU for a synergistic observation of the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  13. Interstellar chemical differentiation across grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J. X.; He, J. H.; Li, Aigen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of ion accretion and size-dependent dust temperatures on the abundances of both gas-phase and grain-surface species. While past work has assumed a constant areal density for icy species, we show that this assumption is invalid and the chemical differentiation over grain sizes is significant. We use a gas-grain chemical code to demonstrate this numerically for two typical interstellar conditions: a dark cloud (DC) and a cold neutral medium (CNM). It is shown that, although the grain-size distribution variation (but with the total grain surface area unchanged) has little effect on the gas-phase abundances, it can alter the abundances of some surface species by up to ∼2-4 orders of magnitude. The areal densities of ice species are larger on smaller grains in the DC model as a consequence of ion accretion. However, the surface areal density evolution tracks are more complex in the CNM model due to the combined effects of ion accretion and dust temperature variation. The surface areal density differences between the smallest ( ∼ 0.01 μm) and the biggest ( ∼ 0.2 μm) grains can reach ∼1 and ∼5 orders of magnitude in the DC and CNM models, respectively.

  14. Electron Irradiation of Interstellar Ice Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.

    2011-05-01

    Molecular synthesis in the Universe primarily occurs in the icy mantles on dust grains in dense interstellar dust clouds. The interaction of photons, electrons and cosmic rays with these ice mantles triggers complex chemical synthesis leading to the formation of complex molecules. Such molecular reactions can only be understood by systematic laboratory studies. In our experiments astrophysical environments are recreated in the laboratory using an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) capable of reaching pressures of the order of 10 -10 mBar containing a liquid helium cryostat capable of attaining a temperature of 20 K. Ice films are deposited on a ZnSe substrate (cooled by cryostat) by background deposition and irradiated with electrons of 1KeV energy. Chemical changes induced by electron irradiation were monitored by an infrared spectrometer. By varying the temperature, we also investigate the temperature dependence on the kinetics of the reactions. In this poster we will present the first results of electron irradiation of simple organic molecules like formamide (HCONH2) and allyl alcohol (CH2CHCH2OH).

  15. Featured Image: Structures in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    This beautiful false-color image (which covers 57 degrees2; click for the full view!) reveals structures in the hydrogen gas that makes up the diffuse atomic interstellar medium at intermediate latitudes in our galaxy. The imagewas created by representing three velocity channels with colors red for gas moving at 7.59 km/s, green for 5.12 km/s, and blue for 2.64 km/s and it shows the dramatically turbulent and filamentary structure of this gas. This image is one of many stunning, high-resolution observations that came out of the DRAO HI Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey, a program that used the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in British Columbia to map faint hydrogen emission at intermediate latitudes in the Milky Way. The findings from the program were recently published in a study led by Kevin Blagrave (Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto); to find out more about what they learned, check out the paper below!CitationK. Blagrave et al 2017 ApJ 834 126. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/126

  16. DYNAMIC SPECTRAL MAPPING OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA LENSES

    SciTech Connect

    Tuntsov, Artem V.; Walker, Mark A.; Bannister, Keith W.; Stevens, Jamie; Johnston, Simon; Reynolds, Cormac; Bignall, Hayley E. E-mail: Mark.Walker@manlyastrophysics.org

    2016-02-01

    Compact radio sources sometimes exhibit intervals of large, rapid changes in their flux density, due to lensing by interstellar plasma crossing the line of sight. A novel survey program has made it possible to discover these “Extreme Scattering Events” (ESEs) in real time, resulting in a high-quality dynamic spectrum of an ESE observed in PKS 1939–315. Here we present a method for determining the column-density profile of a plasma lens, given only the dynamic radio spectrum of the lensed source, under the assumption that the lens is either axisymmetric or totally anisotropic. Our technique relies on the known, strong frequency dependence of the plasma refractive index in order to determine how points in the dynamic spectrum map to positions on the lens. We apply our method to high-frequency (4.2–10.8 GHz) data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the PKS 1939–315 ESE. The derived electron column-density profiles are very similar for the two geometries we consider, and both yield a good visual match to the data. However, the fit residuals are substantially above the noise level, and deficiencies are evident when we compare the predictions of our model to lower-frequency (1.6–3.1 GHz) data on the same ESE, thus motivating future development of more sophisticated inversion techniques.

  17. Radio Probing of the Interstellar Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickett, Barney

    1999-11-01

    The inhomogenous interstellar plasma density modulates the radio signals received from pulsars. By studying the various modulations over the last 30 years, radio astronomers have built a model for the wavenumber spectrum of the plasma density and its spatial variations. I will review the evidence for what has become the canonical model, namely a Kolmogorov spectrum over scales from about 10^6m to 10^16m. There is an implication that there may be a turbulent cascade in the plasma over this astronomical scale range, but no direct information is available on the spectrum of velocity or magnetic field. In evaluating the evidence, I will address the influence of large static structures at low wavenumbers; if these have discontinuous density jumps (as in shocks), they could contribute a spectrum following a power law only slightly steeper than the Kolmogorov exponent. Although some lines of sight are clearly influenced by such large scale structures, recent observations in the regime of weak radio scintillations further strengthen the Kolmogorov model and provide limits for an inner scale less than about 2 × 10^7m. This limit remains consistent with a dissipation scale set by the ion inertial length (as proposed by Spangler and Gwinn, Ap. J., 376, L29, 1990). I will also discuss the potential for probing the velocity field over the line of sight.

  18. Probing Microstructure in Interstellar Plasma with Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Donald

    1999-11-01

    Pulsars provide excellent probes of small structure in the interstellar plasma. The list of observable effects includes dispersion, Faraday rotation, diffraction and refraction. Of great interest recently has been episodes of lensing and dual path propagation when the plasma perturbation has just the right focal length for the pulsar-perturber-earth geometry at a given frequency. I will discuss a recent study of the variable dispersion, refraction and diffraction of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21. This is based mainly on daily observations at 327 and 610 MHz with a pulsar monitoring telescope in Green Bank, WV. Further observations at 820 and 1395 MHz allow us to investigate the limits on dispersion measure determination set by diffraction. Length scales in the medium from 10^10 to 10^15 cm are probed. A second study focuses on a rare event in the Crab pulsar where the dispersion measure jumped by 0.1 pc cm-3 within one week and, prior to the jump, a faint and delayed ghost of the pulsed emission was observed. These phenomena can be explained in terms of a plasma wedge crossing the line of sight. The most likely location of this wedge is in the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the expanding supernova remains and the pre-supernova stellar wind debris.

  19. Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an objective-grating echelle spectrograph to fly on sounding rockets and record spectra of stars from approximately 920 to 1120A with a resolving power lambda/delta lambda = 200,000 is discussed. The scientific purpose of the program is to observe, with ten times better velocity resolution than before, the plentiful absorption lines in this spectral region produced by atoms, ions and molecules in the interstellar medium. In addition, an important technical goal is to develop and flight-quality a new ultraviolet, photon-counting image sensor which has a windowless, opaque photocathode and a CCD bombarded directly by the accelerated photoelectrons. Except for some initial difficulties with the performance of CCDs, the development of the payload instrument is relatively straightforward and our overall design goals are satisfied. The first flight occurred in late 1984, but no data were obtained because of an inrush of air degraded the instrument's vacuum and caused the detector's high voltage to arc. A second flight in early 1985 was a complete success and obtained a spectrum of pi Sco. Data from this mission are currently being reduced; quick-look versions of the spectra indicate that excellent results will be obtained. Currently, the payload is being reconfigured to fly on a Spartan mission in 1988.

  20. The nature and evolution of interstellar ices.

    PubMed

    Chiar, J E

    1997-06-01

    The evolution of icy grain mantles is governed by the environment in which they exist. This review presents an overview of the study of the molecules that make up the mantles and discusses their relevance to the origin of life. Models predict two phases of mantle growth during cloud collapse: simple polar and nonpolar molecules dominate the mantle layers at early and late times, respectively (Section 1). The effect of processing on grain mantle composition and the connection between organics in grain mantles and prebiotic chemistry is introduced. Section 2 describes how infrared spectroscopy of dense cloud sources, combined with theoretical models and laboratory data, gives us information on the composition and abundance of the ices in varying regions. The observed features and how they are used as diagnostics of mantle evolution are discussed in Section 3. This section also discusses the importance of these molecules to prebiotic chemistry. Section 4 compares grain mantle composition in different low-mass star forming regions, which best represent the solar birthplace. The final section (Section 5) summarizes the information presented, emphasizing the link between the study of interstellar dust and the origin of life.

  1. Porphyrins in the interstellar medium (in grains)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral sensitivity of the chromophores to their immediate chemical environment establishes some of the chemical constituents of the grains in which they reside. These are: (1) Paraffins, such as, octane, nonane, decane, and others...(needed for Shpolskii matrices and producing quasilines); and (2) Pyridine. The presence of pyridine is required not only to produce the spectral DIB matching, but also to produce the 36 cm(sup -1) crystal field splitting of the S(sub 1) electronic state. The presence of pyridine in the grains can be confirmed spectroscopically. Pyridine produces a transmission window at 2175 A, matching exactly the well known UV hump. On grain reflection, some of the incoming UV radiation is absorbed into the grain's outer layers. Spikes in the lab and in the astronomical data are due to vibronic transitions in pyridine. The lab spectroscopy reported here clearly establishes the presence of MgTBP, H2TPB, and pyridine in the interstellar grains. The high fluorescence efficiency of MgTBP (being optically pumped in the visible) apparently accounts for all the observed UIR emissions.

  2. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichments of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH3, CH2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 104 cm-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜106 cm-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverages of CO, CO2, O2 and O3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water. Effects of various types of energy barriers are also studied. Moreover, we allow grain mantles to interact with various charged particles (such as H+, Fe+, S+ and C+) to study the stopping power and projected range of these charged particles on various target ices.

  3. Interstellar Dust Models Towards Some IUE Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, N.; Gupta, R.; Vaidya, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    We study the extinction properties of the composite dust grains, consisting of host silicate spheroids and graphite as inclusions, using discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We calculate the extinction cross sections of the composite grains in the ultraviolet spectral region, 1200\\AA -3200\\AA and study the variation in extinction as a function of the volume fraction of the inclusions. We compare the model extinction curves with the observed interstellar extinction curves obtained from the data given by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Our results for the composite grains show a distinct variation in the extinction efficiencies with the variation in the volume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, it is found that the wavelength of peak absorption at `2175\\AA' shifts towards the longer wavelength with the variation in the volume fraction of inclusions. We find that the composite grain models with the axial ratios viz. 1.33 and 2.0 fit the observed extinction reasonably well with a grain size distribution, a = 0.005-0.250$\\mu m$. Moreover, our results of the composite grains clearly indicate that the inhomogeneity in the grain structure, composition and the surrounding media modifies the extinction properties of the grains.

  4. Design concepts for the interstellar ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassenti, B. N.

    1993-04-01

    In 1960, Robert Bussard first proposed using the hydrogen in interstellar space as a propellant for driving vehicles to the stars. The vehicle could collect the hydrogen using magnetic fields and fuse it to produce helium. An intake consisting of a radial series of toroidal solenoids, using widely spaced conductors, is proposed for producing magnetic fields to collect the hydrogen. The solenoids are supported by rotation. The structure should support continuous accelerations of more than 0.05 g. Several methods by which energy can be added to the hydrogen ions are discussed. One would be to beam energy directly to the vehicle using lasers orbiting the sun. Free electron lasers would offer some freedom in choosing wavelengths to correct for the Doppler shift at the spacecraft. If the free electron laser operated with a wavelength of about 10 Angstroms then no focusing would be required over distances of 10 light years. At the spacecraft a series of concentric grazing incidence reflectors would reduce the beam diameter to the size of the compressed plasma. The laser energy could be added to the propellent by running a free electron laser in reverse.

  5. A probability of encounter with interstellar comets and the likelihood of their existence. [solar motion through interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of the probability of encounter of the sun with an interstellar comet at a distance comparable to the earth-sun distance is formulated, and a general expression is derived establishing the relationship among the influx rate of interstellar comets, the perihelion distance, the space density of the comets, the Maxwellian distribution of comet velocities in the interstellar cloud, and the cloud's systematic velocity relative to the sun. An upper limit of .0006 solar mass per cubic parsec is established for the space density of interstellar comets. The theoretical distribution of semimajor axes of interstellar comets shows that a strong hyperbolic excess must be present in the orbits of a majority of interstellar comets regardless of the dynamical characteristics of the comet cloud, except when the cloud is moving along with the sun and the distribution of individual velocities has a very low dispersion. This case, however, implies a possibility of capture by the sun and thus becomes a problem of an Oort-type cloud.

  6. Gas Phase Spectroscopy of Cold PAH Ions: Contribution to the Interstellar Extinction and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biennier, L.; Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Scherer, J. J.; OKeefe, A.

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium (ISM) and constitute the building blocks of interstellar dust grains. Despite their inferred important role in mediating the energetic and chemical processes in thc ISM, their exact contribution to the interstellar extinction, and in particular to the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) remains unclear. The DIBs are spectral absorption features observed in the line of sight of stars that are obscured by diffuse interstellar clouds. More than 200 bands have been reported to date spanning from the near UV to the near IR with bandwidths ranging from 0.4 to 40 Angstroms (Tielens & Snow 1995). The present consensus is that the DIBs arise from free flying, gas-phase, organic molecules and/or ions that are abundant under the typical conditions reigning in the diffuse ISM. PAHs have been proposed as possible carriers (Allamandola et al. 1985; Leger & DHendecourt 1985). The PAH hypothesis is consistent with the cosmic abundance of Carbon and Hydrogen and with the required photostability of the DIB carriers against the strong VUV radiation field in the diffuse interstellar clouds. A significant fraction of PAHs is expected to be ionized in the diffuse ISM.

  7. The structure and evolution of hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains and mantles in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Duley, W. W.; Williams, D. A.

    1990-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbons (HACs) have been proposed as the major constituent of interstellar dust. The HAC model can account successfully for observed properties of interstellar dust, and has great predictive power. A review is presented of relevant laboratory data on amorphous carbon, known to exist in three major phases: graphitic, diamondlike, and polymeric. These data indicate the probable nature of HAC in the interstellar medium. The properties of the HAC dust model, the deposition of HAC in the interstellar medium, and its evolution as interstellar conditions change are summarized. The properties of laboratory HAC in its various forms account successfully for observed interstellar extinction and for variations in extinction, for infrared emission features, and for extended red emission seen in reflection nebulae. A full evolutionary sequence that links the various HAC modifications found in different interstellar environments is proposed. It is concluded that the interstellar dust is an active component of the interstellar medium, responsive to its environment.

  8. Status of the Stardust ISPE and the Origin of Four Interstellar Dust Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Ansari, A.; Bajt, S.; Bastien, R. S.; Bassim, N.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F. E.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Changela, H.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Some bulk properties of interstellar dust are known through infrared and X-ray observations of the interstellar medium. However, the properties of individual interstellar dust particles are largely unconstrained, so it is not known whether individual interstellar dust particles can be definitively distinguished from interplanetary dust particles in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) based only on chemical, mineralogical or isotopic analyses. It was therefore understood from the beginning of the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) that identification of interstellar dust candidates would rest on three criteria - broad consistency with known extraterrestrial materials, inconsistency with an origin as secondary ejecta from impacts on the spacecraft, and consistency, in a statistical sense, of observed dynamical properties - that is, trajectory and capture speed - with an origin in the interstellar dust stream. Here we quantitatively test four interstellar dust candidates, reported previously [1], against these criteria.

  9. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, Angus A.; Yang, Li-Chung

    1995-01-01

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe.sub.2 where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor.

  10. Impact of normal stress on multiphase flow through rough fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves da Silva Junior, J.; Kang, P. K.; Yang, Z.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport through geologic fractures plays a key role in several areas such as groundwater hydrology, geothermal energy, oil and gas production, CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal. High-permeability zones associated with fracture corridors often serve as fast fluid conduits for both single and multiphase flow in otherwise low-permeability media. When multiphase flow occurs, the presence of one phase interferes with the flow of the other phase, resulting in complex displacement patterns through the fracture, and macroscopic descriptors (such as fracture-scale capillary pressure and relative permeability) that depend on the phase concentration of both phases. Here, we investigate the impact of normal stress on single and multiphase flow through rough-walled fractures: (1) we generate synthetic aperture fields that honor the fractal roughness structure observed in real fractures; (2) we model the effect of normal stress on the fracture aperture geometry by solving the contact problem between fracture walls; and (3) we use invasion percolation with trapping to model immiscible fluid displacement and then compute relative permeability numerically for each stress scenario. Our results indicate that normal stress increases the amount of contact area in the fracture wall, which results in an increase of the tortuosity of the available path for fluid displacement. Increasing normal stress results in low relative permeability for the wetting phase due to a decrease of the available path for fluid flow, and therefore a small amount of non-wetting fluid has a large impact on the flow of the wetting fluid. We find that the relative permeability of the non-wetting fluid shows less variation with stress than the wetting fluid, and that both fluids exhibit strong phase interference at intermediate saturations. Finally, we show early results from our experimental work currently underway to validate the modeling results.

  11. Multiphase modeling of geologic carbon sequestration in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A; Birkholzer, Jens T; Cihan, Abdullah; Leister, Evan C

    2015-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is being considered as a climate change mitigation option in many future energy scenarios. Mathematical modeling is routinely used to predict subsurface CO2 and resident brine migration for the design of injection operations, to demonstrate the permanence of CO2 storage, and to show that other subsurface resources will not be degraded. Many processes impact the migration of CO2 and brine, including multiphase flow dynamics, geochemistry, and geomechanics, along with the spatial distribution of parameters such as porosity and permeability. In this article, we review a set of multiphase modeling approaches with different levels of conceptual complexity that have been used to model GCS. Model complexity ranges from coupled multiprocess models to simplified vertical equilibrium (VE) models and macroscopic invasion percolation models. The goal of this article is to give a framework of conceptual model complexity, and to show the types of modeling approaches that have been used to address specific GCS questions. Application of the modeling approaches is shown using five ongoing or proposed CO2 injection sites. For the selected sites, the majority of GCS models follow a simplified multiphase approach, especially for questions related to injection and local-scale heterogeneity. Coupled multiprocess models are only applied in one case where geomechanics have a strong impact on the flow. Owing to their computational efficiency, VE models tend to be applied at large scales. A macroscopic invasion percolation approach was used to predict the CO2 migration at one site to examine details of CO2 migration under the caprock.

  12. Multi-phase back contacts for CIS solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rockett, A.A.; Yang, L.C.

    1995-12-19

    Multi-phase, single layer, non-interdiffusing M-Mo back contact metallized films, where M is selected from Cu, Ga, or mixtures thereof, for CIS cells are deposited by a sputtering process on suitable substrates, preferably glass or alumina, to prevent delamination of the CIS from the back contact layer. Typical CIS compositions include CuXSe{sub 2} where X is In or/and Ga. The multi-phase mixture is deposited on the substrate in a manner to provide a columnar microstructure, with micro-vein Cu or/and Ga regions which partially or fully vertically penetrate the entire back contact layer. The CIS semiconductor layer is then deposited by hybrid sputtering and evaporation process. The Cu/Ga-Mo deposition is controlled to produce the single layer two-phase columnar morphology with controllable Cu or Ga vein size less than about 0.01 microns in width. During the subsequent deposition of the CIS layer, the columnar Cu/Ga regions within the molybdenum of the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer tend to partially leach out, and are replaced by columns of CIS. Narrower Cu and/or Ga regions, and those with fewer inner connections between regions, leach out more slowly during the subsequent CIS deposition. This gives a good mechanical and electrical interlock of the CIS layer into the Cu/Ga-Mo back layer. Solar cells employing In-rich CIS semiconductors bonded to the multi-phase columnar microstructure back layer of this invention exhibit vastly improved photo-electrical conversion on the order of 17% greater than Mo alone, improved uniformity of output across the face of the cell, and greater Fill Factor. 15 figs.

  13. Three milieux for interstellar chemistry: gas, dust, and ice.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric

    2014-02-28

    The interdisciplinary science of astrochemistry is 45 years of age, if we pinpoint its origin to have occurred when the first polyatomic molecules were detected in the interstellar gas. Since that time, the field has grown remarkably from an esoteric area of research to one that unites scientists around the globe. Almost 200 different molecules have been detected in the gas-phase of interstellar clouds, mainly by rotational spectroscopy, while dust particles and their icy mantles in colder regions can be probed by vibrational spectroscopy. Astrochemistry is exciting to scientists in a number of different fields. Astronomers are interested in molecular spectra from the heavens because such spectra are excellent probes of the physical conditions where molecules exist, while chemists are interested in the exotic molecules, their spectra, and the unusual chemical processes that produce and destroy them under conditions often very different from those on our home planet. Chemical simulations involving thousands of reactions are now used to calculate concentrations and spectra of interstellar molecules as functions of time. Even biologists share an interest in the subject, because the interstellar clouds of gas and dust, portions of which collapse to form stars and planetary systems, contain organic molecules that may become part of the initial inventory of new planets and may indeed be the precursors of life. An irresistible subject to its practitioners, astrochemistry is proving to be exciting to a much wider audience. In this perspective article, the field is first introduced, and the emphasis is then placed on the three environments in which chemistry occurs in the interstellar medium: the gas phase, the surfaces of bare dust particles, and the ice mantles that cover bare grains in cold dense interstellar clouds. What we do know and what we do not know is distinguished. The status of chemical simulations for a variety of interstellar sources having to do with stellar

  14. Preliminary Examination of the Interstellar Collector of Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bastien, R.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Butterworth, A. L.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Leroux, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S. A.; Simionovici, A.; Stadermann, F.; Stroud, M.; Tsou, P.; Tyliczszak, T.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The findings of the Stardust spacecraft mission returned to earth in January 2006 are discussed. The spacecraft returned two unprecedented and independent extraterrestrial samples: the first sample of a comet and the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. An important lesson from the cometary Preliminary Examination (PE) was that the Stardust cometary samples in aerogel presented a technical challenge. Captured particles often separate into multiple fragments, intimately mix with aerogel and are typically buried hundreds of microns to millimeters deep in the aerogel collectors. The interstellar dust samples are likely much more challenging since they are expected to be orders of magnitudes smaller in mass, and their fluence is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the cometary particles. The goal of the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is to answer several broad questions, including: which features in the interstellar collector aerogel were generated by hypervelocity impact and how much morphological and trajectory information may be gained?; how well resolved are the trajectories of probable interstellar particles from those of interplanetary origin?; and, by comparison to impacts by known particle dimensions in laboratory experiments, what was the mass distribution of the impacting particles? To answer these questions, and others, non-destructive, sequential, non-invasive analyses of interstellar dust candidates extracted from the Stardust interstellar tray will be performed. The total duration of the ISPE will be three years and will differ from the Stardust cometary PE in that data acquisition for the initial characterization stage will be prolonged and will continue simultaneously and parallel with data publications and release of the first samples for further investigation.

  15. Kinetic faceting and anomalous coarsening in elastically inhomogeneous multiphase systems.

    PubMed

    Perez, Danny; Lewis, Laurent J

    2007-02-16

    With a view of finding a route toward microstructural stability in alloys, we numerically study the impact of elastic inhomogeneities on the growth of inclusions in multiphase systems. We show that growth can proceed either continuously at rough interfaces, or in a layer-by-layer fashion following an elastically induced kinetic faceting process. In the former case, the chemical potential of the inclusions is a smooth function of size, while in the latter case, elasticity increases the barrier for nucleation of new terraces on the facets, leading to an oscillatory behavior of the chemical potential and hence a strong resistance against coarsening, opening up the possibility to stabilize the structure.

  16. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-12-16

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  17. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, A.; Favini, B.; Di Giacinto, M.; Serraglia, F.

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a general mathematical description of the flow in the internal chamber of solid rocket motors is presented. The formulation adopted take into account the multi-species and multiphase, reactive, multidimensional characteristics of the flow. The grain combustion is described by a pressure dependent law; aluminum droplet are modelled by a Lagrangian approach, coupled with the Eulerian formulation adopted for the gas phase. The mathematical model has been implemented in a simulation code and several simulations have been performed; in particular in the paper the re- sults for two geometries are described: a simple cylindrical port-area rocket and the Zefiro 9 SRM.

  18. AM363 martensitic stainless steel: A multiphase equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Crockett, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphase equation of state for stainless steel AM363 has been developed within the Opensesame approach and has been entered as material 4295 in the LANL-SESAME Library. Three phases were constructed separately: the low pressure martensitic phase, the austenitic phase and the liquid. Room temperature data and the explicit introduction of a magnetic contribution to the free energy determined the martensitic phase, while shock Hugoniot data was used to determine the austenitic phase and the phase boundaries. More experimental data or First Principles calculations would be useful to better characterize the liquid.

  19. The control method for the multi-phase traffic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Ma, Yan-Qiang; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2016-04-01

    Based on multi-phase car-following model proposed by Nagatani, the control theory method is used to analyze the stability of the model. The optimal velocity function is improved to have more turning points. The original optimal velocity with one turning point shows two-phase traffic, while the improved model with n turning points exhibits n+1 phase traffic. Control signal is added into the model. Numerical simulation is conducted to show the results for the stability of the model with and without control signal.

  20. Fault tolerant multiphase electrical drives: the impact of design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semail, E.; Kestelyn, X.; Locment, F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper deals with fault tolerant multiphase electrical drives. The quality of the torque of a vector-controlled Permanent Magnet (PM) Synchronous Machine supplied by a multi-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is examined in normal operation and when one or two phases are open-circuited. It is then deduced that a seven-phase machine is a good compromise allowing high torque-to-volume density and easy control with smooth torque in fault operation. Experimental results confirm the predicted characteristics. This article has been submitted as part of “IET Colloquium on Reliability in Electromagnetic Systems”, 24 and 25 May 2007, Paris

  1. Modeling of Multiscale and Multiphase Phenomena in Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Andreas; Kharicha, Abdellah; Wu, Menghuai

    2013-03-01

    In order to demonstrate how CFD can help scientists and engineers to better understand the fundamentals of engineering processes, a number of examples are shown and discussed. The paper covers (i) special aspects of continuous casting of steel including turbulence, motion and entrapment of non-metallic inclusions, and impact of soft reduction; (ii) multiple flow phenomena and multiscale aspects during casting of large ingots including flow-induced columnar-to-equiaxed transition and 3D formation of channel segregation; (iii) multiphase magneto-hydrodynamics during electro-slag remelting; and (iv) melt flow and solidification of thin but large centrifugal castings.

  2. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  3. Transient oxidation of multiphase Ni-Cr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, G.; Meraner, M.; Farrell, P.

    1988-06-01

    Four commercially available Ni-Cr-based alloys used with porcelain enamels were studied. Major alloying elements were Al, Be, Si, B, Nb, and Mo. All alloys were multiphase. During heat treatments simulating enameling conditions, phase changes occurred in most alloys and were detected using hardness testing, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and microscopy. Oxidation of these alloys at 1000/degrees/C for 10 min produced an oxide layer consisting principally of chromium oxide, but the oxide morphology varied with each alloy depending on the alloy microstructure. Controlling alloy microstructure while keeping the overall composition unchanged may be a means of preventing wrinkled poorly adherent scales from forming.

  4. The development of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, R D

    1994-04-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was constructed at the University of Minnesota before and during World War II. In its developmental phase, the MMPI was conceptualized as an efficient way of detecting psychiatric disturbance. The test's construction was made possible by atypical cooperation between psychologists and psychiatrists, within the context of a crisis in the U.S. public mental health care system. The MMPI was designed to meet the diagnostic needs of psychiatrists. As such, it represented the operationalization of medical hegemony. However, the interpretation of the MMPI shifted significantly after the war, reflecting organizational reform in clinical psychology and changing professional relationships between psychologists and psychiatrists.

  5. Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashish

    The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting

  6. Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L.; O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1998-08-01

    A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.

  7. Interstellar MHD Turbulence and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    This chapter reviews the nature of turbulence in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and its connections to the star formation (SF) process. The ISM is turbulent, magnetized, self-gravitating, and is subject to heating and cooling processes that control its thermodynamic behavior, causing it to behave approximately isobarically, in spite of spanning several orders of magnitude in density and temperature. The turbulence in the warm and hot ionized components of the ISM appears to be trans- or subsonic, and thus to behave nearly incompressibly. However, the neutral warm and cold components are highly compressible, as a consequence of both thermal instability (TI) in the atomic gas and of moderately-to-strongly supersonic motions in the roughly isothermal cold atomic and molecular components. Within this context, we discuss: (1) the production and statistical distribution of turbulent density fluctuations in both isothermal and polytropic media; (2) the nature of the clumps produced by TI, noting that, contrary to classical ideas, they in general accrete mass from their environment in spite of exhibiting sharp discontinuities at their boundaries; (3) the density-magnetic field correlation (and, at low densities, lack thereof) in turbulent density fluctuations, as a consequence of the superposition of the different wave modes in the turbulent flow; (4) the evolution of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio (MFR) in density fluctuations as they are built up by dynamic compressions; (5) the formation of cold, dense clouds aided by TI, in both the hydrodynamic (HD) and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cases; (6) the expectation that star-forming molecular clouds are likely to be undergoing global gravitational contraction, rather than being near equilibrium, as generally believed, and (7) the regulation of the star formation rate (SFR) in such gravitationally contracting clouds by stellar feedback which, rather than keeping the clouds from collapsing, evaporates and disperses

  8. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-06-10

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  9. Surfatron accelerator in the local interstellar cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account results of numerous experiments, the variability of the energy spectra of cosmic rays (protons and helium nuclei) in the energy range of 10 GeV to 107 GeV is explained on the basis of a hypothesis of the existence of two variable sources close to the Sun. The first (soft) surfatron source (with a size of 100 AU) is located at the periphery of the heliosphere. The second (hard) surfatron source (with a size of 1 pc) is situated in the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) at a distance of <1 pc. The constant background is described by a power-law spectrum with a slope of 2.75. The variable heliospheric surfatron source is described by a power-law spectrum with a variable amplitude, slope, and cutoff energy, the maximum cutoff energy being in the range of E CH/ Z < 1000 GeV. The variable surfatron source in the LIC is described by a power-law spectrum with a variable amplitude, slope, and cut-off energy, the maximum cut-off energy being E CL/ Z ≤ 3 × 106 GeV. The proposed model is used to approximate data from several experiments performed at close times. The energy of each cosmic-ray component is calculated. The possibility of surfatron acceleration of Fe nuclei ( Z = 26) in the LIC up to an energy of E CL 1017 eV and electron and positrons to the "knee" in the energy spectrum is predicted. By numerically solving a system of nonlinear equations describing the interaction between an electromagnetic wave and a charged particle with an energy of up to E/ Z 3 × 106 GeV, the possibility of trapping, confinement, and acceleration of charged cosmic-ray particles by a quasi-longitudinal plasma wave is demonstrated.

  10. Organic Compounds in Circumstellar and Interstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  11. The Interstellar Vision: Principles and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilster, P. A.

    The ambitious title of the 100 Year Starship study will resonate with the public, a fact that requires the recipient of the DARPA grant to use communicators who can follow a careful strategy as they bring this vision to the Internet and other outlets. It will be necessary to spur public engagement and sustain the `buzz' that will help the organization develop its ideas. This paper examines these issues in the context of the author's long involvement with Centauri Dreams, a Web site devoted to presenting interstellar flight to a broad, general audience. Central to the presentation of the starship idea is the advocacy of long-term thinking and the value of spin-off research by placing the goal of a starship in the context of other human activities that have transcended the lifetime of individual participants. Teaching cross-generational responsibility will invoke issues of history, economics and philosophy in addition to the technology issues raised by a journey of this magnitude. The best communicators for this role will be generalists who can connect such widely dispersed disciplines. Key to the study is the development of a Web presence that uses the Internet with caution. Certain Internet myths including `the wisdom of crowds' and resistance to top-down editing will compromise the project. The benefits and drawbacks of social networking will be discussed in this context. A strong editorial voice willing to cull public responses to maintain high standards in the resulting discussions is essential. Furthermore, a high standard of reporting demands the presentation of research without associated hype and a level of discourse that educates but does not patronize its audience. Careful citation of relevant research and a willingness to set the bar of discussion high will result in feedback from researchers and the public that, with the help of strenuous moderation, will build a database of thirdparty ideas that will engage interest and add materially to the value of

  12. Exploring the Interstellar Medium with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2004-01-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is being developed to operate at wavelengths from 0.3 microns to 1.6 mm over a 20 year lifetime. Its 2.5 m effective diameter telescope will be diffraction limited (approximately 8.5 arc seconds FWHM at 100 microns) at wavelengths beyond about 5 microns. Its B747SP aircraft platform will allow coverage of the entire sky and enable observation of ephemeral events. Nine first-generation focal plane instruments are being built, and more will be added later. These attributes assure SOFIA a vital role in future studies of the interstellar medium (ISM), in addition to topics such as the solar system. SOFIA observers will explore the gamut of ISM topics: star formation; the Galactic Center; debris disks; recycling of materials through the stellar life cycle; the origin and evolution of biogenic materials; shock, photodissociation, and photoexcitation physics; gas and grain chemistry. Imaging, spectroscopy, and eventually polarimetry covering much of the infrared spectrum will all be part of SOFIA's arsenal in the attack on these and other important problems. The talk will describe the observatory, its status, its science instruments and anticipated program. SOFIA is a joint program of NASA in the U.S. and DLR in Germany. Broad participation by the international science community in SOFIA observations will be encouraged via annual proposal opportunities and user-friendly tools. Roughly 80% of the observing time will be granted by the U.S. and 20% by Germany. For further information, see http://sofia.arc.nasa.gov.

  13. Organic compounds in circumstellar and interstellar environments.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  14. An Interstellar Component in the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliant, D. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    of ancient breccias. In contrast, the acid residue evolved 90% of its nitrogen 52 ng (103 ppm, SIGMA delta^15N -54o/oo isotopic minimum -74o/oo at 500 degrees C) as a single peak. Additionally delta^15N values of -72 and -45o/oo have been measured at temperatures above 800 degrees C corresponding with small peaks in the release profile, but the amounts of gas were within a factor of two of the blank. The nitrogen release and isotope profile of the major component correspond exactly to that encountered when interstellar diamonds from primitive meteorites are analysed before removal of contaminating organic material. Therefore, we tentatively interpret our data as the first recognition of interstellar grains in the lunar regolith. The appropriate investigation to confirm this conclusion is in progress. Using limiting values for the N abundance in presolar diamonds, we calculate that 79035 contains about 2 ppm diamond, about a factor of 5 less than the theoretical limit, assuming 2wt% CM2 equivalent carbonaceous chondrite material in the sample. The low delta^15N values measured at temperatures greater than 850 degrees would be consistent with about a factor of 50-100 less SiC carbide than diamond in 79035, a figure that corresponds well with the known relative abundance of diamond and SiC in CM2 meteorites. Clearly the abundances of diamond and SiC proposed here are totally incapable of accounting for any significant amount of the light lunar nitrogen. We cannot, however, discount that degassing of an abundant source of interstellar material early in the history of the lunar surface did not provide a source of the light lunar nitrogen by some indirect route. References. Becker, R.H. and Clayton, R.N. Proc. LPSC, Vol. 6, 2131-2149 (1975). Ganapathy, R., Keays, R.R., Laul, J.C. and Anders, Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf., Vol. 2, 1117-1142 (1970). Kerridge, J.F., Science, 188, 162-164 (1975). Thiemens, M.H. and Clayton, R.N. Earth Plan Sci. Lett., 47, 34-42 (1980

  15. The Diffuse Interstellar Clouds toward 23 Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Hobbs, L. M.; Lauroesch, James T.; Morton, Donald C.; Spitzer, Lyman; York, Donald G.

    1999-10-01

    Spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph are combined with high-resolution optical spectra and UV spectra from Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the diffuse interstellar clouds seen along the line of sight to the star 23 Ori. Multiple absorption components are present for each of several distinct types of gas, which are characterized by different relative abundance and depletion patterns and physical conditions. Strong low-velocity (SLV) absorption, due to cool, moderately dense neutral gas and representing about 92% of the total N(H I), is seen for various neutral and singly ionized species at +20 km s-1<~vsolar<~+26 km s-1. Most typically severely depleted species are less depleted by factors of 2-4, compared to the ``cold, dense cloud'' pattern found, for example, in the main components toward ζ Oph.For the two strongest SLV components, T~100 K and the thermal pressure log (nHT)~3.1 cm-3 K; we thus have nH~10-15 cm-3 and a total thickness of 12-16 pc. The adopted average SLV electron density, ne=0.15+/-0.05 cm-3, implies a relatively large ne/nH~0.01 and thus some ionization of hydrogen in these predominantly neutral components. Weaker low-velocity (WLV) absorption, probably largely due to warmer neutral gas, is seen primarily for various singly ionized species at 0 km s-1<~vsolar<~+30 km s-1. The depletions in the WLV gas are typically less severe by a factor of 2-3 than in the SLV gas and are somewhat similar to the ``warm cloud'' pattern seen in lines of sight with low reddening, low mean density, and/or low molecular fraction. If T~3000 K for the WLV components, then we have log(nHT)~4.7-4.8 cm-3 K, nH~15-20 cm-3, ne~0.2 cm-3, ne/nH~0.01, and a total thickness of 0.7-0.9 pc. Absorption from a number of singly and doubly ionized species, perhaps due to a radiative shock, is seen at -108 km s-1<~vsolar<~-83 km s-1. While the depletions in these ionized components are uncertain owing to

  16. Filtering of interstellar dust in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.

    2012-08-01

    The space between the stars is filled with gas and interstellar dust (ISD). The dust grains cause extinction of the starlight that we observe and they play an important role in the evolution of galaxies and in the formation of stellar and planetary systems. The ISD has been long observed by astronomical methods, the grains were measured by in-situ measurements of spacecraft in the solar system and even samples of interstellar material have been brought back to Earth by the Stardust mission in 2006. Many questions on the composition, morphology and size distribution of ISD still exist today which require more and improved measurements. Modeling and understanding the ISD flow through the solar system is needed to interpret these observations and to fully extract the information on ISD grains carried by these measurements. Also, the modelling is necessary for designing and optimizing future ISD missions. The modeling in this thesis follows this flow of ISD through the solar system taking into account three main forces: solar gravity, solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz forces resulting from the motion of the charged grains through the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simulations of dust trajectories over a large range of grain parameters β and Q/m were performed. β is the ratio of solar radiation pressure force to gravity and depends on the grain size, morphology and material. Q/m is the charge to mass ratio. The influence of solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz forces on the trajectories, densities and fluxes were systematically studied. Radiation pressure reduces gravitational attraction and can become even dominant (β > 1) for particles of about 0.2 μm radius, leading to a void region downstream from the Sun: the β -cone. The ISD flow under the influence of solar radiation pressure and gravity only is axi-symmetric, stationary and can even be calculated analytically. Lorentz force becomes stronger for smaller grains having higher Q=m and

  17. Mixing and Demixing Processes in Multiphase Flows With Application to Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Rand (Editor); Schafer, Charles F. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    A workshop on transport processes in multiphase flow was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center on February 25 and 26, 1988. The program, abstracts and text of the presentations at this workshop are presented. The objective of the workshop was to enhance our understanding of mass, momentum, and energy transport processes in laminar and turbulent multiphase shear flows in combustion and propulsion environments.

  18. Sample Size Requirements in Single- and Multiphase Growth Mixture Models: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su-Young

    2012-01-01

    Just as growth mixture models are useful with single-phase longitudinal data, multiphase growth mixture models can be used with multiple-phase longitudinal data. One of the practically important issues in single- and multiphase growth mixture models is the sample size requirements for accurate estimation. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, the…

  19. Photodissociation Regions in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The interstellar medium of galaxies is the reservoir out of which stars are born and into which stars inject newly created elements as they age. The physical properties of the interstellar medium are governed in part by the radiation emitted by these stars. Far-ultraviolet (6 eV less than h(nu) less than 13.6 eV) photons from massive stars dominate the heating and influence the chemistry of the neutral atomic gas and much of the molecular gas in galaxies. Predominantly neutral regions of the interstellar medium in which the heating and chemistry are regulated by far ultraviolet photons are termed Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs). These regions are the origin of most of the non-stellar infrared (IR) and the millimeter and submillimeter CO emission from galaxies. The importance of PDRs has become increasingly apparent with advances in IR and submillimeter astronomy. The IR emission from PDRs includes fine structure lines of C, C+, and O; rovibrational lines of H2, rotational lines of CO; broad middle features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and a luminous underlying IR continuum from interstellar dust. The transition of H to H2 and C+ to CO occurs within PDRs. Comparison of observations with theoretical models of PDRs enables one to determine the density and temperature structure, the elemental abundances, the level of ionization, and the radiation field. PDR models have been applied to interstellar clouds near massive stars, planetary nebulae, red giant outflows, photoevaporating planetary disks around newly formed stars, diffuse clouds, the neutral intercloud medium, and molecular clouds in the interstellar radiation field-in summary, much of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Theoretical PDR models explain the observed correlations of the [CII] 158 microns with the COJ = 1-0 emission, the COJ = 1-0 luminosity with the interstellar molecular mass, and the [CII] 158 microns plus [OI] 63 microns luminosity with the IR continuum luminosity. On a more global

  20. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Lyα. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (μ) has increased slightly from μ = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to μ = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  1. The Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the IBEX Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirnstein, E.; Funsten, H. O.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    As the solar wind plasma flows away from the Sun, it eventually collides with the local interstellar medium, creating the heliosphere. Neutral atoms from interstellar space travel inside the heliosphere and charge-exchange with the solar wind plasma, creating energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Some of these ENAs travel outside the heliosphere, undergo two charge-exchange events, and travel back inside the heliosphere towards Earth, with the strongest intensity in directions perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field (IMF). It is widely believed that this process generates the "ribbon" of enhanced ENA intensity observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), and has been shown to explain many key features of the observations. IBEX observations of the ribbon are composed of a complex, line-of-sight integration of ENAs that come from different distances beyond the heliopause, and thus the ENAs detected by IBEX over a wide range of energies are uniquely coupled to the IMF draped around the heliosphere. We present a detailed analysis of the IBEX ribbon measurements using 3D simulations of the heliosphere and computations of the ribbon flux at Earth based on IBEX capabilities, and derive the magnitude and direction of the IMF required to reproduce the position of the IBEX ribbon in the sky. These results have potentially large implications for our understanding of the solar-interstellar environment.

  2. Suprathermal Ion Pressure in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The first published results from IBEX and Cassini, and the earlier termination shock crossings by the Voyagers, are strongly suggestive of geometric relation of the local interstellar magnetic field to the outer boundary region of the heliosphere. The inferred pressure of the magnetic field is not, however, high enough to balance the heliosheath particle pressure computed from the IBEX and Cassini measurements. Since the interstellar ram pressure is also relatively low, and higher energy Ge V cosmic ray ions are not trapped on the local interstellar field lines, the pressure balance at the heliopause is more likely dominated by suprathermal keV-MeV particles on both sides. This should not be surprising in view of the long history of early work by Parker and others on cosmic ray particle pressure in interstellar space but with the new insight that the dominant contribution may be at suprathermal keV-MeV energies. Supporting pressure calculations are reviewed for a model interstellar proton spectrum from earlier work of Cooper et al. (2003, 2006, 2008).

  3. Dust Astronomy: New venues in interplanetary and interstellar dust research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Hahn, J.; Hamilton, D.; Harris, W.; Horanyi, Mihaly; Huestis, D. L.; Krivov, Alexander; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Liou, J. C.; Lisse, C.; Kuchner, M.; Meisel, D.; Reach, W. T.; Snow, T. P.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.; Yano, H.; Zolensky, M.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace, and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed and how those particles have evolved physically and dynamically. Remote sensing and in-situ methods, combined with sample analysis and theory, allow us to make a global assessment of dust origin and production in our solar system and its context within the local interstellar environment. Born in the expanding atmospheres of high-luminosity stars or in supernova remnants, interstellar grains provide the seeds that grow in cool interstellar clouds by accretion of atoms and molecules and by agglomeration. Ultimately, interstellar grains can be incorporated in newly forming stars, or they can become part of planetary systems. Reborn from comets, asteroids, Kuiper belt objects and satellites, inter- and circumplanetary dust particles populate our own planetary system. Key issues addressed by space measurements are: - Determination of the total inventory of dust (size, composition, shape, spatial distribution, and temporal variations) in the Solar System. - Characterization and analysis of interstellar dust inside and outside the heliosphere. - Exploration of the dusty environments in the F-corona, near comets, in the asteroid belt and in the Kuiper belt. - Determination of sources, dynamics, and sinks of dust in planetary environs (from Mercury to Pluto). These issues will be supported by ground-based observations, theoretical modeling studies and laboratory measurements.

  4. First Results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, David J.

    2010-03-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is a Small Explorer mission designed to study the global interaction between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium. IBEX does this by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) created by both solar wind ions and pickup ions in the solar wind when they charge exchange with cold interstellar neutrals drifting in from the interstellar medium. Because the ENAs are not magnetically confined, some of them propagate back into the inner heliosphere, where IBEX can detect them. IBEX was launched October 19th 2008, using a new launch technique that was also developed as a part of the IBEX project. The first scientific observations from IBEX were of ENAs coming from the Moon-these represented the first ever lunar ENA observations from any spacecraft and provided important information about the universal physical processes of backscatter and neutralization from complex planetary surfaces like the lunar regolith. Since then, IBEX has been collecting its first all-sky maps of heliospheric ENAs and initial direct, in situ observations of interstellar H, He, and O. At the time of this writing, these observations have been submitted and are under review for a special IBEX section of Science magazine nominally scheduled to be published in October 2009.

  5. Interstellar isomeric species: Energy, stability and abundance relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-12-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential interstellar isomeric species using high-level ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with molecules ranging from 3 to 12 atoms have been considered. The results show an interesting relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in the literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species could be linked to their stabilities if other factors do not dominate. The immediate consequences of this relationship in addressing some of the whys and wherefores among interstellar molecules and in predicting some possible candidates for future astronomical observations are discussed.

  6. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. R.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis, which is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the IR and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar IR band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described and the IR fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs contain between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission.

  7. Tabular Multiphase Equations of State for Metals and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, Pavel; Khishchenko, Konstantin

    2007-06-01

    In this work we use multiphase equations of state in tabular form for numerical simulation of different problems of shock-wave physics. These equations of state take into account melting, evaporation and sublimation phase transitions and can be applied in metastable regions including those under negative pressure. We use two interpolation techniques for calculation of thermodynamic properties: (i) adaptation of a rectangular grid to phase and metastable boundaries and (ii) triangular grid in every region of phase diagram. Both techniques allow one to unambiguously determine the phase state of a given point of phase diagram. For very fast processes different temperatures for ions and electrons can be used. Several applications of multiphase equations of state will be presented: simulation of the initial stage of electrical explosion of metal wires and foils, hypervelocity impact, interaction of intense laser pulses with matter etc. Information about phase state in every point of the flux allows us to study phase transition waves, apply different destruction criteria and analyse processes in metastable regions. The work is done under RFBR financial support, grant 06-02-17464.

  8. Impact Detection for Characterization of Complex Multiphase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Urzay, Javier; Mani, Ali; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase flows often involve a wide range of impact events, such as liquid droplets impinging on a liquid pool or gas bubbles coalescing in a liquid medium. These events contribute to a myriad of large-scale phenomena, including breaking waves on ocean surfaces. As impacts between surfaces necessarily occur at isolated points, numerical simulations of impact events will require the resolution of molecular scales near the impact points for accurate modeling. This can be prohibitively expensive unless subgrid impact and breakup models are formulated to capture the effects of the interactions. The first step in a large-eddy simulation (LES) based computational methodology for complex multiphase flows like air-sea interactions requires effective detection of these impact events. The starting point of this work is a collision detection algorithm for structured grids on a coupled level set / volume of fluid (CLSVOF) solver adapted from an earlier algorithm for cloth animations that triangulates the interface with the marching cubes method. We explore the extension of collision detection to a geometric VOF solver and to unstructured grids. Supported by ONR/A*STAR. Agency of Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; Office of Naval Research, USA.

  9. Thermorheologically complex behavior of multi-phase viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinson, L. C.; Knauss, W. G.

    T HE DYNAMIC correspondence principle of viscoelasticity is used to study the nature of time-temperature behavior of multi-phase composites by means of finite element computation. The composite considered contains viscoelastic inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic matrix. Each phase of the composite is considered to be thermorheologically simple, but the resulting mechanical properties of the composite are thermorheologically complex. The deviation of the composite moduli from thermorheologically simple behavior of the matrix material is shown to occur at frequencies and temperatures where the glass-to-rubber transition of the included phases are reached. Properties of a styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymer are investigated based on the individual phase properties of polystyrene and polybutadiene. To achieve congruence of the results with experimental data, it is necessary to consider a transition phase of properties "intermediate" to those of polystyrene and polybutadiene. Using accurate physical information on the individual phase properties and on the interphase region, it is possible to predict properties of multiphase composites. Although detailed a priori knowledge of such an interphase is usually lacking, it is shown that the computational procedure presented here together with an extended range of test frequencies will aid in estimating the properties of the phase in question.

  10. Backflow in twin-screw-type multiphase pump

    SciTech Connect

    Egashira, Kazuyuki; Shoda, Shinji; Tochikawa, Tetsuro

    1996-12-31

    We experimentally investigated a twin-screw-type multi-phase pump focusing on the backflow in a gap along the twin-screw shafts and scale-up parameters. Although both the backflow and the scale-up parameters have been recognized as important factors in developing multiphase pumps, they have not been clarified yet. We designed and constructed a large-scale test facility suitable for acquiring data on the relationship between back-flow rates and important factors such as differential pressures, gas void fractions, and rotation speed of the shaft. As a result, the backflow rate was estimated as the difference between the volumetric flow rates of pressurized air and water, and those of unpressurized air and water. A physically based model was proposed to describe the backflow by taking into account the differential pressure, gas void fractions, and the rotation speed of the shaft. Evidently from the comparison between the model and the experimental data, the model was certified to simulate successfully the backflow in twin-screw pumps.

  11. Biphilicity and Superbiphilicity for Wettability Control of Multiphase Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Daniel; Betz, Amy Rachel; Schutzius, T. M.; Jenkins, J.; Kim, C.-J.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2012-11-01

    Multiphase energy transport, such as in boiling, suggests contradictory requirements on the wettability of the solid surfaces coming into contact with the working fluid. On the one hand, a hydrophobic wall promotes nucleation. On the other hand, a hydrophilic wall promotes water contact and enhances the critical heat flux. An analogous situation appears in the opposite thermodynamic process, i.e. condensation. These apparently contradictory requirements can be accommodated with biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Biphilic surfaces were first manufactured in 1964 by Young and Hummel, who sprayed Teflon drops onto a smooth steel surface: they showed enhanced heat transfer coefficient during boiling of water. Our recent work has revisited the manufacturing of biphilic surfaces using micro- and nanofabrication processes (Betz et al. 2010, Schutzius et al. 2012); for instance, we fabricated the first superbiphilic surfaces, which juxtapose superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. Using these surfaces, we measured significant enhancement during pool boiling of both the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux. This enhanced performance can be explained by the inherent ability of the surfaces to control multiphase flow, decreasing nucleation energies and shaping drops, bubbles and jets, to maximize transport and prevent instabilities.

  12. Modeling oceanic multiphase flow by using Lagrangian particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    While the density of seawater is basically determined by its temperature, salinity and pressure, the effective density becomes higher when the water mass contains suspended sediment. On the other hands, effective density declines when water mass contains fine scale materials of lower density such as bubbles and ice crystals. Such density anomaly induced by small scale materials suspended in water masses sometimes plays important roles in the sub-mesoscale ocean physics. To simulate these small scale oceanic multiphase flow, a new modeling framework using an online Lagrangian particle tracking method is developed. A Lagrangian particle tracking method has substantial advantages such as an explicit treatment of buoyancy force acting on each individual particle, no numerical diffusion and dissipation, high dynamic range and an ability to track the history and each individual particle. However, its numerical cost causes difficulty when we try to simulate a large number of particles. In the present study we implement a numerically efficient particle tracking scheme using linked-list data structure, which is coupled with a nonhydrostatic dynamical core. This newly developed model successfully reproduces characteristics of some interesting small scale multiphase processes, for example hyperpycnal flow (a sediment-rich river water plume trapped at ocean floor) and grease ice cover (a slurry mixture of frazil ice crystals and seawater).

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flows with Unstable Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Eugenio; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Antepara, Oscar; Oliva, Assensi

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical model that intends to simulate efficiently the surface instability that arise in multiphase flows, typically liquid-gas, both for laminar or turbulent regimes. The model is developed on the in-house computing platform TermoFluids, and operates the finite-volume, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows by means of a conservative level-set method for the interface-capturing. The mesh size is optimized by means of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy, that allows the dynamic re-concentration of the mesh in the vicinity of the interfaces between fluids, in order to correctly represent the diverse structures (as ligaments and droplets) that may rise from unstable phenomena. In addition, special attention is given to the discretization of the various terms of the momentum equations, to ensure stability of the flow and correct representation of turbulent vortices. As shown, the method is capable of truthfully simulate the interface phenomena as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability, both in the case of 2-D and 3-D configurations. Therefore it is suitable for the simulation of complex phenomena such as simulation of air-blast atomization, with several important application in the field of automotive and aerospace engines. A prove is given by our preliminary study of the 3-D coaxial liquid-gas jet.

  14. Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Duan Z

    2008-01-01

    Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.

  15. Shock initiated reactions of reactive multi-phase blast explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dennis; Granier, John; Johnson, Richard; Littrell, Donald

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of non-ideal explosive compositions made of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), nanoaluminum, and a micron-size, high mass density, reactive metal. Unlike high explosives, these compositions release energy via a fast self-oxidized combustion wave rather than a true self-sustaining detonation. Their reaction rates are shock dependent and they can be overdriven to change their energy release rate. These compositions are fuel rich and have an extended aerobic energy release phase. The term "reactive multiphase blast" refers to the post-dispersion blast behavior: multiphase in that there are a gas phase that imparts pressure and a solid (particulate) phase that imparts energy and momentum [1]; and reactive in that the hot metal particles react with atmospheric oxygen and the explosive gas products to give an extended pressure pulse. Tantalum-based RMBX formulations were tested in two spherical core-shell configurations - an RMBX shell exploded by a high explosive core, and an RMBX core imploded by a high explosive shell. The fireball and blast characteristics were compared to a C-4 baseline charge.

  16. Intrusive Method for Uncertainty Quantification in a Multiphase Flow Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnquist, Brian; Owkes, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is a necessary, interesting, and often neglected aspect of fluid flow simulations. To determine the significance of uncertain initial and boundary conditions, a multiphase flow solver is being created which extends a single phase, intrusive, polynomial chaos scheme into multiphase flows. Reliably estimating the impact of input uncertainty on design criteria can help identify and minimize unwanted variability in critical areas, and has the potential to help advance knowledge in atomizing jets, jet engines, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Use of an intrusive polynomial chaos method has been shown to significantly reduce computational cost over non-intrusive collocation methods such as Monte-Carlo. This method requires transforming the model equations into a weak form through substitution of stochastic (random) variables. Ultimately, the model deploys a stochastic Navier Stokes equation, a stochastic conservative level set approach including reinitialization, as well as stochastic normals and curvature. By implementing these approaches together in one framework, basic problems may be investigated which shed light on model expansion, uncertainty theory, and fluid flow in general. NSF Grant Number 1511325.

  17. Sedimentation and multiphase equilibria in suspensions of colloidal hard rods.

    PubMed

    Savenko, S V; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2004-11-01

    Sedimentation and multiphase equilibria in a suspension of hard colloidal rods are explored by analyzing the (macroscopic) osmotic equilibrium conditions. We observe that gravity enables the system to explore a whole range of phases varying from the most dilute phase to the densest phase, i.e., from the isotropic (I), to the nematic (N), to the smectic (Sm), to the crystal (K) phase. We determine the phase diagrams for hard spherocylinders with a length-to-diameter ratio of 5 for a semi-infinite system and a system with fixed container height using a bulk equation of state obtained from simulations. Our results show that gravity leads to multiphase coexistence for the semi-infinite system, as we observe I, I+N, I+N+Sm , or I+N+Sm+K coexistence, while the finite system shows I, N, Sm, K, I+N, N+Sm, Sm+K, I+N+Sm, N+Sm+K , and I+N+Sm+K phase coexistence. In addition, we compare our theoretical predictions for the phase behavior and the density profiles with Monte Carlo simulations for the semi-infinite system and we find good agreement with our theoretical predictions.

  18. Experimental research of multiphase flow with cavitation in the nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubkova, Milada; Bojko, Marian; Jablonska, Jana; Homa, Dorota; Tůma, Jiří

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the problems of cavitation in water flow in the nozzle. The area of research is divided into two directions (experimental and numerical research). During the experimental research the equipment with the nozzle is under the measurement and basic physical quantities such as pressure and volume flow rate are recorded. In the following phase measuring of noise which is generated during flow through the nozzle in the area of cavitation is measured at various operating conditions of the pump. In the second part the appropriate multiphase mathematical model including the consideration of cavitation is defined. Boundary conditions for numerical simulation are defined on the basis of experimental measurements. Undissolved air in the flow is taken into account to obtain pressure distribution in accordance to measured one. Results of the numerical simulation are presented by means of basic current quantities such as pressure, velocity and volume fractions of each phase. The conclusions obtained from experimental research of cavitation were applied to modify the multiphase mathematical model.

  19. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  20. Elastic registration of multiphase CT images of liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Stefan; Zidowitz, Stephan

    2009-02-01

    In this work we present a novel approach for elastic image registration of multi-phase contrast enhanced CT images of liver. A problem in registration of multiphase CT is that the images contain similar but complementary structures. In our application each image shows a different part of the vessel system, e.g., portal/hepatic venous/arterial, or biliary vessels. Portal, arterial and biliary vessels run in parallel and abut on each other forming the so called portal triad, while hepatic veins run independent. Naive registration will tend to align complementary vessel. Our new approach is based on minimizing a cost function consisting of a distance measure and a regularizer. For the distance we use the recently proposed normalized gradient field measure that focuses on the alignment of edges. For the regularizer we use the linear elastic potential. The key feature of our approach is an additional penalty term using segmentations of the different vessel systems in the images to avoid overlaps of complementary structures. We successfully demonstrate our new method by real data examples.