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Sample records for sub-tropical marine fish

  1. Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish.

    PubMed

    Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-03-31

    This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage.

  2. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates

  3. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  4. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  5. Seasonal blood chemistry response of sub-tropical nearshore fishes to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Aaron D.; Zuckerman, Zachary C.; Stewart, Heather A.; Suski, Cory D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic activity will continue to alter the chemistry of the oceans. Future climate scenarios indicate that sub-tropical oceans will become more acidic, and the temperature and salinity will increase relative to current conditions. A large portion of previous work has focused on how future climate scenarios may impact shell-forming organisms and coral reef fish, with little attention given to fish that inhabit nearshore habitats; few studies have examined multiple challenges concurrently. The purpose of this study was to quantify the blood-based physiological response of nearshore fishes to a suite of seawater conditions associated with future climate change. Fish were exposed to an acute (30 min) increase in salinity (50 ppt), acidity (decrease in pH by 0.5 units) or temperature (7–10°C), or temperature and acidity combined, and held in these conditions for 6 h. Their physiological responses were compared across seasons (i.e. summer vs. winter). Bonefish (Albula vulpes) exposed to environmental challenges in the summer experienced a suite of blood-based osmotic and ionic disturbances relative to fish held in ambient conditions, with thermal challenges (particularly in the summer) being the most challenging. Conversely, no significant treatment effects were observed for yellowfin mojarra (Gerres cinereus) or checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in either season. Together, results from this study demonstrate that acute climate-induced changes to thermal habitat will be the most challenging for sub-tropical fishes (particularly in the summer) relative to salinity and pH stressors, but significant variation across species exists. PMID:27293649

  6. Seasonal blood chemistry response of sub-tropical nearshore fishes to climate change.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Aaron D; Zuckerman, Zachary C; Stewart, Heather A; Suski, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic activity will continue to alter the chemistry of the oceans. Future climate scenarios indicate that sub-tropical oceans will become more acidic, and the temperature and salinity will increase relative to current conditions. A large portion of previous work has focused on how future climate scenarios may impact shell-forming organisms and coral reef fish, with little attention given to fish that inhabit nearshore habitats; few studies have examined multiple challenges concurrently. The purpose of this study was to quantify the blood-based physiological response of nearshore fishes to a suite of seawater conditions associated with future climate change. Fish were exposed to an acute (30 min) increase in salinity (50 ppt), acidity (decrease in pH by 0.5 units) or temperature (7-10°C), or temperature and acidity combined, and held in these conditions for 6 h. Their physiological responses were compared across seasons (i.e. summer vs. winter). Bonefish (Albula vulpes) exposed to environmental challenges in the summer experienced a suite of blood-based osmotic and ionic disturbances relative to fish held in ambient conditions, with thermal challenges (particularly in the summer) being the most challenging. Conversely, no significant treatment effects were observed for yellowfin mojarra (Gerres cinereus) or checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in either season. Together, results from this study demonstrate that acute climate-induced changes to thermal habitat will be the most challenging for sub-tropical fishes (particularly in the summer) relative to salinity and pH stressors, but significant variation across species exists.

  7. Sunrise ozone destruction found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    A new mechanism of ozone loss is found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer over the north Pacific. This ozone destruction occurs just after sunrise (hereafter Sunrise Ozone Destruction, SOD) and is commonly found throughout the year. SOD is a predominant ozone loss mechanism in winter, which takes place after sunrise in a few hours with 1∼2 ppbv of ozone depletion for 40∼50 ppbv of background ozone, while, in summer, SOD is weaker than in winter with small ozone depletion for 10∼20 ppbv of background ozone. In summer, daytime ozone destruction (hereafter, DOD) associated with UV photolysis and subsequent HOx reaction is more active. Since DOD is not active in early morning, SOD should be a new ozone loss mechanism. After demonstrating the observational findings, halogen chemistry associated with sea-salt aerosols is described as a possible mechanism.

  8. Evaluating the potential of foraminiferal Beryllium-10 as a marine sediment chronometer in sub-tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Fifield, L. K.; Abrajevitch, A.; Heslop, D.; De Deckker, P.; Roberts, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of meteoric 10Be (half-life of ~1.5 My) incorporated in the calcium carbonate tests of foraminifera have the potential to provide useful chronological control for marine sediment records. However, complications arise associated with varying terrigenous inputs and poorly-constrained production rates. Here we present 10Be/9Be results from a ~42 m-long sediment core collected off the NW coast of Australia (MD00-2361: 113°28.63‧E, 22°04.92‧S, 1805 m water depth). Measurements of δ18O on Globigerinoides ruber, supported by magnetostratigraphy, indicate that the record extends back >1.5 Ma. This independent chronology, in conjunction with the excellent carbonate preservation at this site, allows for a preliminary evaluation of foraminiferal 10Be as a chronometer. We also evaluate cosmogenic isotope production rate changes associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals, as well as the influence of varying terrigenous input as reconstructed from high-resolution XRF scanning profiles.

  9. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed.

  10. Natal Homing in a Marine Fish Metapopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Latkoczy, Christopher; Swart, Peter K.; Jones, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifying natal origins of marine fishes is challenging because of difficulties in conducting mark-recapture studies in marine systems. We used natural geochemical signatures in otoliths (ear bones) to determine natal sources in weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), an estuarine-spawning marine fish, in eastern North America. Spawning site fidelity ranged from 60 to 81%, comparable to estimates of natal homing in birds and anadromous fishes. These data were in contrast to genetic analyses of population structure in weakfish. Our findings highlight the need for consideration of spatial processes in fisheries models and have implications for the design of marine reserves in coastal regions.

  11. Drivers of foraminiferal and bulk-sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios in a marine sediment record offshore of sub-tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Abrajevitch, A.; Srncik, M.; Fifield, L. K.; De Deckker, P.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be (half-life of ~1.5 My) is produced in the atmosphere via cosmic ray spallation of 16O, following which it is quickly transported to Earth's surface by precipitation. This process concentrates 10Be in the ocean, where it is thought to remain with a residence time of ~500-1000 years prior to export to the marine sedimentary record largely associated with sorption to the surface of settling clay particles. The bulk beryllium isotopic composition of marine clays hence reflects the convoluted factors of 10Be production and varying scavenging efficiency/terrigenous input. However, measurements of meteoric 10Be/9Be incorporated in the calcium carbonate tests of foraminifera (and hence presumably isolated from the dilution effects of sediment-bound terrigenous 9Be) may have the potential to provide useful chronological control for marine sediment records. Here we present 10Be/9Be results from a ~42 m-long sediment core collected off the NW coast of Australia (MD00-2361: 113°28.63‧E, 22°04.92‧S, 1805 m water depth). Measurements of δ18O on Globigerinoides ruber, supported by magnetostratigraphy, indicate that the record extends back >1.2 Ma. This independent chronology, in conjunction with excellent carbonate preservation at this site, allows preliminary evaluation of foraminiferal 10Be as a chronometer. We also evaluate the relationship between sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios, regional surface ocean conditions as inferred from the δ18O stratigraphy and low-resolution Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca ratios, as well as large-scale changes in regional fluvial input as reconstructed from high-resolution XRF scanning profiles.

  12. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  13. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  14. Climatic influence on a marine fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Attrill, Martin J; Power, Michael

    2002-05-16

    Understanding the fluctuations in marine fish stocks is important for the management of fisheries, and attempts have been made to demonstrate links with oceanographic and climatic variability, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO has been correlated with a range of long-term ecological measures, including certain fish stocks. Such environmental influences are most likely to affect susceptible juveniles during estuarine residency, as estuaries are critical juvenile nursery or over-wintering habitats. Here we show that, during a 16-year period, climatic forcing (by means of the NAO) is consistently the most important parameter explaining variation in assemblage composition, abundance and growth of juvenile marine fish during estuarine residency. A possible mechanism for the effect of the NAO is a temperature differential between estuarine and marine waters that allows fish to facultatively exploit optimal thermal habitats. The connection has potentially important implications for the size and numbers of individuals recruited to the fishery, for understanding and predicting the composition of juvenile fish stocks using estuaries, and for the appropriate conservation of estuarine systems in relation to fish stocks.

  15. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, J A

    2000-08-24

    Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity.

  16. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  17. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  18. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  19. Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Richard, Nadège; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Mira, Sara; Dias, Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several novel methodologies have contributed to significant progress in fish larval nutrition. Others are emerging and are likely to bring further insight into larval nutritional physiology and requirements. This paper reviews a range of new tools and some examples of their present use, as well as potential future applications in the study of fish larvae nutrition. Tube-feeding and incorporation into Artemia of (14)C-amino acids and lipids allowed studying Artemia intake, digestion and absorption and utilisation of these nutrients. Diet selection by fish larvae has been studied with diets containing different natural stable isotope signatures or diets where different rare metal oxides were added. Mechanistic modelling has been used as a tool to integrate existing knowledge and reveal gaps, and also to better understand results obtained in tracer studies. Population genomics may assist in assessing genotype effects on nutritional requirements, by using progeny testing in fish reared in the same tanks, and also in identifying QTLs for larval stages. Functional genomics and proteomics enable the study of gene and protein expression under various dietary conditions, and thereby identify the metabolic pathways which are affected by a given nutrient. Promising results were obtained using the metabolic programming concept in early life to facilitate utilisation of certain nutrients at later stages. All together, these methodologies have made decisive contributions, and are expected to do even more in the near future, to build a knowledge basis for development of optimised diets and feeding regimes for

  20. Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

    2013-06-01

    This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance

  1. Barcoding Atlantic Canada's commonly encountered marine fishes.

    PubMed

    McCusker, M R; Denti, D; Van Guelpen, L; Kenchington, E; Bentzen, P

    2013-03-01

    Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500 bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments.

  2. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  3. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  4. [Effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem of Beibu Gulf].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Qiu, Yong-Song; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Zhi-Hui

    2008-07-01

    By using Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software, the Ecosim model of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem in 1959-1960 was constructed, which included about 20 functional groups such as fishery, marine mammals, sea-birds, sharks, pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, and benthic crustaceans, etc. Through the comparison with the investigation data in 1997-1999, the effects of fishing on the structure and function of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem were analyzed. The results indicated that with the increasing fishing pressure in past forty years, the ecosystem structure and function shifted drastically, with the biomass of long-lived, high trophic level and piscivorous fishes declined while short-lived and small fishes and benthic invertebrates dominated gradually. The biomass of piscivorous species in 1999 was only 6% of that in 1960, while cephalopods increased 2.7 times or more. The trophic level of the catch declined from 3.2 in 1960 to 2.98 in 1999, which fitted the rule of "fishing down the food web" and suggested that the present exploitation patterns were unsustainable. Based on the data of the 1990s, the changes of the ecosystem under decreasing fishing pressure were predicted. This study validated the feasibility of Ecosim model in predicting the effects of fishing pressure on marine ecosystem.

  5. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  6. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  7. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  8. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  9. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  10. [New view on the population genetic structure of marine fish].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2011-11-01

    The view on homogeneous population genetic structure in many marine fish with high mobility has changed significantly during the last ten years. Molecular genetic population studies over the whole ranges of such species as Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod showed a complex picture of spatial differentiation both on the macrogeographic and, in many areas, on the microgeographic scale, although the differentiation for neutral molecular markers was low. It was established that the migration activity of such fish is constrained in many areas of the species range by hydrological and physicochemical transition zones (environmental gradients), as well as gyres in the spawning regions. Natal homing was recorded in a number of marine fish species. Existing in marine fish constraints of gene migration and a very high variance of reproductive success determine a significantly smaller proportion of effective reproductive size of their populations in the total population size, which generates more complex abundance dynamics than assumed earlier. The various constraints on gene migration and natal homing in marine fish promote the formation of local adaptations at ecologically important phenotypic traits. Effects of selection underlying adaptations are actively investigated in marine fish on the genomic level, using approaches of population genomics. The knowledge of adaptive intraspecific structure enables understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes, that influence biodiversity and providing spatial frames for conservation of genetic resources under commercial exploitation. Contemporary views on the population genetic and adaptive structures or biocomplexity in marine fish support and develop the main principles of the conception of systemic organization of the species and its regional populations, which were advanced by Yu.P. Altukhov and Yu.G. Rychkov.

  11. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  12. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  13. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish

    PubMed Central

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  14. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  15. Artificial propagation and breeding of marine fish in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Yong

    2002-03-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum ( Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream ( Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip ( Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy ( Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper ( Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt ( Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt ( Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  16. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  17. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marín, Arnaldo

    2011-03-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems.

  18. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1), with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g(-1)d(-1). The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1-7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d(-1). Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  19. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    PubMed

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California. PMID:19395745

  20. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Guillermo E.; Moeller, Holly V.

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks—and their habitats—can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot–Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  1. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  2. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  3. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 216 RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries..., in order to provide additional opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish...

  4. DNA barcoding of marine ornamental fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Bamaniya, Dhaval C; Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sharma, Niti; Reang, Dhalongsaih; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2016-09-01

    India has rich marine ornamental fish diversity with 400 fish species distributed in Gulf of Munnar/Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch, and in reefs around Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Marine ornamental fish identification at the field level is very difficult because of their high diversity and profound changes in appearance during their developmental stages and camouflage. To facilitate ornamental fish trading with ease and in compliance with the biodiversity act, DNA barcoding technique could be used to accurately identify species. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 31 species of commercially important marine ornamental fishes from India. The average genetic distance (K2P model) within species, genus, and family was 0.446, 13.08, and 20.09%, respectively. Intraspecific variation has increased several folds (15-20 times) after including conspecific sequences from different geographical locations. The presence of allopatric lineages/cryptic species was observed in the Indo-pacific region. The NJ tree constructed based on K2P values showed distinct clusters shared by congeneric species specific to populations.

  5. DNA barcoding of marine ornamental fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Bamaniya, Dhaval C; Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sharma, Niti; Reang, Dhalongsaih; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2016-09-01

    India has rich marine ornamental fish diversity with 400 fish species distributed in Gulf of Munnar/Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch, and in reefs around Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Marine ornamental fish identification at the field level is very difficult because of their high diversity and profound changes in appearance during their developmental stages and camouflage. To facilitate ornamental fish trading with ease and in compliance with the biodiversity act, DNA barcoding technique could be used to accurately identify species. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 31 species of commercially important marine ornamental fishes from India. The average genetic distance (K2P model) within species, genus, and family was 0.446, 13.08, and 20.09%, respectively. Intraspecific variation has increased several folds (15-20 times) after including conspecific sequences from different geographical locations. The presence of allopatric lineages/cryptic species was observed in the Indo-pacific region. The NJ tree constructed based on K2P values showed distinct clusters shared by congeneric species specific to populations. PMID:25703851

  6. 78 FR 20296 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine... for revision of a current information collection. The title will be changed from ``Marine Recreational Information Program'' to ``Marine Recreational Information Program Fishing Effort Survey''....

  7. Nuclear abnormalities of marine fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Strunjak-Perovic, I; Topic Popovic, N; Coz-Rakovac, R; Jadan, M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (NA) including micronuclei (MN) in cultured and wild sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and wild mullet Mugil spp. Seasonal sampling was performed at seven locations along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The frequency of NA and MN was positively correlated to temperature (NA: P < 0.05, r = 0.11; MN P < 0.05, r = 0.10), and there was also a positive correlation between NA and MN frequency (P < 0.001, r = 0.43). The lowest NA and MN values for both fish species were recorded in spring, while the highest were recorded in autumn. Significantly higher frequency of NA was seen in D. labrax compared to Mugil spp., while MN frequency was low in both species and not significantly different. There was no significant difference in NA and MN frequency between cultured and wild D. labrax sampled in the same month, and there was no difference between wild Mugil spp. sampled near or far from fish farms. In view of sampling sites, the highest values were detected in fishes from the Limski Channel, the lowest from the Janjina location.

  8. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish.

  9. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish. PMID:25256581

  10. Marine fishes new to continental United States waters, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Necaise, Ann Marie; Casazza, T.L.; Dennis, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the southeastern coast of the United States, hardground systems support a high diversity of sub-tropical and tropical fishes. Many of these hardgrounds occur in deep (ca. ??? 50 m) waters and their fauna is still poorly described; however, with concentrated sampling in these deeper areas, new records of fishes continue to emerge. In the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina, we used the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, remotely operated vehicles, trawling gear, and angling gear to sample deep reef systems (38-248 m). We document five records of fishes new to continental United States waters, including Liopropoma aberrans, Parasphyraenops incisus, Lipogramma regia, Apogon gouldi, and Prognathodes guyanensis. We also report range extensions for eleven species: Gymnothorax hubbsi, Gymnothorax vicinus, Lepophidium staurophor, Cypselurus comatus, Liopropoma mowbrayi, Serranus annularis, Rypticus saponaceus, Caranx lugubris, Prognathodes aculeatus, Centropyge argi, and Canthigaster jamestyleri.

  11. Contrasting "Fish" Diversity Dynamics between Marine and Freshwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel

    2015-08-31

    Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe long-term dynamics of diversification: the equilibrium model considers the Earth as a closed system with a fixed maximum biological carrying capacity, whereas the expansion model hypothesizes a continuously increasing diversification of life. Based on the analysis of the fossil record of all organisms, Benton suggested contrasting models of diversity dynamics between marine and continental realms. Diversity in marine environments is characterized by phases of rapid diversification followed by plateaux, i.e., an equilibrium model directly derived from insular biogeography theories, whereas diversity in continental environments is characterized by exponential growth. Previous studies that aimed at testing these models with empirical data were based on datasets extracted directly from the reading of the vagaries of the raw fossil record, without correcting for common fossil record biases (preservation and sampling). Although correction of datasets for the incompleteness of the fossil record is now commonly performed for addressing long-term biodiversity variations, only a few attempts have been made to produce diversity curves corrected by phylogenetic data from extant and extinct taxa. Here we show that phylogenetically corrected diversity curves for "fish" (actinopterygians and elasmobranchs) during the last 200 million years fit an equilibrium model in the marine realm and an expansion model in the freshwater realm. These findings demonstrate that the rate of diversification has decreased for marine fish over the Cenozoic but is in sharp expansion for freshwater fish. PMID:26279235

  12. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  13. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds.

    PubMed

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ(15)N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ(15)N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems. PMID:22195524

  14. Genotoxic effects of profenofos on the marine fish, Therapon jarbua.

    PubMed

    Janaki Devi, V; Nagarani, N; Yokesh Babu, M; Vijayalakshimi, N; Kumaraguru, A K

    2012-02-01

    Profenofos (EC(50)) is a persistent and toxic organophosphorus insecticide. Animals get exposed to profenofos via food and water. The present study was designed to explore the genotoxic effect of profenofos in the marine fish. The ubiquitously occurring marine fish, Therapon jarbua, was exposed to profenofos and its effect on DNA was measured using comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay. DNA damage were scored using mean percentage of tail length and compared with the comet classes' viz., 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the first three doses, the (21.5, 43.0 and 86.0 µg L(-1)) comets were observed, of which the mean tail length differed significantly (p < 0.01) from those of unexposed, but not from each other. The mean tail length values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in gill than in matured erythrocytes. The result indicates that DNA strand breaks in T. jarbua were due to the genotoxic potential of profenofos. From the study, we suggest that T. jarbua may be used as an indicator organism to assess the genotoxic risks of profenofos contamination in marine environments using Comet assay as an identification tool. We infer that organophosphorus insecticides may be dangerous to the marine lives. PMID:21859359

  15. The blue-green blood plasma of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Fang, L S; Bada, J L

    1990-01-01

    1. The blue-green coloration of the blood plasma in some marine fishes, which is attributed to a protein bound tetrapyrrol (biliverdin), is an anomaly in vertebrates. 2. Recent studies have shown that biliverdin not only occurs in many fish, but is also present in the blood of tobacco hornworm, the wings of moth and butterfly, the shell of bird eggs, the serum and egg of frog, the placenta of dog and in the blood of humans suffering from hepatic diseases. 3. In this review, we begin with a historical account of the description of the presence of blue-green blood plasma in fish, and then consider the biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, and the ecological implications of biliverdin in fish. 4. A comparative description of the occurrence of biliverdin in fish and other animals is presented. 5. The mechanism of accumulation of biliverdin in fish blood and its evolutionary significance are also considered. It is suggested that this process may serve as a useful model for further research on bile pigment metabolism in other animals.

  16. Parasitic isopods from marine fishes off Nagapattinam coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted from August 2013 to January 2014. Host fishes were collected from the Nagapattinam Coast, India. During the sampling period, 242 fishes were infested out of 1440 specimens examined from nine different species of marine fishes. A total of 267 parasitic isopods belonging to nine cymothoid species viz., Anilocra dimidiata (Bleeker 1857), Catoessa boscii (Bleeker 1857), Cymothoa indica (Schioedte and Meinert 1884), Joryma sawayah (Bowman and Tareen 1983), Nerocila arres (Bowman and Tareen 1983), N.loveni (Bovallius 1887) N. phaiopleura (Bleeker 1857), N. serra (Schioedte and Meinert 1881) and N.sundaica (Bleeker 1857) were collected. The Nerocila species were attached to the pectoral fin, the caudal peduncle and different regions of the body surface of the host fishes. The specimen belonging to the species Catoessa boscii, Cymothoa indica and Joryma sawayah were collected from the mouth and the branchial cavity of the infected fishes. Anilocra dimidiata was only found on the body surface of the host fish. The overall prevalence reached 16.80 %. A maximum prevalence was observed in C. boscii parasitizing Carangoides malabaricus (26.81 %) and a minimum prevalence in N. sundaica parasitizing Terapon puta (P = 7.31 %). The mean intensity ranged from 1 to 1.3. PMID:27605814

  17. Effects of customary marine closures on fish behavior, spear-fishing success, and underwater visual surveys.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A

    2011-04-01

    Customary management systems (i.e., management systems that limit the use of marine resources), such as rotational fisheries closures, can limit harvest of resources. Nevertheless, the explicit goals of customary management are often to influence fish behavior (in particular flight distance, i.e., distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat), rather than fish abundance. We explored whether the flight distance of reef fishes targeted by local artisanal fishers differed between a customary closure and fished reefs. We also examined whether flight distance of these species affected fishing success and accuracy of underwater visual census (UVC) between customary closed areas and areas open to fishing. Several species demonstrated significant differences in flight distance between areas, indicating that fishing activity may increase flight distance. These relatively long flight distances mean that in fished areas most target species may stay out of the range of spear fishers. In addition, mean flight distances for all species both inside and outside the customary-closure area were substantially smaller than the observation distance of an observer conducting a belt-transect UVC (mean [SE]= 8.8 m [0.48]). For targeted species that showed little ability to evade spear fishers, customary closures may be a vital management technique. Our results show that customary closures can have a substantial, positive effect on resource availability and that conventional UVC techniques may be insensitive to changes in flight behavior of fishes associated with fishing. We argue that short, periodic openings of customary closures may allow the health of the fish community to be maintained and local fishers to effectively harvest fishes.

  18. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  19. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  20. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

  1. Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-09-01

    Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea.

  2. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Munday, Philip L.; Wittenrich, Matthew L.; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L.; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO2-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO2-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO2. Juveniles from ambient CO2-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO2-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

  3. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in marine fishes along the Chinese coastline.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two species of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaenacrocea) and silver pomfret (Pampusargenteus) (n = 46), from nine Chinese coastal cities (Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen). HBCDs were detectable in all samples analyzed, indicating ubiquitous contamination of these compounds in the Chinese coastal environment. The average total HBCD concentration was 3.7 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight (range: 0.57-10.1 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight), which is relatively lower than other regions of the world, especially Europe, where HBCDs are intensively used. Among the three individual HBCD isomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD) in all fish samples, the α-isomer showed a remarkable predominance (from 87.5% to 100% of total contribution), indicating its higher bioaccumulative potential. Geographically, the highest HBCD level present in fish was found in Dalian in northern China, and the lowest occurred in Wenzhou. Estimated daily intakes of HBCDs via fish consumption for the Chinese population were 0.004-1.00 ng kg body weight⁻¹ d⁻¹. These exposure levels were much lower than the effect levels.

  4. Measuring respiration rates in marine fish larvae: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Peck, M A; Moyano, M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic costs can be extremely high in marine fish larvae and gaining reliable estimates of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on those costs is important to understand environmental constraints on early growth and survival. This review provides an historical perspective of measurements of larval marine fish respiration (O2 consumption) including the methods (Winkler, manometric, polarographic, paramagnetic and optodes) and systems (closed system to intermittent-flow) used. This study compares and systematically reviews the results (metabolic rates, ontogenetic changes and taxonomic differences) obtained from 59 studies examining 53 species from 30 families. Standard (anaesthetized or darkness), routine and active respiration rates were reported in 14, 94 and 8% of the studies and much more work has been performed on larvae of temperate (88%) compared with tropical (9%) and polar (3%) species. More than 35% of the studies have been published since 2000 owing to both advances in oxygen sensors and the growing emphasis on understanding physiological effects of environmental change. Common protocols are needed to facilitate cross-taxa comparisons such as the effect of temperature (Q10 : 1·47-3·47), body mass (slope of allometric changes in O2 consumption rate from 0·5 to 1·3) and activity level on metabolic costs as measured via respiration rate. A set of recommendations is provided that will make it easier for researchers to design measurement systems, to judge the reliability of measurements and to make inter-comparisons among studies and species.

  5. Spillover of fish naïveté from marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Russ, Garry R

    2013-02-01

    Spillover of adult fish biomass is an expected benefit from no-take marine reserves to adjacent fisheries. Here, we show fisher-naïve behaviour in reef fishes also spills over from marine reserves, potentially increasing access to fishery benefits by making fishes more susceptible to spearguns. The distance at which two targeted families of fishes began to flee a potential fisher [flight initiation distance (FID)] was lower inside reserves than in fished areas, and this reduction extended outside reserve boundaries. Reduced FID persisted further outside reserves than increases in fish biomass. This finding could help increase stakeholder support for marine reserves and improve current models of spillover by informing estimates for spatial changes in catchability. Behavioural changes of fish could help explain differences between underwater visual census and catch data in quantifying the spatial extent of spillover from marine reserves, and should be considered in the management of adjacent fisheries. PMID:23126388

  6. Bioavailability of purified subcellular metals to a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Yao, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors used a supply of naturally contaminated oysters to investigate how the subcellular metal distribution and the metal burden in prey affected the transfer of metals to a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua. The oysters, Crassostrea hongkongensis, each with different contamination histories, were collected and separated into 3 subcellular fractions: 1) metal-rich granules, 2) cellular debris, and 3) a combined fraction of organelles, heat-denatured proteins, and metallothionein-like proteins, defined as the trophically available metal (TAM). These purified fractions showed a wide range of metal concentrations and were fed to the fish for a period of 7 d at a daily comparable feeding rate of 3% of fish body weight. After 7 d exposure, the newly absorbed metals were mainly distributed in the intestine and liver, indicating a significant tissue-specific trophic transfer, especially for Cd and Cu. The trophic transfer factors (TTFs) showed a sequence of cellular debris >TAM > metal-rich granules, suggesting the impact of subcellular distribution in prey on metal bioavailability. However, significant inverse relationships between the TTFs and the metal concentrations in diets were also found in the present study, especially for Cd and Zn. The subcellular metal compartmentalization might be less important than the metal concentration in prey influencing the trophic transfer. The authors' results have important implications for bioavailability and environmental assessment of dietary metals.

  7. Species Identification of Marine Fishes in China with DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbin

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742% among congeners and only 0.319% for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. PMID:21687792

  8. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... goods such as fishing gear, boats, vehicles, and second homes. The second part, planned for 2016, will ask anglers about the expenses incurred on their most recent marine recreational fishing trip....

  9. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... deep-set fishery operates year-round. Hawaii-based longline vessels vary their fishing grounds... equator and 40 N and longitudes 140 and 180 W; however, the vast majority of deep-set fishing occurs south... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Proposed Permit AGENCY: National Marine...

  10. 75 FR 81972 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    .... stock of Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on these... lions, and Eastern U.S. Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Issuance of Permit AGENCY: National Marine...

  11. Species-specific patterns of hyperostosis in marine teleost fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Kaufman, L.S.; Glowacki, J.

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of swollen or hyperostotic bones in skeletal preparations, preserved museum material or whole fresh specimens of marine teleost fishes was identified in 92 species belonging to 22 families. Patterns of hyperostotic skeletal growth were typically consistent and often species-specific in all individuals larger than a certain size. The taxonomic distribution of hyperostosis in diverse phylogenetic groups suggests that it has arisen independently many times. Selected bones from two species of the family Carangidae, horse-eye jack Caranx latus Agassiz and crevalle jackCaranx hippos (Linnaeus), were examined in detail by light and electron microscopy. Nonhyperostotic bone contained osteoid-producing osteoblasts, resorbing osteoclasts, occasional osteocytes, and a rich vascular network, all characteristics of cellular bone. Thus, these fishes have a spatial juxtaposition of cellular and acellular bone tissues in adjacent and often serially homologous bone sites. The functional significance of hyperostosis is unknown, but it is a predictable manifestation of bone growth and development for the many taxa in which it occurs.

  12. Comparative contribution of trophic transfer and biotransformation on arsenobetaine bioaccumulation in two marine fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Chen, Lizhao; Zhang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Marine fish can accumulate high arsenic (As) concentrations, with arsenobetaine (AsB) as the major species in the body. However, whether the high AsB accumulation in fish occurs mainly through trophic transfer from diet or biotransformation in the fish body remains unclear. This study investigated the trophic transfer and biotransformation of As in two marine fish (seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli and grunt Terapon jarbua) fed artificial and clam diets for 28 d. The different diets contained different proportions of inorganic [As(III) and As(V)] and organic [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and AsB] As compounds. Positive correlations were observed between the accumulated As concentrations and AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that AsB contributed to the accumulation of total As in marine fish. Based on the calculated total input of AsB and detected AsB concentrations in the muscle of the seabream and grunt, the ingested amounts of AsB accounted for 0.1-0.3%, 8.1-14.4% of detected AsB concentrations, respectively, in the muscle of seabream and grunt fish species, suggesting that AsB was mainly biotransformed versus trophically transferred in these marine fish. In summary, this study demonstrates that marine fish prefer to biotransform inorganic As forms into AsB, resulting in high bioaccumulation of total As.

  13. Comparative contribution of trophic transfer and biotransformation on arsenobetaine bioaccumulation in two marine fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Chen, Lizhao; Zhang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Marine fish can accumulate high arsenic (As) concentrations, with arsenobetaine (AsB) as the major species in the body. However, whether the high AsB accumulation in fish occurs mainly through trophic transfer from diet or biotransformation in the fish body remains unclear. This study investigated the trophic transfer and biotransformation of As in two marine fish (seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli and grunt Terapon jarbua) fed artificial and clam diets for 28 d. The different diets contained different proportions of inorganic [As(III) and As(V)] and organic [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and AsB] As compounds. Positive correlations were observed between the accumulated As concentrations and AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that AsB contributed to the accumulation of total As in marine fish. Based on the calculated total input of AsB and detected AsB concentrations in the muscle of the seabream and grunt, the ingested amounts of AsB accounted for 0.1-0.3%, 8.1-14.4% of detected AsB concentrations, respectively, in the muscle of seabream and grunt fish species, suggesting that AsB was mainly biotransformed versus trophically transferred in these marine fish. In summary, this study demonstrates that marine fish prefer to biotransform inorganic As forms into AsB, resulting in high bioaccumulation of total As. PMID:27584085

  14. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  16. Effects of Norethindrone and Metabolite Ethynylestradiol on Reproductive Parameters in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norethindrone (NOR) is a progestin used in human contraceptives and has been detected in low concentrations (ng/L) in aquatic environments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether NOR could affect reproductiv...

  17. The influence of turbidity on juvenile marine fish in the estuaries of Natal, South africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, D. P.; Blaber, S. J. M.

    1987-11-01

    Results from field studies in Natal estuaries show that the distribution of juvenile marine fish is influenced by turbidity. Laboratory studies on turbidity preference, with other variables excluded, showed good correlation with the field data for eight of ten species tested. The importance of turbidity and other factors to juvenile fish is discussed in relation to the role which estuaries play as nursery areas for juveniles of numerous marine species.

  18. 77 FR 11493 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Eastern U.S. stock of Steller sea lions (75 FR 81972). Along with issuing the permit, NMFS made a final... of Steller sea lions (December 29, 2010; 75 FR 81972). Recovery Plans A Recovery Plan for Steller sea... Marine Mammals Incidental to Fishing Operations Fishery Category Marine mammal stock HI deep-set...

  19. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  20. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  1. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  2. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  7. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  8. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-06-15

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9ngg(-1) (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6ngg(-1). The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health.

  9. Sequestration of total and methyl mercury in different subcellular pools in marine caged fish.

    PubMed

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-12-30

    Mercury contamination is an important issue in marine fish, and can cause toxicity to human by fish consumption. Many studies have measured the mercury concentrations in fish and estimated the threshold levels of its risk to human, but the mercury sequestration in different subcellular pools of fish is unclear. In this study, we investigated the concentration and distribution of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in different subcellular fractions in the farmed red seabream, red drum, and black seabream from Fujian marine fish farms, China. We found that both THg and MeHg were dominantly bound with the cellular debris, followed by metallothionein-like protein>metal-rich granule>heat-denatured protein>organelles pools. In general, Hg bound with the metal-sensitive fraction was small, indicating that Hg may have little toxicity to the fish (muscle). For the first time we showed that MTLP fraction had the highest % of total Hg as MeHg (88-91%) among all the subcellular fractions. Furthermore, the mercury concentration and subcellular distribution in the black seabream were both dependent on the fish size. Subcellular study may shed light on the detoxification of marine fish to Hg exposure and the potential bioavailability to humans due to fish consumption. PMID:22056886

  10. A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate viral infection in 253 wild marine fishes harvested in the southern coastal area of Korea from 2010 to 2012. The fish that were captured by local anglers were randomly bought and sampled for virus examination. The samples were tested for presence of virus by virus isolation with FHM, FSP, and BF-2 cells and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Of the 253 fish sampled, 9 fish were infected with virus. Aquabirnaviruses (ABVs), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) were detected in 7, 1, and 1 fish, respectively. Molecular phylogenies demonstrated the detected viruses (ABV, VHSV, and RSIV) were more closely related to viruses reported of the same type from Korea and Japan than from other countries, suggesting these viruses may be indigenous to Korean and Japanese coastal waters.

  11. Large Recovery of Fish Biomass in a No-Take Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R.; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha−1 on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha−1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha−1, or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

  12. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

  13. Myxosporean parasites of marine fishes: their distribution in the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K; Kalavati, C

    2014-11-01

    Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of different families of Myxosporea infecting marine fishes in the world's oceans - the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian. We also analyse their distribution in different orders of marine fishes. New families, genera and species of marine Myxosporea are continually being described and many more await description. Some regions, in particular the North Atlantic, have been more thoroughly investigated than others, so the analyses we present may not reflect the true distributions and we acknowledge that these may change considerably as other regions are investigated more fully. The distribution of myxosporean families in different taxonomic groups of marine fishes can indicate phylogenetic relationships between parasite and host and suggest the origins of different myxosporean taxa. We present some examples, while recognizing that new molecular information on phylogenetic relationships within the Myxozoa will lead to major changes in classification.

  14. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere.

  15. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

  16. Extinction Risk and Overfishing: Reconciling Conservation and Fisheries Perspectives on the Status of Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Trevor D.; Baum, Julia K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

  17. Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-Δ15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

  18. Larval anisakid infections in marine fish from three sea areas of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Ok-Hee; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marine fish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea. PMID:23230326

  19. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  20. Mercury in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes from Southern Brazil and its ecological implication.

    PubMed

    Kütter, V T; Mirlean, N; Baisch, P R M; Kütter, M T; Silva-Filho, E V

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we measured the mercury concentration in 27 different fish species with high commercial value. Samples were taken from a region characterized by the diversity of aquatic environments. Mercury concentration in marine fish species varied from 30.4 to 216 ng g(-1), while in estuarine species, it varied from 12.4 to 60.3 ng g(-1). Compared to mercury concentration in marine species, none of the specimens from estuarine environment has reached a mercury concentration of 100 ng g(-1). However, mercury concentrations in species from the freshwater Patos lagoon are remarkably higher (15.3 to 462 ng g(-1)) than those from the estuarine or marine region. Even though mercury concentrations in these fish species did not exceed the maximum level (500 ng g(-1)) allowed by WHO for human consumption, they represent the main food source for sea birds and mammals coming from South Pole during their migration period.

  1. Historical DNA documents long-distance natal homing in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Bonanomi, Sara; Overgaard Therkildsen, Nina; Retzel, Anja; Berg Hedeholm, Rasmus; Pedersen, Martin Waever; Meldrup, Dorte; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Grønkjaer, Peter; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long-distance natal homing (>1000 km) over more than 60 years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation single-nucleotide polymorphism assay, we demonstrate that the vast majority of cod tagged in West Greenland and recaptured on Icelandic spawning grounds belonged to the Iceland offshore population, strongly supporting a hypothesis of homing. The high degree of natal fidelity observed provides the evolutionary settings for development of locally adapted populations in marine fish and emphasize the need to consider portfolio effects in marine fisheries management strategies.

  2. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment. PMID:26766368

  3. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500 μg As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21 d and 42 d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment.

  4. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  5. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  6. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  7. Commercial fishing and the study of marine fauna in Argentina, 1890-1930.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Susana V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the development of commercial maritime fishing and the study of marine fauna in Argentina between the end of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. It analyzes ichthyological research, the commercialization of fresh maritime products and the opportunities that urban markets offered for the creation of collections. It also focuses on the beginnings of deep-sea fishing, which would make it possible to capture and study new species as well as gather information about the marine environment.

  8. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  10. Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Among anthropogenic effects on the ocean, fishing is one of the most pervasive and extends deepest into the past. Because fishing reduces the density of fish (reducing transmission efficiency of directly transmitted parasites), selectively removes large fish (which tend to carry more parasites than small fish), and reduces food web complexity (reducing transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites), the removal of fish from the world’s oceans over the course of hundreds of years may be driving a long-term, global decline in fish parasites. There has been growing recognition in recent years that parasites are a critical part of biodiversity and that their loss could substantially alter ecosystem function. Such a loss may be among the last major ecological effects of industrial fishing to be recognized by scientists.

  11. Histology as a Valid Tool To Differentiate Fresh from Frozen-Thawed Marinated Fish.

    PubMed

    Meistro, Serena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Muscolino, Daniele; Giarratana, Filippo; Baioni, Elisa; Panebianco, Antonio; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    European Commission Regulation (EU) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°C for not less than 24 h or at -35°C for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. But because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. This study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed raw marinated fish. Sixty anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fillets were sampled: 30 were marinated at +4°C for 24 h, and 30 were frozen at -20°C for 24 h before being marinated for 24 h. All 60 samples were fixed in formalin, processed for paraffin embedding, cut, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slide preparations were examined microscopically by three independent histopathologists and classified as frozen-thawed or negative according to standard operating procedure criteria in use at our laboratory. Performance evaluation of the method showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.4 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 88.4 to 100%), and the interrater agreement (Cohen's kappa) was 1 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1). Histology proved a valid and reliable tool to distinguish fresh from frozen-thawed marinated fish. It can be applied to deliver safe raw fishery products to consumers in order to minimize the risk of anisakidosis.

  12. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms.

  13. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  14. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  15. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area.

  16. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  17. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  18. Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (≤25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  19. Universal primers for amplification of the complete mitochondrial control region in marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y Z; Xu, T J; Jin, X X; Tang, D; Wei, T; Sun, Y Y; Meng, F Q; Shi, G; Wang, R X

    2012-01-01

    Through multiple alignment analysis of mitochondrial tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Phe sequences from 161 fishes, new universal primers specially targeting the entire mitochondrial control region were designed. This new primer set successfully amplified the expected PCR products from various kinds of marine fish species, belonging to various families, and the amplified segments were confirmed to be the control region by sequencing. These primers provide a useful tool to study the control region diversity in economically important fish species, the possible mechanism of control region evolution, and the functions of the conserved motifs in the control region.

  20. Parasites of marine, freshwater and farmed fishes of Portugal: a review.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Jorge da Costa

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s) of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal. PMID:27683841

  1. Anthropogenic forcing of estuarine hypoxic events in sub-tropical catchments: landscape drivers and biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vanessa N L; Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Slavich, Peter G

    2011-11-15

    Episodic hypoxic events can occur following summer floods in sub-tropical estuaries of eastern Australia. These events can cause deoxygenation of waterways and extensive fish mortality. Here, we present a conceptual model that links key landscape drivers and biogeochemical processes which contribute to post-flood hypoxic events. The model provides a framework for examining the nature of anthropogenic forcing. Modification of estuarine floodplain surface hydrology through the construction of extensive drainage networks emerges as a major contributing factor to increasing the frequency, magnitude and duration of hypoxic events. Forcing occurs in two main ways. Firstly, artificial drainage of backswamp wetlands initiates drier conditions which cause a shift in vegetation assemblages from wetland-dominant species to dryland-dominant species. These species, which currently dominate the floodplain, are largely intolerant of inundation and provide abundant labile substrate for decomposition following flood events. Decomposition of this labile carbon pool consumes oxygen in the overlying floodwaters, and results in anoxic conditions and waters with excess deoxygenation potential (DOP). Carbon metabolism can be strongly coupled with microbially-mediated reduction of accumulated Fe and Mn oxides, phases which are common on these coastal floodplain landscapes. Secondly, artificial drainage enhances discharge rates during the flood recession phase. Drains transport deoxygenated high DOP floodwaters rapidly from backswamp wetlands to the main river channel to further consume oxygen. This process effectively displaces the natural carbon metabolism processes from floodplain wetlands to the main channel. Management options to reduce the impacts of post-flood hypoxia include i) remodifying drainage on the floodplain to promote wetter conditions, thereby shifting vegetation assemblages towards inundation-tolerant species, and ii) strategic retention of floodwaters in the backswamp

  2. Methylmercury in populations eating large quantities of marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.D.; Marsh, D.O.; Smith, J.C.; Inglis, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Rubio, C.E.; Chiriboga, J.; Chiriboga, C.C.

    1980-11-01

    A Peruvian population was identified that was chronically exposed to methylmercury from the longterm consumption of ocean fish. The weekly fish intake averaged 10.1 kg per average family of 6.2 persons. Blood methylmercury concentrations ranged from 11 to 275 ng/ml, with a mean of 82 ng/ml. Paresthesias were reported by 29.5% of the population. In contrast, a nearby control population had a mean weekly fish consumption of 1.9 kg per average family of 6.4 persons. Their blood methylmercury levels were 3.3-25.1 ng/ml, with a mean of 9.9 ng/ml. Paresthesias were reported by 49.5% of this control group. No individual was identified with symptoms or signs that could be attributed to methylmercury intoxication.

  3. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers.

  4. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  5. Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms.

  6. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of Fisheries (75 FR 68468, November 8, 2010) identifies several other species or stocks of marine... from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback whales (75 FR 29984, May 28, 2010... January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2853), and selected team members according to guidance provided in MMPA...

  7. Global-Scale Relationships between Colonization Ability and Range Size in Marine and Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

  8. Refugia of Marine Fish in the Northeast Atlantic During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, Anthony; Morales, Arturo; Rosello, Eufrasia; Heinrich, Dirk; Vollestad, Asbjorn

    2010-05-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. Recent genetic results of some marine species also indicate the presence of a local population structure that further suggests a dramatic southward displacement of species ranges during the LGM. There are very few studies that have attempted to delimit the glacial refugia of marine fish from our present understanding of LGM climate conditions. The few studies that exist make predictions that may not agree with the data from archaeozoology and genetics. In this contribution, we show how an ecological niche model based on sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results are startling especially for the northern species because the glacial refugia are almost completely displaced from the modern distribution. The results are important for understanding the present spatial genetic structure of marine populations that arose during the Pleistocene glaciations, and they present a challenge for future archaeozoological work to test the model predictions and delimit the glacial refugia.

  9. Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2007-03-01

    The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ≈45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 ± 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 ± 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 ± 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 ± 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

  10. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  11. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  12. Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

  13. Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

  14. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance.

  15. Three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isotypes from each of two species of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Michael J; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Diez, Amalia; Favre-Krey, Laurence; Ezaz, M Tariq; Bautista, José M; Tocher, Douglas R; Krey, Grigorios

    2005-07-01

    The cloning and characterization of cDNAs and genes encoding three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes from two species of marine fish, the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), are reported for the first time. Although differences in the genomic organization of the fish PPAR genes compared with their mammalian counterparts are evident, sequence alignments and phylogenetic comparisons show the fish genes to be homologs of mammalian PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, and PPARgamma. Like their mammalian homologs, fish PPARs bind to a variety of natural PPAR response elements (PPREs) present in the promoters of mammalian or piscine genes. In contrast, the mRNA expression pattern of PPARs in the two fish species differs from that observed in other vertebrates. Thus, PPARgamma is expressed more widely in fish tissues than in mammals, whereas PPARalpha and beta are expressed similarly in profile to mammals. Furthermore, nutritional status strongly influences the expression of all three PPAR isotypes in liver, whereas it has no effect on PPAR expression in intestinal and adipose tissues. Fish PPARalpha and beta exhibit an activation profile similar to that of the mammalian PPAR in response to a variety of activators/ligands, whereas PPARgamma is not activated by mammalian PPARgamma-specific ligands. Amino acid residues shown to be critical for ligand binding in mammalian PPARs are not conserved in fish PPARgamma and therefore, together with the distinct tissue expression profile of this receptor, suggest potential differences in the function of PPARgamma in fish compared with mammals.

  16. Analysis of EPA and DHA in the viscera of marine fish using gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Yong; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiu-Ying; Mei, Yu; Xu, Hui-Ying

    2016-03-01

    The viscera of 10 kinds of marine fishes were collected for fish oil extraction and detection of DHA and EPA, two most important polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fish oil extraction ratio for the evaluated fishes varied from 0.95% to 10.18% (wt%). Pseudosciaena crocea presented the highest fish oil yield, followed by Mustelus manazo, Hippoglossus and Sciaenopsocellatus. A gas chromatography method was then established for analysis of EPA/DHA. The EPA concentration (in methyl ester form) in the fish oil varied from 1.39 to 10.65(mg/g). Epinephelus awoara presented the highest EPA concentration (p<0.05), followed by Epinephelussp, Sciaenopsocellatus and Hippoglossus. The DHA concentration (in methyl ester form) in the fish oil varied from 0.58 to 37.02 (mg/g). Epinephelus awoara presented the highest DHA concentration (p<0.05), followed by Sciaenopsocellatus, Pseudosciaena crocea and Hippoglossus. No strict positive correlation between the EPA/DHA concentration and the sea depth where the fish live was observed. The fishes living in middle depth presented highest EPA/DHA concentration.

  17. Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further

  18. A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Cecile C

    2015-01-01

    Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  20. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  1. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-02-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination.

  2. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-01-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  3. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, D.; Parravicini, V.; Bellwood, D. R.; Leprieur, F.; Huang, D.; Cowman, P. F.; Albouy, C.; Hughes, T. P.; Thuiller, W.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  4. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-12

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs.

  5. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring. PMID:26209126

  6. Don't bet against the natal homing abilities of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia. One way to resolve the conundrum would be to track fish from hatching to reproduction, but for marine fishes with tiny eggs and drifting larvae, this is notoriously difficult to do (Bradbury & Laurel ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bonanomi et al. () use a creative approach to solve this challenge for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations that mingle in the vicinity of Greenland. They show that cod that disperse more than a 1000 km away from Iceland as eggs and larvae, then spend years growing on the far side of Greenland, while mixing with two local populations, return as adults to spawning areas near Iceland - and further, that this behaviour has remained stable over more than six decades. They manage this feat with a clever use of historical cod tracking data, modern genomic data and genetic analysis of decades-old DNA obtained from archived materials. Their results have important implications for our view of the biocomplexity of marine fish populations, and how we should manage them.

  7. Don't bet against the natal homing abilities of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia. One way to resolve the conundrum would be to track fish from hatching to reproduction, but for marine fishes with tiny eggs and drifting larvae, this is notoriously difficult to do (Bradbury & Laurel ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bonanomi et al. () use a creative approach to solve this challenge for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations that mingle in the vicinity of Greenland. They show that cod that disperse more than a 1000 km away from Iceland as eggs and larvae, then spend years growing on the far side of Greenland, while mixing with two local populations, return as adults to spawning areas near Iceland - and further, that this behaviour has remained stable over more than six decades. They manage this feat with a clever use of historical cod tracking data, modern genomic data and genetic analysis of decades-old DNA obtained from archived materials. Their results have important implications for our view of the biocomplexity of marine fish populations, and how we should manage them. PMID:27306459

  8. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  9. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brett M; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Kerr, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  10. Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

  11. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Williamson, David H; Evans, Richard D; Almany, Glenn R; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Feldheim, Kevin A; van Herwerden, Lynne; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves, the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km(2) study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. PMID:22633811

  12. Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  13. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  14. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  15. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators.

  16. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

  17. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  18. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality. PMID:27004115

  19. Population genomics of marine fishes: next-generation prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Pujolar, José Martin

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few years, technological advances have facilitated giant leaps forward in our ability to generate genome-wide molecular data, offering exciting opportunities for gaining new insights into the ecology and evolution of species where genomic information is still limited. Marine fishes are valuable organisms for advancing our understanding of evolution on historical and contemporary time scales, and here we highlight areas in which research on these species is likely to be particularly important in the near future. These include possibilities for gaining insights into processes on ecological time scales, identifying genomic signatures associated with population divergence under gene flow, and determining the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We also consider future challenges pertaining to the implementation of genome-wide coverage through next-generation sequencing and genotyping methods in marine fishes. Complications associated with fast decay of linkage disequilibrium, as expected for species with large effective population sizes, and the possibility that adaptation is associated with both soft selective sweeps and polygenic selection, leaving complex genomic signatures in natural populations, are likely to challenge future studies. However, the combination of high genome coverage and new statistical developments offers promising solutions. Thus, the next generation of studies is likely to truly facilitate the transition from population genetics to population genomics in marine fishes. This transition will advance our understanding of basic evolutionary processes and will offer new possibilities for conservation and management of valuable marine resources.

  20. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies.

  1. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodósio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; Ré, P

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  2. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  3. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.

  4. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  5. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  6. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  7. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems.

  8. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 μPa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 μPa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased.

  9. Simulation of high frequency nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated sub-tropical soils using DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique high temporal frequency dataset from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intens...

  10. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries.

  11. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

  12. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement.

  13. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. PMID:26763221

  14. Genome analysis of Betanodavirus from cultured marine fish species in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ransangan, Julian; Manin, Benny Obrain

    2012-04-23

    Betanodavirus is the causative agent of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy disease in marine fish. This disease is responsible for most of the mass mortalities that occurred in marine fish hatcheries in Malaysia. The genome of this virus consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules which are the RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 molecule contains the RdRp gene which encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA2 molecule contains the Cp gene which encodes for the viral coat protein. In this study, total RNAs were extracted from 32 fish specimens representing the four most cultured marine fish species in Malaysia. The fish specimens were collected from different hatcheries and aquaculture farms in Malaysia. The RNA1 was successfully amplified using three pairs of overlapping PCR primers whereas the RNA2 was amplified using a pair of primers. The nucleotide analysis of RdRp gene revealed that the Betanodavirus in Malaysia were 94.5-99.7% similar to the RGNNV genotype, 79.8-82.1% similar to SJNNV genotype, 81.5-82.4% similar to BFNNV genotype and 79.8-80.7% similar to TPNNV genotype. However, they showed lower similarities to FHV (9.4-14.2%) and BBV (7.2-15.7%), respectively. Similarly, the Cp gene revealed that the viruses showed high nucleotide similarity to RGNNV (95.9-99.8%), SJNNV (72.2-77.4%), BFNNV (80.9-83.5%), TPNNV (77.2-78.1%) and TNV (75.1-76.5%). However, as in the RdRp gene, the coat protein gene was highly dissimilar to FHV (3.0%) and BBV (2.6-4.1%), respectively. Based on the genome analysis, the Betanodavirus infecting cultured marine fish species in Malaysia belong to the RGNNV genotype. However, the phylogenetic analysis of the genes revealed that the viruses can be further divided into nine sub-groups. This has been expected since various marine fish species of different origins are cultured in Malaysia.

  15. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  16. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of

  17. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  18. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  19. Conventional and unconventional antimicrobials from fish, marine invertebrates and micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Desbois, Andrew P; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2010-04-14

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.

  20. Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.

    PubMed

    Dhayanithi, N B; Kumar, T T Ajith; Kathiresan, K

    2010-07-01

    Marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. There is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. But problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. Since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. Bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clown fishes Amphiprion sebae and A. ocellaris were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ethanol and methanol extracts were highly inhibitory to the bacterial isolates when compared to other solvents. Ethanol extracts exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (75-250 microg ml(-1)) as compared to other extracts. The present finding revealed that the neem leaf extract significantly reduces the bacterial pathogens and their infection in marine ornamental fishes.

  1. Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Natalie C.; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. Methods and Principal Findings Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. Conclusions Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution. PMID:19623248

  2. Multi-biomarker responses in fishes from two typical marine aquaculture regions of South China.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuting; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Xinyu; Pan, Debo; Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Ximei

    2012-11-01

    The impact of typical pollutants upon the fish-farming was assessed by use of a battery of biomarkers in two typical marine aquaculture regions in South China. Biotransformation parameters including 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in five cultured fish species. Pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), heavy metals and antibiotics (quinolones and sulfonamides) in sediments were characterized. Higher pollutant residue levels were observed in Dapeng Cove. EROD, APND and ERND activities were lower in fish from Dapeng Cove compared with fish from Hailing Island, while it is just on the contrary for GST and MDA. ERND, APND and GST showed sensitivity corresponding to different pollutants. Small fish species seemed to exhibit more sensitive to pollutants. The study further supports usefulness of multi-biomarker approach considering multiple species to define the effects of anthropogenic inputs in marine aquaculture systems.

  3. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  4. Nanosilver-marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergizers against sepsis fish bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Khouloud Mohamed; Gohar, Yousri Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. The use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens. Materials and Methods: Different bulk chitosan solutions were prepared from the mycelia of four marine fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavipes, Tricoderma hamatum and Fennellia flavipes) and used as capping agents for silver nanoparticles. In vitro, the antibacterial activity of these preparations was determined against nine fish-sepsis causing bacteria, alone and in combination with nine antibiotics of choice used in aquaculture. Prepared fungal chitosans (CsF) were characterized by yield of chistosan obtained, degree of deacetylation and viscosity. Results and Conclusion: The maximum yield of chitosan (28%) was obtained from Aspergillus terreus. A. terreus chitosan (CsF), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CsF-AgNPs) showed maximum activity at the minimum inhibitory concentrations average (MICAVG) 27.2, 18.2 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. Combination of CsF -AgNPs with amikacin (Ak) and rifampicin (RD) reduced the MIC values by 96 and 94%, respectively, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) = 0.42 and 0.50 as synergistic effect. It is promising to use CsF-AgNPs as enhancing agent in combination with antibiotics for fish sepsis therapy. PMID:26885333

  5. Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Graham, M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

  6. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  7. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  8. Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish.

  9. Wind Speed and Mortality Rate of a Marine Fish, the Northern Anchovy (Engraulis mordax).

    PubMed

    Peterman, R M; Bradford, M J

    1987-01-16

    Large variability in recruitment of marine fishes creates challenging management problems. In northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), there is a significant linear relation between larval mortality rate and the frequency of calm, low wind speed periods during the spawning season, possibly because calm winds permit maintenance of concentrated patches of larval food. Neither cannibalism on larvae nor offshore transport contributed significantly to interannual variation in early larval mortality. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that wind-driven turbulent mixing affects variability in survival of young fish larvae. However, abundance of recruits does not necessarily reflect abundance of larvae surviving through this early stage. PMID:17750387

  10. Determination of methylmercury in marine fish from coastal areas of Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Han, Jian-Long; Wu, Ping-Gu; Tang, Jun; Tan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of methylmercury (MMC) and total mercury (TMC) in marine fishes (five species) frequently consumed in the coastal areas of Zhejiang province, China, was determined. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-AFS) with the microwave-assisted extraction was used for the MMC determination. TMC was analysed by a direct mercury analyser. MMC and TMC concentrations in five fish species ranged from 53 to 158 µg kg⁻¹ and 60 to 172 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. The proportion of MMC levels in TMC was greater than 80%. The highest MMC and TMC levels were found in Hairtail.

  11. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  12. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    SciTech Connect

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  13. Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

  14. Lead bioaccumulation and toxicity in tissues of economically fish species from river and marine water.

    PubMed

    Askary Sary, Abolfazl; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2012-07-01

    Bioaccumulation of lead was determined in muscle and liver of Barbus xanthopterus, Liza abu, Barbus grypus, Acanthopagrus latus, Platycephalus indicus, Otolithes ruber exposed to lead contaminated river and marine in Khouzestan. Significant variations in metal values were evaluated using student's t test at p < 0.05. In river fish, liver was polluted in comparison with muscle and high level was in B. xanthopterus (2.80 mg kg(-1) wet weight) except for B. grypus in Karkhe River (1.73 mg kg(-1)wet weight). In marine fish, muscle was contaminated than liver and high level was in O. ruber (47.18 mg kg(-1)wet weight) except for O. ruber in Mahshahr seaport (17.85 mg kg(-1) wet weight).

  15. Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy in cultured marine fishes. Comparative study in sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Katharios, P; Papadaki, M; Ternengo, S; Kantham, P K; Zeri, C; Petraki, P E; Divanach, P

    2011-06-01

    Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy (CUD) also known as chronic erosive dermatopathy, hole-in-the-head, head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) and lateral line depigmentation (LLD) is a chronic disease of unknown aetiology that affects the lateral line canals of the head and the trunk of various fish species. It has been described only in freshwater species although there are reports that it also affects marine fish. Here, we describe the disease in cultured sharpsnout sea bream using histology and scanning electron microscopy and identify several marine species as CUD sensitive. The results of this study correlate the development of the disease with the use of borehole water, indicating that the aetiology is probably associated with water quality rather than nutritional imbalance or infectious agents. PMID:21545440

  16. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  17. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  18. Absolute stereostructures of chaetomugilins G and H produced by a marine-fish-derived Chaetomium species.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Yasuhide, Muroga; Shigeta, Hirohumi; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2009-07-01

    Chaetomugilins G and H were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish, Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and chemical transformation. In addition, the absolute configuration of chaetoviridin C was established by derivatization from chaetomugilin A. These compounds exhibited a growth inhibitory activity against cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cells.

  19. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

  20. Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

    Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

  1. Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

    2014-10-01

    Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ω6/ω3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality.

  2. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source-sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the

  3. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the

  4. Spatial behavior of two coral reef fishes within a Caribbean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jessica; Mourier, Johann; Lenfant, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the key ecological processes of marine organisms is fundamental to improving design and effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine biodiversity. The movement behavior of coral reef fish is a complex mechanism that is highly linked to species life-history traits, predation risk and food resources. We used passive acoustic telemetry to study monthly, daily and hourly movement patterns and space use in two species, Schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus) and Stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). We investigated the spatial overlap between the two species and compared intra-specific spatial overlap between day and night. Presence-absence models showed different diel presence and habitat use patterns between the two species. We constructed a spatial network of the movement patterns, which showed that for both species when fish were detected by the array of receivers most movements were made around the coral reef habitat while occasionally moving to silt habitats. Our results show that most individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations and habitat types, although individual behavioral changes were observed for some individuals across time. Our study also highlights the necessity to consider multiple species during MPA implementation and to take into account the specific biological and ecological traits of each species. The low number of fish detected within the receiver array, as well as the intraspecific variability observed in this study, highlight the need to compare results across species and individuals to be used for MPA management. PMID:26100078

  5. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  6. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  7. Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Gasser, Robin; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish. PMID:23085044

  8. Modelling the 137Cs ingestion dose from consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Poon, C B; Au, S M

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a compartmental model for estimating the ingestion dose, due to 137Cs, arising from the consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong. 137Cs is one of the more important radionuclides released in routine liquid effluents discharged from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station at Daya Bay, which began commercial operation in 1994. In the model, three sea/ocean compartments are considered. Assuming the discharge of this radionuclide is maintained at a constant rate, the model shows that the concentration of 137Cs in the water and in the marine fish in the three sea compartments would become steady after 5 years. The predicted annual dose to an average local individual in Hong Kong, for a release rate of 10 GBq.y(-1), is 3.2 x 10(-5) microSv, which is dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The cumulative collective dose to the local population of 6 million, at 50 years of discharge, amounts to 9.0 x 10(-3) man.Sv. The annual dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers does not exceed 3.0 x 10(-3) microSv. All these doses are small compared to the dose of around 1.2 microSv.y(-1) arising from ingestion of naturally occurring radionuclides found in marine fish. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. Difficulties encountered in model validation are discussed. Despite such difficulties. limited field data that are available show that the predicted results are generally within one order of magnitude with measurements.

  9. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  10. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  11. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  12. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery.

  13. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  14. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  15. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.

  16. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein. PMID:26546570

  17. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions.

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions. PMID:26939239

  20. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for

  1. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for

  2. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost

  3. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  4. Comparison of Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Inorganic and Organic Arsenic to Two Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dietary uptake could be the primary route of arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in marine fish, but the bioavailability of inorganic and organic As remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the trophic transfer and bioavailability of As in herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens and carnivorous seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. Rabbitfish were fed with one artificial diet or three macroalgae, whereas seabass were fed with one artificial diet, one polychaete, or two bivalves for 28 days. The six spiked fresh prey diets contained different proportions of inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] and organic As compounds [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], and the spiked artificial diet mainly contained As(III) or As(V). We demonstrated that the trophic transfer factors (TTF) of As in both fish were negatively correlated with the concentrations of inorganic As in the diets, while there was no relationship between TTF and the AsB concentrations in the diets. Positive correlation was observed between the accumulated As concentrations and the AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that organic As compounds (AsB) were more trophically available than inorganic As. Furthermore, the biotransformation ability of seabass was higher than that in rabbitfish, which resulted in higher As accumulation in seabass than in rabbitfish. Our study demonstrated that different prey with different inorganic/organic As proportions resulted in diverse bioaccumulation of total As in different marine fish.

  5. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James H; Locker, Alison M; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-12-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  6. Role of NO in arterial vascular function of intertidal fish (Girella laevifrons) and marine fish (Isacia conceptionis).

    PubMed

    Moraga, F A; Urriola-Urriola, N

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies performed in intertidal fish (Girella laevifrons),as well as marine fish (Isacia conceptionis), showed that acetylcholine (ACh) produced contractions mediated by cyclooxygenases that were dependent on the area and potency of contraction in several arterial vessels. Given that the role of nitric oxide is poorly understood in fish, the objective of our study was to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in branchial afferent (ABA), branchial efferent (ABE), dorsal (DA) and mesenteric (MA) arterial vessels from both Girella laevifrons and Isacia conceptionis. We studied afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries that were dissected from 6 juvenile specimens. Isometric tension studies were done using dose response curves (DRC) for Ach (10-13 to 10-3 M) and blockade with L-NAME (10-5 M), and DRC for sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO). L-NAME produced an attenuation of the contractile response in the dorsal, afferent and efferent branchial arteries and a potentiation of the contraction in the MA. SNP caused 70% dilation in the mesenteric artery and 40% in the dorsal artery. Our results suggest that Ach promotes precarious dilatation in MA mediated by NO; data that is supported by the use of sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, in the vessels DA, ABA and EBA our results support that the pathway Ach-NO-relaxation is absent in both species. PMID:27058601

  7. Refugia of marine fish in the Northeast Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

    2010-07-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We show how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species that are now in Northwestern Europe were almost completely displaced southward from the modern distribution. Significantly, there is strong evidence that there was an invasion of fish of current economic importance into the Western Mediterranean through the Straits of Gibraltar, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations. There has been much recent interest in the marine glacial refugia to understand how the ranges of the economically important fish species will be displaced with the future climate warming. Recent ENM studies have suggested that species ranges may not have been displaced far southward during the coldest conditions of the LGM. However, archaeozoological evidence and LGM ocean temperature reconstructions indicate that there were large range changes, and certain marine species were able invade the Western Mediterranean. These findings are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions and delimit the glacial refugia.

  8. The role of biophysical parameters in the antilipopolysaccharide activities of antimicrobial peptides from marine fish.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-03-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

  9. The role of biophysical parameters in the antilipopolysaccharide activities of antimicrobial peptides from marine fish.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-03-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections.

  10. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for the conservation of marine biodiversity. But for MPA networks to be successful in protecting marine populations, individual MPAs must be self-sustaining or adequately connected to other MPAs via dispersal. For marine species with a dispersive larval stage, populations within MPAs require either the return of settlement-stage larvae to their natal reserve or connectivity among reserves at the spatial scales at which MPA networks are implemented. To date, larvae have not been tracked when dispersing from one MPA to another, and the relative magnitude of local retention and connectivity among MPAs remains unknown. Here we use DNA parentage analysis to provide the first direct estimates of connectivity of a marine fish, the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), in a proposed network of marine reserves in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Approximately 40% of A. percula larvae settling into anemones in an island MPA at 2 different times were derived from parents resident in the reserve. We also located juveniles spawned by Kimbe Island residents that had dispersed as far as 35 km to other proposed MPAs, the longest distance that marine larvae have been directly tracked. These dispersers accounted for up to 10% of the recruitment in the adjacent MPAs. Our findings suggest that MPA networks can function to sustain resident populations both by local replenishment and through larval dispersal from other reserves. More generally, DNA parentage analysis provides a direct method for measuring larval dispersal for other marine organisms. PMID:19307588

  11. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  12. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future.

  13. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  14. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species. PMID:26934221

  15. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  16. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11) g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12) g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9) g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10) g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10) g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  17. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.

  18. Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

  19. Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability

  20. Are we predicting the actual or apparent distribution of temperate marine fishes?

    PubMed

    Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change--particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km(2) study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of

  1. A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

  2. Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

  3. Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species now in northwestern Europe were displaced significantly southwards from the modern distribution, challenging an existing paradigm of marine glacial refugia. The model presents strong evidence that there was an invasion of important fish through the Straits of Gibraltar in glacial times, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations around the western Mediterranean Sea. The ENM results are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. Economically, the approach may be used to understand how the ranges of exploited fish species may be displaced with the future climate warming. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to delimit the glacial refugia and to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on deep-sea core records.

  4. Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

    2004-04-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt. PMID:15038000

  5. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    PubMed

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds

  6. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    PubMed

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds

  7. Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence

  8. Evidence of antibiotic resistance in free-swimming, top-level marine predatory fishes.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Mitchell, Mark A; Blackburn, Mary-Claire Holley; Curtis, Andrew; Thompson, Bruce A

    2010-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Several studies documented the presence of resistant bacteria in humans, livestock, and domestic animals; however, limited research is available on the presence of antibiotic drug resistance in wildlife species. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of resistant bacteria collected from wild-caught, marine predatory fishes. Seven species of sharks and a single teleost species were opportunistically sampled from six different study sites in coastal Belize, coastal and nearshore waters of Louisiana, the Florida Keys, and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. A total of 134 viable bacteria samples were isolated from the cloacal swabs of predatory fishes. Isolates were characterized by Gram-stain morphology and tested for resistance by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Thirteen drugs (penicillin G, piperacillin, ticarcillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole) were selected for this study. Prevalence was calculated as the total number of isolates resistant to one or more drugs against the total number of samples in that study area or fish population. Sharks sampled in the Florida Keys exhibited the greatest resistance to a wide selection of drugs. Resistance to at least one drug was found in each of the six study sites and in all of the fish species sampled. Multidrug resistance was also documented in most of the study sites. Interspecific comparisons between redfish, Sciaenops ocellata, and sharks from Louisiana offshore waters (which represent species of the Carcharhinus genus) demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence in redfish, which may be because of the older age of the population. The findings of this study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in marine predatory fishes from multiple taxa and multiple geographic

  9. Evidence of antibiotic resistance in free-swimming, top-level marine predatory fishes.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Mitchell, Mark A; Blackburn, Mary-Claire Holley; Curtis, Andrew; Thompson, Bruce A

    2010-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Several studies documented the presence of resistant bacteria in humans, livestock, and domestic animals; however, limited research is available on the presence of antibiotic drug resistance in wildlife species. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of resistant bacteria collected from wild-caught, marine predatory fishes. Seven species of sharks and a single teleost species were opportunistically sampled from six different study sites in coastal Belize, coastal and nearshore waters of Louisiana, the Florida Keys, and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. A total of 134 viable bacteria samples were isolated from the cloacal swabs of predatory fishes. Isolates were characterized by Gram-stain morphology and tested for resistance by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Thirteen drugs (penicillin G, piperacillin, ticarcillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole) were selected for this study. Prevalence was calculated as the total number of isolates resistant to one or more drugs against the total number of samples in that study area or fish population. Sharks sampled in the Florida Keys exhibited the greatest resistance to a wide selection of drugs. Resistance to at least one drug was found in each of the six study sites and in all of the fish species sampled. Multidrug resistance was also documented in most of the study sites. Interspecific comparisons between redfish, Sciaenops ocellata, and sharks from Louisiana offshore waters (which represent species of the Carcharhinus genus) demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence in redfish, which may be because of the older age of the population. The findings of this study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in marine predatory fishes from multiple taxa and multiple geographic

  10. Population genomics of marine fishes: identifying adaptive variation in space and time.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Einar E; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Larsen, Peter Foged; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2009-08-01

    Studies of adaptive evolution have experienced a recent revival in population genetics of natural populations and there is currently much focus on identifying genomic signatures of selection in space and time. Insights into local adaptation, adaptive response to global change and evolutionary consequences of selective harvesting can be generated through population genomics studies, allowing the separation of the effects invoked by neutral processes (drift-migration) from those due to selection. Such knowledge is important not only for improving our basic understanding of natural as well as human-induced evolutionary processes, but also for predicting future trajectories of biodiversity and for setting conservation priorities. Marine fishes possess a number of features rendering them well suited for providing general insights into adaptive genomic evolution in natural populations. These include well-described population structures, substantial and rapidly developing genomic resources and abundant archived samples enabling temporal studies. Furthermore, superior possibilities for conducting large-scale experiments under controlled conditions, due to the economic resources provided by the large and growing aquaculture industry, hold great promise for utilizing recent technological developments. Here, we review achievements in marine fish genomics to date and highlight potential avenues for future research, which will provide both general insights into evolution in high gene flow species, as well as specific knowledge which can lead to improved management of marine organisms.

  11. Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

    2014-03-15

    Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss. PMID:24507451

  12. Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

    2014-03-15

    Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss.

  13. Population structure and phylogeography in Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a mass-aggregating marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alexis M; Semmens, Brice X; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S; Heppell, Scott A; Bush, Phillippe G; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A B; Calosso, Marta C; Sealey, Kathleen S; Schärer, Michelle T; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions.

  14. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christopher K; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-04-29

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296-1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling.

  15. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  16. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

  17. Observations on a cucullanid nematode of marine fishes from Taiwan Strait, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp.

    PubMed

    Luo, Damin; Guo, Shulin; Fang, Wenzhen; Huang, Heqin

    2004-06-01

    During a helminthological examination of marine fishes from south of the Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait, Fujian, China, a new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp., was removed from the intestine of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1834). The new species differs from its congeners mainly in the following characters: body size medium but with relative long spicules of 1.01 mm (0.97-1.06) in length or 20.0% (18.21-21.8%) of the body length; proximal end of spicules somewhat expanded and distal end rounded; gubernaculum I-shaped, slightly narrow in the middle part, both ends rounded; both anterior and posterior cloaca lips round or oval, prominent and unequal in size. The anterior cloaca lip is at least 2 times larger than the posterior one. There is a conspicuous papilliform structure within the central of anterior and posterior cloacal lip. Vulva of female is not prominent, slightly postequatorial; distance from vulva to anterior end of body is 4.3 (3.0-5.5) mm or 58.0% (54.0-62.0%) of the body length. Considering the result of comparing the structure of so-called unpaired median papilla with the 10 pairs of caudal petiolated papillae in the body of the same individual. the papilliform structures are just a backstop for the cloacal lips, this new species represents the first record of a nematode of the Dichelyne, subgenus Cucullanellus in marine fishes of China Sea.

  18. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2015-04-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the most recent 59-year period (1950-2008) have been identified based on Student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. The global forcing mechanism is described with a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate that examining the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries is a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from longwave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter

  19. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to

  20. Anomalous convective activity over sub-tropical east Pacific during 2015 and associated boreal summer monsoon teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujumdar, Milind; Sooraj, K. P.; Krishnan, R.; Preethi, B.; Joshi, Manish K.; Varikoden, Hamza; Singh, Bhupendra B.; Rajeevan, M.

    2016-08-01

    The eastern Pacific Ocean received a record highest number of sub-tropical convective activities during boreal summer (June-September) of 2015, since last four decades. The associated rainfall distribution was also atypical with anomalously enhanced rainfall extending from equator to sub-tropical central-eastern Pacific. The present analysis reveals a pronounced meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across central-eastern Pacific, with the mean SST exceeding 28 °C over sub-tropical north Pacific, setting up favorable conditions for these enhanced convective activities. It is found that these anomalous features promoted northward spanning of westerly anomalies and drastically modified the east-west circulation over sub-tropical north Pacific. This seems to induce large-scale subsidence over the off-equatorial monsoon regions of south and south-east Asia, thus constituting an east-west asymmetry over sub-tropical Indo-Pacific region. Based on our observational study, it can be concluded that the sub-tropical convective activities over east Pacific may play a pivotal role in mediating the Pacific-monsoon teleconnection through the unexplored meridional SST gradient across Pacific.

  1. A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n = 659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the

  2. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  3. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.

    2010-08-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.

  4. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents.

  5. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  6. Applying population genetics for authentication of marine fish: the case of saithe (Pollachius virens).

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Konstanze; Rehbein, Hartmut; von Appen, Annika; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-28

    The number of fishery products with a quite detailed description of the origin is increasing. This trend is driven by the interest of consumers and the fight against illegal unregulated and unreported fisheries. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to prove this information experimentally besides the document-based traceability assessments. For marine fish population genetics is a promising strategy, but research is concentrated only on a few species. Saithe is a commercially important fish species, despite the fact that genetic knowledge is scarce regarding the specification of populations. For a comparative study cost- and time-effective strategies were tested: We found RAPD-PCR to be a useful method for low-budget research or prestudies. Adoption of microsatellites from closely related species turned out to be possible with limited success quota. Our results suggest a clustered structure of populations within the Northeast Atlantic, probably overlapping in the northern North Sea.

  7. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  8. Three new azaphilones produced by a marine fish-derived chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Jinno, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2012-08-01

    Three new metabolites, chaetomugilin S, dechloro-chaetomugilin A and dechloro-chaetomugilin D, were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marine fish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated based on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and some chemical transformations. Particularly, chaetomugilins T and U are the first compounds without a chlorine atom in azaphilones isolated from this fungal strain, to date. In addition, these compounds moderately inhibited the growth of cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cell lines.

  9. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Mársico, E T; Ferreira, M S; São Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg(-1) for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg(-1) for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs.

  10. Spawning frequency of brood dams and sires in a marine fish stock-enhancement hatchery.

    PubMed

    Gold, J R; Renshaw, M A; Saillant, E; Vega, R R

    2010-09-01

    Parentage analysis, employing five hypervariable microsatellite markers, was used to follow spawning patterns of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus broodfish in two spawning tanks through most of a calendar year in a marine fish hatchery dedicated to stock enhancement. Five of six dams and all four sires spawned at least once during the year. Variation in dam and sire spawning incidence and in number of progeny produced per dam and per sire translated into reduced genetic effective size (N e) per spawn by 40·6% in one tank and 50·8% in the other. PMID:20840629

  11. Free imidazole compounds in white and dark muscles of migratory marine fish.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hirano, T; Suyama, M

    1987-01-01

    1. Extractive nitrogenous components were analyzed in specimens of white and dark muscles of three tunas and the Pacific saury. 2. Tunas contained high concentrations of histidine, anserine and creatine in white muscle, and of taurine, anserine and creatine in dark muscle. 3. Imidazole compounds were determined in both muscles of 11 migratory marine fish. Histidine was found in great quantities in all species except swordfish, anserine was found in relatively large amounts in tunas and swordfish, but carnosine was only present in small amounts in yellowfin and skipjack tunas. 4. The dark muscle had a lower content of imidazole compounds than white muscle. PMID:3621916

  12. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Mársico, E T; Ferreira, M S; São Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg(-1) for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg(-1) for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. PMID:24334195

  13. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  14. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  15. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  16. Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world’s largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  17. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.

  18. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, M; Yesudhason, P; Al-Mughairi, S; Al-Rahbi, W A K; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Mazrooei, N A; Al-Habsi, S H

    2011-09-01

    Commercially important fresh (581) and frozen (292) marine fish samples of 10 species were collected from seafood factories and evaluated using AAS and ICP-OES. Metal levels significantly (p<0.05) varied within and between species. However, there were no significant correlations among metals. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and yellowfin tuna had the highest level of cadmium and mercury however, red seabream had maximum numbers above the standards. The metal accumulation significantly varied between bottom feeders of intermediately size locally caught fish. The mean cadmium level ranged from 0.0049 to 0.036 mg kg(-1) and 1.37% of the total samples exceeded the EU and FAO standards. Mean lead content varied between 0.029 and 0.196 mg kg(-1), few samples crossed the EU (2.63%) and FAO (1.6%) limits. Mean mercury level ranged from 0.015 to 0.101 mg kg(-1) and none of the samples exceeded the EU limit. Of the total samples analyzed red seabream (2.06%), yellowfin tuna (1.14%), emperor (0.34%), santer bream (0.22%), king fish (0.11%) and skipjack tuna (0.11%) samples crossed the EU limits. In general, fish from these regions are within the safety levels recommended by various organizations and do not pose a health risk in terms of human diet. PMID:21700309

  19. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  20. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kenneth T; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C; Boyce, Daniel G

    2016-07-19

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species.

  1. Human excretory products of selenium are natural constituents of marine fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Nina; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2015-10-01

    A selenosugar (selenosugar 1, methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside) was identified in aqueous extracts of muscle tissue of three marine fish species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and tuna (Thunnus albacares), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry. Selenoneine (2-selenyl-Nα, Nα, Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine), a known selenium compound in fish, was the major form of selenium in the aqueous extracts, and the methylated derivative of selenoneine, namely Se-methylselenoneine, was also identified as a minor natural constituent in the fish. Selenosugar 1, a major urinary excretion product of selenium often found in organs and body fluids related to selenium excretion, has so far not been reported in muscle tissue. Se-methylselenoneine has been proposed as the main urinary metabolite from selenoneine. This first report of selenosugar 1 and Se-methylselenoneine as natural constituents of fish muscle tissue opens up a new perspective on the role of these compounds in selenium metabolism and is relevant to selenium supplementation studies. PMID:26253229

  2. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  3. Culture of harpacticoid copepods: potential as live feed for rearing marine fish.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Copepods are useful as food for marine fish cultivation, in terms of both nutrition and ease of culture. Harpacticoid copepods are favoured over calanoids, since harpacticoids, as a result of their benthic habitat, can be reared at much higher densities. However, their benthic nature also makes mass culture difficult, since large surface areas must be provided. Within Harpacticoida, Tisbe spp. seem most useful, having high overall fecundity, and positive phototaxis of the nauplii. Harpacticoids can synthesise de novo several nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA), making them desirable as food for rearing marine fish. However, a diet rich in EFAs (e.g. animal derived feed) improves the productivity of copepod cultures, suggesting that the synthesis of EFA is rate-limiting for their reproduction. The nature of the substratum is also important in maintaining a good population, since harpacticoid biomass is more dependent on surface area than volume of a culture. Heterogeneous substrates can support large cultures because of their high surface area, but efficient cleaning methods are necessary. Frequent harvesting of populations will maintain good water quality and an overall low density of sexually mature copepods, raising naupliar productivity overall. Over-harvesting will naturally deplete the population. Harpacticoids are generally tolerant of environmental fluctuations but they do have temperature and salinity optima, and these will be species- and strain-dependent. Harpacticoid copepods are better food for fish larvae than Artemia, because of their ability to synthesise EFAs. The nauplii of harpacticoids are energetically poor but appear to have an appetite-stimulatory effect. Uneaten nauplii grow within the fish rearing tanks and graze on the walls, building up their own nutritional value and maintaining tank hygiene.

  4. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  5. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through

  6. Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish.

  7. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait.

  8. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies. PMID:25808114

  9. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies.

  10. Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

  11. Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activity by coastally caught marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-10-01

    Many commercially important marine fishes are found in estuaries, particularly as juveniles. The estuaries may provide a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Here, carbon ( δ13C) and sulphur ( δ34S) stable isotope data from coastally caught common sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) were used in independent mixing models to determine relative contributions of estuarine prey to white muscle composition. The influence of assumed trophic fractionation was also investigated with sensitivity analysis. At the population level, there was evidence for estuarine contributions to muscle tissue in both species (means from 16.37% to 61.28%), though among-individual variability was considerable. δ13C and δ34S model outputs implied different estuarine contributions for the same individual, likely reflecting the slower turnover of δ34S than δ13C. Sole exhibited population level plasticity in their feeding as juveniles, separating into two distinct juvenile sub-populations; but they are less plastic as older fish when they adopt increasingly marine diets. Whiting show individual plasticity as both juveniles and adults, feeding on prey of estuarine and coastal origin.

  12. Habitat Discontinuities Separate Genetically Divergent Populations of a Rocky Shore Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western and southern coasts of Norway. This genetic break coincides with the longest stretch of sand in the whole study area, suggesting habitat fragmentation as a major driver of genetic differentiation of this obligate rocky shore benthic fish in Scandinavia. The complex fjords systems extending along the western coast of Norway appeared responsible for further regional genetic structuring. Our findings indicate that habitat discontinuities may lead to significant genetic fragmentation over short geographical distances, even for marine species with a pelagic larval phase, as for this rocky shore fish. PMID:27706178

  13. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury in several marine fish species.

    PubMed

    He, Mei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-07-13

    Bioaccessibility refers to the maximum bioavailability of pollutant ingested with food, and its measurements can lead to a more accurate risk assessment as compared to the measurements of total concentrations of pollutant in food. This study examined the factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury (MeHg) in nine species of marine fish with an aim to identify ways of reducing MeHg bioaccessibility. MeHg bioaccessibility without any treatment in the nine species of marine fish ranged from 16.0 to 67.7%. Steaming, grilling, and frying reduced MeHg bioaccessibility by 29.4-77.4% for rabbitfish and 74.6-95.8% for grouper. Co-consumption of phytochemical-rich foods such as green tea decreased the bioaccessibility of MeHg by 72.2% for rabbitfish and 74.0% for grouper, whereas meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid increased it by 39.2-108% for rabbitfish and 45.3-75.7% for grouper. The bioaccessibilities of both MeHg and inorganic mercury were independent of the total Hg concentration and the exposure route (dietary vs dissolved). In eight of the nine species studied, bioaccessibility was negatively correlated with the extent to which MeHg was partitioned into the metal-rich granule fraction and the trophically available fraction. It was positively correlated with partitioning into the cellular debris fraction. This study demonstrated the important control of subcellular distribution in MeHg bioaccessibility.

  14. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  15. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J.; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation. PMID:26074721

  16. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matt

    2009-03-31

    Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates-fishes-remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims.

  17. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  18. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Lindsay T; Hamdoun, Amro; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969-2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15-30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  19. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matt

    2009-03-31

    Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates-fishes-remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

  20. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish

    PubMed Central

    Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. Results The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Conclusion Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment. PMID:21504921

  1. Ecophysiology of marine fish recruitment: A conceptual framework for understanding interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, William H.; Miller, John M.; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    Present data and our application of logic do not permit confident rejection of the null hypothesis: Interannual variation in recruitment of marine fishes (typified by certain flatfishes) is independent of ecophysiological factors. Our inability to reject this hypothesis reflects not its likely validity, but rather a lack of conceptual structure and appropriate data for realistic evaluation of alternative hypotheses. Therefore, in this paper, we set aside as presently intractable the problem of understanding in any generalizable way the specific effects of environment on interannual variation in marine fish recruitment. Instead, we return to a conceptual scheme first proposed almost 50 years ago by F.E.J. Fry for considering effects of environmental factors on the physiology of fishes. We first extend this scheme to population-level responses, including recruitment, and then even further, to community/ecosystem-level responses. Fry supposed that all of environment can be resolved into five classes of physiological effects—controlling (which set the pace of metabolism), limiting (which constrain maximum metabolism), lethal (which completely interdict metabolism), masking (which increase obligatory metabolic work), and directive (which release and unload metabolism by guiding enviroregulatory responses). We suggest that corresponding effects can be recognized at the levels both of population and community/ecosystem. The key analogy is that environment operates on individuals through metabolism, on populations through recruitment, and on communities/ecosystems through abiotic and biotic diversification. In the context of marine-fish populations, we propose that scope for population increase is the difference between maximum and maintenance recruitment to the spawning stock. Maintenance recruitment is the product of critical spawner density and spawner mortality rate; this product varies with environment as the resultant of controlling effects on the metabolism of

  2. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  3. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

  4. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  5. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-05-29

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  6. Tracking Three-Dimensional Fish Behavior with a New Marine Acoustic Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, Ian G.; McGarry, Louise P.; Greene, Charles H.; Steig, Tracey W.; Johnston, Samuel V.; Ehrenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The persistent monitoring capability provided by acoustic telemetry systems allows us to study behavior, movement, and resource selection of mobile marine animals. Current marine acoustic telemetry systems are challenged by localization errors and limits in the number of animals that can be tracked simultaneously. We designed a new system to provide detection ranges of up to 1 km, to reduce localization errors to less than 1 m, and to increase to 500 the number of unique tags simultaneously tracked. The design builds on HTIs experience of more than a decade developing acoustic telemetry systems for freshwater environments. A field trial of the prototype system was conducted at the University of Washingtons Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory (Friday Harbor, WA). Copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) were selected for field trials of this new system because their high site-fidelity and small home ranges provide ample opportunity to track individual fish behavior while testing our ability to characterize the movements of a species of interest to management authorities.

  7. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and κ-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  8. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  9. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  11. Anti-fish nodaviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate extracted from marine Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Suthindhiran, K; Sarath Babu, V; Kannabiran, K; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2011-04-01

    The antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate (C₆H₆O₃) extracted from Streptomyces VITSDK1 spp. was studied in cultured Sahul Indian Grouper Eye (SIGE) cells infected with fish nodavirus (FNV). The nodavirus infection in the SIGE cells was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate was assessed by cytopathic effect, as well as reduction in nodaviral titre (TCID₅₀ mL⁻¹, where TCID₅₀) is the 50% tissue culture infective dose) in the cultured SIGE cells under in vitro conditions. Furan-2-yl acetate (20 µg mL⁻¹) effectively inhibited the replication of the FNV-infected SIGE cell lines and the viral titre was reduced from 4.3 to 2.45 log TCID₅₀ mL⁻¹ on treatments. Furan-2-yl acetate (20 µg mL⁻¹)- treated SIGE cell survival was found to be 90%, as determined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results of an immunofluorescent assay revealed a strong association between the viral capsid protein inhibition and a decline in viral replication. The results suggest that furan-2-yl acetate suppressed FNV replication in cultured fish cells, providing a potential approach for the control of nodaviral diseases in marine fishes. PMID:21462077

  12. Occurrence of tumour (odontoma) in marine fish Sphyraena jello from the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K

    2014-02-01

    We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw.

  13. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  14. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca J; Bellwood, David R; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2-3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family.

  15. Developmental patterns of copper bioaccumulation in a marine fish model Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Green, Iain; Tan, Qiaoguo; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Allometry is known to be an important factor influencing metal bioaccumulation in animals. However, it is not clear whether effects are due to body size per se or changes in physiological traits during the animals' development. We therefore investigated the biokinetics of copper (Cu) and predicted Cu bioaccumulation during the development of a fish model, the marine medaka. The results revealed that the waterborne Cu uptake rate constant decreased and dietary Cu assimilation efficiency increased during development from larvae to adults. Thus, the allometric dependency of the biokinetic parameters in juveniles and adults can not be simply extrapolated to the whole life cycle. The body Cu concentration in the fish was predicted by the biokinetic model, which showed a rapid increase in the larval stage, followed by a slight increase from juveniles to adults, and then a relatively stable plateau in the post-adult stage. Dietary Cu uptake became more important as fish developed from larvae to juveniles, but became less important from juveniles to adults. These findings suggested that the developmental patterns of metal bioaccumulation are driven by an integrated biological/physiological shift through animals' ontogeny rather than a simple allometric dependent change. The developmental changes of metal uptake should be considered in ecological bioassessment and biomonitoring programs.

  16. Developmental patterns of copper bioaccumulation in a marine fish model Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Green, Iain; Tan, Qiaoguo; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Allometry is known to be an important factor influencing metal bioaccumulation in animals. However, it is not clear whether effects are due to body size per se or changes in physiological traits during the animals' development. We therefore investigated the biokinetics of copper (Cu) and predicted Cu bioaccumulation during the development of a fish model, the marine medaka. The results revealed that the waterborne Cu uptake rate constant decreased and dietary Cu assimilation efficiency increased during development from larvae to adults. Thus, the allometric dependency of the biokinetic parameters in juveniles and adults can not be simply extrapolated to the whole life cycle. The body Cu concentration in the fish was predicted by the biokinetic model, which showed a rapid increase in the larval stage, followed by a slight increase from juveniles to adults, and then a relatively stable plateau in the post-adult stage. Dietary Cu uptake became more important as fish developed from larvae to juveniles, but became less important from juveniles to adults. These findings suggested that the developmental patterns of metal bioaccumulation are driven by an integrated biological/physiological shift through animals' ontogeny rather than a simple allometric dependent change. The developmental changes of metal uptake should be considered in ecological bioassessment and biomonitoring programs. PMID:26675367

  17. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca J.; Bellwood, David R.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2–3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  18. Differential Toxicokinetics Determines the Sensitivity of Two Marine Embryonic Fish Exposed to Iranian Heavy Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Hana; Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-11-17

    Interspecific difference in the developmental toxicity of crude oil to embryonic fish allows the prediction of injury extent to a number of resident fish species in oil spill sites. This study clarifies the comparative developmental effects of Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) on the differences of biouptake and toxic sensitivity between embryonic spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculates) and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). From 24 h after exposure to IHCO, several morphological defects were observed in both species of embryonic fish, including pericardial edema, dorsal curvature of the trunk, developmental delay, and reduced finfolds. The severity of defects was greater in flounder compared to that in sea bass. While flounder embryos accumulated higher embryo PAH concentrations than sea bass, the former showed significantly lower levels of CYP1A expression. Although bioconcentration ratios were similar between the two species for some PAHs, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes showed selectively higher bioconcentration ratios in flounder, suggesting that this species has a reduced metabolic capacity for these compounds. While consistent with a conserved cardiotoxic mechanism for petrogenic PAHs across diverse marine and freshwater species, these findings indicate that species-specific differences in toxicokinetics can be an important factor underlying species' sensitivity to crude oil. PMID:26458192

  19. Differential Toxicokinetics Determines the Sensitivity of Two Marine Embryonic Fish Exposed to Iranian Heavy Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Hana; Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-11-17

    Interspecific difference in the developmental toxicity of crude oil to embryonic fish allows the prediction of injury extent to a number of resident fish species in oil spill sites. This study clarifies the comparative developmental effects of Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) on the differences of biouptake and toxic sensitivity between embryonic spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculates) and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). From 24 h after exposure to IHCO, several morphological defects were observed in both species of embryonic fish, including pericardial edema, dorsal curvature of the trunk, developmental delay, and reduced finfolds. The severity of defects was greater in flounder compared to that in sea bass. While flounder embryos accumulated higher embryo PAH concentrations than sea bass, the former showed significantly lower levels of CYP1A expression. Although bioconcentration ratios were similar between the two species for some PAHs, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes showed selectively higher bioconcentration ratios in flounder, suggesting that this species has a reduced metabolic capacity for these compounds. While consistent with a conserved cardiotoxic mechanism for petrogenic PAHs across diverse marine and freshwater species, these findings indicate that species-specific differences in toxicokinetics can be an important factor underlying species' sensitivity to crude oil.

  20. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish

  1. Robustness of fossil fish teeth for seawater neodymium isotope reconstructions under variable redox conditions in an ancient shallow marine setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Claire E.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Röhl, Ursula; Hammond, Samantha J.

    2016-03-01

    Fossil fish teeth from pelagic open ocean settings are considered a robust archive for preserving the neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of ancient seawater. However, using fossil fish teeth as an archive to reconstruct seawater Nd isotopic compositions in different sedimentary redox environments and in terrigenous-dominated, shallow marine settings is less proven. To address these uncertainties, fish tooth and sediment samples from a middle Eocene section deposited proximal to the East Antarctic margin at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1356 were analyzed for major and trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotopes. Major and trace element analyses of the sediments reveal changing redox conditions throughout deposition in a shallow marine environment. However, variations in the Nd isotopic composition and rare earth element (REE) patterns of the associated fish teeth do not correspond to redox changes in the sediments. REE patterns in fish teeth at Site U1356 carry a typical mid-REE-enriched signature. However, a consistently positive Ce anomaly marks a deviation from a pure authigenic origin of REEs to the fish tooth. Neodymium isotopic compositions of cleaned and uncleaned fish teeth fall between modern seawater and local sediments and hence could be authigenic in nature, but could also be influenced by sedimentary fluxes. We conclude that the fossil fish tooth Nd isotope proxy is not sensitive to moderate changes in pore water oxygenation. However, combined studies on sediments, pore waters, fish teeth, and seawater are needed to fully understand processes driving the reconstructed signature from shallow marine sections in proximity to continental sources.

  2. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish

  3. Extreme (sub)Tropical Eocene oceanic warmth: Clumped isotope temperatures of shallow-dwelling large Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D.

    2015-12-01

    The response of the tropical surface oceans to greater than modern atmospheric carbon dioxide is poorly constrained. Eocene climate modelling broadly indicates that the tropical surface ocean was 8-10°C warmer compared to pre-industrial simulations, at odds with much of the currently available proxy information which suggests low latitude sea surface temperatures (SST) no more than a few degrees warmer than at present. However, the accuracy of some of this proxy information, particularly the δ18O and Mg/Ca ratio of biogenic marine carbonates, is hampered by uncertainties regarding the secular evolution of seawater chemistry. Here, we present clumped isotope temperatures of modern and Eocene shallow-dwelling benthic foraminifera, a palaeothermometer independent of seawater isotopic composition. These organisms have photosymbionts and therefore inhabit the photic zone, within the depth range of planktic species considered to be surface dwelling. Specimens collected from the modern ocean precipitate calcite in agreement with the clumped isotope-temperature calibration of Zaarur et al. [2013]. Based on 11 tropical to mid-latitude localities from across the globe we demonstrate that the Eocene ocean was significantly warmer than suggested by much of the previous proxy data. Exceptionally-preserved samples from the mid-Eocene of Java indicate the West Pacific was characterised by mean annual SST of 34-37°C at this time, whilst mid-latitude northern hemisphere SST (from localities in the UK, France and Belgium) were 24-30°C throughout the Eocene. These data bring (sub)tropical SST in a high-CO2 world into much better agreement with climate models, indicating low-mid latitudinal SST gradients similar to modern.

  4. Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers

  5. Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

  6. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  7. Rapid and sensitive identification of marine bacteria by an improved in situ DNA hybridization chain reaction (quickHCR-FISH).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fuchs, Bernhard Maximilian; Amann, Rudolf; Kawakami, Shuji; Kubota, Kengo; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes has significantly improved the identification of microorganisms in various environmental samples. However, one of the major constraints of CARD-FISH is the low probe penetration due to the high molecular weight of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) label. Recently, this limitation has been overcome by a novel signal amplification approach termed in situ DNA-hybridization chain reaction (in situ DNA-HCR). In this study, we present an improved and accelerated in situ DNA-HCR protocol (quickHCR-FISH) with increased signal intensity, which was approximately 2 times higher than that of standard in situ DNA-HCR. In addition, the amplification time was only 15 min for the extension of amplifier probes from the initiator probe compared to 2h in the original protocol. The quickHCR-FISH was successfully tested for the quantification of marine bacteria with low rRNA contents in both seawater and sediment samples. It was possible to detect the same number of marine bacteria with quickHCR-FISH compared to CARD-FISH within only 3h. Thus, this newly developed protocol could be an attractive alternative to CARD-FISH for the detection and visualization of microorganisms in their environmental context.

  8. Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

  9. The impact of United States recreational fisheries on marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Felicia C; Figueira, Will F; Ueland, Jeffrey S; Crowder, Larry B

    2004-09-24

    We evaluated the commercial and recreational fishery landings over the past 22 years, first at the national level, then for populations of concern (those that are overfished or experiencing overfishing), and finally by region. Recreational landings in 2002 account for 4% of total marine fish landed in the United States. With large industrial fisheries excluded (e.g., menhaden and pollock), the recreational component rises to 10%. Among populations of concern, recreational landings in 2002 account for 23% of the total nationwide, rising to 38% in the South Atlantic and 64% in the Gulf of Mexico. Moreover, it affects many of the most-valued overfished species-including red drum, bocaccio, and red snapper-all of which are taken primarily in the recreational fishery.

  10. Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili n.sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes of Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundari, K

    1991-01-01

    Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili n.sp. from the stomach and body cavity of marine fishes. Chrorinemus tol Couvier. Saurida undosquamis (Richardson), Lutianus russelli (Bleeker), Rastrilliger kanagurta (Cuvier) and Saurida pseudotumbili Dutt and Vidyasagar collected from Visakhapatnam (Bay of Bengal) is described and figured. A detailed examination has allowed us to erect a new species of Hysterothylacium to accommodate the worm. It shows remarkable differences from other known species of Hysterothylacium in respect of body measurements, the papillae on the lips arrangement, location of nerve ring and excretory pore, long intestinal caecum, position of vulva, number and arrangement of caudal papillae and size of the spicules. The new species is designated as Hysterothylacium pseudotumbili. Saurida pseudotumbili is the new host record. This is the first report of the genus in this host. Visakhapatnam coast is the new locality record. PMID:1844137

  11. Similascarophis n. gen. n. spp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitizing marine fishes off the Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; González, María Teresa; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2004-08-01

    Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott), Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, Girella laevifrons (Tschudi), and Graus nigra Philippi. Morphology and morphometry are compared between 2 new Similascarophis species: Similascarophis maulensis n. sp. and S. chilensis n. sp., which differ in the presence of sublabia and in the length of the glandular esophagus and left spicule. We also recorded Similascarophis sp. in 2 other host species, which showed some distinct proportional measurements, although these differences were not sufficiently clear to identify them as a new species.

  12. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  13. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the

  14. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes.

  15. Development of a gene transfer system for curing of plasmids in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed Central

    Valla, S; Frydenlund, K; Coucheron, D H; Haugan, K; Johansen, B; Jørgensen, T; Knudsen, G; Strøm, A

    1992-01-01

    All reported natural isolates of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida contain plasmids, and in another marine fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, it has been shown that a plasmid is important for expression of virulence by the organism. To study the function of the plasmids in V. salmonicida, we developed a gene transfer system based on the plasmid RSF1010 replicon. The gene transfer system was used to construct a plasmid-free strain, and this strain was found to behave similarly to the wild type in a fish pathogenicity test based on intraperitoneal injection of the bacteria. We were unable to detect any other phenotypic differences between the two strains. It could therefore be concluded that at least in the V. salmonicida strain tested, extrachromosomal DNA is not required for expression of virulence. Images PMID:1622274

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  17. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2 °C, for 14 days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2 °C at the Marín retail fish market for 14 days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient

  18. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2 °C, for 14 days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2 °C at the Marín retail fish market for 14 days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient

  19. Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φ(st) = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φ(st) = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.

  20. Genetic diversity despite population collapse in a critically endangered marine fish: the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    PubMed

    Chapman, Demian D; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Wiley, Tonya R; Poulakis, Gregg R; Curtis, Caitlin; Tringali, Michael; Carlson, John K; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    Sawfish (family Pristidae) are among the most critically endangered marine fish in the world, yet very little is known about how genetic bottlenecks, genetic drift, and inbreeding depression may be affecting these elasmobranchs. In the US Atlantic, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) has declined to 1-5% of its abundance in the 1900s, and its core distribution has contracted to southwest Florida. We used 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers to show that this remnant population still exhibits high genetic diversity in terms of average allelic richness (18.23), average alleles per locus (18.75, standard deviation [SD] 6.6) and observed heterozygosity (0.43-0.98). Inbreeding is rare (mean individual internal relatedness = -0.02, SD 0.14; F(IS) = -0.011, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.039 to 0.011), even though the estimated effective population size (N(e)) is modest (250-350, 95% CI = 142-955). Simulations suggest that the remnant smalltooth sawfish population will probably retain >90% of its current genetic diversity over the next century even at the lower estimate of N(e). There is no evidence of a genetic bottleneck accompanying last century's demographic bottleneck, and we discuss hypotheses that could explain this. We also discuss features of elasmobranch life history and population biology that could make them less vulnerable than other large marine vertebrates to genetic change associated with reduced population size.

  1. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed.

  2. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  3. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs.

  4. Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ρ = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

  5. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2013-11-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics. PMID:23929385

  6. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

  7. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2013-11-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics.

  8. Replicate divergence between and within sounds in a marine fish: the copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus).

    PubMed

    Dick, S; Shurin, J B; Taylor, E B

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the factors that influence larval dispersal and connectivity among marine populations is critical to the conservation and sustainable management of marine resources. We assessed genetic subdivision among ten populations of copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) representing paired samples of outer coast and the heads of inlets in five replicate sounds on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using 17 microsatellite DNA loci. Overall, subdivision (F(ST)) was low (F(ST) = 0.031, P < 0.001), but consistently higher between paired coast and head of inlet sites (mean FST = 0.047, P < 0.001) compared to among the five coast sites (mean F(ST) = -0.001, P > 0.5) or among the five head of inlet sites (mean F(ST) = 0.026, P < 0.001). Heterozygosity, allelic richness and estimates of effective population size were also lower in head of inlet sites than in coast sites. Bayesian analysis identified two genetic groups across all samples, a single genetic group among only coast samples, two genetic groups among head of inlet samples and two genetic groups within each sound analysed separately. Head of inlet copper rockfish tended to be shorter with lower condition factors and grew more slowly than coast sites fish. Reduced physical connectivity and selection against immigrants in contrasting outer coast-head of inlet environments likely contribute to the evolution of population structure of copper rockfish. Based on genetic connectivity, coast sites appear to be better served by existing marine protected areas than are head of inlet sites.

  9. Elevated CO2 increases energetic cost and ion movement in the marine fish intestine

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Rachael M.; Grosell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Energetic costs associated with ion and acid-base regulation in response to ocean acidification have been predicted to decrease the energy available to fish for basic life processes. However, the low cost of ion regulation (6–15% of standard metabolic rate) and inherent variation associated with whole-animal metabolic rate measurements have made it difficult to consistently demonstrate such a cost. Here we aimed to gain resolution in assessing the energetic demand associated with acid-base regulation by examining ion movement and O2 consumption rates of isolated intestinal tissue from Gulf toadfish acclimated to control or 1900 μatm CO2 (projected for year 2300). The active marine fish intestine absorbs ions from ingested seawater in exchange for HCO3− to maintain water balance. We demonstrate that CO2 exposure causes a 13% increase of intestinal HCO3− secretion that the animal does not appear to regulate. Isolated tissue from CO2-exposed toadfish also exhibited an 8% higher O2 consumption rate than tissue from controls. These findings show that compensation for CO2 leads to a seemingly maladaptive persistent base (HCO3−) loss that incurs an energetic expense at the tissue level. Sustained increases to baseline metabolic rate could lead to energetic reallocations away from other life processes at the whole-animal level. PMID:27682149

  10. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen. PMID:24879010

  11. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen.

  12. Evidence and population consequences of shared larval dispersal histories in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jeffrey S; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Larval dispersal is disproportionately important for marine population ecolgy and evolution, yet our inability to track individuals severely constrains our understanding of this key process. We analyze otoliths of a small reef fish, the common triplefin (Forsterygion lapillum), to reconstruct individual dispersal histories and address the following questions: (1) How many discrete sets of dispersal histories (dispersal cohorts) contribute to replenishment of focal populations; (2) When do dispersal cohorts converge (a metric of shared dispersal histories among cohorts); and (3) Do these patterns predict spatiotemporal variation in larval supply? We used light traps to quantify larval supply, and otolith microstructure and microchemistry (using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; LA-ICP-MS) to reconstruct daily environmental histories of individuals in their 30-d lead-up to settlement. Our results indicate that a variable number of dispersal cohorts replenish focal populations (range of 2-8, mean of 4.3, standard deviation of 2.8). Convergence times varied (from 0 to > 30 d prior to settlement), and larval supply was negatively correlated with cohort evenness but not with the number of cohorts, or when they converged, indicating disproportionately large contributions from some cohorts (i.e., sweepstakes events). Collectively, our results suggest that larval reef fishes may variably disperse in shoals, to drive local replenishment and connectivity within a metapopulation.

  13. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the “Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre” MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  14. Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

    1987-01-01

    A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

  15. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the "Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre" MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  16. Do pharmaceuticals bioaccumulate in marine molluscs and fish from a coastal lagoon?

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Huerta, B; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2016-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of 20 pharmaceuticals in cockle (Cerastodema glaucum), noble pen shell (Pinna nobilis), sea snail (Murex trunculus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and black goby (Gobius niger) was evaluated, considering their distribution throughout the Mar Menor lagoon and their variations in spring and autumn 2010. The analytical procedure was adapted for the different matrices as being sensitive and reproducible. Eighteen out of the 20 compounds analysed were found at low ngg(-1) in these species throughout the lagoon. Hydrochlorothiazide and carbamazepine were detected in all species considered. The bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals was heterogeneous in the lagoon, with a higher number of pharmaceuticals being detected in fish (18) than in wild molluscs (8), particularly in golden grey mullet muscle (16). В-blockers and psychiatric drugs were preferentially bioccumulated in fish and hydrochlorothiazide was also confirmed in caged clams. The higher detection frequency and concentrations found in golden grey mullet suggested that mugilids could be used as an indicator of contamination by pharmaceuticals in coastal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows data about hydrochlorothiazide, levamisole and codeine in wild marine biota. PMID:26775009

  17. Life in the unthinking depths: energetic constraints on encephalization in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, T L; Dornburg, A; Brandley, M C; Alfaro, M E; Warren, D L

    2015-05-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the limitation of brain size in vertebrates. Here, we test three hypotheses of brain size evolution using marine teleost fishes: the direct metabolic constraints hypothesis (DMCH), the expensive tissue hypothesis and the temperature-dependent hypothesis. Our analyses indicate that there is a robust positive correlation between encephalization and basal metabolic rate (BMR) that spans the full range of depths occupied by teleosts from the epipelagic (< 200 m), mesopelagic (200-1000 m) and bathypelagic (> 4000 m). Our results disentangle the effects of temperature and metabolic rate on teleost brain size evolution, supporting the DMCH. Our results agree with previous findings that teleost brain size decreases with depth; however, we also recover a negative correlation between trophic level and encephalization within the mesopelagic zone, a result that runs counter to the expectations of the expensive tissue hypothesis. We hypothesize that mesopelagic fishes at lower trophic levels may be investing more in neural tissue related to the detection of small prey items in a low-light environment. We recommend that comparative encephalization studies control for BMR in addition to controlling for body size and phylogeny.

  18. Models of Marine Fish Biodiversity: Assessing Predictors from Three Habitat Classification Schemes.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Mellin, Camille; Caley, M Julian; Radford, Ben T; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Prioritising biodiversity conservation requires knowledge of where biodiversity occurs. Such knowledge, however, is often lacking. New technologies for collecting biological and physical data coupled with advances in modelling techniques could help address these gaps and facilitate improved management outcomes. Here we examined the utility of environmental data, obtained using different methods, for developing models of both uni- and multivariate biodiversity metrics. We tested which biodiversity metrics could be predicted best and evaluated the performance of predictor variables generated from three types of habitat data: acoustic multibeam sonar imagery, predicted habitat classification, and direct observer habitat classification. We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model metrics of fish species richness, abundance and biomass, and multivariate regression trees (MRT) to model biomass and abundance of fish functional groups. We compared model performance using different sets of predictors and estimated the relative influence of individual predictors. Models of total species richness and total abundance performed best; those developed for endemic species performed worst. Abundance models performed substantially better than corresponding biomass models. In general, BRT and MRTs developed using predicted habitat classifications performed less well than those using multibeam data. The most influential individual predictor was the abiotic categorical variable from direct observer habitat classification and models that incorporated predictors from direct observer habitat classification consistently outperformed those that did not. Our results show that while remotely sensed data can offer considerable utility for predictive modelling, the addition of direct observer habitat classification data can substantially improve model performance. Thus it appears that there are aspects of marine habitats that are important for modelling metrics of fish biodiversity that are

  19. Models of Marine Fish Biodiversity: Assessing Predictors from Three Habitat Classification Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Katherine L.; Mellin, Camille; Caley, M. Julian; Radford, Ben T.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Prioritising biodiversity conservation requires knowledge of where biodiversity occurs. Such knowledge, however, is often lacking. New technologies for collecting biological and physical data coupled with advances in modelling techniques could help address these gaps and facilitate improved management outcomes. Here we examined the utility of environmental data, obtained using different methods, for developing models of both uni- and multivariate biodiversity metrics. We tested which biodiversity metrics could be predicted best and evaluated the performance of predictor variables generated from three types of habitat data: acoustic multibeam sonar imagery, predicted habitat classification, and direct observer habitat classification. We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model metrics of fish species richness, abundance and biomass, and multivariate regression trees (MRT) to model biomass and abundance of fish functional groups. We compared model performance using different sets of predictors and estimated the relative influence of individual predictors. Models of total species richness and total abundance performed best; those developed for endemic species performed worst. Abundance models performed substantially better than corresponding biomass models. In general, BRT and MRTs developed using predicted habitat classifications performed less well than those using multibeam data. The most influential individual predictor was the abiotic categorical variable from direct observer habitat classification and models that incorporated predictors from direct observer habitat classification consistently outperformed those that did not. Our results show that while remotely sensed data can offer considerable utility for predictive modelling, the addition of direct observer habitat classification data can substantially improve model performance. Thus it appears that there are aspects of marine habitats that are important for modelling metrics of fish biodiversity that are

  20. Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P; Port, Jesse A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Crowder, Larry B

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible.

  1. Toward pristine biomass: reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; Calnan, Jacqulyn M; MacNeil, M Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC model selection techniques, we assessed recovery trends using five ecologically meaningful production models: asymptotic, Ricker, logistic, linear, and exponential. There were clear recovery trends with time for species richness, total and size class density, and wet masses at the level of the taxonomic family. Species richness recovered rapidly to an asymptote at 10 years. The two main herbivorous families displayed differing responses to protection, scarids recovering rapidly, but then exhibiting some decline while acanthurids recovered more slowly and steadily throughout the study. Recovery of the two invertebrate-eating groups suggested competitive interactions over resources, with the labrids recovering more rapidly before a decline and the balistids demonstrating a slower logistic recovery. Remaining families displayed differing trends with time, with a general pattern of decline in smaller size classes or small-bodied species after an initial recovery, which suggests that some species- and size-related competitive and predatory control occurs in older closures. There appears to be an ecological succession of dominance with an initial rapid rise in labrids and scarids, followed by a slower rise in balistids and acanthurids, an associated decline in sea urchins, and an ultimate dominance in calcifying algae. Our results indicate that the unfished "equilibrium" biomass of the fish assemblage > 10 cm is 1100-1200 kg/ha, but these small parks (< 10 km2) are likely to underestimate pre-human influence values due to edge effects and the rarity of taxa

  2. Using Environmental DNA to Census Marine Fishes in a Large Mesocosm

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan P.; Port, Jesse A.; Yamahara, Kevan M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

  3. Models of Marine Fish Biodiversity: Assessing Predictors from Three Habitat Classification Schemes.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Mellin, Camille; Caley, M Julian; Radford, Ben T; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Prioritising biodiversity conservation requires knowledge of where biodiversity occurs. Such knowledge, however, is often lacking. New technologies for collecting biological and physical data coupled with advances in modelling techniques could help address these gaps and facilitate improved management outcomes. Here we examined the utility of environmental data, obtained using different methods, for developing models of both uni- and multivariate biodiversity metrics. We tested which biodiversity metrics could be predicted best and evaluated the performance of predictor variables generated from three types of habitat data: acoustic multibeam sonar imagery, predicted habitat classification, and direct observer habitat classification. We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model metrics of fish species richness, abundance and biomass, and multivariate regression trees (MRT) to model biomass and abundance of fish functional groups. We compared model performance using different sets of predictors and estimated the relative influence of individual predictors. Models of total species richness and total abundance performed best; those developed for endemic species performed worst. Abundance models performed substantially better than corresponding biomass models. In general, BRT and MRTs developed using predicted habitat classifications performed less well than those using multibeam data. The most influential individual predictor was the abiotic categorical variable from direct observer habitat classification and models that incorporated predictors from direct observer habitat classification consistently outperformed those that did not. Our results show that while remotely sensed data can offer considerable utility for predictive modelling, the addition of direct observer habitat classification data can substantially improve model performance. Thus it appears that there are aspects of marine habitats that are important for modelling metrics of fish biodiversity that are

  4. The completeness of taxonomic inventories for describing the global diversity and distribution of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Tittensor, Derek P; Myers, Ransom A

    2008-01-22

    Taxonomic inventories (or species censuses) are the most elementary data in biogeography, macroecology and conservation biology. They play fundamental roles in the construction of species richness patterns, delineation of species ranges, quantification of extinction risk and prioritization of conservation efforts in hot spot areas. Given their importance, any issue related to the completeness of taxonomic inventories can have far-reaching consequences. Here, we used the largest publicly available database of georeferenced marine fish records to determine its usefulness in depicting the diversity and distribution of this taxonomic group. All records were grouped at multiple spatial resolutions to generate accumulation curves, from which the expected number of species were extrapolated using a variety of nonlinear models. Comparison of the inventoried number of species with that expected from the models was used to calculate the completeness of the taxonomic inventory at each resolution. In terms of the global number of fish species, we found that approximately 21% of the species remain to be described. In terms of spatial distribution, we found that the completeness of taxonomic data was highly scale dependent, with completeness being lower at finer spatial resolutions. At a 3 degrees (approx. 350km2) spatial resolution, less than 1.8% of the world's oceans have above 80% of their fish fauna currently described. Censuses of species were particularly incomplete in tropical areas and across the entire range of countries' gross domestic product (GDP), although the few censuses nearing completion were all along the coasts of a few developed countries or territories. Our findings highlight that failure to quantify the completeness of taxonomic inventories can introduce substantial flaws in the description of diversity patterns, and raise concerns over the effectiveness of conservation strategies based upon data that remain largely precarious.

  5. Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2014-05-01

    In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump β-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHr

  6. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms.

  7. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  8. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  9. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  10. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  11. Differential seeding and regeneration in openings and beneath closed canopy in sub-tropical wet forest

    SciTech Connect

    Devoe, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in sub-tropical wet forest (tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) type) at El Verde, Puerto Rico. The first compared seed rain beneath closed canopy with that in natural treefall gaps. The purpose was to determine whether differences in seed rain might account for some part of the reported difference in tree regeneration under the two canopy conditions. The second experiment examined regeneration along transects from beneath the forest canopy across large gaps. Plant colonization patterns clearly showed that gaps are non-uniform environments. The correlation of certain attributes (seed weight, dispersal mode, regeneration route, shade tolerance) within species and among groups of species led to the description of regeneration strategies for species in this and similar forest communities. Silvicultural applications are discussed. 33 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. [Dengue: a growing risk to travellers to tropical and sub-tropical regions].

    PubMed

    da Silva-Voorham, Júlia M; Tami, Adriana; Juliana, Amadu E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Wilschut, Jan C; Smit, Jolanda M

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most common arboviral infection worldwide. Due to global climate change and other factors, the vector of the virus - the Aedes mosquito - has spread considerably over the past decades. Dengue is endemic in almost all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world; meaning that approximately 40% of the world population is at risk of acquiring a dengue infection. The clinical features of dengue vary from a non-specific febrile illness (dengue fever) to at times fatal serious conditions such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Considering the limited possibilities of prevention it is anticipated that the incidence of dengue will increase in the future. It is expected that health-care providers in non-endemic regions will encounter dengue-infected patients with increasing frequency in their practices.

  13. Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K; Wake, Bronwyn D; Snow, Joseph T; Honey, David J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Lohan, Maeve C; Achterberg, Eric P; Moore, C Mark

    2014-01-28

    Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (∼0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north-south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial-temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

  14. Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K.; Wake, Bronwyn D.; Snow, Joseph T.; Honey, David J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Moore, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (∼0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north–south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial–temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

  15. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  16. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA. PMID:21291233

  17. Whole genome association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits in maize in a sub-tropical environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world, where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions, such as the sub-tropics, experience unique challenges the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin conta...

  18. CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

  19. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  20. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species.

    PubMed

    Miya, M; Sato, Y; Fukunaga, T; Sado, T; Poulsen, J Y; Sato, K; Minamoto, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, H; Araki, H; Kondoh, M; Iwasaki, W

    2015-07-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163-185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  1. Alternative nursery habitat for estuarine associated marine fish during prolonged closure of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

    2009-10-01

    The Mfolozi estuary, located on the east coast of South Africa, was historically directly linked to the adjacent St Lucia estuarine system, the largest estuarine system in Africa and a World Heritage Site. The Mfolozi used to be the main feeder system to maintain lake levels in St Lucia, but increased siltation from sugar cane farming in the Mfolozi floodplain led to artificial separation of the two systems in 1950. Reduced freshwater inflow due to drought conditions caused the St Lucia mouth to remain closed from June 2002 to present, coinciding with low lake levels and hypersaline conditions, except for a brief period during 2007 after the St Lucia mouth breached. These conditions led to disruption of larval recruitment into the system and major changes in biotic communities. Due to the importance of the St Lucia - Mfolozi System link, a study was initiated in 2007 on the fish community of the Mfolozi system, which was sampled using seine and gill nets. The 48 species recorded were dominated by juveniles of marine spawners, particularly Leiognathus equula and Valamugil cunnesius and the estuarine spawners Ambassis dussumieri and Ambassis natalensis. Estuarine dependent marine spawning species formed 68% of both the species numbers and CPUE, an indication of the regional importance of the Mfolozi estuary as an alternate refuge for juvenile marine fish during periods when the St Lucia system remained closed. Post-larval recruits of marine spawning species were particularly abundant, but low zoobenthic densities caused a rapid decline in numbers of benthic feeders shortly after their recruitment into the system. The importance of the Mfolozi estuary in maintaining marine brood stocks of estuarine dependent marine fish is discussed with particular reference to estuarine degradation and the ecological integrity of the St Lucia system.

  2. [Advanced approaches to studying the population diversity of marine fishes: new opportunities for fisheries control and management].

    PubMed

    Zelenina, D A; Martinson, Ia T; Ogden, R; Volkov, A A; Zelenina, I A; Carvalho, G R

    2011-12-01

    Recent conceptual and technological advances now enable fisheries geneticists to detect and monitor the dynamics and distribution of marine fish populations more effectively than ever before. Information on the extent of genetically-based divergence among populations, so-called "population diversity", is crucial in the quest to manage exploited living resources sustainably since it endows evolutionary potential in the face of environmental change. The generally limited dialogue between scientists, fisheries managers and policy makers, however, continues to constrain integration of population genetic data into tangible policy applications. Largely drawing on the approach and outputs from a European research project, FishPopTrace, we provide an example how the uncovering of marine fish population diversity enables players from genetics, forensics, management and the policy realm to generate a framework tackling key policy-led questions relating to illegal fishing and traceability. We focus on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in European populations of cod, herring, hake and common sole, and explore how forensics together with a range of analytical approaches, and combined with improved communication of research results to stakeholders, can be used to secure sufficiently robust, tractable and targeted data for effective engagement between science and policy. The essentially binary nature of SNPs, together with generally elevated signals of population discrimination by SNPs under selection, allowed assignment of fish to populations from more areas and with higher certainty than previously possible, reaching standards suitable for use in a court of law. We argue that the use of such tools in enforcement and deterrence, together with the greater integration of population genetic principles and methods into fisheries management, provide tractable elements in the arsenal of tools to achieve sustainable exploitation and conservation of depleted marine fish

  3. The importance of estuary head waters as nursery areas for young estuary- and marine-spawned fishes in temperate South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, Ryan J.; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2011-07-01

    The restriction of freshwater flow into estuaries, the presence of in-stream barriers and the occurrence of invasive fish species in these habitats are identified as major threats to these young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species. These aspects have been investigated using the distribution and abundance of young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species in the headwater environments of four permanently open estuaries of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Fishes were collected twice per season over the 2009 and 2010 period, using mixed method sampling with seine net hauls and overnight fyke net deployments. Of the 74,751 fishes collected, 37,444 fishes, 18 families and 34 species were taken in fyke net catches, while 34,308 fishes, 21 families and 38 species were caught in seine nets. In the Great Fish, Kowie, Kariega and Sundays River systems, juveniles of estuarine residents dominated headwater catches, followed by juveniles of estuary-dependent marine species. The prevalence of larval and small juvenile stages of estuary- and marine-spawned fish species highlights the potential importance of these transitional areas for young fish.

  4. Consequences of the historical demography on the global population structure of two highly migratory cosmopolitan marine fishes: the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert; Viñas, Jordi; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Black, Donna; Lucas, Luciano; Covello, Kelly; Labrie, Alexis V; Thelen, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Yellowfin and skipjack tuna are globally distributed in the world's tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Since little, if any, migration of these fishes occurs between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans, one might expect to see genetic differences between sub-populations in these ocean basins. However, yellowfin and skipjack tuna have extremely large population sizes. Thus, the rate of genetic drift should be slower than that observed for other tunas. Results Low levels of genetic differentiation were observed between Atlantic and Pacific samples of yellowfin tuna. In contrast, no genetic differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Pacific samples of skipjack tuna. Conclusion Much lower levels of genetic differentiation were found among sub-populations of yellowfin tuna compared to those observed for other large tunas, probably due to the large population size of yellowfin tuna. Since skipjack tuna appear to have even larger population sizes, it is not surprising that no genetic differentiation was detected between Atlantic and Pacific samples of these fish. PMID:15725349

  5. Examining the fish microbiome: vertebrate-derived bacteria as an environmental niche for the discovery of unique marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Laura M; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M; Schulze, Christopher J; Linington, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus.

  6. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa

  7. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  8. Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  9. Identification of renal transporters involved in sulfate excretion in marine teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akira; Chang, Min-Hwang; Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Ogoshi, Maho; Nakazato, Takeru; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate (SO42−) is the second most abundant anion in seawater (SW), and excretion of excess SO42− from ingested SW is essential for marine fish to survive. Marine teleosts excrete SO42− via the urine produced in the kidney. The SO42− transporter that secretes and concentrates SO42− in the urine has not previously been identified. Here, we have identified and characterized candidates for the long-sought transporters. Using sequences from the fugu database, we have cloned cDNA fragments of all transporters belonging to the Slc13 and Slc26 families from mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). We compared Slc13 and Slc26 mRNA expression in the kidney between freshwater (FW) and SW mefugu. Among 14 clones examined, the expression of a Slc26a6 paralog (mfSlc26a6A) was the most upregulated (30-fold) in the kidney of SW mefugu. Electrophysiological analyses of Xenopus oocytes expressing mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mouse Slc26a6 (mSlc26a6) demonstrated that all transporters mediate electrogenic Cl−/SO42−, Cl−/oxalate2−, and Cl−/nHCO3− exchanges and electroneutral Cl−/formate− exchange. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated that the SO42−-elicited currents of mfSlc26a6A is quite large (∼35 μA at +60 mV) and 50- to 200-fold higher than those of mfSlc26a6B and mSlc26a6. Conversely, the currents elicited by oxalate and HCO3− are almost identical among mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mSlc26a6. Kinetic analysis revealed that mfSlc26a6A has the highest SO42− affinity as well as capacity. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that mfSlc26a6A localizes to the apical (brush-border) region of the proximal tubules. Together, these findings suggest that mfSlc26a6A is the most likely candidate for the major apical SO42− transporter that mediates SO42− secretion in the kidney of marine teleosts. PMID:19812358

  10. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-05-15

    We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and δ(15)N values or δ(13)C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  11. Osmoregulation and epithelial water transport: lessons from the intestine of marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    For teleost fish living in seawater, drinking the surrounding medium is necessary to avoid dehydration. This is a key component of their osmoregulatory strategy presenting the challenge of excreting excess salts while achieving a net retention of water. The intestine has an established role in osmoregulation, and its ability to effectively absorb fluid is crucial to compensating for water losses to the hyperosmotic environment. Despite this, the potential for the teleost intestine to serve as a comparative model for detailed, integrative experimental studies on epithelial water transport has so far gone largely untapped. The following review aims to present an assessment of the teleost intestine as a fluid-transporting epithelium. Beginning with a brief overview of marine teleost osmoregulation, emphasis shifts to the processing of ingested seawater by the gastrointestinal tract and the characteristics of intestinal ion and fluid transport. Particular attention is given to acid-base transfers by the intestine, specifically bicarbonate secretion, which creates the distinctly alkaline gut fluids responsible for the formation of solid calcium carbonate precipitates. The respective contributions of these unique features to intestinal fluid absorption, alongside other recognised ion transport processes, are then subsequently considered within the wider context of the classic physiological problem of epithelial water transport. PMID:21735220

  12. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  13. Induction and characterization of a lysogenic bacteriophage of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Hoai, T D; Yoshida, T

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of prophages in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from several marine fish species in Japan. Representative strains of 16 bacterial genotypes (S1-S16) selected from more than 400 L. garvieae isolates were used to induce lysogenic bacteriophages. These strains were treated with 500 ng mL(-1) freshly prepared mitomycin C. A cross-spotting assay was performed to validate the lysogenic and indicator strains. The lysogenic strains were selected for isolation and concentration of the phages. Phage DNA was digested with EcoRI for biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect integrated prophage DNA. Of the 16 representative bacterial genotypes, 12 strains integrated prophages as indicated by the PCR assay, and 10 phages were detected and isolated using two indicator bacterial strains. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that these phages were homologous and named as PLgT-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of PLgT-1 was consistent with the virus family Siphoviridae. PCR analysis of the prophage DNA revealed that all of the S1 genotype strains were lysogenic (30/30), but none of the S16 genotype strains were lysogenic (0/30). This is the first study to investigate lysogenic bacteriophages from L. garvieae. PMID:26471724

  14. The potential for spatial distribution indices to signal thresholds in marine fish biomass.

    PubMed

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management.

  15. Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben M; Knutsen, Halvor; Albretsen, Jon; Moland, Even

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study, we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under favourable sea temperature thresholds (<16 °C), cod selected vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass and macroalgae beds, available in shallow areas. Selection for those habitats was especially high at night, when cod tended to ascend to shallower areas, presumably to feed. Selection and use of those habitats decreased significantly as temperature rose. Under increased sea surface temperature conditions, cod were absent from vegetated shallow habitats, both during the day and night, and selected instead non-vegetated rocky bottoms and sand habitats, available in deeper, colder areas. This study shows the dynamic nature of habitat selection and strongly suggests that cod in this region have to trade off food availability against favourable temperature conditions. Future increases in ocean temperature are expected to further influence the spatial behaviour of marine fish, potentially affecting individual fitness and population dynamics. PMID:26476092

  16. Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben M; Knutsen, Halvor; Albretsen, Jon; Moland, Even

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study, we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under favourable sea temperature thresholds (<16 °C), cod selected vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass and macroalgae beds, available in shallow areas. Selection for those habitats was especially high at night, when cod tended to ascend to shallower areas, presumably to feed. Selection and use of those habitats decreased significantly as temperature rose. Under increased sea surface temperature conditions, cod were absent from vegetated shallow habitats, both during the day and night, and selected instead non-vegetated rocky bottoms and sand habitats, available in deeper, colder areas. This study shows the dynamic nature of habitat selection and strongly suggests that cod in this region have to trade off food availability against favourable temperature conditions. Future increases in ocean temperature are expected to further influence the spatial behaviour of marine fish, potentially affecting individual fitness and population dynamics.

  17. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included.

  18. Changes in wild fish assemblages after the establishment of a fish farming zone in an oligotrophic marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machias, A.; Karakassis, I.; Labropoulou, M.; Somarakis, S.; Papadopoulou, K. N.; Papaconstantinou, C.

    2004-08-01

    The species composition, abundance and diversity of demersal fish assemblages has been investigated in an oligotrophic coastal bay in the Aegean Sea which is a designated zone for the development of aquaculture. Samples were collected using experimental trawling, before the establishment of fish cages in the area during early June 1987 and after attaining the maximal production of the aquaculture zone in late May 2001. The overall abundance of the fish assemblage increased by a factor of 4 and the average trophic level of the fish community increased from 3.59 to 3.79. Traditional diversity indices showed an increase in dominance but the distinctness measures of biodiversity showed that the overall structure obtained after the establishment of fish farming was not phylogenetically impoverished. Multivariate analysis showed that the community differences between the two periods are quantitative rather than qualitative. Comparisons in length frequencies between the two periods indicated that specimens of the species compared were either similar or larger in the second period. The species favoured by the presence of aquaculture were not the ones normally feeding on the food pellets under the cages but those normally occurring in the fishing grounds of the study. It is concluded that the release of nutrients from fish farming in nutrient-poor systems can have a positive effect on local fisheries with no visible negative change in species composition or biodiversity.

  19. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Brendan P; Coleman, Melinda A; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

  20. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential and gap of the sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, T.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    A database of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks was created for the sub-tropical belt using existing global SOC databases (WISE3; various SOTER) and new data from an ongoing project (ERC Africa-GHG) specific for the tropical forests of the African continent. The intent of this database is to evaluate the sequestration potential of a critical area of the world where most of the primary rainforests are located, and actually show undoubtedly high SOC losses associated with deforestation. About 4100 profiles, quite well distributed over the entire sub-tropical belt, were used to calculate the actual SOC stock for the 0-30 cm and 30-100 cm depths of mineral soil. First, this actual SOC stock has been related to the current Land Use Systems; successively, it has been interpolated taking into account Homogeneous Land Units (HLUs) in terms of soil type, climate zone and land use. Then, relying on consistent projections, of both climate and land use changes, for the years 2050 and 2100 under extremes IPCC-SRES emission scenarios such as the B1 and the A2, potential SOC stocks for these time frames has been calculated. Soil carbon sequestration gap is calculated by the difference of the actual SOC stock and the future projections. When subtracting potential from the actual SOC stocks, negative values represent a gap in terms of possible SOC losses and so reduced carbon sequestration. The soil carbon gap indicates locations where there will be low soil-carbon levels associated with medium-to-high actual SOC stocks, and medium soil-carbon levels associated with high actual SOC stocks, depending on soil type, climate and land use conditions. On the long term, 2076-2100, a SOC gap is observed under all scenarios in South America, just below the Amazonia basin, where are located open and fragmented forests. However, in the Amazonia basin deforestation decrease since no sensible SOC losses were observed. An important gap is observed also in the Congo basin and West Africa, but the

  1. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas.

  2. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

  3. Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica; Hixon, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Correlated genetic responses have been hypothesized as important components of fishery-induced evolution, although predictive data from wild populations have been difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate substantial genetic correlations between a trait often subjected to fishery selection (adult body length) and traits that affect survival of larvae (length and swimming performance) in a wild population of a marine fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Through both genetic covariance and size-dependent maternal effects, selection on adult size may cause a considerable, correlated response in larval traits. To quantify how variation in larval traits may affect survival, we introduce a flexible method that uses information from selection measurements to account for frequency dependence and estimate the relationship between phenotype and relative survival across a broad range of phenotypic values. Using this method, we synthesize studies of selective mortality on larval size for eight species of fish and show that variation in larval size may result in considerable variation in larval survival. We predict that observed rates of fishery selection on adult marine fishes may substantially reduce larval size and survival. The evolution of smaller larvae in response to fishery selection may therefore have substantial consequences for the viability of fished populations. PMID:25568010

  4. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established.

  5. Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Richard M.; Wendt, Dean E.; Barnes, Cheryl L.; Marks, Corina I.; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T.; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L.; Hall, Nathan C.; Yochum, Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California’s temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

  6. Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  7. 2-Phenoxyethanol as anaesthetic in removing relocating 102 species of fishes representing from Sea World to uShaka Marine World, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D B; Penning, M R; Christison, K W

    2008-09-01

    2-Phenoxyethanol was used as an anaesthetic to translocate 102 species of fishes representing 30 families from the Sea World aquarium on Durban's beachfront to uShaka Marine World. Most fishes responded well to a final anaesthetic concentration of 0.150 ml/l and there were no mortalities.

  8. Forest dynamics and its driving forces of sub-tropical forest in South China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Lian, Juyu; Lin, Guojun; Cao, Honglin; Huang, Zhongliang; Guan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tree mortality and recruitment are key factors influencing forest dynamics, but the driving mechanisms of these processes remain unclear. To better understand these driving mechanisms, we studied forest dynamics over a 5-year period in a 20-ha sub-tropical forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, South China. The goal was to identify determinants of tree mortality/recruitment at the local scale using neighborhood analyses on some locally dominant tree species. Results show that the study plot was more dynamic than some temperate and tropical forests in a comparison to large, long-term forest dynamics plots. Over the 5-year period, mortality rates ranged from 1.67 to 12.33% per year while recruitment rates ranged from 0 to 20.26% per year. Tree size had the most consistent effect on mortality across species. Recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class consistently occurred where local con-specific density was high. This suggests that recruitment may be limited by seed dispersal. Hetero-specific individuals also influenced recruitment significantly for some species. Canopy species had low recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class over the 5-year period. In conclusion, tree mortality and recruitment for sixteen species in this plot was likely limited by seed dispersal and density-dependence. PMID:26940005

  9. Characterization of municipal solid waste in high-altitude sub-tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Dhar, Hiya; Nair, Vijay V; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Akolkar, A B

    2016-10-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues owing to lack of authentic data on different elements of SWM, namely, storage, collection, transportation, separation, processing and disposal. This study presents an assessment of existing status of SWM in conjunction with municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates, physical and chemical characterization of MSW in high-altitude sub-tropical regions. Weighing of empty and fully loaded trucks per trip revealed total quantity of MSW collected. The average efficiency of MSW collection was 70%. From the baseline data, it is inferred that the population and MSW generation rates are not co-related. The collected MSW included biodegradables (organic wastes), paper, plastic, glass, ceramics, metals, inert materials, ash and debris. The data analysis indicated that the biodegradable components dominate the characterization at 54.83% followed by inert, ash and debris at 21.06%, paper at 8.77%, plastic at 8.18%, glass and ceramics at 4.45% and metals at 2.71%. Statistical measures were also applied and 90% confidence interval (CI) was generated for the characterization data measuring its statistical significance.

  10. Recruitment patterns of scleractinian corals in an isolated sub-tropical reef system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriott, V. J.

    1992-12-01

    The density of recruits of scleractinian corals on settlement plates at Lord Howe Island, a small isolated sub-tropical island 630 km off the Australian coastline, was within the range of values reported for comparable studies on the Great Barrier Reef. However, there was a difference in the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, with recruitment at Lord Howe Island during the summer of 1990/91 dominated by corals from the Family Pocilloporidae, Family Poritidae, and sub-genus Acropora (Isopora) (in order of abundance). By contrast, on the Great Barrier Reef, recruits are generally predominantly species from the Family Acroporidae (other than the Acropora (Isopora) group). Both the recruits and the established coral communities at Lord Howe Island are dominanted by corals which release brooded planulae, as opposed to the pattern of mass-spawning with external fertilisation more typical of Great Barrier Reef corals. I hypothesise that the release of brooded planulae would be advantageous in an isolated reef community because (a) brooded larvae can travel large distances and survive the journey to the isolated reef and/or (b) brooded larvae have a shorter period before they are competent to settle and are therefore more likely to be retained on the parental reef once a population has been established.

  11. Size, sex and seasonal patterns in the assemblage of Carcharhiniformes in a sub-tropical bay.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S M; Bennett, M B

    2013-01-01

    Size, sex and seasonal patterns among Carcharhiniformes were examined in shallow regions of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A total of 1259 sharks were caught, comprising 13 species. The Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori and the blacktip complex Carcharhinus limbatus-Carcharhinus tilstoni comprised 55% of all shark individuals. Neonates were observed for five species including the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, which contrary to previous reports was relatively abundant in shallow, predominantly estuarine waters. Three contrasting patterns of occurrence were observed: smaller species were abundant and present throughout much of their ontogeny, larger species were mainly caught as neonates or juveniles and vagrant species were only caught during the warmer months. The shark assemblage differed significantly among seasons. While many species were observed during the warmer months, species diversity was lower in winter when C. obscurus comprised 43% of the catch. Overall, the results indicated that spatial and temporal distribution patterns were not synchronous for all species. The capture of small numbers of neonate C. obscurus in late autumn and winter demonstrates that parturition among Carcharhiniformes is not confined to spring and summer in sub-tropical waters. PMID:23331147

  12. Forest dynamics and its driving forces of sub-tropical forest in South China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Lian, Juyu; Lin, Guojun; Cao, Honglin; Huang, Zhongliang; Guan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tree mortality and recruitment are key factors influencing forest dynamics, but the driving mechanisms of these processes remain unclear. To better understand these driving mechanisms, we studied forest dynamics over a 5-year period in a 20-ha sub-tropical forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, South China. The goal was to identify determinants of tree mortality/recruitment at the local scale using neighborhood analyses on some locally dominant tree species. Results show that the study plot was more dynamic than some temperate and tropical forests in a comparison to large, long-term forest dynamics plots. Over the 5-year period, mortality rates ranged from 1.67 to 12.33% per year while recruitment rates ranged from 0 to 20.26% per year. Tree size had the most consistent effect on mortality across species. Recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class consistently occurred where local con-specific density was high. This suggests that recruitment may be limited by seed dispersal. Hetero-specific individuals also influenced recruitment significantly for some species. Canopy species had low recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class over the 5-year period. In conclusion, tree mortality and recruitment for sixteen species in this plot was likely limited by seed dispersal and density-dependence. PMID:26940005

  13. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms.

  14. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  15. In situ DNA hybridized chain reaction (FISH-HCR) as a better method for quantification of bacteria and archaea within marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno, J.; Lloyd, K. G.; Shumaker, A.; Schippers, A.; Webster, G.; Weightman, A.; Turner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by marine sediment that is home to an estimated 2.9 x 1029 microbial cells. A substantial impediment to understanding the abundance and distribution of cells within marine sediment is the lack of a consistent and reliable method for their taxon-specific quantification. Catalyzed reporter fluorescent in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) provides taxon-specific enumeration, but this process requires passing a large enzyme through cell membranes, decreasing its precision relative to general cell counts using a small DNA stain. In 2015, Yamaguchi et al. developed FISH hybridization chain reaction (FISH-HCR) as an in situ whole cell detection method for environmental microorganisms. FISH-HCR amplifies the fluorescent signal, as does CARD-FISH, but it allows for milder cell permeation methods that might prevent yield loss. To compare FISH-HCR to CARD-FISH, we examined bacteria and archaea cell counts within two sediment cores, Lille Belt (~78 meters deep) and Landsort Deep (90 meters deep), which were retrieved from the Baltic Sea Basin during IODP Expedition 347. Preliminary analysis shows that CARD-FISH counts are below the quantification limit for most depths across both cores. By contrast, quantification of cells was possible with FISH-HCR in all examined depths. When quantification with CARD-FISH was above the limit of detection, counts with FISH-HCR were up to 11 fold higher for Bacteria and 3 fold higher for Archaea from the same sediment sample. Further, FISH-HCR counts follow the trends of on board counts nicely, indicating that FISH-HCR may better reflect the cellular abundance within marine sediment than other quantification methods, including qPCR. Using FISH-HCR, we found that archaeal cell counts were on average greater than bacterial cell counts, but within the same order of magnitude.

  16. Visual pigments of Baltic Sea fishes of marine and limnic origin.

    PubMed

    Jokela-Määttä, Mirka; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Anna; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Donner, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Absorbance spectra of rods and some cones were measured by microspectrophotometry in 22 fish species from the brackish-water of the Baltic Sea, and when applicable, in the same species from the Atlantic Ocean (3 spp.), the Mediterranean Sea (1 sp.), or Finnish fresh-water lakes (9 spp.). The main purpose was to study whether there were differences suggesting spectral adaptation of rod vision to different photic environments during the short history (<10(4) years) of postglacial isolation of the Baltic Sea and the Finnish lakes. Rod absorbance spectra of the Baltic subspecies/populations of herring (Clupea harengus membras), flounder (Platichthys flesus), and sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were all long-wavelength-shifted (9.8, 1.9, and 5.3 nm, respectively, at the wavelength of maximum absorbance, lambda(max)) compared with their truly marine counterparts, consistent with adaptation for improved quantum catch, and improved signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the Baltic light environment. Judged by the shape of the spectra, the chromophore was pure A1 in all these cases; hence the differences indicate evolutionary tuning of the opsin. In no species of fresh-water origin did we find significant opsin-based spectral shifts specific to the Baltic populations, only spectral differences due to varying A1/A2 chromophore ratio in some. For most species, rod lambda(max) fell within a wavelength range consistent with high signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the spectral conditions prevailing at depths where light becomes scarce in the respective waters. Exceptions were sandeels in the Baltic Sea, which are active only in bright light, and all species in a "brown" lake, where rod lambda(max) lay far below the theoretically optimal range. PMID:17822578

  17. Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

    1984-03-01

    The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P≤.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high

  18. Transposable elements in fish chromosomes: a study in the marine cobia species.

    PubMed

    Costa, G W W F; Cioffi, M B; Bertollo, L A C; Molina, W F

    2013-01-01

    Rachycentron canadum, a unique representative of the Rachycentridae family, has been the subject of considerable biotechnological interest due to its potential use in marine fish farming. This species has undergone extensive research concerning the location of genes and multigene families on its chromosomes. Although most of the genome of some organisms is composed of repeated DNA sequences, aspects of the origin and dispersion of these elements are still largely unknown. The physical mapping of repetitive sequences on the chromosomes of R. canadum proved to be relevant for evolutionary and applied purposes. Therefore, here, we present the mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization of the transposable element (TE) Tol2, the non-LTR retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3, together with the 18S and 5S rRNA genes in the chromosome of this species. The Tol2 TE, belonging to the family of hAT transposons, is homogeneously distributed in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes but with huge colocalization with the 18S rDNA sites. The hybridization signals for Rex1 and Rex3 revealed a semi-arbitrary distribution pattern, presenting differentiated dispersion in euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. Rex1 elements are associated preferentially in heterochromatic regions, while Rex3 shows a scarce distribution in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes. The colocalization of TEs with 18S and 5S rDNA revealed complex chromosomal regions of repetitive sequences. In addition, the nonpreferential distribution of Rex1 and Rex3 in all heterochromatic regions, as well as the preferential distribution of the Tol2 transposon associated with 18S rDNA sequences, reveals a distinct pattern of organization of TEs in the genome of this species. A heterogeneous chromosomal colonization of TEs may confer different evolutionary rates to the heterochromatic regions of this species. PMID:23969732

  19. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  20. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  1. Tidal flushing time of marine fish culture zones in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jing-Qiao; Wong, Ken T. M.; Lee, Joseph H. W.; Choi, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate determination of flushing time is crucial for maintaining sustainable production in fish culture zones (FCZs), as it represents the physical self-purification capability via tidal exchange with clean water in the outer sea. However, owing to the temporal and spatial complexity of the coastal flushing process, existing methods for determining flushing time may not be generally applicable. In this paper, a systematic method for determining the flushing time in FCZs is presented, in which bathymetry, runoff, tidal range and stratification are properly accounted for. We determine the flushing time via numerical tracer experiments, using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models. For FCZs located in sheltered and land-locked tidal inlets, the system boundary can be naturally defined at the connection with the open sea. For FCZs located in open waters, hydrodynamic tracking is first used to assess the extent of tidal excursion and thus delimit the initial boundary between clean water and polluted water. This general method is applied to all designated marine FCZs in Hong Kong for both the dry and wet seasons, including 20 sheltered FCZs (in semi-enclosed waters of Tolo Harbour, Mirs Bay, and Port Shelter) and 6 FCZs in open waters. Our results show that flushing time is the longest in inner Port Shelter (about 40 days in dry season), and the shortest for the FCZs in open waters (less than one week in dry season). In addition, the flushing time in dry season is commonly longer than that in wet season: 20%˜40% for most well-sheltered FCZs; 2.6˜4 times for the others. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the flushing time and distance to open boundary, supporting the view that the flushing time of a FCZ is closely related to its location. This study provides a solid basis for mariculture management such as the determination of carrying capacity of FCZs.

  2. To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Susannah M; McCormick, Mark I; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2011-12-23

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats.

  3. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations.

  4. Connectivity patterns of coastal fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary marine protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, Barbara; Gérigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hélène; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François; Agostini, Sylvia

    2015-03-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by coastal fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between coastal areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.

  5. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

  6. [Lipidic pattern of 25 Mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Ojeda, Anayté; Silencio, José Luis; Cassis, Lorena; Ledesma, Hector; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

  7. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  8. Population genetic studies revealed local adaptation in a high gene-flow marine fish, the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis.

  9. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

  10. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  11. Biotransformation and detoxification of inorganic arsenic in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua after waterborne and dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-06-30

    Arsenic (As) is a major hazardous metalloid in many aquatic environments. This study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species [As(III) and As(V)] in a marine juvenile grunt Terapon jarbua following waterborne and dietborne exposures for 10d. The fish were fed As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 50, 150, and 500μg As(III) and As(V)/g (dry weight), and their transformation and growth responses were compared to those exposed to 100μg/L waterborne As(III) and As(V). Within the 10d exposure period, waterborne and dietborne inorganic As exposure had no significant effect on the fish growth performance. The bioaccumulation of As was very low and not proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentration. We demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne and waterborne phases were rapidly biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB, 89-97%). After exposure to inorganic As, T. jarbua developed correspondingly detoxified strategies, such as the reduction of As(V) to As(III) followed by methylation to less toxic organic forms, as well as the synthesis of metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein-like proteins. This study elucidated that As(III) and As(V) had little potential toxicity on marine fish.

  12. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity. PMID:25830113

  13. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity. PMID:25830113

  14. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    PubMed

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV.

  15. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  16. Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  17. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  18. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  19. Niche shift can impair the ability to predict invasion risk in the marine realm: an illustration using Mediterranean fish invaders.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Azzurro, Ernesto; Kulbicki, Michel; Belmaker, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Climatic niche conservatism, the tendency of species-climate associations to remain unchanged across space and time, is pivotal for forecasting the spread of invasive species and biodiversity changes. Indeed, it represents one of the key assumptions underlying species distribution models (SDMs), the main tool currently available for predicting range shifts of species. However, to date, no comprehensive assessment of niche conservatism is available for the marine realm. We use the invasion by Indo-Pacific tropical fishes into the Mediterranean Sea, the world's most invaded marine basin, to examine the conservatism of the climatic niche. We show that tropical invaders may spread far beyond their native niches and that SDMs do not predict their new distributions better than null models. Our results suggest that SDMs may underestimate the potential spread of invasive species and call for prudence in employing these models in order to forecast species invasion and their response to environmental change. PMID:25626355

  20. Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Mol, J H; Ramlal, J S; Lietar, C; Verloo, M

    2001-06-01

    The extent of mercury contamination in Surinamese food fishes due to small-scale gold mining was investigated by determination of the total mercury concentration in 318 freshwater fishes, 109 estuarine fishes, and 110 fishes from the Atlantic Ocean. High background levels were found in the piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus (0.35 microg Hg x g(-1) muscle tissue, wet mass basis) and the peacock cichlid Cichla ocellaris (0.39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. Average mercury levels in freshwater fishes were higher in piscivorous species than in nonpiscivorous species, both in potentially contaminated water bodies (0.71 and 0.19 microg x g(-1), respectively) and in the control site (0.25 and 0.04 microg x g(-1), respectively). Mercury concentrations in piscivorous freshwater fishes were significantly higher in rivers potentially affected by gold mining than in the control site. In 57% of 269 piscivorous freshwater fishes from potentially contaminated sites, mercury levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.5 microg Hg x g(-1). The highest mercury concentrations (3.13 and 4.26 microg x g(-1)) were found in two piranhas S. rhombeus from the hydroelectric reservoir Lake Brokopondo. The high mercury levels in fishes from Lake Brokopondo were to some extent related to gold mining because fishes collected at eastern sites (i.e., close to the gold fields) showed significantly higher mercury concentrations than fishes from western localities. In the estuaries, mercury levels in ariid catfish (0.22 microg x g(-1)) and croakers (0.04-0.33 microg x g(-1)) were distinctly lower than those in piscivorous fishes from contaminated freshwater sites. In the isolated Bigi Pan Lagoon, the piscivores snook Centropomus undecimalis (0.04 microg x g(-1)) and tarpon Megalops atlanticus (0.03 microg x g(-1)) showed low mercury levels. Mercury levels were significantly higher in marine fishes than in estuarine fishes, even with the Bigi Pan fishes excluded

  1. Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Freiwald, J; Bernardi, G

    2016-03-01

    Variation is an essential feature of biological populations, yet much of ecological theory treats individuals as though they are identical. This simplifying assumption is often justified by the perception that variation among individuals does not have significant effects on the dynamics of whole populations. However, this perception may be skewed by a historic focus on studying single populations. A true evaluation of the extent to which among-individual variation affects the dynamics of populations requires the study of multiple populations. In this study, we examined variation in the dynamics of populations of a live-bearing, marine fish (black surfperch; Embiotoca jacksoni). In collaboration with an organization of citizen scientists (Reef Check California), we were able to examine the dynamics of eight populations that were distributed throughout approximately 700 km of coastline, a distance that encompasses much of this species' range. We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether genetic diversity (measured by the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) was related to the strength of population regulation. Low-diversity populations experienced strong density dependence in population growth rates and population sizes were regulated much more tightly than they were in high-diversity populations. Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding. On average, low-diversity populations used less of the available habitat and exhibited greater spatial clustering (and more intense competition) for a given level of density (measured at the scale of the reef). Although the populations we studied also varied with respect to exogenous characteristics (habitat complexity, densities of predators, and interspecific competitors), none of these

  2. Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Freiwald, J; Bernardi, G

    2016-03-01

    Variation is an essential feature of biological populations, yet much of ecological theory treats individuals as though they are identical. This simplifying assumption is often justified by the perception that variation among individuals does not have significant effects on the dynamics of whole populations. However, this perception may be skewed by a historic focus on studying single populations. A true evaluation of the extent to which among-individual variation affects the dynamics of populations requires the study of multiple populations. In this study, we examined variation in the dynamics of populations of a live-bearing, marine fish (black surfperch; Embiotoca jacksoni). In collaboration with an organization of citizen scientists (Reef Check California), we were able to examine the dynamics of eight populations that were distributed throughout approximately 700 km of coastline, a distance that encompasses much of this species' range. We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether genetic diversity (measured by the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) was related to the strength of population regulation. Low-diversity populations experienced strong density dependence in population growth rates and population sizes were regulated much more tightly than they were in high-diversity populations. Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding. On average, low-diversity populations used less of the available habitat and exhibited greater spatial clustering (and more intense competition) for a given level of density (measured at the scale of the reef). Although the populations we studied also varied with respect to exogenous characteristics (habitat complexity, densities of predators, and interspecific competitors), none of these

  3. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  4. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  5. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  6. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-12-01

    An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification. PMID:23009091

  7. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-12-01

    An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification.

  8. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  9. Derelict Fishing Line Provides a Useful Proxy for Estimating Levels of Non-Compliance with No-Take Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H.; Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Evans, Richard D.; Hill, Jos K.; Russ, Garry R.

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  10. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  11. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed