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Sample records for subgenus agrodiaetus lepidoptera

  1. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus )

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. Results In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. Conclusions With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the mitochondrial marker COI . Compensatory

  2. Taxonomic position of several enigmatic Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from Central and Eastern Iran: insights from molecular and chromosomal data

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.; Shapoval, Nazar A.; Dantchenko, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species-rich subgenus Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) has become one of the best studied groups of Palearctic blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). However, the identity and phylogenetic position of some rare taxa from Iran have remained unclear. An enigmatic, recently described Central Iranian species Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) shirkuhensis ten Hagen et Eckweiler, 2001 has been considered as a taxon closely related either to Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) eckweileri ten Hagen, 1998 or to Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) baltazardi (de Lesse, 1962). Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) baltazardi, in its turn, was treated as a taxon close to Iranian-Pakistani Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) bogra Evans, 1932. Here we used a combination of molecular and chromosomal markers to show that none of these hypotheses was true. Instead, Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) shirkuhensis was recovered as a member of a species group close to Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) cyaneus (Staudinger, 1899). From genetically closest species, Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) kermansis (de Lesse, 1962), Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) cyaneus and Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) sennanensis (de Lesse, 1959), it differs by the wing coloration. From morphologically similar Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) mofidii (de Lesse, 1963) and Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) sorkhensis Eckweiler, 2003, it differs by its chromosome number, n=21. Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) bogra and Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) baltazardi were found to be members of two different species groups and, thus, are not closely related. PMID:25610545

  3. Chromosomal and molecular evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in Caucasus region

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.; Tikhonov, Valentin V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We show how combination of chromosomal and molecular markers can be applied for proper species identification in Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies. Using this approach we provide first evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]) in Georgia. PMID:26140166

  4. Chromosomal and molecular evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Tikhonov, Valentin V

    2015-01-01

    We show how combination of chromosomal and molecular markers can be applied for proper species identification in Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies. Using this approach we provide first evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]) in Georgia.

  5. Phylogeny of Agrodiaetus Hübner 1822 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) inferred from mtDNA sequences of COI and COII and nuclear sequences of EF1-alpha: karyotype diversification and species radiation.

    PubMed

    Kandul, Nikolai P; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V; Coleman, James W S; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Haig, David; Pierce, Naomi E

    2004-04-01

    Butterflies in the large Palearctic genus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) are extremely uniform and exhibit few distinguishing morphological characters. However, these insects are distinctive in one respect: as a group they possess among the greatest interspecific karyotype diversity in the animal kingdom, with chromosome numbers (n) ranging from 10 to 125. The monophyly of Agrodiaetus and its systematic position relative to other groups within the section Polyommatus have been controversial. Characters from the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidases I and II and from the nuclear gene for elongation factor 1 alpha were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Agrodiaetus using maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Ninety-one individuals, encompassing most of the taxonomic diversity of Agrodiaetus, and representatives of 14 related genera were included in this analysis. Our data indicate that Agrodiaetus is monophyletic. Representatives of the genus Polyommatus (sensu stricto) are the closest relatives. The sequences of the Agrodiaetus taxa in this analysis are tentatively arranged into 12 clades, only 1 of which corresponds to a species group traditionally recognized in Agrodiaetus. Heterogeneous substitution rates across a recovered topology were homogenized with a nonparametric rate-smoothing algorithm before the application of a molecular clock. Two published estimates of substitution rates dated the origin of Agrodiaetus between 2.51 and 3.85 million years ago. During this time, there was heterogeneity in the rate and direction of karyotype evolution among lineages within the genus. Karyotype instability has evolved independently three times in the section Polyommatus, within the lineages Agrodiaetus, Lysandra, and Plebicula. Rapid karyotype diversification may have played a significant role in the radiation of the genus Agrodiaetus.

  6. [Dynamics of chromosome number evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

    PubMed

    Vershinina, A O; Lukhtanov, V A

    2013-01-01

    We employed phylogenetic comparative method to study karyotype evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex in which haploid chromosome numbers vary greatly ranging from 10 to 134. We have found that different phylogenetic lineages of the group have different rates of chromosome number changes. Chromosome numbers in the complex posses phylogenetic signal, and their evolutionary transformation is difficult to explain in terms of punctual and gradual evolution.

  7. Intragenomic variations of multicopy ITS2 marker in Agrodiaetus blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapoval, Nazar A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The eukaryotic ribosomal DNA cluster consists of multiple copies of three genes, 18S, 5. 8S and 28S rRNAs, separated by multiple copies of two internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2. It is an important, frequently used marker in both molecular cytogenetic and molecular phylogenetic studies. Despite this, little is known about intragenomic variations within the copies of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA genes and spacers. Here we present data on intraindividual variations of ITS2 spacer in three species of Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies revealed by cloning technique. We demonstrate that a distinctly different intragenomic ITS2 pattern exists for every individual analysed. ITS2 sequences of these species show significant intragenomic variation (up to 3.68% divergence), setting them apart from each other on inferred phylogenetic tree. This variation is enough to obscure phylogenetic relationships at the species level. PMID:26753069

  8. Taxonomic interpretation of chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variability in the species complex close to Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) dama (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapoval, Nazar A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, by using combination of molecular and chromosomal markers, populations of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus (Riley, 1921) from north-west and central Iran are analyzed. It has been found that taxon usually identified as Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus is represented in Iran by two geographically separated groups of individuals, strongly differentiated by their karyotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes. It is demonstrated that populations from NW Iran have the haploid chromosome number n = 68, while the haploid chromosome number of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus from central Iran is found to be n = 73. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these groups also differ by at least eight nucleotide substitutions in a 690 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene and form separated groups of clusters in Bayesian inference tree. Thus, population entities from central Iran are described here as a new subspecies Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus saravandi ssp. n. Strong chromosomal and molecular differentiation are confirmed between Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus and its sister species, Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) dama (Staudinger, 1892). PMID:26807033

  9. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  10. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S; Saifitdinova, Alsu F; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as 'brown complex' of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n=41-42). We

  11. Floral Evolution of Philodendron Subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface. PMID:24586972

  12. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  13. Revision of Eleodes subgenus Eleodes (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keys, descriptions and figures are provided for the identification of 30 species assignable to the nominate subgenus of the tenebrionid genus Eleodes. Three species groups can be recognized: the grandicollis group, containing only E. grandicollis Mannerheim; the obscurus group, containing E. obscuru...

  14. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  15. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  16. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  17. Revision of Perdita subgenus Heteroperdita Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) with descriptions of two ant-like males

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perdita subgenus Heteroperdita Timberlake, a distinctive subgenus of 22 species from the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, all specialists on Tiquilia (Boraginaceae), is revised. Nine new species are described: Perdita (Heteroperdita) desdemona Portman, n. sp., P. (H.) exusta Portman &...

  18. Phylogeny and reclassification of Aconitum subgenus Lycoctonum (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Luo, Yan; Gao, Qi; Ren, Chen; Yuan, Qiong; Yang, Qin-Er

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses were performed using multiple nuclear (ITS and ETS) and chloroplast regions (ndhF-trnL, psbA-trnH, psbD-trnT, and trnT-trnL) to test the monophyly of Aconitum subgen. Lycoctonum (Ranunculaceae) and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus. The subgenus as currently circumscribed is revealed to be polyphyletic. To achieve its monophyly, sect. Galeata and sect. Fletcherum, both being unispecific and each having a unique array of characters (the latter even having the aberrant base chromosome number of x = 6), must be removed from the subgenus. The subgenus Lycoctonum should thus be redefined to include only two sections, the unispecific sect. Alatospermum and the relatively species-rich sect. Lycoctonum. The section Alatospermum, which is both morphologically and karyologically in the primitive condition, is resolved as the first diverging lineage of the subgenus Lycoctonum clade. The monophyly of sect. Lycoctonum is strongly supported, but all the ten series currently recognized within the section are revealed to be para- or poly-phyletic. Five major clades are recovered within the section. We propose to treat them as five series: ser. Crassiflora, ser. Scaposa, ser. Volubilia, ser. Longicassidata, and ser. Lycoctonia. Thus, a formal reclassification of subgen. Lycoctonum is presented, which involves segregating both sect. Galeata and sect. Fletcherum from the subgenus as two independent subgenera within the genus Aconitum, reinstating one series (ser. Crassiflora) and abolishing six series (ser. Laevia, ser. Longibracteolata, ser. Micrantha, ser. Ranunculoidea, ser. Reclinata, and ser. Umbrosa) within sect. Lycoctonum. The series affiliation of some species within the section is adjusted accordingly. PMID:28141851

  19. Andinopanurgus, a new Andean subgenus of Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus of Protandrena Cockerell (Panurginae: Protandrenini) from South America, Andinopanurgus Gonzalez & Engel, subgen. n., is described and figured for distinctive species of the genus occurring at mid- and high elevations in the Andes from Venezuela to Peru (1100–3400 m). In addition to the distribution, the subgenus is easily distinguished from other subgenera by a unique combination of morphological characters in both sexes, especially in the hidden sterna and genitalia of the male. Protandrena amyae sp. n., and Protandrena femoralis sp. n., are also described and figured from the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes. New geographical records and a key to the species are also provided. PMID:21998542

  20. Hygrophoraceae of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Hygrocybe

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge

    2000-01-01

    A key to six taxa of Hygrocybe, subgenus Hygrocybe, sections Chlorophanae and Hygrocybe is provided. One species is new and four species are reported for the first time from the Greater Antilles. The new species is H. chimaeroderma (section Chlarophanae). Hygrocybe acutoconica, H. calyptriformis and H. incolor (section Hygrocybe) are reported for the first time, and...

  1. A revision of Eleodes subgenus Litheleodes (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Litheleodes Blaisdell, a subgenus of Eleodes Eschscholtz, is reviewed with diagnoses, distributions, and nomenclatural notes for the nine included species. A type species, Blaps extricata Say, is herein designated, and the subgeneric definition is updated to differentiate it from related subgenera. ...

  2. Revision of the green lacewing subgenus Ankylopteryx (Sencera) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breitkreuz, Laura C.V.; Winterton, Shaun L.; Engel, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian and Oriental green lacewing subgenus Ankylopteryx (Sencera) Navás (Chrysopinae: Ankylopterygini) is examined and its diversity and placement among other members of the tribe Ankylopterygini is discussed. After study of specimens spanning the full distribution and anatomical range of variation for the subgenus, all prior putative species, resulting in the sole valid species are newly synonymized, Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala (Brauer). Accordingly, the following new synonymies are established: Sencera scioneura Navás, syn. n., Sencera feae Navás, syn. n., and Sencera exquisita Nakahara, syn. n. [all under the name Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala]. A lectotype is newly designated for Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala so as to stabilize the application of the name. To support our hypotheses, the wing and general body coloration as well as the male genitalia are reviewed. We elaborate on the possibility of Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala being nothing more than an autapomorphic species of Ankylopteryx Brauer, as it was originally described. The species is not sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as a separate subgenus within the group, and most certainly not as its own genus as has been advocated by past authors. Nonetheless, we do not for now go so far as to synonymize the subgenus until a more extensive phylogenetic analysis is undertaken with multiple representative species from across Ankylopteryx and other ankylopterygine genera. Lastly, we comment on the biology of Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala in terms of the attraction of males to methyl eugenol and on the widespread practice of splitting within Chrysopidae. PMID:26798287

  3. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  4. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  5. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  6. Holothuria (Selenkothuria) parvispinea n. sp. (Echinodermata, Hololthuroidea, Holothuriidae) with key to the sub-genus Selenkothuria.

    PubMed

    Massin, Claude

    2013-01-30

    Description of a new species from Australia, belonging to the subgenus Selenkothuria (Holothuria, Aspidochirotida). A dichotomous key of the thirteen valid species included in the subgenus is also given. The species H. perrieri Thandar, 1977 and H. spinea Cherbonnier, 1988 are considered as non valid.

  7. Chaseleodes, a new subgenus of Eleodes (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from the central plateau of Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chaseleodes, a new subgenus of Eleodes is described and proposed to hold two species from central Mexico, Eleodes connatus Solier and Eleodes curtus Champion (designated as type species). A key, map, illustrations, and diagnoses are provided for the species. Characters that define the new subgenus i...

  8. Two new species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus) from western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Ahumada-Carrillo, Ivan; Burkhardt, Timothy R; Devitt, Thomas J

    2015-01-18

    We describe two new species of Eleutherodactylus, subgenus Syrrhophus, from two separate mountain ranges in western Mexico. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi sp. nov. inhabits the Sierra de Manantlán in Colima and Jalisco from 1300 to 2200 m, whereas E. wixarika sp. nov. is known from a single locality in the Sierra Huichola of northern Jalisco at 2400 m, but is probably more widespread. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi is readily distinguishable from most members of mainland Syrrhophus by a combination of its large size, broad, truncate digital pads more than three times the narrowest part of the digit, and a black and green marbled color pattern. This species is saxicolous, inhabiting limestone outcrops, and has been found in caves during the dry season. Eleutherodactylus wixarika is a moderate sized species, most similar to E. teretistes, E. pallidus and E. modestus. It is distinguished from all other members of the subgenus by the combination a tuberculate, reddish dorsum, lack of compact lumbar glands, and expanded digital pads less than twice the width of the narrowest part of the digit. This species inhabits areas with secondary vegetation in pine forest. Males of both species call at night during the rainy season. The advertisement call of both species consists of a short, narrow band, pure-tone note organized into a discrete train at a rate of about six times per minute. Spectral and temporal acoustic properties differ between species. The subgenus Syrrhophus of the genus Eleutherodactylus is one of the most poorly studied groups of frogs in Mexico but probably one of the most diverse.

  9. Sussemionus, a new subgenus of Equus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Véra

    2010-03-01

    The new subgenus of Equus, Sussemionus, is defined by peculiar dental characters so far unknown, or exceptional in late Pleistocene and extant Equus; it was in consequence assumed to be restricted to the early and middle Pleistocene. During that period, it was highly successful, ranging from North America to Ethiopia, and included dry-adapted (E. granatensis-like) and more humid-adapted (E. coliemensis-like) species. Recent molecular and osteological analyses concurred to prove its survival until ca 45 KYBP in Khakassia, southwest Siberia, Russia. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromosome number evolution in Hymenophyllum (Hymenophyllaceae), with special reference to the subgenus Hymenophyllum.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, Sabine; Ebihara, Atsushi; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Schneider, Harald

    2010-04-01

    With about 100 species distributed worldwide, Hymenophyllum subg. Hymenophyllum is the largest subgenus of filmy ferns. It also displays morphological disparity and extreme chromosome numbers variation, with n=11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 26, 28, and 34. We use DNA sequences from the genes rbcL, part of accD, rps4, and the intergenic spacers rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, and trnG-trnR to infer relationships within Hymenophyllum, with a focus on this subgenus. In the subgenus Hymenophyllum, two main clades are retrieved together with several minor clades whose placement within the subgenus remains ambiguous. We then investigate the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus and the subgenus, using a maximum likelihood approach taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty. We provide evidence that Hymenophyllum experienced descending aneuploidy during its evolutionary history, especially within the subgenus Hymenophyllum. Reduction in chromosome numbers is particularly extreme in one clade of the subgenus, with the lowest number reported for homosporous ferns. In addition, this group of species displays a high instability in its chromosome number. Both the reduction and the instability in chromosome number may coincide with the distribution of these species in either temperate areas or at high elevations.

  11. Catalog of the subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) for South America.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-10-07

    Species of Culex (Melanoconion) Theobald are recognized as vectors of arboviruses. The species of this subgenus pose a real taxonomic challenge. The current classification of the subgenus recognizes a total of 160 species divided in two major sections, Melanoconion and Spissipes; and several non-formal groupings within each section. We gathered bibliographic records of the subgenus in South America, with particular focus on the period of time after the publication of the Catalog by Pecor et al. (1992) until present time. This compilation included 139 species occurring in South American countries with all the relevant bibliographic sources, including the corresponding information for those medically important species.

  12. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The taxonomic history of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting its relationship to Talaromyces. The phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was studied by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ...

  13. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  14. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman bY John F. Reinert Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...I : . : 1 . : . : . : . : . : .I 1 : 1: GENUS AEDES M&EN: SUB’GENtiS AYtitiKI& THZ~RM’AN . , . KEYS TO THE SPECIES OF AEDES (AY URAKITIA

  15. Korean species of Aleochara Gravenhorst subgenus Xenochara Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of Aleochara Gravenhorst subgenus Xenochara Mulsant & Rey in Korea is presented. Five species are recognized, with one species, Aleochara (Baryodma) intricata Mannerheim, newly transferred to the subgenus Xenochara. Aleochara (Xenochara) asiatica Kraatz and Aleochara (Xenochara) peninsulae Bernhauer are reported for the first time in the Korean peninsula. A key, line drawings of diagnostic characters, and redescriptions of Korean Xenochara species are provided. PMID:21594199

  16. Three new species of the subgenus Leipopleura Seidlitz from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Bioramix Bates).

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Chun; Egorov, L V; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) belonging to the subgenus Leipopleura of the genus Bioramix Bates, 1879, Bioramix (Leipopleura) baqenensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., Bioramix (Leipopleura) nyainrongensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., and Bioramix (Leipopleura) banbarensis Li & Egorov, sp. n. are described from the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Additionally, a new identification key is provided to all known Chinese representatives of the subgenus Leipopleura.

  17. Three new species of the subgenus Leipopleura Seidlitz from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Bioramix Bates)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-Chun; Egorov, L.V.; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) belonging to the subgenus Leipopleura of the genus Bioramix Bates, 1879, Bioramix (Leipopleura) baqenensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., Bioramix (Leipopleura) nyainrongensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., and Bioramix (Leipopleura) banbarensis Li & Egorov, sp. n. are described from the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Additionally, a new identification key is provided to all known Chinese representatives of the subgenus Leipopleura. PMID:27563270

  18. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  19. A new subgenus and species of Topomyia (Diptera: Culicidae: Sabethini) based on a remarkable male mosquito from Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Harbach, Ralph E; Culverwell, C Lorna

    2014-05-08

    Miyagiella Harbach, subgen. nov., is introduced as a new subgenus of Topomyia Leicester for a remarkable male mosquito, Topomyia discors Harbach, sp. nov., from Sabah, Malaysia. A diagnosis of the subgenus is provided that features unique anatomical characters of the genitalia of the holotype male. Miyagiella is very distinct from the two previously recognised subgenera of Topomyia, but is perhaps more closely related to the nominotypical subgenus than to subgenus Suaymyia Thurman. Salient differences that distinguish the three subgenera are contrasted; the holotype male of To. discors is described and its unique genitalia are illustrated.

  20. Studies in the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz with a revision of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell and Omegeleodes, new subgenus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Eleodin)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The taxonomic history of the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz is reviewed and the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell redefined based on characters of the female terminalia with Blaps carbonaria Say herein designated as type-species. Eleodes debilis LeConte is removed from Melaneleodes to a new monotypic subg...

  1. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  2. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological and Genotypic Variations among the Species of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza; Kumar, Dinesh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Sundar, Shyam; Mishra, Rajnikan; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh; Soleimani, Hassan; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Shahraky, Sodabe Hamedi; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country. Methods: Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008–2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene. Results: Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius) kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis. Conclusion: The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran. PMID:26114146

  4. Leishmania RNA viruses in Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus.

    PubMed

    Salinas, G; Zamora, M; Stuart, K; Saravia, N

    1996-04-01

    Karyotype analysis of 69 strains of Leishmania belonging to three species of the Viannia subgenus originating from the southeastern and southwestern regions of Colombia revealed approximately 5.3-kb RNAs in four strains of L. braziliensis and also in the World Health Organization reference strain L. guyanensis IWHI/BR/78/M5313. The RNA element in this reference strain and in L. braziliensis strains isolated from cutaneous and mucosal lesions of four patients hybridized with RNA probes prepared from cDNA of the RNA virus present in L. guyanensis strain CUMC-1-1A (LRV1-1). These strains also contained an 80-kD protein that reacted with polyclonal antibody prepared against a recombinant fragment of the coat (capsid) protein of LRV1-1. In addition, another Colombian strain of L. braziliensis was found to contain an approximately 3.5-kb RNA that did not hybridize with LRV1-1 probes. Contrasting with the strains containing the 5.3-kb RNA, a total lysate of this strain did not contain material reactive with antiserum to the capsid protein fragment. All Leishmania containing LRV1-related viruses identified to date have originated in the Amazon River basin. Karyotype analyses and biological characterization of 17 clones obtained from the highly metastatic L. guyanensis strain 5313 revealed retention of the approximately 5.3 kb RNA in all clones and no segregation of the virus with the metastatic trait. The restricted distribution of LRV1-related viruses among some strains of L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis circulating in the Amazon River basin makes these elements potential epidemiologic markers.

  5. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented.

  6. The genome of Leishmania panamensis: insights into genomics of the L. (Viannia) subgenus.

    PubMed Central

    Llanes, Alejandro; Restrepo, Carlos Mario; Vecchio, Gina Del; Anguizola, Franklin José; Lleonart, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Kinetoplastid parasites of the Leishmania genus cause several forms of leishmaniasis. Leishmania species pathogenic to human are separated into two subgenera, Leishmania (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia). Species from the Viannia subgenus cause predominantly cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central and South America, occasionally leading to more severe clinical presentations. Although the genomes of several species of Leishmania have been sequenced to date, only one belongs to this rather different subgenus. Here we explore the unique features of the Viannia subgenus by sequencing and analyzing the genome of L. (Viannia) panamensis. Against a background of conservation in gene content and synteny, we found key differences at the genomic level that may explain the occurrence of molecular processes involving nucleic acid manipulation and differential modification of surface glycoconjugates. These differences may in part explain some phenotypic characteristics of the Viannia parasites, including their increased adaptive capacity and enhanced metastatic ability. PMID:25707621

  7. Species delimitation and biogeography of a southern hemisphere liverwort clade, Frullania subgenus Microfrullania (Frullaniaceae, Marchantiophyta).

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin E; Larraín, Juan; Manukjanová, Alžběta; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan; Heinrichs, Jochen; de Lange, Peter; Suleiman, Monica; Thouvenot, Louis; von Konrat, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere. A backbone phylogeny for the subgenus is proposed, providing insight into evolution of morphological patterns and establishing the basis for an improved sectional classification of species within Microfrullania. Several species complexes are identified, the presence of two undescribed but genetically and morphologically distinct species is noted, and previously neglected names are discussed.

  8. Immune genes and divergent antimicrobial peptides in flies of the subgenus Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark A; Hamilton, Phineas T; Perlman, Steve J

    2016-10-24

    Drosophila is an important model for studying the evolution of animal immunity, due to the powerful genetic tools developed for D. melanogaster. However, Drosophila is an incredibly speciose lineage with a wide range of ecologies, natural histories, and diverse natural enemies. Surprisingly little functional work has been done on immune systems of species other than D. melanogaster. In this study, we examine the evolution of immune genes in the speciose subgenus Drosophila, which diverged from the subgenus Sophophora (that includes D. melanogaster) approximately 25-40 Mya. We focus on D. neotestacea, a woodland species used to study interactions between insects and parasitic nematodes, and combine recent transcriptomic data with infection experiments to elucidate aspects of host immunity. We found that the vast majority of genes involved in the D. melanogaster immune response are conserved in D. neotestacea, with a few interesting exceptions, particularly in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); until recently, AMPs were not thought to evolve rapidly in Drosophila. Unexpectedly, we found a distinct diptericin in subgenus Drosophila flies that appears to have evolved under diversifying (positive) selection. We also describe the presence of the AMP drosocin, which was previously thought to be restricted to the subgenus Sophophora, in the subgenus Drosophila. We challenged two subgenus Drosophila species, D. neotestacea and D. virilis with bacterial and fungal pathogens and quantified AMP expression. While diptericin in D. virilis was induced by exposure to gram-negative bacteria, it was not induced in D. neotestacea, showing that conservation of immune genes does not necessarily imply conservation of the realized immune response. Our study lends support to the idea that invertebrate AMPs evolve rapidly, and that Drosophila harbor a diverse repertoire of AMPs with potentially important functional consequences.

  9. The role of wing geometric morphometrics in the identification of sandflies within the subgenus Lutzomyia.

    PubMed

    Giordani, B F; Andrade, A J; Galati, E A B; Gurgel-Gonçalves, R

    2017-07-14

    The Lutzomyia subgenus (Diptera: Psychodidae) includes sibling species with morphologically indistinguishable females. The aims of this study were to analyse variations in the size and shape of wings of species within the Lutzomyia subgenus and to assess whether these analyses might be useful in their identification. Wings (n = 733) of 18 species deposited in Brazilian collections were analysed by geometric morphometrics, using other genera and subgenera as outgroups. Shape variation was summarized in multivariate analyses and differences in wing size among species were tested by analysis of variance. The results showed significant variation in the sizes and shapes of wings of different Lutzomyia species. Two clusters within the Lutzomyia subgenus were distinguished in analyses of both males and females. In Cluster 1 (Lutzomyia ischnacantha, Lutzomyia cavernicola, Lutzomyia almerioi, Lutzomyia forattinii, Lutzomyia renei and Lutzomyia battistinii), scores for correct reclassification were high (females, kappa = 0.91; males, kappa = 0.90), whereas in Cluster 2 (Lutzomyia alencari, Lutzomyia ischyracantha, Lutzomyia cruzi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia gaminarai and Lutzomyia lichyi), scores for correct reclassification were low (females, kappa = 0.42; males, kappa = 0.48). Wing geometry was useful in the identification of some species of the Lutzomyia subgenus, but did not allow the identification of sibling species such as L. longipalpis and L. cruzi. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. A new species and subgenus of Elseya (Testudines: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Amepou, Yolarnie; Anamiato, Jim; Georges, Arthur

    2015-08-21

    The New Guinea freshwater turtle, Elseya novaeguineae (senu lato) is a long-term, widespread resident of New Guinea and has been subject to substantial vicariance in one of the most geologically dynamic regions on earth. Thus, it should come as no surprise that the taxonomy of this turtle is poorly resolved. Elseya novaeguineae has long been recognized as a species complex, though which elements of this taxon warrant recognition as separate species has been debated. In this paper, we restrict Elseya novaeguineae to the Birds Head region of New Guinea, west of the Langguru Thrust and Fold Belt; we resurrect from synonymy Elseya schultzei for the populations north of the Central Ranges; and we describe a new species for the populations to the south of the Central Ranges. We revisit the classification of the genus Elseya throughout its range in the light of our work and recently published reports, and erect three subgenera that recognize the three major clades within this genus. Subgenus Elseya is the nominate subgenus, to which we assign Elseya dentata, E. branderhorsti and undescribed E. sp. aff. dentata [Sth Alligator]. Elseya novaeguineae, E. schultzei and our new species are assigned to a new subgenus, Hanwarachelys. Species of northern and eastern Queensland, E. albagula, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and the fossil taxa E. uberrima and E. nadibajagu, are assigned to subgenus Pelocomastes, resurrected from synonymy.

  11. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe section Firmae

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge

    2001-01-01

    A key to 13 species in the genus Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe section Firmae is provided for the Greater Antilles. Seven new species and one species that is a new report for the Greater Antilles are described. The new species are H. brunneosquamosa, H. cinereofirma, H. flavocampanulata, H. luboyi, H. miniatofirma, H. neofirma and H. olivaceofirma. The new report...

  12. Taxonomic notes on the small resin bees Hypanthidioides subgenus Michanthidium (Hyumenoptera: Megachilidae)(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of ongoing investigations on anthidiine bees, the type of Anthidium albitarse Friese was found to be conspecific with one of the two species of the small resin bees Hypanthidioides subgenus Michanthidium. The new combination, H. (Michanthidium) albitarse, is the oldest name resulting in Gnat...

  13. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...

  14. Phylogeography of three snubnose darters (Percidae: subgenus Ulocentra) endemic to the southeastern U.S

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Powers; Melvin L Warren

    2009-01-01

    The Yazoo Darter, Etheostoma raneyi (Percidae: subgenus Ulocentra), is a narrowly restricted endemic occurring in small tributaries in the Loessial Hills of the upper Yazoo River basin in northern Mississippi. The range of the species is shared between the Little Tallahatchie and adjacent upper Yocona rivers, but populations in the two...

  15. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge

    2004-01-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe...

  16. Phylogeny of osmophillic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We addressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied multidis...

  17. New bee species of Protosmia subgenus Nanosmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) described from the Palaearctic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among osmiine bees, Protosmia of the subgenus Nanosmia are not well known. Three new species are described and figured for both sexes: P. hamulifera n. sp. from the Arabian Peninsula, P. schwarzi n. sp. from Morocco and Tunisia, and P. trifida n. sp. from Turkey. For the recently described P. monta...

  18. A new subgenus and species of Oxaea from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new subgenus and species of Oxaea KLUG (Andrenidae: Oxaeinae) is described and figured from western Ecuador. Oxaea (Alloxaea) brevipalpis subg. n. et sp. n., is noteworthy for the retention of maxillary palpi (3-segmented), absence of metallic integumental coloration, and contrasting notal pubesce...

  19. Nuclear DNA sequence specific to Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus: a molecular marker for species identification.

    PubMed

    Luis, L; Ramírez, A H; Ramírez, R; Vélez, I D; Mendoza-León, A

    2001-04-01

    As shown by RFLP analysis, there is a high variability in the beta-tubulin gene region of Leishmania sp. Such variability has been used in the identification of these parasites, establishing differences between subgenera of New World Leishmania. We have found a region of 500 bp (beta500) upstream of the coding region of the beta-tubulin gene that is present in all strains tested belonging to the L. (Viannia) subgenus. This region apparently is a repetitive sequence and we have shown that it is specific to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus. This sequence has no homology with the genomic DNA isolated from either the species belonging to the L. (Leishmania) subgenus or other Kinetoplastida, such as Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, Leptomonas samueli, or Crithidia fasciciulata. The beta500 sequence showed sufficient variation to be used as a molecular marker in the identification of parasites. We established inter- and intrasubgenus differentiation and were able to discriminate at the species level in the Vianna subgenus. A PCR assay confirmed the specificity of the beta500 sequence.

  20. The subgenus Scaptia (Lepmia) Fairchild: redescription of females and description of a male (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae).

    PubMed

    Coscarón, S; Iide, P

    2003-09-01

    The subgenus Scaptia (Lepmia) Fairchild, known only from mountainous areas of Southeast of Brazil, is redescribed and illustrated. It is contrasted with similar species of Scaptia (Pseudoscione). It is more similar to the Australian Myioscaptia and Plinthina than to the other New World Scaptia subgenera.

  1. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  2. Five new species of subgenus Plesiominettia (Diptera, Lauxaniidae, Minettia) in southern China, with a key to known species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Yang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Plesiominettia Shatalkin from the southern China are described as new to science: Minettia (Plesiominettia) flavoscutellata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) longaciculiformis sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) nigrantennata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) tridentata sp. n. and Minettia (Plesiominettia) zhejiangica sp. n. One species, Minettia longistylis Sasakawa, is transferred to the subgenus Plesiominettia from Minettia s. str. A key to separate the known species of the subgenus is presented, along with a taxonomic list of species. The type materials of the new species are deposited in the China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC). PMID:26448714

  3. A synopsis of the subgenus Centris (Hemisiella) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) in Colombia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny

    2016-09-08

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Hemisiella Moure in Colombia is presented. The species included are Centris dichrootricha (Moure), C. facialis Mocsáry, C. merrillae Cockerell, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. vittata Lepeletier. In addition, C. nebulosa new species from northwestern Colombia is described, as well as the male of C. merrillae. Diagnoses for both sexes, occurrence records, and an identification key for the seven species of the subgenus that occur in the country are provided.

  4. Descriptions of Zavortinkius, a New Subgenus of Aedes, and the Eleven Included Species from the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    entomology studies -XVII. Biosystematics of Kenknightia, a new subgenus of the mosquito genus Aedes Meigen from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae...subgenus, Zavortinkius, in genus Aedes is described and includes 11 species of which four are new (Ae. brunhesi, Ae. geofioyi, Ae. huangae and Ae...Brygooi, Longipalpis and Monetus) based on features of the adults, female and male genitalia, pupae and fourth-instar larvae. Keys to adults, pupae

  5. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. V. Genus Aedes, Subgenus Diceromyia Theobald in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    region. III. Culicine adults and pupae . British Museum (Natural History), London, 499 pp. HADDOW, A. J. 1961. Studies on the biting habits and...CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MOSQUITO FAUNA OF SOUTHEAST ASIA. V. GENUS AEDES, SUBGENUS DICEROMYh4 THEOBALD IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. ’ BY John F. Reinert...INTRODUCTION The subgenus Diceromyia was originally described by Theobald (1911: 151) as a distinct genus based on a single African species. Several

  6. Description of two new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Macropsinae) from Guangxi Province, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the Macropsinae leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) damingshanensis Li, Dai & Li, sp. n. and Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) tishetshkini Li, Dai & Li sp. n., are described and illustrated from Guangxi Province of southern China. A key to males is provided to distinguish the species of the subgenus along with a map showing the distribution of the new species. PMID:23950687

  7. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A; Melo, Gabriel A R; Engel, Michael S

    2011-05-11

    A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe.

  8. A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from South India, with keys to Indian members of the subgenus Gomphostilbia.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, Sankarappan; Balachandran, Chellapandian; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Kannan, Mani; Dinakaran, Sundaram; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2015-06-24

    A new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) cauveryense sp. n., is described based on adult female, adult male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Kushalanagar, Karnataka, South India. This new species is placed in the decuplum subgroup of the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Keys to the species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia reported from India are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  9. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Melo, Gabriel A.R.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe. PMID:21594064

  10. Phylogenetic reappraisal of Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae) and related taxa, with a proposal of two new sections.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Qing; Yang, Jing-Tian; Zhou, Chun-Jing; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2014-03-01

    The phylogeny of subgenus Cyathophora and representatives of its closely related taxa within Allium were reconstructed based on nrDNA ITS and two plastid fragments (trnL-F and rpl32-trnL). The constructed phylogenies indicated that subgenus Cyathophora was not monophyletic and to be split in three parts positioned in different clusters. Allium kingdonii was unequivocally placed within subgenus Amerallium and formed an immediate sister relationship with New World Amerallium clade, suggesting an unexpected intercontinental disjunct distribution. For another, Allium trifurcatum was firmly nested within subgenus Butomissa next to A. tuberosum and A. ramosum, but it is distinctly different morphologically from the latter by thinly leathery bulb tunics, uniovulate locule and obviously 3-cleft stigma. Based on the geographic features, morphological and molecular evidences, two new sections, Kingdonia X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. kingdonii and Trifurcatum X.J.He et D.Q.Huang for A. trifurcatum, were proposed. The remaining three species of subgenus Cyathophora formed a well-defined clade, and the phylogenetic relationships among them recovered were consistent with previous findings. In addition, A. weschniakowii and A. subtilissimum were proven to be a member of subgenera Rhizirideum sensu stricto (s. str.) and Cepa, respectively, rather than subgenera Cepa and Polyprason previously proposed. Section Rhizomatosa represented by A. caespitosum should be subsumed within section Caespitosoprason of subgenus Rhizirideum s. str.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Phlebotomus species belonging to the subgenus Larroussius (Diptera, psychodidae) by ITS2 rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, T; Marinucci, M; Frusteri, L; Maroli, M; Pesson, B; Gramiccia, M

    2000-05-01

    In the genealogy of Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae), morphological analyses have indicated that the subgenus Larroussius is a monophyletic group which is most closely related to the subgenera Transphlebotomus and Adlerius. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the relationships among six representative species of the subgenus Larroussius and one species representatitive of the Phlebotomus subgenus, assessing sequences of the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Three of the species (P. perniciosus, P. ariasi and P. perfiliewi perfiliewi) were collected in different parts of the Mediterranean area. The trees estimated from parsimony and neighbour-joining analyses supported the monophyly of the Larroussius subgenus inferred from the morphological analysis. According to our data, P. ariasi may be a sister group to the rest of the Larroussius subgenus, although additional sequence data are needed to confirm this observation. Our results suggest that P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis are distinct species, in spite of the fact that there are only slight morphological differences. The strict congruence between the phylogeny of the Larroussius subgenus inferred from the ITS2 sequences and that based on morphological studies further confirmed the ability of the spacer sequence to identify recently-derived affiliations.

  12. North American Artemisia species from the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush): a phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2014-02-01

    The genus Artemisia consists of between 350 and 500 species with most of the North American endemic Artemisia species contained within the subgenus Tridentatae (Sagebrush). The reported uses of these species by Native American and First Nations peoples include analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, immunostimulation activity, as well as the treatment of afflictions from spiritual origins. Taxonomic revision for North American Sagebrush has created a number of synonyms that confuse the literature. The phytochemical diversity of the Tridentatae includes at least 220 distinct and important specialized metabolites. This manuscript reviews the current phytochemical, botanical and pharmacological understanding for the subgenus Tridentatae, and provides a foundation for future studies of the metabolomes of the Tridentatae. Modern approaches to phytochemical analysis and drug discovery are likely to provide interesting lead compounds in the near future.

  13. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Intidhar; Nouira, Said; Neubert, Eike

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and Sphincterochila tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of Sphincterochila tunetana with Sphincterochila cariosa from Lebanonshowed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of Sphincterochila baetica and Sphincterochila otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria. PMID:22368450

  14. Development of primers to amplify mitochondrial DNA control region of Old World porcupines (subgenus Hystrix).

    PubMed

    Trucchi, E; Gentile, G; Sbordoni, V

    2008-09-01

    Eight primers were developed for the amplification of mitochondrial DNA control region of Old world porcupines (subgenus Hystrix). Successful amplifications of low-quality DNA extracted from old (12 years old) and recent quills were performed, thus facilitating field sampling. Successful cross-species amplifications were obtained for Hystrix africaeaustralis, H. cristata and H. indica. Length and structure of mitochondrial DNA control region were analysed and its usefulness as genetic marker for interspecific and population investigation was discussed.

  15. Simulium hiroyukii, a new species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-01-20

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hiroyukii is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the darkened fore coxae and the pupal gill with eight long filaments, of which middle and dorsal triplets have elongated primary and secondary stalks, respectively. 

  16. Medical Entomology Studies - XV. A Revision of the Subgenus Paraedes of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Contributions of the American En tomo /ogica/ Institute - Volume 18, Number 4, 1981 MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY STUDIES - XV. A REVISION OF THE SUBGENUS...as follows: countries are in capital letters, provinces and primary administrative divisions are in italics, and place names are with the first...letter capitalized . The number of specimens examined from each province follows the place name of the province in the distribution section. The spelling

  17. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  18. Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Basidiomycota, Russulales): novel Asian species, worldwide phylogeny and evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Looney, Brian P; Le, Huyen T; De Crop, Eske; Das, Kanad; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Eberhardt, Ursula; Jiayu, Guo; Stubbe, Dirk; Hyde, Kevin D; Verbeken, Annemieke; Nuytinck, Jorinde

    2016-12-01

    Lactarius subg. Russularia is a large group of milkcaps occurring almost worldwide and dominant in many ecosystems. In this study we focus on new diversity, evolutionary relationships, divergence time, and origin of the subgenus. Six conifer symbionts are described as new to science: Lactarius atrii, L. aurantionitidus, L. dombangensis, L. flavigalactus, L. lachungensis, and L. sikkimensis. Species delimitation is assessed based on the concordance between morphological characteristics and an ITS phylogeny. Infrageneric relationships were studied using a phylogeny constructed from concatenated ITS-rpb2 data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. Results show that species in this subgenus do not cluster together according to their geographic origin. Intercontinental sister relationships between Europe/Asia/North America are common but actual conspecificity is rare. This result suggests that allopatric speciation has played an important role within this subgenus. Only few morphological characteristics tend to be phylogenetically informative, with the most important being presence or absence of true cystidia and the pileipellis structure. Two datasets were generated in order to estimate the age of L. subg. Russularia. The results suggest the origin of L. subg. Russularia to be in the Mid Miocene period. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 from South America with a synopsis of the known species of the subgenus in Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure in Colombia is presented. The species identified are Centris ferruginea Lepeletier, C. lutea Friese and C. aureiventris, a new species from the Colombian Andes. Morphological characters of both sexes, distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in Colombia are provided.

  20. New species of subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) from China, with redescription of T. (S.) parvauricula and a key to all known species of the Oriental Region (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula)

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Guo-Xi; Men, Qiu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species of Tipula (Sivatipula) biprocessa sp. n. from Guangxi, China is described and illustrated as new in the subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) Alexander, 1964. Tipula (Sivatipula) parvauricula Alexander, 1941 is redescribed and illustrated based on additional morphological characters. Semen pump of this subgenus is discussed. A key to all described species in this group is compiled. PMID:27047238

  1. Mitochondrial COI gene as a tool in the taxonomy of mosquitoes Culex subgenus Melanoconion.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Emerson, Kevin J; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Greni, Susan; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features. The difficulty in reaching accurate species determinations when studying specimens of Culex (Melanoconion) has been extensively documented as a real limitation to expand knowledge of these insects. We tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene COI as a complementary tool in the taxonomy of Melanoconion. Using a data set of 120 COI sequences from Culex specimen captured in several localities in Brazil, the utility of COI barcodes for species delimitation is discussed through the evaluation of genetic divergences among specimens and the clustering patterns of species in three topologies obtained with Neighbor Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For all specimens included in this study a previous morphological examination was performed, and most of the taxonomical determinations were corroborated using the COI barcode. We generated COI sequences that belong to 48 species of Melanoconion, with a mean intraspecific K2P genetic divergence of 3%; and all interspecific divergence values higher than the intraspecific divergence values. This is the first comprehensive study of subgenus Melanoconion, with evidence of COI as a useful and accessible DNA barcode.

  2. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles: Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Lodge, D Jean

    2004-11-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe are H. albomarginata and H. ovinoides. The new reports are H. caespitosa, H. coccinea, H. cf. miniata, H. papillata, and H. subovina. Three new combinations are proposed: Hygrocybe mycenoides, H. papillata and H. subovina.

  3. Revision of the subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari of Scymnus Kugelann (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), with descriptions of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaosheng; Canepari, Claudio; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari, 1997 of Scymnus Kugelann, 1794 is herein revised. Seven species of the Orthoscymnus fauna are recognized, of which four species, Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) jilongicus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) paradoxus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) crispatus sp. n. and Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) duomaculatus sp. n., are described as new to science. Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) rhododendri Canepari is recorded from China for the first time. Scymnus (Pullus) robustibasalis Yu is transferred to the subgenus Orthoscymnus (comb. n.). All species are diagnosed, described and illustrated, and distributions are provided for each species. A key to the species is included. PMID:26865817

  4. Revision of the subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari of Scymnus Kugelann (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaosheng; Canepari, Claudio; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    The subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari, 1997 of Scymnus Kugelann, 1794 is herein revised. Seven species of the Orthoscymnus fauna are recognized, of which four species, Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) jilongicus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) paradoxus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) crispatus sp. n. and Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) duomaculatus sp. n., are described as new to science. Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) rhododendri Canepari is recorded from China for the first time. Scymnus (Pullus) robustibasalis Yu is transferred to the subgenus Orthoscymnus (comb. n.). All species are diagnosed, described and illustrated, and distributions are provided for each species. A key to the species is included.

  5. Two new species of the subgenus Cardiobioramix Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Bioramix Bates) from the Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Chun; Egorov, L V; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-05-18

    Two new species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae: Platyscelidini) belonging to the subgenus Cardiobioramix of the genus Bioramix are described. The first one, B. (C.) jinchuanensis sp. nov. known from the Chinese Province Sichuan Jinchuan, is characterized by the elongated parameres which are uniquely curved near the apex. The second one, B. (C.) maoxianensis sp. nov. described from Sichuan Maoxian and can be distinguished from the closely related B. (C.) szetschuana, B. (C.) kulzeri and B. (C.) subaenescens by the basally parallel parameres. A new identification key is provided to all known Chinese representatives of the subgenus Cardiobioramix.

  6. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color.

  7. Taxonomy of the subgenus Euleptarthrus Jakobson (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Osoriinae, Priochirus) of China with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-02-08

    Three new species of subgenus Euleptarthrus Jakobson, 1908 of the genus Priochirus Sharp, 1887 are described from China: P. (E.) trifurcus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Xizang, P. (E.) deltodontus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Yunnan and P. (E.) curtidentatus Wu & Zhou sp. nov. from Xizang and Yunnan. Diagnoses are also given for two species previously described from China, P. (E.) chinensis Bernhauer, 1933 and P. (E.) subbrevicornis Bernhauer, 1934. An updated version of the key to all Chinese species of the subgenus Euleptarthrus is provided. Important morphological characters are illustrated.

  8. Lichenometric dating using Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon in the Patagonian Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibotti, Irene Adriana; Villalba, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    This study represents the first attempt to develop and apply lichenometric dating curves of Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon for dating glacier fluctuations in the Patagonian Andes. Six glaciers were studied along the Patagonian Andes. Surfaces of known ages (historical evidences and tree-ring analyses) were used as control sites to develop indirect lichenometric dating curves. Dating curves developed for the studied glaciers show the same general logarithmic form, indicating that growth rate of subgenus Rhizocarpon decreases over time. The strong west-east precipitation gradient across the Andean Cordillera introduces statistically significant differences in the growth curves, with faster growth rates in the moist west sites than the drier eastern sites. Latitudinal difference among the studied glaciers does not appear to be a major factor regulating lichen growth rates. Therefore, we developed two lichenometric curves for dating glacier fluctuations in wetter and drier sites in the Patagonian Andes during the past 450 yrs. Application of the developed curves to moraine dating allowed us to complement glacial chronologies previously obtained by tree-ring analyses. A first chronosequence for moraine formation in the Torrecillas Glacier (42°S) is presented. Our findings confirm the utility of lichenometry to date deglaciated surfaces in the Patagonian Andes.

  9. Unusual sub-genus associations of faecal Prevotella and Bacteroides with specific dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Laghi, Luca; Gobbetti, Marco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-10-21

    Diet has a recognized effect in shaping gut microbiota. Many studies link an increase in Prevotella to high-fibre diet, while Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets. Nevertheless, closely related species and strains may harbour different genetic pools; therefore, further studies should aim to understand whether species of the same genus are consistently linked to dietary patterns or equally responsive to diet variations. Here, we used oligotyping of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to exploit the diversity within Prevotella and Bacteroides genera in faecal samples of omnivore and non-omnivore subjects from a previously studied cohort. A great heterogeneity was found in oligotype composition. Nevertheless, different oligotypes within the same genus showed distinctive correlation patterns with dietary components and metabolome. We found that some Prevotella oligotypes are significantly associated with the plant-based diet but some are associated with animal-based nutrients, and the same applies to Bacteroides. Therefore, an indiscriminate association of Bacteroidetes genera with specific dietary patterns may lead to an oversimplified vision that does not take into account sub-genus diversity and the different possible responses to dietary components. We demonstrated that Prevotella and Bacteroides oligotypes show distinctive correlation patterns with dietary components and metabolome. These results substantiate a current oversimplification of diet-dependent microbe-host associations and highlighted that sub-genus differences must be taken into account when planning gut microbiota modulation for health benefits.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the colonization of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) trees.

    PubMed

    Feldhaar, Heike; Fiala, Brigitte; Gadau, Jürgen; Mohamed, Maryati; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2003-06-01

    To elucidate the evolution of one of the most species-rich ant-plant symbiotic systems, the association between Crematogaster (Myrmicinae) and Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in South-East Asia, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the ant partners. For the phylogenetic analysis partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II were sequenced and Maximum Parsimony analysis was performed. The analyzed Crematogaster of the subgenus Decacrema fell into three distinct clades which are also characterized by specific morphological and ecological traits (queen morphology, host-plants, and colony structure). Our results supported the validity of our currently used morphospecies concept for Peninsula Malaysia. However, on a wider geographic range (including North and North-East Borneo) some morphospecies turned out to be species complexes with genetically quite distinct taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis and host association studies do not indicate strict cocladogenesis between the subgenus Decacrema and their Macaranga host-plants because multiple ant taxa occur on quite distinct host-plants belonging to different clades within in the genus Macaranga. These results support the view that host-shifting or host-expansion is common in the ants colonizing Macaranga. Additionally, the considerable geographic substructuring found in the phylogenetic trees of the ants suggests that allopatric speciation has also played a role in the diversification and the current distribution of the Decacrema ants.

  11. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster ( Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Blaimer, Bonnie B

    2012-01-01

    The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase). These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel, Crematogaster telolafysp. n., Crematogaster razanasp. n., Crematogaster volamenasp. n. and Crematogaster mpanjonosp. n.. Two new synonyms of Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel are recognized, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn.n. and Crematogaster voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for Crematogaster rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola and Crematogaster voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the Crematogaster madecassa-group (Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster telolafy and Crematogaster razana) and the Crematogaster volamena-group (Crematogaster volamena and Crematogaster mpanjono); Crematogaster rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in Crematogaster rasoherinae and Crematogaster madecassa, and unusually large workers in Crematogaster volamena resembling a major caste.

  12. Revision of the Neotropical species of the subgenus Atrichopogon (Psilokempia) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Gustavo R; Marino, Pablo I; Huerta, Herón

    2015-08-20

    This revision of the midges in the subgenus Psilokempia Enderlein of Atrichopogon Kieffer provides a brief description of the subgenus, diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations and a key to adult males and females of the 17 species from the Neotropical region, as well as distributional records of both new and previously described species. Six new species are described and illustrated: A. arti, A. javieri, A. longirostris, A. nahuelbutensis, A. sergioi and A. woodruffi (n. spp.). The type materials of all previously known Neotropical species except A. penicillatus Delècolle & Rieb were examined. Atrichopogon altivolans Macfie, A. aridus Spinelli & Marino, A. domizii Spinelli, A. glaber Macfie, A. gordoni Macfie, A. insigniventris Macfie, A. pectinatus Macfie and A. penicillatus are redescribed and illustrated, and notes on the types of A. echinodes Macfie, A. harrisi Macfie and A. sanctaeclarae Macfie are provided. Lectotypes are designated for A. glaber, A. insigniventris and A. pectinatus. The previously unknown males of A. altivolans, A. pectinatus and A. penicillatus are described and illustrated, and A. fimbriatus Macfie is recognized as a junior synonym of A. gordoni.

  13. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-09-23

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals.

  14. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Allen, Cerisse E; Zwaan, Bas J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and protandry), morphology (e.g., wing shape and color pattern), and behavior (e.g., chemical and visual signaling). Sexual selection and mating systems have been considered the primary forces driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera, and alternative hypotheses have been neglected. Here, we examine opportunities for sexual selection, natural selection, and the interplay between the two forces in the evolution of sexual differences in the moths and butterflies. Our primary goal is to identify mechanisms that either facilitate or constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism, rather than to resolve any perceived controversy between hypotheses that may not be mutually exclusive.

  15. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  16. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution.

  17. Nuclear and plastid DNA sequences reveal complex evolutionary patterns in Australian water-lilies (Nymphaea subgenus Anecphya, Nymphaeaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Australian water-lilies, Nymphaea subg. Anecphya. Our 52-taxa dataset covers all species of the subgenus except the newly described N. alexii and includes information from the nuclear ITS as well as from ...

  18. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F; Talavera, S; Carpenter, S; Nielsen, S A; Werner, D; Pagès, N

    2014-09-01

    In the past decade biting midges of the subgenus Avaritia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been popular subjects of applied entomological studies in Europe owing to their implication as biological vectors in outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. This study uses a combination of cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses to investigate wing shape as a means to infer species identification within this subgenus. In addition the congruence of morphological data with different phylogenetic hypotheses is tested. Five different species of the subgenus Avaritia were considered in the study (C. obsoletus (Meigen); C. scoticus Kettle and Lawson; C. chiopterus (Meigen); C. dewulfi Goetghebuer and C. imicola (Kieffer)). The study demonstrated that over 90% of individuals could be separated correctly into species by their wing shape and that patterns of morphological differentiation derived from the geometric morphometric analyses were congruent with phylogenies generated from sequencing data. Morphological data produced are congruent with monophyly of the subgenus Avaritia and the exclusion of C. dewulfi from the group containing C. obsoletus, C. scoticus and C. chiopterus. The implications of these results and their importance in a wider context of integrating multiple data types to interpret both phylogeny and species characterization is discussed.

  19. Revision of the genus Adelostoma (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Part 2: A new subgenus and species from Oman.

    PubMed

    Purchart, Luboš

    2017-04-28

    A new species Adelostoma muqalensis sp. nov. is described from Oman, figured and compared with its relatives. The new species is placed in a new monotypic subgenus, Omandelostoma subgen. nov. An identification key for subgenera of the genus Adelostoma is given.

  20. Phylogeography of the Subgenus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evolutionary History of Faunal Divergence between the Old and the New Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Izumitani, Hiroyuki F.; Kusaka, Yohei; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Toda, Masanori J.; Katoh, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The current subgenus Drosophila (the traditional immigrans-tripunctata radiation) includes major elements of temperate drosophilid faunas in the northern hemisphere. Despite previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, the phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila has not fully been resolved: the resulting trees have more or less varied in topology. One possible factor for such ambiguous results is taxon-sampling that has been biased towards New World species in previous studies. In this study, taxon sampling was balanced between Old and New World species, and phylogenetic relationships among 45 ingroup species selected from ten core species groups of the subgenus Drosophila were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, ancestral distributions and divergence times were estimated for each clade to test Throckmorton’s hypothesis that there was a primary, early-Oligocene disjunction of tropical faunas and a subsequent mid-Miocene disjunction of temperate faunas between the Old and the New Worlds that occurred in parallel in separate lineages of the Drosophilidae. Our results substantially support Throckmorton’s hypothesis of ancestral migrations via the Bering Land Bridge mainly from the Old to the New World, and subsequent vicariant divergence of descendants between the two Worlds occurred in parallel among different lineages of the subgenus Drosophila. However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene. PMID:27462734

  1. Phylogeography of the Subgenus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evolutionary History of Faunal Divergence between the Old and the New Worlds.

    PubMed

    Izumitani, Hiroyuki F; Kusaka, Yohei; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Toda, Masanori J; Katoh, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The current subgenus Drosophila (the traditional immigrans-tripunctata radiation) includes major elements of temperate drosophilid faunas in the northern hemisphere. Despite previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, the phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila has not fully been resolved: the resulting trees have more or less varied in topology. One possible factor for such ambiguous results is taxon-sampling that has been biased towards New World species in previous studies. In this study, taxon sampling was balanced between Old and New World species, and phylogenetic relationships among 45 ingroup species selected from ten core species groups of the subgenus Drosophila were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, ancestral distributions and divergence times were estimated for each clade to test Throckmorton's hypothesis that there was a primary, early-Oligocene disjunction of tropical faunas and a subsequent mid-Miocene disjunction of temperate faunas between the Old and the New Worlds that occurred in parallel in separate lineages of the Drosophilidae. Our results substantially support Throckmorton's hypothesis of ancestral migrations via the Bering Land Bridge mainly from the Old to the New World, and subsequent vicariant divergence of descendants between the two Worlds occurred in parallel among different lineages of the subgenus Drosophila. However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene.

  2. Two new species of the ground beetle subgenus Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebria) from Japan and first description of larvae of the subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 is one of the more diverse subgenera of the genus Nebria Latreille, 1802 in East Asia, and its taxonomy remains unrevised at the subgeneric and specific levels. In this paper, two new species of this subgenus are described from Japan. Nebria quinquelobata sp. n. is described from Mt. Myôkô and is externally similar to Nebria saeviens Bates, 1883, to which specimens of this new species previously had been assigned. Nebria yatsugatakensis sp. n. is described from the Yatsugatake Mountains and is externally similar to locally adjacent species that had been recognized as Nebria sadona Bates, 1883 and were recently revealed as separate species. Both new species are distinguished by morphological (the shape of the endophallus) and morphometric (geometric morphometrics of the pronotum and aedeagus) features. For Nebria yatsugatakensis, the morphology of all larval instars is described based on specimens reared from eggs laid by collected adults. These results, together with previous studies of the species-level taxonomy of Sadonebria and larval morphology of other Nebria subgenera, suggest (i) the utility of geometric morphometrics in species-level taxonomy; (ii) the importance of larval secondary setae in the subgeneric taxonomy of the genus Nebria; and (iii) the presence of further cryptic species in Sadonebria. PMID:27110197

  3. Karyotype variation, evolution and phylogeny in Borago (Boraginaceae), with emphasis on subgenus Buglossites in the Corso-Sardinian system.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Federico; Coppi, Andrea; Bigazzi, Massimo

    2006-10-01

    Karyological variation in the Mediterranean genus Borago and cytogeography of subgenus Buglossites in Corsica, Sardinia and the Tuscan Archipelago were investigated in combination with a molecular phylogenetic analysis aimed at elucidating relationships between subgenera and taxa with different chromosome features. Karyotype analysis was performed on population samples of B. pygmaea, B. morisiana, B. trabutii and B. officinalis. Phylogenetic analyses were based on ITS1 nrDNA and matK cpDNA sequences. Four base numbers were found, x = 6, 8, 9 and 15, and three ploidy levels based on x = 8. In subgenus Buglossites the Sardinian endemic B. morisiana is diploid with 2n = 18, while B. pygmaea includes three allopatric cytotypes with 2n = 30 (Sardinia), 2n = 32 (southern Corsica) and 2n = 48 (central northern Corsica and Capraia). In subgenus Borago, the Moroccan endemic B. trabutii and the widespread B. officinalis have 2n = 12 and 2n = 16, respectively. Molecular data support the monophyly of Borago, while relationships in subgenus Borago remain unclear. Borago trabutii appears as the earliest divergent lineage and is sister to a clade with B. officinalis, B. morisiana and B. pygmaea. Subgenus Buglossites is also monophyletic, but no correspondence between ITS1 phylogeny and B. pygmaea cytotypes occurs. Chromosome variation in Borago is wider than previously known. Two base numbers may represent the ancestral condition in this small genus, x = 6 or x = 8. An increase in chromosome number and karyotype asymmetry, a decrease in chromosome size and heterochromatin content, and the appearance of polyploidy are the most significant karyological changes associated with the divergence of the Buglossites clade. High ITS1 variation in the tetra- and hypotetraploid races of B. pygmaea suggests a multiple origin, while the lower polymorphism of the hexaploid race and its allopatric distribution in the northernmost part of the range is better explained with a single origin via

  4. Karyotype Variation, Evolution and Phylogeny in Borago (Boraginaceae), with Emphasis on Subgenus Buglossites in the Corso-Sardinian System

    PubMed Central

    SELVI, FEDERICO; COPPI, ANDREA; BIGAZZI, MASSIMO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Karyological variation in the Mediterranean genus Borago and cytogeography of subgenus Buglossites in Corsica, Sardinia and the Tuscan Archipelago were investigated in combination with a molecular phylogenetic analysis aimed at elucidating relationships between subgenera and taxa with different chromosome features. • Methods Karyotype analysis was performed on population samples of B. pygmaea, B. morisiana, B. trabutii and B. officinalis. Phylogenetic analyses were based on ITS1 nrDNA and matK cpDNA sequences. • Key Results Four base numbers were found, x = 6, 8, 9 and 15, and three ploidy levels based on x = 8. In subgenus Buglossites the Sardinian endemic B. morisiana is diploid with 2n = 18, while B. pygmaea includes three allopatric cytotypes with 2n = 30 (Sardinia), 2n = 32 (southern Corsica) and 2n = 48 (central northern Corsica and Capraia). In subgenus Borago, the Moroccan endemic B. trabutii and the widespread B. officinalis have 2n = 12 and 2n = 16, respectively. Molecular data support the monophyly of Borago, while relationships in subgenus Borago remain unclear. Borago trabutii appears as the earliest divergent lineage and is sister to a clade with B. officinalis, B. morisiana and B. pygmaea. Subgenus Buglossites is also monophyletic, but no correspondence between ITS1 phylogeny and B. pygmaea cytotypes occurs. • Conclusions Chromosome variation in Borago is wider than previously known. Two base numbers may represent the ancestral condition in this small genus, x = 6 or x = 8. An increase in chromosome number and karyotype asymmetry, a decrease in chromosome size and heterochromatin content, and the appearance of polyploidy are the most significant karyological changes associated with the divergence of the Buglossites clade. High ITS1 variation in the tetra- and hypotetraploid races of B. pygmaea suggests a multiple origin, while the lower polymorphism of the hexaploid race and its allopatric distribution in the

  5. Medicinal plant complexes of Salvia subgenus Calosphace: an ethnobotanical study of new world sages.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Aaron A; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2013-03-07

    The species of Salvia subgenus Calosphace are used medicinally and ritually in numerous traditions of folk healing among indigenous cultures of North and South America with more than 500 species. These species contain numerous bioactive terpenes and terpenoids, some active at human opioid and GABA receptors, which may contribute to their effectiveness as folk medicines. Medicinal plant complexes contain species which share common names, morphological and/or aromatic properties, and medicinal uses; these complexes are found in traditional systems of medicine. Our research looks for complexes within Calosphace and the secondary metabolites they contain. Several studies have combined molecular phylogenetics and ethnopharmacology to successfully target active medicinal species. In this paper, we have selected a monophyletic clade, Salvia subgenus Calosphace, and performed a literature search to identify medicinal plant complexes within it. We created a database from over 200 references, found using keywords, and herbarium sheets. To identify medicinal plant complexes within the database, all species with shared vernacular names were first grouped. If the species sharing common names had similar medicinal uses and morphological similarity, they were concluded to be a complex. In order to determine the accuracy and validity of this approach, the chia complex was used as control, and we more species than reported by all of the published references combined. After identifying complexes and species within each, we searched the phytochemical literature to identify all reported secondary metabolites for each. We identify four previously unidentified complexes. Mirto (5 species) is used extensively in the treatment of the folk illness susto and other illnesses in Mexico, and is characterized by red flowers. Ñucchu (7 species) used as a symbolic element in religious processions and in the treatment of respiratory ailments in Peru and characterized by red flowers. Cantueso (2

  6. Palaearctic Chelostoma bees of the subgenus Gyrodromella (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas

    2015-03-20

    Gyrodromella represents a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Chelostoma (Megachilidae) containing eight species, which are confined to the Palaearctic region. Analysis of female pollen loads, field observations and literature data suggest that all C. (Gyrodromella) species are oligolectic harvesting pollen exclusively on flowers of Campanula and possibly also closely related Campanulaceae genera. Preexisting linear cavities in dead wood or stems serve as nesting sites and mud partly combined with pebbles is used for the construction of cell partitions and nest plug. The taxonomic revision of C. (Gyrodromella) revealed the existence of two undescribed species: C. clypeale spec. nov. from central and eastern Turkey, and C. tonsum spec. nov. from eastern Turkey. Chelostoma confusum (Benoist, 1934) and C. proximum Schletterer, 1889 are newly synonymized with C. rapunculi (Lepeletier, 1841), and a lectotype of C. handlirschi Schletterer, 1889 is designated. Keys for the identification of all C. (Gyrodromella) species are given.

  7. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese) Baker (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana Paula G de; Vieira, Ana Claudia M; Wendt, Tânia

    2012-12-01

    The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology.

  8. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  9. Phylogenetic Patterns of Geographical and Ecological Diversification in the Subgenus Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations. PMID:23152919

  10. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster ( Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Blaimer, Bonnie B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase). These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel, Crematogaster telolafy sp. n., Crematogaster razana sp. n., Crematogaster volamena sp. n. and Crematogaster mpanjono sp. n.. Two new synonyms of Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel are recognized, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn. n. and Crematogaster voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for Crematogaster rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola and Crematogaster voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the Crematogaster madecassa-group (Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster telolafy and Crematogaster razana) and the Crematogaster volamena-group (Crematogaster volamena and Crematogaster mpanjono); Crematogaster rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in Crematogaster rasoherinae and Crematogaster madecassa, and unusually large workers in Crematogaster volamena resembling a major caste. PMID:22711995

  11. Taxonomy, bionomics and faunistics of the nominate subgenus of Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, with the description of five new species (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Mylabrini).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2014-05-29

    The nominate subgenus of the mylabrine genus Mylabris is revised: five new species, M. (M.) alpicola sp.n., M. (M.) cernyi sp.n., M. (M.) mediorientalis sp.n., and M. (M.) pseudoemiliae sp.n., are described and figured; M. (M.) apiceguttata sp.n., is provisionally refered to the nominate subgenus. M. (M.) rishwani Makhan, 2012 is synonymized with M. (M.) quadripunctata (Linnaeus, 1767). The other 20 species are characterized by short descriptions and figures, and a key to the species is provided. Tentatively, M. barezensis  and M. batnensis are placed in the nominate subgenus. The bionomics of the species is summarized in tables including information on phenology, elevation, habitat preference, host plants, larval biology, and host insects. Zoogeographic analysis of the subgenus was carried out on the basis of all available faunistic records from literature and collections which are summarized in Appendix.

  12. Uca (Xeruca), a new subgenus for the Taiwanese fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-22

    The fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), restricted to the western part of Taiwan and the offshore Penghu (Pescadores) Islands in the Taiwan Strait, has been placed under the subgenus Uca (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817 (= Uca (Thalassuca) Crane, 1975) based on only less than a dozen specimens, but later suggested under the subgenus Tubuca Bott, 1973 because the similarity of external morphology. A suite of characters of carapace, major cheliped, gastric mill, male first gonopod, and chela handedness, as well as the phylogenic relationships (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA), nevertheless support this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Xeruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. formosensis.

  13. Procambarus (Girardiella) holifieldi, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Alabama with a revision of the Hagenianus Group in the subgenus Girardiella

    Treesearch

    Guenter A. Schuster; Christopher A. Taylor; Susan B. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Procambarus (Girardiella) holifieldi, new species, is a primary burrowing crayfish from a low-lying field in Perry County, Alabama. It belongs to the Hagenianus Group in the subgenus Girardiella. The new species is morphologically most similar to Procambarus (

  14. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  15. On Verhoeff's Otostigmus subgenus Malaccopleurus, the nudus group of Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876, and Digitipes Attems, 1930, with a description of the foetus stadium larva in O. sulcipes Verhoeff, 1937, (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2015-11-05

    The species of Verhoeff's Southeast Asian subgenus Malaccopleurus (an unavailable name) are here assigned to subgenus Otostigmus. His Otostigmus (M.) trisulcatus Verhoeff, 1937 is a junior subjective synonym of O. (M.) sulcipes Verhoeff, 1937. The foetus stadium of O. sulcipes is described. Otostigmus (M.) sutteri Würmli, 1972, is also assigned to the subgenus Otostigmus and may be conspecific with O. geophilinus Haase, 1887, the specimens of which show some variation. The specimen from Teinzo, Myanmar with labels O. politus Karsch, 1881, and O. geophilinus is of uncertain identity. Otostigmus sulcipes closely resembles O. nudus Pocock, 1890, and O. taeniatus Pocock, 1896, of Lewis's (2010) nudus group. Otostigmus lawrencei Dobroruka, 1968, resembles a Cormocephalus species and is of uncertain identity. The genus Digitipes is characterised by the process on the femur of the ultimate legs in males. Three African species have been recognised. The males of Digitipes verdascens Attems, 1930, D. reichardti (Kraepelin, 1903) are known but D. krausi Dobroruka, 1968, lacks the femoral process and was described as a female. In these three species, only the tergite of the ultimate leg-bearing segment is marginate but in other characters D. krausi resembles Otostigmus species and is assigned to Otostigmus as O. krausi (Dobroruka, 1968) comb. nov. The Indian Digitipes periyarensis Joshi & Edgecombe, 2013, which differs markedly from other Digitipes species is a junior subjective synonym of Otostigmus nudus. It is possible that future molecular studies may show that some species currently assigned to Otostigmus are, in fact, Digitipes.

  16. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species

    PubMed Central

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color. PMID:25685007

  17. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  18. Mites of the subgenus Neotomobia n. subg. (Acariformes: Myobiidae: Radfordia), parasites of the subfamily Neotominae (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    A new subgenus Neotomobia n. subg. (Acariformes: Myobiidae: Radfordia) is established for species parasitising rodents of the subfamily Neotominae (Rodentia: Cricetidae): Radfordia subuliger Ewing, 1938 (type-species), Radfordia eremici Fain & Bochkov, 2002, Radfordia neotomae Jameson & Whitaker, 1975 and Radfordia hamiltoni Jameson & Whitaker, 1975. Three new species are described: Radfordia peromyscus n. sp. from Peromyscus megalops Merriam from Mexico, Radfordia onychomys n. sp. from Onychomys leucogaster (Wied-Neuwied) from the USA and Radfordia megadontomys n. sp. from Megadontomys thomasi (Merriam) from Mexico.

  19. Phylogeny of Allium L. subgenus Anguinum (G. Don. ex W.D.J. Koch) N. Friesen (Amaryllidaceae).

    PubMed

    Herden, Tobias; Hanelt, Peter; Friesen, Nikolai

    2016-02-01

    The disjunct distribution of the subgenus Anguinum of the genus Allium makes it a good candidate to test models of Northern hemisphere biogeography. Here we conduct phylogenetic analysis with the nuclear marker ITS and three different chloroplast markers (rps16 intron, rbcL-atpB spacer, rpl32-trnL spacer). Divergence time estimations (Beast) relying on published ITS substitution rates and ancestral range reconstructions were calculated to elucidate the biogeographical history of the subgenus. Additionally we compiled distribution maps for all species with data taken from the literature, herbariums and data from field observations. The main radiation of the subgenus took place in the last one million years and is still going on. They have their origins in the mid Miocene in East Asia and were highly influenced by the climate fluctuations in the Pliocene/Pleistocene period. Conflicting tree topologies between nuclear and cpDNA markers of Allium tricoccum Solander indicate that the species is of hybridogenous origin. Cloning the ITS sequence revealed the parental copies and confirmed our conclusion. One originated from the Eurasian and the other from the East Asian clade. We were able to show that it reached North America most likely via the Beringia around 2.5mya (95% HPD of 0.35-5.26mya). Our data suggest that Allium victorialis L. is only distributed in mountain pastures in Europe as it forms a well-supported clade in the ITS tree. In the analysis of the molecular markers we found two distinct types of Allium ochotense Prokh. and we suggest splitting the species based on Prokhanov's (1930) proposal. Taxonomical remarks and an identification key to all species of the subgenus Anguinum is provided.

  20. New species and records of Chimarra (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) from Northeastern Brazil, and an updated key to subgenus Chimarra (Chimarrita).

    PubMed

    Vilarino, Albane; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Chimarra (Chimarrita) are described and illustrated, Chimarra (Chimarrita) mesodontasp. n. and Chimarra (Chimarrita) anticheirasp. n. from the Chimarra (Chimarrita) rosalesi and Chimarra (Chimarrita) simpliciforma species groups, respectively. The morphological variation of Chimarra (Curgia) morio is also illustrated. Chimarra (Otarrha) odonta and Chimarra (Chimarrita) kontilos are reported to occur in the northeast region of Brazil for the first time. An updated key is provided for males and females of the all species in the subgenus Chimarrita.

  1. On the Cryptops subgenus Trichocryptops Verhoeff, 1937, with a discussion of the problems of differentiating Cryptops species (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2016-07-22

    Three putative species comprising Verhoeff's Cryptops subgenus Trichocryptops are here reviewed. There is little justification for the retention of the subgenus and the three species previously assigned to it are here placed in synonymy with the subgenus Cryptops. Cryptops (T.) malaccanus Verhoeff, 1937, closely resembles Nepalese C. doriae Pocock, 1891, and it is proposed that it be regarded as its junior subjective synonym. Cryptops doriae, as presently understood, is widely distributed and quite variable. Cryptops (T.) brachyraphe Attems, 1934, and C. (T.) iucundus Würmli, 1972, are very similar but bearing in mind the present paucity of material, they are here retained as separate species. The possible characters distinguishing populations of C. doriae, C. nepalensis Lewis, 1999 and the three "Trichocryptops" species and C. niuensis Chamberlin, 1920, are reviewed. The current situation is far from satisfactory. Individual variation, possible ontogenetic changes, a relative paucity of morphological characters and small numbers of individuals render decisions as to the status of some Cryptops specimens problematical and subjective.

  2. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  3. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A

  4. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini).

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is

  5. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  6. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania. Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. PMID:27289102

  7. Incongruence among mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear gene trees in Pinus subgenus Strobus (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kiyomi; Suwa, Atsushi; Sawada, Kei'ichi; Kato, Toshihide; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    Introgression has been considered to be one of main factors leading to phylogenetic incongruence among different datasets at lower taxonomic levels. In the plants of Pinaceae, the mtDNA, cpDNA, and nuclear DNA (nrDNA) may have different evolutionary histories through introgression because they are inherited maternally, paternally and biparentally, respectively. We compared mtDNA, cpDNA, and two low-copy nrDNA phylogenetic trees in the genus Pinus subgenus Strobus, in order to detect unknown past introgression events in this group. nrDNA trees were mostly congruent with the cpDNA tree, and supported the recent sectional and subsectional classification system. In contrast, mtDNA trees split the members of sect. Quinquefoliae into two groups that were not observed in the other gene trees. The factors constituting incongruence may be divided into the following two categories: the different splits within subsect. Strobus, and the non-monophyly of subsect. Gerardianae. The former was hypothesized to have been caused by the past introgression of cpDNA, mtDNA or both between Eurasian and North American species through Beringia. The latter was likely caused by the chimeric structure of the mtDNA sequence of P. bungeana, which might have originated through past hybridization, or through a horizontal transfer event and subsequent recombination.

  8. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  9. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2015-01-01

    Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented.

  10. Developmental and ultrastructural characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in species of Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis.

    PubMed

    Zini, Lucía Melisa; Galati, Beatriz Gloria; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Ferrucci, María Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Variations in pollen characters and tapetum behavior were recently acknowledged in the early-divergent family Nymphaeaceae and even within the genus Nymphaea, which probably is not monophyletic; some traits such as infratectum and tapetum type are also a matter of different interpretations. In this study, developmental characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis are provided for the first time. Observations were made in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana, and N. prolifera using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tapetum is of the secretory type and produces orbicules. At microspore and pollen grain stages, the distal and proximal walls differ considerably. This result supports the operculate condition of the aperture in Hydrocallis, and such aperture might be plesiomorphic for Nymphaeoideae. The infratectum is intermediate, composed of inter-columellae granular elements, robust columellae consisting of agglomerated granules, complete columellae, and fused columellae. Narrow microchannels are present and persist until the mature pollen grain stage. The membranous granular layer is often present in the pollen grains of Nymphaeaceae. In N. gardneriana, this layer is most probably a component of the intine because it is lost after acetolysis. Orbicules in the Nymphaeaceae are characterized as spherical or subspherical, with a smooth sporopolleninic wall that surrounds an electron-lucent core and with individual orbicules that usually merge to give irregular aggregations. The aperture, pollen wall ultrastructure, and the tapetum of the studied species are discussed in an evolutionary and systematic context, and these characters are also compared with those of other angiosperm lineages.

  11. [15 new serotypes of Salmonella of subgenus I isolated in Africa].

    PubMed

    Le Minor, S; Le Coueffic, E; Le Priol, A; Lefèvre, M; Duchassin, M; Chippaux, C; Boche, R; Mered, B; Saliou, P; Darrigol, J

    1976-01-01

    Filteen new serotypes of Salmonella belonging to the sub-genus I have been isolated in Africa. Isolated in Ivory Coast: S. dabou (8,20:Z4,Z23,l,W), S. elokate (9,12:c:1,7), S. assinie (3,10:1,w:Z5), S. anna (13,23:Z35:e,n,Z16), S. mpouto (16:m,t:-), S. banco (28:r:1,7), S. abidjan (38:b:l,w); in Senegal: S. bignona (17:b:e,n,Z15), S. lode (17:r:1,2), S. derkle (52,e,h:1,7); in Tchad: S. moussoro (1,6,14,25:i:e,n,Z15), S. drogana (1,4,12,27:r,i:e,n,Z15); in Algeria: S. hydra (21:c:1,6); in Haute-Volta S. farakan (28:Z10:1,5); in Republique Centrafricaine: S. babili (28:Z35:1,7).

  12. Comparative life histories of fishes in the subgenus Limia (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Cohen, S N; Regus, J U; Reynoso, Y; Mastro, T; Reznick, D N

    2015-07-01

    This study presents life-history descriptions for 12 species in the subgenus Limia, which are endemic to the Greater Antilles. All species in this study lack evidence of superfoetation, producing a single brood of offspring before developing subsequent broods. Interbrood intervals (number of days between parturition events) are also consistent with intervals of species that lack superfoetation. Maternal provisioning, characterized by matrotrophy index, is <1.0 for all species of Limia. This is consistent with species that provide little or no maternal provisioning to developing embryos after ovum fertilization (lecithotrophic). Four species exhibit potentially bi-modal size distributions of mature males. Work on other poeciliids suggests that such bimodal distributions can be caused by genetic polymorphisms in some species. Principle component analyses revealed an axis of interspecific variation in life histories that separated species with small size at maturity and the production of many, small offspring from those with large size at maturity and that produce few, large offspring. This pattern of life-history diversity occurs in many other groups of organisms.

  13. Systematics and evolution of the African pygmy mice, subgenus Nannomys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton-Davidian, J.; Robinson, T. J.; Veyrunes, F.

    2012-07-01

    African pygmy mice (subgenus Nannomys) are a group of small murine rodents that are widespread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Although this group has long been recognized for its extensive chromosomal diversity, the highly conserved morphology of its members has made taxonomic assignments problematic. Renewed interest resulting from a series of cytogenetic and molecular investigations has led to the identification of novel patterns of diversification in these rodents that are reviewed herein. These approaches have considerably improved species delimitation and provide tentative diagnostic criteria as well as preliminary phylogenetic relationships that will be refined as more taxa are investigated. Although sparse, ecological data suggest that pygmy mice may exhibit original reproductive traits that deserve further investigation. Chromosomal diversity undoubtedly remains one of the most interesting features of African pygmy mouse biology. They display several karyotypic traits that are rare in mammals: (i) their genomes tolerate the recurrent formation of tandem fusions and sex-autosome translocations, both of which are rare in other mammals due to their highly deleterious effects on fertility; (ii) they exhibit the first case of a whole arm exchange involving an X chromosome, and (iii) two species show novel means of sex chromosome determination - one exhibits XY females, whereas the other harbors populations in which males have no Y chromosome. The diversity of African pygmy mice offers a unique opportunity to study the processes involved in their radiation, and in a broader context, the evolution of sex chromosome determination in mammals.

  14. Systematical studies on the species of the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latreille) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Barkan, N P; Aytekin, A M

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the 12 species which belong to the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) by identifying, collating and testing the applicability of geometrics morphometrics for distinguishing the species. This was carried out on 133 females and 42 males which were collected from various localities in Turkey. After digitizing landmarks on the right fore wings, 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinates were calculated and by Procrustes analysis the coordinates were standardized and superimposed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) were performed to show the distribution of all species. Then, deformations which appeared in thin-plate splines were observed. Mean values of all the specimens were calculated and Sequential, Agglomerative, Hierarchical, and Nesting clustering method (SAHN) was performed with these data to obtain the dissimilarity trees. It can be concluded that all species were found to have consistently different wing shapes from each other. In females, the species B. armeniacus, B. mesomelas and B. pomorum which resemble each other, were also found to be similar based on their wing morphometry. Both in females and males, the subspecies B. sylvarum citrinofasciatus and B. sylvarum daghestanicus and the species B. humilis and B. laesus exposed high similarity in wing morphometry. In males, results showed that the species B. armeniacus and B. mesomelas and the species B. humilis and B. zonatus have very similar wing shape.

  15. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-12-02

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided.

  16. Revision of the orchid bee subgenus Euglossella (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Part I, The decorata species group

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Euglossella, one of the most distinctive subgenera of orchid bees of the genus Euglossa, is composed of two characteristic assemblages of species, one of them comprising bees bearing the strongly metallic integument trademark of the genus (viridis species group), and the other consisting of bees with a brown integument shaded with metallic iridescence (decorata species group). Here we provide the first of two parts of a revision of Euglossella, providing diagnostic definitions for the subgenus, the decorata species group, and all the species included therein. Six species are included in the decorata group, one new: Euglossa (Euglossella) aurantia, sp. n.; Euglossa (Euglossella) apiformis Schrottky, resurrected status; Euglossa (Euglossella) decorata Smith, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) singularis Mocsáry, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) cosmodora Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel; and Euglossa (Euglossella) perpulchra Moure and Schlindwein. Euglossa meliponoides Ducke and Euglossa urarina Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel are newly synonymized under Euglossa decorata, Euglossa decorata ruficauda Cockerell is synonymized under Euglossa singularis, and a neotype is designated for Euglossa apiformis. PMID:22144858

  17. Physiological correlates of chill susceptibility in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Jensen, Signe Overgaard; Overgaard, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not too severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects. Specifically, we exposed larval and adult Manduca sexta, larval Bombyx mori, and adult Heliconius cydno to stressful cold (0°C) for extended periods of time. Subsequently we measured chill coma recovery time (CCRT), ion- and water balance, and muscle Vm. As expected we find that resting hemolymph [K(+)] is high and that resting hemolymph [Na(+)] is low compared to most other insect species. Muscle Vm depolarised considerably during acute cold exposure, but did so in a manner that was not associated with changes in ion balance. However, prolonged cold exposure coincided with an increase of hemolymph [K(+)] and further depolarisation of Vm which correlated well with prolongation of CCRT. Combined this demonstrates how insects with different ionic compositions generally suffer from similar consequences of cold stress as other species, such that cold tolerance of chill-susceptible insects within Lepidoptera is also intimately linked to maintenance of ion balance and membrane polarisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Female Cibarial Armature of New World Culex, Subgenus Melanoconion and Related Subgenera with Notes on this Character in Subgenera Culex, Lutzia and Neoculex and Genera Galindomyia and Deinocerites (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Subgenus Mieraedes: antiZ&mmagnorum Dyar ( Puerto Rico), bisuzcatus (Coquillett) (Dominican Republic). Subgenus MicrocuZex: eonsozator Dyar and...in the spissipes subtype (spissipes, eprmastasis, opisthopus, por- tesi , taeniopus and vomerifer) based on the cibarial armature as shown here and

  19. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects.

  20. Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation in Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Manos, P S; Doyle, J J; Nixon, K C

    1999-08-01

    Quercus is one of the most abundant and economically important genera of woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere. To infer phylogenetic relationships within Quercus subgenus Quercus, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction sites and nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S coding region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat were obtained for 44 individuals, including 25 species, intraspecific samples, and three outgroups. Separate parsimony analyses of each data set showed that individual gene trees were congruent and often complementary in supporting clades that generally corresponded to previously recognized taxonomic groups. Only one instance of strongly supported gene tree incongruence was detected and this anomalous pattern was explained best by ancient introgression of cpDNA across sectional boundaries. Simultaneous parsimony analysis of the pruned data sets supported the recognition of the strictly Eurasian section Cerris and resolved a novel hypothesis for the major infrageneric groups (Cerris- (Lobatae- (Protobalanus + Quercus sensu stricto))). The biogeographic hypothesis that all major oak lineages evolved locally at middle latitudes within the general distribution of their fossil ancestors was fully supported. This set of relationships also suggested a New World origin for the widespread white oaks of the Northern Hemisphere (section Quercus s. s.). For both data sets, inter- and intraspecific sampling within section Protobalanus showed little correspondence to morphological species. Greater cladistic structure among the samples was obtained by cpDNA restriction sites and two well-delimited plastomes types comprising a total of 15 distinct haplotypes were resolved. Haplotypes of 2 of the peripheral species in this species complex occupy terminal portions of one of the plastome clades, suggesting a more recent origin relative to those of more widespread species. The phylogeography of the two divergent plastome types suggested

  1. Migration Patterns of Subgenus Alnus in Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Douda, Jan; Doudová, Jana; Drašnarová, Alena; Kuneš, Petr; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krak, Karol; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recently, new palaeoecological records supported by molecular analyses and palaeodistributional modelling have provided more comprehensive insights into plant behaviour during the last Quaternary cycle. We reviewed the migration history of species of subgenus Alnus during the last 50,000 years in Europe with a focus on (1) a general revision of Alnus history since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (2) evidence of northern refugia of Alnus populations during the LGM and (3) the specific history of Alnus in particular European regions. Methodology We determined changes in Alnus distribution on the basis of 811 and 68 radiocarbon-dated pollen and macrofossil sites, respectively. We compiled data from the European Pollen Database, the Czech Quaternary Palynological Database, the Eurasian Macrofossil Database and additional literature. Pollen percentage thresholds indicating expansions or retreats were used to describe patterns of past Alnus occurrence. Principal Findings An expansion of Alnus during the Late Glacial and early Holocene periods supports the presence of alders during the LGM in southern peninsulas and northerly areas in western Europe, the foothills of the Alps, the Carpathians and northeastern Europe. After glaciers withdrew, the ice-free area of Europe was likely colonized from several regional refugia; the deglaciated area of Scandinavia was likely colonized from a single refugium in northeastern Europe. In the more northerly parts of Europe, we found a scale-dependent pattern of Alnus expansion characterised by a synchronous increase of Alnus within individual regions, though with regional differences in the times of the expansion. In southern peninsulas, the Alps and the Carpathians, by contrast, it seems that Alnus expanded differently at individual sites rather than synchronously in whole regions. Conclusions Our synthesis supports the idea that northern LGM populations were important sources of postglacial Alnus expansion. The

  2. Osmotic stress responses of individual white oak (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) genotypes cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Zita; Kanalas, Péter; Máthé, Csaba; Cseke, Klára; Szőllősi, Erzsébet; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltán; Mészáros, Ilona

    2014-01-15

    White oaks (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) are widely distributed in Europe. Quercus petraea (sessile oak), an economically important species is predicted to be affected by climate change. Q. pubescens (pubescent oak) and Q. virgiliana (Italian pubescent oak) are economically less important, drought tolerant species. Frequent hybridization of white oaks was observed and currently the introgression of Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana in non-mediterranean regions of Europe has been reported. Our goal was to use tissue cultures established from individual trees of the above taxa and their putative hybrids, all present in the forest stand of Síkfőkút LTER Research Area (NE Hungary) as simple experimental model systems for studying drought/osmotic stress tolerance. Tissue cultures are more suitable models for such studies, than seedlings, because they are genetically identical to the parent plants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) treatments were used for this purpose. The identification of taxa was based on leaf morphological traits and microsatellite analysis and showed that Q. petraea is genetically distinct to all other taxa examined. We established six callus lines of Quercus. As expected, in Q. petraea cultures PEG6000 induced severe loss of fresh weight and the ability to recover after removal of the osmoticum, which was not characteristic for Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana. Putative hybrids exhibited an intermediate response to osmotic stress. Activity gels showed the increase of single-strand preferring (SSP) nuclease and no significant change of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-sensitive genotypes/cultures and no significant increase of SSP nuclease activities accompanied with increases of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-tolerant ones. This indicates that drought/osmotic stress tolerance is associated to increased capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species and hence less susceptibility to DNA damage. Our results confirm that tissue

  3. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2016-07-02

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Morphological and AFLP-based Differentiation within the Taxonomical Complex Section Caninae (subgenus Rosa)

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, Katrien; Vander Mijnsbrugge, Kristine; Breyne, Peter; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van Slycken, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The taxonomical structure of the polymorphic subgenus Rosa section Caninae is highly complex due to the combination of some unusual features: the unique polyploid chromosomal constitution, the heterogamic canina meiosis, the ability to hybridize interspecifically, and the predominantly matroclinal inheritance. Although most taxonomists agree on the subdivision of the section into three morphologically well-defined groups (Rubigineae, Vestitae, and Caninae), they disagree on the existence of smaller groups such as Tomentellae. The aim was to gain insight in the taxonomical structure and investigate the interpopulation differentiation of the polymorphic section Caninae by analysing morphological and AFLP-based characters of the seven most common Belgian dog-rose taxa. Methods The intersubsectional and -specific relationships within the dog-roses were examined using morphological and molecular-genetic markers. AFLP data were analysed with basic descriptive genetic statistics because of the lack of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium due to the polyploid genetic structure and heterogamic meiosis. Key Results Both the morphological and AFLP-based analyses supported the subdivision of the dog-roses in three well-defined though partly overlapping groups, Rubigineae, Vestitae and Caninae. However, it was not possible to distinguish between the morphologically well-defined taxa within the same subsection using AFLP-based data. In addition, the results suggested a high similarity of Rosa balsamica with subsection Caninae taxa. Small-scale geographical AFLP-based differentiation was observed within several dog-rose taxa. Surprisingly, individuals sampled at one locality and belonging to morphologically distinct dog-rose taxa displayed higher genetic similarities in comparison to their congeners sampled at different localities. Conclusions The hybridogenic character of the dog-roses was reflected in the vague boundaries between the subsections and on the species

  5. Escaping the lianoid habit: evolution of shrub-like growth forms in Aristolochia subgenus Isotrema (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sarah T; Isnard, Sandrine; Rowe, Nick P; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Neinhuis, Christoph; Wanke, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    A large range of growth forms is a notable aspect of angiosperm diversity and arguably a key element of their success. However, few studies within a phylogenetic context have explored how anatomical, developmental, and biomechanical traits are linked with growth form evolution. Aristolochia (∼500 species) consists predominantly of climbers, but a handful of shrub-like species are known from Aristolochia subgenus Isotrema (hereafter, shortened to Isotrema). We test hypotheses proposing that the establishment of functional traits linked to lianescence might limit the ability to evolve structurally diverse growth forms, particularly self-supporting forms. • We focus on the origin of the shrub habit in Isotrema, from which we sampled representatives from climbing to self-supporting forms. Morphological, anatomical, and biomechanical characters are optimized on a chloroplast- and nuclear-derived phylogeny. • Character-state reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit is plesiomorphic in Isotrema and shrub-like forms are derived from climbers. However, shrubs do not constitute a monophyletic group. Both shrubs and climbers show large multiseriate rays, but differ in terms of vessel size and proportion of fibers and soft tissues. • We suggest that while shrub-like species might have partly escaped from the constraints of life as lianas; their height size and stability are not typical of self-supporting shrubs and trees. Shrubs retained lianoid stem characters that are known to promote flexibility such as ray parenchyma. The transitions to a shrub-like form likely involved relatively simple, developmental changes that may be attributed to heterochronic processes.

  6. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. III. A new representative of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003 (Baetidae: Baetis) from the South-Western Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Godunko, Roman J; Palatov, Dmitry M; Martynov, Alexander V

    2015-04-21

    A new species of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003, namely Baetis (Rhodobaetis) vadimi sp. nov., is described based on immature larvae from several localities in Georgia and Turkey. It is the ninth species of the subgenus for Transcaucasia, following six species formally recorded from Turkey and two endemic species described from the Central Caucasus. Larval characters are investigated and illustrated by means of scanning electron microscopy, and discussed in details. The differential diagnosis of this species is provided with regard to other representatives of the subgenus considering the feature set common for Rhodobaetis. The new species can be distinguished from its relatives (species which lack stout setae on the gills' margins), mainly by some characters of mouthparts (particularly labium), the shape and arrangement of stout setae and scales on the body surface, as well as the lack of subapical tiny setae on tarsal claw, and presence of numerous marginal spines and semilunar scale bases on the paraproct plate.

  7. Evolution of the structure and composition of house mouse satellite DNA sequences in the subgenus Mus (Rodentia: Muridea): a cytogenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Cazaux, B; Catalan, J; Justy, F; Escudé, C; Desmarais, E; Britton-Davidian, J

    2013-06-01

    The composition and orientation of the house mouse satellite DNA sequences (minor, major, TLC) were investigated by a FISH and CO-FISH approach in 11 taxa belonging to three clades of the subgenus Mus. Using a phylogenetic framework, our results highlighted two distribution patterns. The TLC satellite, the most recently discovered satellite, was present in all clades but varied quantitatively among species. This distribution supported its appearance in the ancestor of the subgenus followed by independent evolution in species of each clade. In contrast, the minor and major satellites occurred in only two clades of the subgenus indicating the simultaneous and recent amplification of these sequences. In addition, although qualitative differences in the composition and orientation of the satellite sequences were observed among the taxa, none of the features studied were unique to the house mouse and could account for the extensive chromosomal plasticity evidenced in Mus musculus domesticus.

  8. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  9. Large carpenter bees in Argentina: systematics and notes on the biology of Xylocopa subgenus Neoxylocopa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Mariano; Alvarez, Leopoldo J; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2014-01-15

    A systematic revision of the species of the genus Xylocopa subgenus Neoxylocopa in Argentina is provided. Seven species are included: X. atamisquensis Lucia & Abrahamovich, X. augusti Lepeletier, X. eximia Pérez, X. frontalis (Olivier), X. mendozana Enderlein, X. nigrocincta Smith and X. tacanensis Moure. The males of X. eximia and X. nigrocincta are described for the first time. Xylocopa jujuyensis Brèthes is a new junior synonym of X. nigrocincta. Photographs, occurrence maps, and identification keys for the species are presented. Information on the nest architecture and substratum preference are also given.

  10. Spring and early summer species of Cortinarius, subgenus Telamonia, section Colymbadini and /Flavobasilis, in the mountains of western North America.

    PubMed

    Ammirati, Joseph F; Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Bojantchev, Dimitar; Peintner, Ursula; Kuhnert-Finkernagel, Regina; Cripps, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Seven species of Cortinarius, subgenus Telamonia, section Colymbadini and /Flavobasilis, are reported from conifer forests in the mountains of western North America. They typically produce basidiomes in the spring and summer. Only one species, C. colymbadinus, is widespread, occurring in Europe and western North America, but to date not reported from California. Cortinarius bridgei, C. flavobasilis, C. rumoribrunsi, C. vernalishastensis, and C. vernalisierraensis are new species. The first two are found throughout the western mountains, whereas the latter three thus far are known only from California. Cortinarius ahsii, a common species in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Northwest, also has not been recorded from California.

  11. New species and records of Chimarra (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) from Northeastern Brazil, and an updated key to subgenus Chimarra (Chimarrita)

    PubMed Central

    Vilarino, Albane; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Chimarra (Chimarrita) are described and illustrated, Chimarra (Chimarrita) mesodonta sp. n. and Chimarra (Chimarrita) anticheira sp. n. from the Chimarra (Chimarrita) rosalesi and Chimarra (Chimarrita) simpliciforma species groups, respectively. The morphological variation of Chimarra (Curgia) morio is also illustrated. Chimarra (Otarrha) odonta and Chimarra (Chimarrita) kontilos are reported to occur in the northeast region of Brazil for the first time. An updated key is provided for males and females of the all species in the subgenus Chimarrita. PMID:25878540

  12. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  13. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  14. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  15. The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Argas). 38. Haller's organ roof and anterior pit setae in Persicargas and Microargas.

    PubMed

    Hoogstraal, H; Clifford, C M; Roshdy, M A; Keirans, J E

    1983-10-01

    Adults of 13 of the 17 species constituting the subgenus Persicargas (parasitizing birds nesting in trees) and the single species of the subgenus Microargas (parasitizing the Galapagos giant tortoise) were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The setae of the anterior pit of tarsus I number nine(1 serrate, 1 setiform, 1 conical, 2 fine, 2 porose, 2 grooved) in Persicargas. The single, serrate seta arises from an anterior section of the pit, the other eight setae arise from a posterior section. Abnormally, fewer or more setae occur on one or both tarsi of a single specimen. The setal arrangement is similar in Microargas, but the total number is eight (setiform seta absent). The capsule roof of Haller's organ in Persicargas is typically flat and platelike with a circular central aperture and few to moderately numerous small perforations. Thus, this roof is more solid than in other subgenera of Argas, except in Microargas and subgenera associated with cave-dwelling bats (Carios and Chiropterargas). The roof structure is quite variable in samples of A. (P). radiatus. The roofs of two Persicargas species differ from the typical pattern, the A. (P.) minatus roof is more extensively perforated and in some specimens of A. (P.) streptopedia the roof is netlike. The Microargas roof, on a sloping surface bounded by a transverse anterior groove, is more solid than those of Argas and has a circular aperture surrounded by small perforations. The biological implications of these structural properties should be investigated.

  16. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented.

  17. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and Xylocopa inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with Xylocopa inconstans. Males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa. PMID:28331398

  18. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of Xylocopa inconstans include Xylocopa abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white) dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym), Xylocopa inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and Xylocopa inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with Xylocopa inconstans. Males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa) inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa.

  19. The subgenus Migonemyia Galati 1995 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), with description of a new species Migonemyia vaniae: a review.

    PubMed

    Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Fonseca, Mauro Breviglieri; Marassá, Ana Maria

    2007-08-01

    The capture of a new species of the subgenus Migonemyia Galati, 1995 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), Migonemyia vaniae sp. nov. in the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil, together with the other two species: Mg. migonei (França, 1920) and Mg. rabelloi (Galati & Gomes, 1992) lead us to review this subgenus. The new species was described and illustrated. The genitalia of the two other species were also illustrated and some genital characteristics (number of setae on the gonocoxite tuft, ejaculatory ducts and pump and ducts/pump ratio; and number of setae on the tergite VIII of the females) considered important to differentiate the three species, including five populations of Mg. migonei (from Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions and of Peru) were submitted to variance analyses. The Mg. migonei population of Northeastern Brazilian region showed distinct smaller values (P < 0.05) than the other Brazilian populations studied as regarding these characteristics. The capture of both sexes of these three species in sympatry confirms the association between the sexes of Mg. rabelloi, recognised as doubtful when this species was originally described. Identification keys for male and female of the three species are presented.

  20. Overlooked cryptic endemism in copepods: systematics and natural history of the calanoid subgenus Occidodiaptomus Borutzky 1991 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae).

    PubMed

    Marrone, Federico; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Arculeo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Our comprehension of the phylogeny and diversity of most inland-water crustaceans is currently hampered by their pronounced morphological bradytely, which contributed to the affirmation of the "Cosmopolitanism Paradigm" of freshwater taxa. However, growing evidence of the existence of cryptic diversity and molecular regionalism is available for calanoid copepods, thus stressing the need for careful morphological and molecular studies in order to soundly investigate the systematics, diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Diaptomid copepods were here chosen as model taxa, and the morphological and molecular diversity of the species belonging to the west-Mediterranean diaptomid subgenus Occidodiaptomus were investigated with the aim of comparing the patterns of morphological and molecular evolution in freshwater copepods. Three species currently lumped under the binomen Hemidiaptomus (Occidodiaptomus) ingens and two highly divergent clades within H. (O.) roubaui were distinguished, thus showing an apparent discordance between the molecular distances recorded and Occidodiaptomus morphological homogeneity, and highlighting a noteworthy decoupling between the morphological and molecular diversity in the subgenus. Current Occidodiaptomus diversity pattern is ascribed to a combined effect of ancient vicariance and recent dispersal events. It is stressed that the lack of sound calibration points for the molecular clock makes it difficult to soundly temporally frame the diversification events of interest in the taxon studied, and thus to asses the role of morphological bradytely and of accelerated molecular evolutionary rates in shaping the current diversity of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular taxonomy in the dark: evolutionary history, phylogeography, and diversity of cave crayfish in the subgenus Aviticambarus, genus Cambarus.

    PubMed

    Buhay, Jennifer E; Moni, Gerald; Mann, Nathaniel; Crandall, Keith A

    2007-02-01

    Freshwater crayfish species in the subgenus Aviticambarus (Cambaridae: Cambarus) are restricted to caves along the Cumberland Plateau, the Sequatchie Valley, and the Highland Rim which extend along the Tennessee River in southcentral Tennessee and northern Alabama. Historically, three stygobitic species, Cambarus jonesi, Cambarus hamulatus, and Cambarus veitchorum, comprise this subgenus. We examine species' boundaries and phylogeographic structure of this imperiled Southern Appalachian assemblage to shed light on patterns of cave colonization. We also provide estimates of genetic diversity for conservation status assessment. Using geologic evidence, phylogeographic analyses, and sequence data from five gene regions (two nuclear: Histone H3 and GAPDH and three mitochondrial: 12S, 16S, and CO1 totaling almost 2700 base pairs), we identify two well-supported cryptic species in addition to the three currently recognized taxa. Four of these taxa exhibit low levels of genetic variation both currently and historically, which may indicate local extirpation events associated with geological and river basin changes. Our results also support other recent findings that pre-Pleistocene paleodrainages may best explain the current patterns of aquatic faunal biodiversity in the Southern Appalachians.

  2. Evolution of a soldier caste specialized to lay unfertilized eggs in the ant genus Crematogaster (subgenus Orthocrema).

    PubMed

    Peeters, Christian; Lin, Chung-Chi; Quinet, Yves; Martins Segundo, Glauco; Billen, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Among social Hymenoptera, only some ant genera have more than one morphological kind of non-reproductive adults. Individuals that are bigger than ordinary workers can function for defence and/or food storage. In Crematogaster (Orthocrema) smithi from Arizona, a third caste exists in addition to winged queens and workers; it is intermediate in size, weight and morphology, and individuals lay many unfertilized eggs that are mostly eaten by larvae (Heinze et al., 1995, 1999). We studied another three species belonging to the subgenus Orthocrema: Crematogaster pygmaea from Brazil, Crematogaster biroi and Crematogaster schimmeri from Taiwan. Using scanning electron microscopy and ovarian dissections, we show that 'intermediates' are a patchwork of queen-like and worker-like traits, just as in C. smithi; importantly the combinations differ across species. 'Intermediates' are numerically few in the colonies, and in C. pygmaea they are produced seasonally. Using histology we confirmed the lack of a spermatheca, thus they are not ergatoid queens. Based on the similarity of their mosaic phenotypes with those in other ant lineages, we suggest that Orthocrema 'intermediates' are a soldier caste with a specialized trophic function. This soldier caste has been reported in other Orthocrema species from Madagascar, Guinea and Costa Rica, suggesting that it is widespread in this subgenus.

  3. Environmental effects of solar-thermal-power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by the California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Mojave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. In some areas it may be extremely difficult, on the basis of external characters, to identify the species present. The systematic status of the sibling species Spermophilus mohavensis and S. tereticaudus (subgenus Xerosphermophilus) was investigated throughout the range of the subgenus, based on allozymic and chromosomal data. Hybridization of the two species was detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach of the Mojave River wash. In the absence of an analysis of a zone of natural sympatry, the two taxa are retained as full biological species. The population of ground squirrels just east of Solar One, the 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power plant, is composed of individuals referable to S. tereticaudus based on both allozymic and chromosomal criteria.

  4. Identification of Sand flies of the Subgenus Larroussius based on Molecular and Morphological Characters in North Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Absavaran, A; Rassi, Y; Parvizi, P; Oshaghi, MA; Abaie, MR; Rafizadeh, S; Mohebali, M; Zarea, Z; Javadian, E

    2009-01-01

    Background: The adult female sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the subgenus Larroussius are important vectors of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae) in Meshkinshahr district, Northwest of Iran. Four Phlebotomus (Larroussius) species are present in this area, i.e. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) kandelakii, P. (La.) major, P. (La.) perfiliewi and P. (La.) tobbi. The objective of the present study was to identify and distinguish the females of P. perfiliewi, P. major and P. tobbi, in this district. Methods: Adult sand flies were collected with sticky papers, CDC light traps, and aspirator in 2006. Individual sand flies of this four species from thirty different locations were characterized morphologically and by comparative DNA sequences analyses of a fragment of mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and nuclear gene Elongation Factor 1-alpha (EF-1α). PCR amplification was carried out for all three species P. major, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi in the subgenus Larroussius. Results: Phylogenetic analyses of P. major populations in this study displayed two different populations and genetic diversity. Spermathecal segment number, pharyngeal armature and other morphological characters of these three species were examined and found to present consistent interspecific differences. Conclusion: According to our findings, the phylogeny of Cyt b and EF-1α haplotypes confirms the relationships between P. major, P. tobbi and P. perfiliewi as already defined by their morphological similarities. PMID:22808379

  5. A review of the genus Mirostenella Bayer, 1988 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae) with a description of a new subgenus and species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Guardiola, Rebeca; López-González, Pablo J.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, the genus Mirostenella Bayer (Proc Biol Soc Wash 101:251-256, 1988) is revised. We add to knowledge of the type species of the genus M. articulata Bayer (Proc Biol Soc Wash 101:251-256, 1988) from newly collected material from the Antarctic cruise Polarstern ANT XIX/5, and an illustrated description of this species is included. Cairns and Bayer (Smithson Contrib Zool 629:1-79, 2009) included Dicholaphis delicatula Thomson and Rennet (Sci Rept C Zool Bot 9(3):1-46, 1931) in the genus Mirostenella but after the examination of the type material, it is proposed to include the species in the recently described Plumarella subgenus, Faxiella (Zapata-Guardiola and López-González in Sci Mar 76:357-380, 2012). In addition, a new species of Plumarella, Plumarella castellviae sp. nov. from SubAntarctic waters is also described and illustrated. The species has similarities to Mirostenella but differs from it in the absence of organic nodes at bifurcation points and the presence of a sympodial branching pattern. Moreover, a new subgenus, Verticillata, is also proposed to include Plumarella species with polyps arranged in whorls around branchlets.

  6. Ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Vecsei, Paul; Gorman, Owen T.; Yule, Daniel; Pratt, Thomas C.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Bunnell, David B.; Muir, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This study of the ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon represents a furtherance through 2015 of field research initiated by Walter Koelz in 1917 and continued by Stanford Smith in the mid-1900s—a period spanning nearly a century. Like Koelz’s study, this work contains information on taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and status of species (here considered forms). Of the seven currently recognized forms (C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. johannae, C. kiyi, C. nigripinnis, C. reighardi, and C. zenithicus) described by Koelz as major in his 1929 monograph, two (C. johannae and C. reighardi) are extinct. In addition, C. alpenae, described by Koelz but subsequently synonymized with C. zenithicus, although extinct, is recognized as valid making a total of eight major forms. Six of these forms, all but C. artedi and C. hoyi, have been lost from Lake Michigan, and seven have been lost from Lake Huron, leaving in Lake Huron only C. artedi and an introgressed deepwater form that we term a hybrid swarm. C. artedi appears, like its sister form C. alpenae, to have been lost from Lake Erie. Only C. artedi remains extant in Lake Ontario, its three sister forms (C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. reighardi) having disappeared long ago.Lakes Superior and Nipigon have retained their original species flocks consisting of four forms each: C. artedi, C. hoyi, and C. zenithicus in both lakes; C. kiyi in Lake Superior; and C. nigripinnis in Lake Nipigon. Morphological deviations from the morphotypes described by Koelz have been modest in contemporary samples. Overall, C. kiyi and C. artedi were the most morphologically stable forms while C. hoyi, C. nigripinnis, and C. zenithicus were the least stable. Although contemporary populations of C. artedi from Lakes Michigan and Huron are highly diverged from the morphotypes described by Koelz, the contemporary samples were of undescribed deep-bodied forms unlikely to have been sampled by Koelz because of

  7. Ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Vecsei, Paul; Gorman, Owen T.; Yule, Daniel; Pratt, Thomas C.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Bunnell, David; Muir, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This study of the ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) of the Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon represents a furtherance through 2015 of field research initiated by Walter Koelz in 1917 and continued by Stanford Smith in the mid-1900s—a period spanning nearly a century. Like Koelz’s study, this work contains information on taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and status of species (here considered forms). Of the seven currently recognized forms (C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. johannae, C. kiyi, C. nigripinnis, C. reighardi, and C. zenithicus) described by Koelz as major in his 1929 monograph, two (C. johannae and C. reighardi) are extinct. In addition, C. alpenae, described by Koelz but subsequently synonymized with C. zenithicus, although extinct, is recognized as valid making a total of eight major forms. Six of these forms, all but C. artedi and C. hoyi, have been lost from Lake Michigan, and seven have been lost from Lake Huron, leaving in Lake Huron only C. artedi and an introgressed deepwater form that we term a hybrid swarm. C. artedi appears, like its sister form C. alpenae, to have been lost from Lake Erie. Only C. artedi remains extant in Lake Ontario, its three sister forms (C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. reighardi) having disappeared long ago. Lakes Superior and Nipigon have retained their original species flocks consisting of four forms each: C. artedi, C. hoyi, and C. zenithicus in both lakes; C. kiyi in Lake Superior; and C. nigripinnis in Lake Nipigon. Morphological deviations from the morphotypes described by Koelz have been modest in contemporary samples. Overall, C. kiyi and C. artedi were the most morphologically stable forms while C. hoyi, C. nigripinnis, and C. zenithicus were the least stable. Although contemporary populations of C. artedi from Lakes Michigan and Huron are highly diverged from the morphotypes described by Koelz, the contemporary samples were of undescribed deep-bodied forms unlikely to have been sampled by Koelz because of

  8. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods.

  9. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  10. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  11. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  12. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  13. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  14. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  15. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  16. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  17. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-03-09

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  18. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  19. Medical Entomology Studies - III. A Revision of the Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 12, Number 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    fatigans Wiedemann 1828 of authors), huangae Meng 1958, hutchinsoni Barraud 1924, ficscocephalu Theobald 1907, theileri Theobald 1903, univittatus...Sirivanakarn: Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region 29 Theobald 1901 and vagans Wiedemann 1828. It is also possible that pipiens molestus Forskal 1775...of Pipiens, recognized a pipiens complex to include quinquefasciutus Say (or fatigans Wiedemann ) and australicus Dobrot- worsky and Drummond as

  20. A revision of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis), a subgenus of xeromelissine bees (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) endemic to Chile: taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography, with descriptions of eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Monckton, Spencer K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mayu Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) packeri Monckton, sp. n., and Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) randolphi Monckton, sp. n. One of the existing species, Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) valparaiso Toro & Moldenke, 1979, syn. n., is treated as a junior synonym of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mantagua Toro & Moldenke, 1979, and the nine remaining valid species are redescribed. Thoroughly illustrated keys to species for males and females are provided, along with habitus images, images of male terminalia, distribution maps for each species, and a map of relevant Chilean biogeographic regions. Results of phylogenetic analyses are presented, based upon 74 morphological characters and on CO1 barcode sequences, analyzed both separately and as a combined dataset. Monophyly of the subgenus is supported, and groupings within the subgenus are discussed in light of a biogeographic analysis of their species distributions (spatial analysis of vicariance), whereby divergence between taxa is found to occur primarily via north-south disjunctions. PMID:27408541

  1. First record of the subgenus Duolandrevus (Duolandrevus) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Landrevinae) from China, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Hao-Yu; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2017-04-20

    The subgenus Duolandrevus (Duolandrevus) Kirby, 1906 is recorded for the first time in China, a new species i.e.: Duolandrevus (Duolandrevus) bannanus sp. nov. was collected from Xishuangbanna of Yunnan province, China. The description and illustrations of the new species are provided. A distribution map of all species of Duolandrevus (Duolandrevus) in the world is presented.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of the subgenus Mollienesia (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) reveal taxonomic inconsistencies, cryptic biodiversity, and spatio-temporal aspects of diversification in Middle America.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maura; Voelker, Gary; Arias Rodriguez, Lenin; Mateos, Mariana; Tobler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The subgenus Mollienesia is a diverse group of freshwater fishes, including species that have served as important models across multiple biological disciplines. Nonetheless, the taxonomic history of this group has been conflictive and convoluted, in part because the evolutionary relationships have not been rigorously resolved. We conducted a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Mollienesia to identify taxonomic discrepancies and potentially identify undescribed species, estimate ancestral areas of origin and estimate dates of divergence, as well as explore biogeographical patterns. Our findings confirm the presence of three main clades composed of the P. latipinna, P. sphenops, and P. mexicana species complexes. Unlike previously hypothesized morphology-based analyses, species found on the Caribbean Islands are not part of Mollienesia, but are more closely related to species of the subgenus Limia. Our study also revealed several taxonomic inconsistencies and distinct lineages in the P. mexicana species complex that may represent undescribed species. The diversity in the subgenus Mollienesia is a result of dynamic geologic activity leading to vicariant events, dispersal across geologic blocks, and ecological speciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  4. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general.

  5. Genome Size Variation and Species Relationships in Hieracium Sub-genus Pilosella (Asteraceae) as Inferred by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Peckert, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella (hawkweeds) is a taxonomically complicated group of vascular plants, the structure of which is substantially influenced by frequent interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. Two kinds of species, ‘basic’ and ‘intermediate’ (i.e. hybridogenous), are usually recognized. In this study, genome size variation was investigated in a representative set of Central European hawkweeds in order to assess the value of such a data set for species delineation and inference of evolutionary relationships. Methods Holoploid and monoploid genome sizes (C- and Cx-values) were determined using propidium iodide flow cytometry for 376 homogeneously cultivated individuals of Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella, including 24 species (271 individuals), five recent natural hybrids (seven individuals) and experimental F1 hybrids from four parental combinations (98 individuals). Chromosome counts were available for more than half of the plant accessions. Base composition (proportion of AT/GC bases) was cytometrically estimated in 73 individuals. Key Results Seven different ploidy levels (2x–8x) were detected, with intraspecific ploidy polymorphism (up to four different cytotypes) occurring in 11 wild species. Mean 2C-values varied approx. 4·3-fold from 3·53 pg in diploid H. hoppeanum to 15·30 pg in octoploid H. brachiatum. 1Cx-values ranged from 1·72 pg in H. pilosella to 2·16 pg in H. echioides (1·26-fold). The DNA content of (high) polyploids was usually proportional to the DNA values of their diploid/low polyploid counterparts, indicating lack of processes altering genome size (i.e. genome down-sizing). Most species showed constant nuclear DNA amounts, exceptions being three hybridogenous taxa, in which introgressive hybridization was suggested as a presumable trigger for genome size variation. Monoploid genome sizes of hybridogenous species were always between the corresponding values of their putative parents. In addition

  6. The genus Pterostichus in China II: the subgenus Circinatus Sciaky, a species revision and phylogeny (Carabidae, Pterostichini)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongliang; Liang, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All of the known species of the Chinese endemic subgenus Pterostichus (Circinatus) are revised, keyed, and illustrated. Eleven new species and one new subspecies are described: Pterostichus adelphus sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.66°, E103.06°); Pterostichus ailaoicus sp. n. (Yunnan: Xinping, N23.94°, E101.50°); Pterostichus camelus sp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°); Pterostichus dimorphus sp. n. (Yunnan: Dayao, N26.08°, E101.03°); Pterostichus maitreya sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus miao sp. n. (Guangxi: Maoershan, N25.87°, E110.41°); Pterostichus tumulus sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus wangjiani sp. n. (Yunnan: Dongchuan, N26.08°, E102.87°); Pterostichus yan sp. n. (Hubei: Shennongjia, N31.47°, E110.39°); Pterostichus yuxiaodongi sp. n. (Sichuan: Wolong, N30.99°, E103.15°); Pterostichus zhygealu sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.67°, E103.05°); and Pterostichus cavazzutianus mianningensis subsp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°). Pterostichus cavazzutianus is proposed as a replacement name for Pterostichus cavazuttii Allegro and Sciaky 2010, preoccupied by Pterostichus (Sinosteropus) barbarae cavazuttii Sciaky and Facchini 2003. A lectotype is designated for Pterostichus baenningeri Jedlička 1931. Two species, Pterostichus schuelkei Sciaky & Wrase and Pterostichus wenxianensis Allegro & Sciaky, are moved from the subgenus Circinatus to Morphohaptoderus. An infra-subgeneric taxonomy is proposed for the subgenus Circinatus with four species groups. The male endophallus characters for most species of Circinatus were well studied, with three types of endophallus defined. A phylogenetic analysis based on adult morphological characters confirmed the infra-subgeneric classification and clarified some of the relationships among species. Two main lineages within Circinatus were identified from the phylogenetic analyses. Three of the four species groups were

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper.

  8. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  9. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Description of Dichelacera (Dichelacera) walteri n. sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae) with a Key to Related Species in the Subgenus Dichelacera Macquart.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R R; Gorayeb, I S; Rodrigues-Guimarães, R; Seppa, G S; Carvalho, R W

    2015-10-01

    Dichelacera (Dichelacera) walteri Guimarães, Gorayeb & Rodrigues-Guimarães n. sp. is described from female specimens collected in Marambaia Island, located in Mangaratiba County, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The characterization of the species was based in the following characters: a medium-sized species, more sclerotized than others in the subgenus Dichelacera Macquart, the second segment of palp with dark setae and longer than the third antennal segment, a brown scutum with pruinescence on the anterior half and posterior edges with white tonality, yellow dorsum of abdomen with the last three segments brown, white-yellowish venter with yellow setae, narrow frons with dark brown callus, extending just beyond a ridge in the middle of the frons, vertex with ocelli, hyaline wings with three large black bands, and tricolored legs.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  12. Chromosomes carrying meiotic avoidance loci in three apomictic eudicot Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species share structural features with two monocot apomicts.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Ito, Kanae; Johnson, Susan D; Oelkers, Karsten; Suzuki, Go; Houben, Andreas; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Koltunow, Anna M

    2011-11-01

    The LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) locus is one of two dominant loci known to control apomixis in the eudicot Hieracium praealtum. LOA stimulates the differentiation of somatic aposporous initial cells after the initiation of meiosis in ovules. Aposporous initial cells undergo nuclear proliferation close to sexual megaspores, forming unreduced aposporous embryo sacs, and the sexual program ceases. LOA-linked genetic markers were used to isolate 1.2 Mb of LOA-associated DNAs from H. praealtum. Physical mapping defined the genomic region essential for LOA function between two markers, flanking 400 kb of identified sequence and central unknown sequences. Cytogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the LOA locus is located on a single chromosome near the tip of the long arm and surrounded by extensive, abundant complex repeat and transposon sequences. Chromosomal features and LOA-linked markers are conserved in aposporous Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides but absent in sexual Hieracium pilosella. Their absence in apomictic Hieracium aurantiacum suggests that meiotic avoidance may have evolved independently in aposporous subgenus Pilosella species. The structure of the hemizygous chromosomal region containing the LOA locus in the three Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species resembles that of the hemizygous apospory-specific genomic regions in monocot Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris. Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious conservation, indicating that they are unlikely to share a common ancestral origin. This suggests convergent evolution of repeat-rich hemizygous chromosomal regions containing apospory loci in these monocot and eudicot species, which may be required for the function and maintenance of the trait.

  13. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo E.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  14. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  15. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome.

  16. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome. PMID:28367503

  17. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  18. On the colour types in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D

    2014-05-30

    Two colour types were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the Sea of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the Sea of Japan.

  19. A taxonomic review of Korean species of the Atheta Thomson subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey, with descriptions of two new species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Gyu; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the Atheta Thomson subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey in Korea is presented. The subgenus is represented in Korea by 15 species including two new species, Atheta (Microdota) jangtaesanensis Lee & Ahn, sp. n. and Atheta (Microdota) pasniki Lee & Ahn, sp. n. Four species [Atheta (Microdota) kawachiensis Cameron, Atheta (Microdota) muris Sawada, Atheta (Microdota) spiniventris Bernhauer, and Atheta (Microdota) spinula (Sawada)] are new to the Korean Peninsula and two [Atheta (Microdota) formicetorum Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) subcrenulata Bernhauer] to South Korea. Two other species [Atheta (Microdota) kobensis Cameron and Atheta (Microdota) scrobicollis (Kraatz)] previously recorded in North Korea had been identified incorrectly. A key, descriptions, habitus photographs and illustrations of the diagnostic features are provided. Species distributions and diversity in East Asia are discussed. PMID:26019664

  20. Taxonomic revision of phlebotomine sand fly species in the series davisi and panamensis of the subgenus Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr Lima; Falcão, Alda Lima; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2006-03-01

    Several species of the subgenus Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 are known to be leishmaniosis vectors in Brazil. Some of them are morphologically similar, which makes their identification quite difficult concerning epidemiological studies. The aim of the current work is to study the morphology of adult specimens of the subgenus Psychodopygus, in accordance with the morphological similarity and still taking into account the epidemiological importance of some species. Thus 11 species have been studied, including four subspecies of adult specimens deposited in the phlebotomine collection of Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz. Morphological characters found in the literature and new features observed in this study were recorded in a taxonomic discussion format. These characters make it easy to separate such species. Four taxa, previously considered as subspecies, were raised to the category of species.

  1. Isolation of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis glycolipid antigens and their reactivity with mAb SST-1, specific for parasites of Viannia subgenus.

    PubMed

    Silveira, T G V; Yoneyama, K A G; Takahashi, H K; Straus, A H

    2005-12-01

    Specific glycolipids (GLs) from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were isolated and purified. A monoclonal antibody directed to carbohydrate epitopes of these GLs was produced. mAb SST-1 recognizes a low molecular weight GL as established by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and HPTLC immunostaining, and does not cross-react with lipophosphoglycan isolated from L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes. An indirect immunofluorescence study indicated that the antigenic GLs are present at the L. (V.) braziliensis promastigote surface. SST-1 reacted with promastigotes of L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) guyanensis, but not with species in the L. Leishmania subgenus i.e. L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) chagasi, or L. (L.) major. All L. (V.) braziliensis serodemes tested were reactive with SST-1. These results indicate that SST-1 recognizes specific GLs expressed by species of the Viannia subgenus, and will be particularly useful for identification of L. (V.) braziliensis.

  2. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings.

  3. A revision of the Megachile subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell with an illustrated key and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilini)

    PubMed Central

    Bzdyk, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of Megachile subgenus Litomegachile are revised with a review of the species morphology, biology, and plant associations. A new species, Megachile pankus, is described and illustrated. Megachile mendica snowi Mitchell is elevated to species. Megachile var. nupta Cresson and Megachile texana var. cleomis Cockerell are synonymized with Megachile brevis and Megachile texana, respectively. An illustrated key for Litomegachile is also provided. PMID:23129980

  4. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Methods: Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. Results: A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. Conclusion: The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius. PMID:23785689

  5. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal three species in one: description of Culicoides cryptipulicaris sp. nov. and Culicoides quasipulicaris sp. nov. in the subgenus Culicoides.

    PubMed

    Talavera, S; Muñoz-Muñoz, F; Verdún, M; Pagès, N

    2017-06-01

    Species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are well known for their importance in the field of medical and veterinary entomology. Culicoides spp. transmit a wide variety of pathogens, primarily viruses that affect animals and humans. In Europe, the most economically important disease transmitted by Culicoides is bluetongue (BT). Culicoides spp. have been recently involved as primary vectors for Schmallenberg disease. The taxonomy within the subgenus Culicoides has been historically difficult and reorganizations have been proposed regularly. The subgenus Culicoides includes species that are considered to be potential vectors for BT. High morphological intraspecific variability has been attributed to these species. This highlights the apparent presence of previously undetected cryptic species diversity in the subgenus. In the present study, a detailed morphological and molecular study of specimens belonging to Culicoides pulicaris s.l. and specimens resembling a cross between C. pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus revealed the presence of two new species: Culicoides cryptipulicaris and Culicoides quasipulicaris. Females of C. quasipulicaris and males of both species were morphologically distinguished from C. pulicaris (Linnaeus, 1758), whereas females of C. cryptipulicaris were identified using molecular techniques exclusively. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. A review of Canadian and Alaskan species of the genera Clusiota Casey and Atheta Thomson, subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P; Sikes, Derek; Bourdon, Caroline; Labrecque, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    This paper treats 13 species of the subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey of Atheta Thomson and 3 species of the genus Clusiota Casey in Canada and Alaska. We report here 4 species new to science, and 3 new provincial records. The following species are new to science: Atheta (Microdota) curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) formicaensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) macesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Clusiota grandipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The new provincial records are: Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor, new to AB, and Atheta (Microdota) subtilis (Scriba), an adventive Palaearctic species new to North America, first reported in LB and NB. The two Clusiota Casey species are reviewed, and their distribution is revised. A female Clusiota impressicollis was discovered in Ontario and is illustrated here for the first time. A key to all Canadian species of the subgenus Microdota and genus Clusiota are provided. Atheta (Microdota) holmbergi Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke are transferred here to the subgenus Dimetrota Mulsant & Rey.

  7. A review of Canadian and Alaskan species of the genera Clusiota Casey and Atheta Thomson, subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P.; Sikes, Derek; Bourdon, Caroline; Labrecque, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 13 species of the subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey of Atheta Thomson and 3 species of the genus Clusiota Casey in Canada and Alaska. We report here 4 species new to science, and 3 new provincial records. The following species are new to science: Atheta (Microdota) curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) formicaensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) macesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Clusiota grandipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The new provincial records are: Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor, new to AB, and Atheta (Microdota) subtilis (Scriba), an adventive Palaearctic species new to North America, first reported in LB and NB. The two Clusiota Casey species are reviewed, and their distribution is revised. A female Clusiota impressicollis was discovered in Ontario and is illustrated here for the first time. A key to all Canadian species of the subgenus Microdota and genus Clusiota are provided. Atheta (Microdota) holmbergi Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke are transferred here to the subgenus Dimetrota Mulsant & Rey. PMID:26478708

  8. Record of two species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) new for Madagascar and molecular study showing the paraphylies of the subgenus Oecacta and the Schultzei group.

    PubMed

    Augot, D; Randrianambinintsoa, F J; Gasser, A; Depaquit, J

    2013-08-01

    Culicoides are vectors of diseases of Veterinary Medicine importance (bluetongue, African horse sickness, Schmallenberg virus) all over the world. In the present study, we report two species new for Madagascar: C. nevilli and C. enderleini. They belong to the Schultzei group which is sometimes classified in the subgenus Oecacta and sometimes in the subgenus Remmia, depending on authors. Consequently, we carried out a molecular cladistics of these groups based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit I mtDNA sequences. We processed the Malagasy specimens and some C. furens (the Oecacta type-species) caught in Florida and we analyzed their sequences and those available in Genbank: C. schultzei, C. oxystoma, C. festivipennis, C. brunnicans, C. kibunensis, C. truncorum and C. vexans. C. (Avaritia) imicola have been selected as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony analysis showed the paraphylies of the Schultzei group (=Remmia) and of the subgenus Oecacta if the first group is excluded from the latter. Our results underline the doubtful current classification and need to be validated by other molecular markers in the future.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Ceratotropis (genus Vigna, Leguminosae) reveals three eco-geographical groups and Late Pliocene-Pleistocene diversification: evidence from four plastid DNA region sequences.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Firouzeh; Tun, Ye Tun; Kawase, Makoto; Guan, Kaiyun; Yamaguchi, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data. Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East Asia-Southeast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East Asia-Southeast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimae-V. riukiuensis-V. minima subgroup and the V. hirtella-V. exilis-V. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinervia-V. reflexo-pilosa-V. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungo-V. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East Asia-Southeast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years. The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus Ceratotropis. The quaternary diversification of the subgenus Ceratotropis

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Ceratotropis (genus Vigna, Leguminosae) reveals three eco-geographical groups and Late Pliocene–Pleistocene diversification: evidence from four plastid DNA region sequences

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Firouzeh; Tun, Ye Tun; Kawase, Makoto; Guan, Kaiyun; Yamaguchi, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data. Methods Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade. Key Results Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimae–V. riukiuensis–V. minima subgroup and the V. hirtella–V. exilis–V. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinervia–V. reflexo-pilosa–V. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungo–V. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East Asia–Southeast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years. Conclusions The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus

  11. Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen new rank, with two new species from western North America (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, Steven V.; Carter, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The lumbriculid Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen, 1888 new rank is defined for a group of Nearctic species having multiple diverticula originating at the spermathecal ducts and eversible penial bulbs. Characters are confirmed in specimens of the type species, Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) rostrata (Eisen, 1888), collected from the type locality. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) klamathensis Fend n. sp. is described from open water benthic habitats in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. It resembles other R. (Sutroa) species in the paired spermathecal diverticula, the spermathecal and penial bulbs, the histological structure of the atria, the nonfunctional anterior male funnels, and the arrangement of blood vessels. Rhynchelmis klamathensis differs from all Nearctic Rhynchelmis in lacking a filiform proboscis. The combination of large body size, the elongate spermathecal ducts with paired and usually unbranched diverticula, the highly contorted atria, and the complex male pores with conical penes also distinguish typical R. klamathensis from other Rhynchelmis species. Smaller specimens with otherwise similar morphology, from the Sacramento River Delta, California, are also assigned to this species. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) diespluviae Fend n. sp. is described from several stream sites, mostly in northern Idaho, USA. Rhynchelmis diespluviae differs from closely related species in morphology of the conical penes, and in the structure and anterolateral position of the paired spermathecae.

  12. The origin of chromosomal inversions as a source of segmental duplications in the Sophophora subgenus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J.; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions can contribute to the adaptation of organisms to their environment by capturing particular advantageous allelic combinations of a set of genes included in the inverted fragment and also by advantageous functional changes due to the inversion process itself that might affect not only the expression of flanking genes but also their dose and structure. Of the two mechanisms originating inversions —ectopic recombination, and staggered double-strand breaks and subsequent repair— only the latter confers the inversion the potential to have dosage effects and/or to generate advantageous chimeric genes. In Drosophila subobscura, there is ample evidence for the adaptive character of its chromosomal polymorphism, with an important contribution of some warm-climate arrangements such as E1+2+9+12. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of inversion E12 and established that it originated through the staggered-break mechanism like four of the five inversions of D. subobscura previously studied. This mechanism that also predominates in the D. melanogaster lineage might be prevalent in the Sophophora subgenus and contribute to the adaptive character of the polymorphic and fixed inversions of its species. Finally, we have shown that the D. subobscura inversion breakpoint regions have generally been disrupted by additional structural changes occurred at different time scales. PMID:27470196

  13. Congruence of Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Acrobat Ants (Crematogaster Subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  14. An attempted analysis of the tetrads in the complex heterozygote species of the sub-genus Oenothera.

    PubMed

    Jean, R

    1977-09-01

    The statistical parameters of a pollen population of Oenothera purpurata in which the mendelian factor of pollen lethality segregates, showed that the pollen population analysed at anthesis in the Oenothera sub-genus quite faithfully conserves the segregation indicated in the tetrads. Following on this fact, the segregation "active grains, inactive grains, empty grains" was analysed in the pollen of the complex heterozygotes. The large standard deviation of the percentages of the three pollen classes and the value of the correlation between the percentages of grain classes taken two by two signify that the segregation of the three potential classes of microspore differs from one tetrad to another. By superimposing the correlation coefficient estimated between the percentage of the three grain classes of a bifactorial segregation of corn pollen on the correlation coefficient of the three classes of Oenothera pollen, it is possible to know with certainty the distribution of the potentially active, inactive and empty microspores in the tetrads. This distribution, which is different depending on whether the species is heterogamous or isogamous, allows us to confirm that the empty grains carry the recombined complexes which become lethal as a result of this recombination.

  15. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  16. Genetic Variation and Structure in Contrasting Geographic Distributions: Widespread Versus Restricted Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Subgenus Cynomys).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Ortega, Jorge; Castillo-Gámez, Reyna A; Sackett, Loren C; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Species of restricted distribution are considered more vulnerable to extinction because of low levels of genetic variation relative to widespread taxa. Species of the subgenus Cynomys are an excellent system to compare genetic variation and degree of genetic structure in contrasting geographic distributions. We assessed levels of genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic differentiation in widespread Cynomys ludovicianus and restricted C. mexicanus using 1997bp from the cytochrome b and control region (n = 223 C. ludovicianus; 77 C. mexicanus), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci (n = 207 and 78, respectively). Genetic variation for both species was high, and genetic structure in the widespread species was higher than in the restricted species. C. mexicanus showed values of genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic differentiation similar to C. ludovicianus at smaller geographic scales. Results suggest the presence of at least 2 historical refuges for C. ludovicianus and that the Sierra Madre Occidental represents a barrier to gene flow. Chihuahua and New Mexico possess high levels of genetic diversity and should be protected, while Sonora should be treated as an independent management unit. For C. mexicanus, connectivity among colonies is very important and habitat fragmentation and habitat loss should be mitigated to maintain gene flow. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A new extinct dwarfed buffalo from Sulawesi and the evolution of the subgenus Anoa: An interdisciplinary perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The fossil and extant faunas of Sulawesi, the largest island within the Wallacea biogeographic region, exhibit a high degree of endemism. The lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, two closely-related dwarfed buffaloes, are among the most peculiar endemic mammals of the region. Here, I describe a new species, Bubalus grovesi, from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of South Sulawesi and I give a revised diagnosis of Anoa. Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. differs from all previously described Bubalus in both the size and proportions of the skeleton and in possessing a unique combination of discrete character states. Body mass estimates suggest an average mass of 117 kg for Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. and a body size reduction of about 90% with respect to a typical water buffalo. A comprehensive overview of body mass estimates of dwarfed buffaloes and differences in their dental and postcranial features is included. Finally, new evidence on the taxonomy and island dwarfing of the anoas and available data from different disciplines are used to discuss the timing and mode of their evolution. The representatives of the subgenus Anoa would be dwarfed forms of the Asian water buffalo that arose following dispersal to Sulawesi during the Middle/Late Pleistocene.

  18. Species delimitation of three species within the Russula subgenus Compacta in Korea: R. eccentrica, R. nigricans, and R. subnigricans.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jung, Paul Eunil; Seok, Soon Ja; Fong, Jonathan J; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing individual Russula species can be very difficult due to extensive phenotypic plasticity and obscure morphological and anatomical discontinuities. In this study, we use the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) markers to identify and study the genetic diversity of species in the Russula subgenus Compacta in Korea. We focus on two morphologically similar species that are often misidentified for each other: R. nigricans and R. subnigricans. Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, we identify three subgroups of R. nigricans, with two from Asia and one from Europe/North America. Surprisingly, we find Korean R. subnigricans are more closely related to R. eccentrica from North America than the type specimen of R. subnigricans from Japan. These molecular data, along with habitat data, reveal that Korean R. subnigricans had previously been misclassified and should now be recognized as R. eccentrica. Both ITS and LSU exhibit high interspecific and low intraspecific variation for R. eccentrica, R. nigricans, and R. subnigricans. These markers provide enough resolutional power to differentiate these species and uncover phylogeographic structure, and will be powerful tools for future ecological studies of Russula.

  19. Evolution of leaf blade anatomy in Allium (Amaryllidaceae) subgenus Amerallium with a focus on the North American species.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Saeideh; Columbus, J Travis

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing ancestral states is a useful method to understand the pathway and patterns of character evolution and to test specific hypotheses within a phylogenetic context. Using a phylogenetic hypothesis of the subgenus Amerallium and related subgenera based on molecular data, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of leaf blade anatomical characters and identified those characters that are most congruent with phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we used these character histories to investigate the evolution of terete leaves and explore a possible correlation between environment and leaf anatomy in the North American species. Sixty-seven North American and Old World species were sampled from all major infrageneric taxa and lineages for transectional leaf anatomy. To provide a phylogenetic framework for interpretation, representatives of Old World Amerallium and related subgenera were added to a published data matrix of North American taxa and ITS, ETS, trnL-F, and rpL32-trnL sequences. Four anatomical characters, namely leaf-blade shape in transection, presence versus absence of palisade mesophyll, distribution and orientation of vascular bundles, and position of laticifer cells, were found to be congruent with phylogenetic relationships and useful diagnostic traits within North American species. Character reconstructions show that terete leaves in North American species evolved from flattened leaves via a possible transition from subterete to terete leaves. Furthermore, terete leaves possess traits that are indicative of possible adaptation to xeric environments. The findings from this study provide valuable information for understanding the evolution of leaf-blade anatomy in North American Allium species.

  20. Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal; Sapra, Gulshan Rai

    2013-05-01

    The freshwater ciliate Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii (Shi et al., 1997) Shao et al., 2012 (Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), isolated from Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary of The Eastern Himalayas, is slightly flexible, measures about 150 μm × 50 μm in life and possesses citrine cortical granules randomly distributed singly and in small clusters. Cells of our Indian population have five or six dorsal kineties arising from multiple fragmentation of the third dorsal anlage. The subgenus Cyrtohymenides includes species with multiple dorsal kinety fragmentation namely C. (C.) aspoecki (type species), C. (C.) australis, and the present species. Ventral morphogenesis of the genus Cyrtohymena has been reported only for the type species C. muscorum. Notable features of the Indian population include formation of frontal anlagen from four parental cirri, two more parental cirri possibly contribute to these anlagen later, and the formation of primary primordia which later split transversely to form two sets, one for each daughter cell. 18S rDNA sequence of the Indian population matches with those of two populations of C. citrina; it also clusters with Afrokeronopsis aurea, a neokeronopsid, with which it interestingly shares some morphological features, supporting the CEUU hypothesis.

  1. The origin of chromosomal inversions as a source of segmental duplications in the Sophophora subgenus of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-07-29

    Chromosomal inversions can contribute to the adaptation of organisms to their environment by capturing particular advantageous allelic combinations of a set of genes included in the inverted fragment and also by advantageous functional changes due to the inversion process itself that might affect not only the expression of flanking genes but also their dose and structure. Of the two mechanisms originating inversions -ectopic recombination, and staggered double-strand breaks and subsequent repair- only the latter confers the inversion the potential to have dosage effects and/or to generate advantageous chimeric genes. In Drosophila subobscura, there is ample evidence for the adaptive character of its chromosomal polymorphism, with an important contribution of some warm-climate arrangements such as E1+2+9+12. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of inversion E12 and established that it originated through the staggered-break mechanism like four of the five inversions of D. subobscura previously studied. This mechanism that also predominates in the D. melanogaster lineage might be prevalent in the Sophophora subgenus and contribute to the adaptive character of the polymorphic and fixed inversions of its species. Finally, we have shown that the D. subobscura inversion breakpoint regions have generally been disrupted by additional structural changes occurred at different time scales.

  2. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  3. Sexual reproduction is the default mode in apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, in which two dominant loci function to enable apomixis.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M G; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wilson, Saira; Fletcher, Pam; Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Fehrer, Judith; Bicknell, Ross A

    2011-06-01

    Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis.

  4. Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen new rank, with two new species from western North America (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae).

    PubMed

    Fend, Steven V; Carter, James L

    2014-01-31

    The lumbriculid Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen, 1888 new rank is defined for a group of Nearctic species having multiple diverticula originating at the spermathecal ducts and eversible penial bulbs. Characters are confirmed in specimens of the type species, Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) rostrata (Eisen, 1888), collected from the type locality. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) klamathensis Fend n. sp. is described from open water benthic habitats in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. It resembles other R. (Sutroa) species in the paired spermathecal diverticula, the spermathecal and penial bulbs, the histological structure of the atria, the nonfunctional anterior male funnels, and the arrangement of blood vessels. Rhynchelmis klamathensis differs from all Nearctic Rhynchelmis in lacking a filiform proboscis. The combination of large body size, the elongate spermathecal ducts with paired and usually unbranched diverticula, the highly contorted atria, and the complex male pores with conical penes also distinguish typical R. klamathensis from other Rhynchelmis species. Smaller specimens with otherwise similar morphology, from the Sacramento River Delta, California, are also assigned to this species. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) diespluviae Fend n. sp. is described from several stream sites, mostly in northern Idaho, USA. Rhynchelmis diespluviae differs from closely related species in morphology of the conical penes, and in the structure and anterolateral position of the paired spermathecae.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  6. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  7. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  8. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  9. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  10. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  11. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  12. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Aline S; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Serrão, José E

    2007-06-01

    The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.

  13. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  14. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  15. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  16. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  17. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  18. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  19. A pilot study applying the plant Anchored Hybrid Enrichment method to New World sages (Salvia subgenus Calosphace; Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fragoso-Martínez, Itzi; Salazar, Gerardo A; Martínez-Gordillo, Martha; Magallón, Susana; Sánchez-Reyes, Luna; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; Lemmon, Alan R; Sazatornil, Federico; Granados Mendoza, Carolina

    2017-02-09

    We conducted a pilot study using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment to resolve relationships among a mostly Neotropical sage lineage that may have undergone a recent evolutionary radiation. Conventional markers (ITS, trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA) have not been able to resolve the relationships among species nor within portions of the backbone of the lineage. We sampled 12 representative species of subgenus Calosphace and included one species of Salvia's s.l. closest relative, Lepechinia, as outgroup. Hybrid enrichment and sequencing were successful, yielding 448 alignments of individual loci with an average length of 704bp. The performance of the phylogenomic data in phylogenetic reconstruction was superior to that of conventional markers, increasing both support and resolution. Because the captured loci vary in the amount of net phylogenetic informativeness at different phylogenetic depths, these data are promising in phylogenetic reconstruction of this group and likely other lineages within Lamiales. However, special attention should be placed on the amount of phylogenetic noise that the data could potentially contain. A prior exploration step using phylogenetic informativeness profiles to detect loci with sites with disproportionately high substitution rates (showing "phantom" spikes) and, if required, the ensuing filtering of the problematic data is recommended. In our dataset, filtering resulted in increased support and resolution for the shallow nodes in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees resulting from concatenated analyses of all the loci. Additionally, it is expected that an increase in sampling (loci and taxa) will aid in resolving weakly supported, short deep internal branches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J. M. MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Porter-Utley, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Passiflora subgenus Decaloba supersection Cieca is a monophyletic group of herbaceous to woody climbers found in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. The 19 species recognized here are primarily distributed in the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Two species, Passiflora suberosa and Passiflora pallida, are also naturalized in various regions of the Old World. The species of the supersection are recognized by their small, apetalous, usually greenish flowers with the filaments of the corona mostly in two series. The plants commonly lack c-glycosylflavones but possess flavonol 3-O-glycosides. The supersection contains two problematic species complexes, Passiflora suberosa and Passiflora coriacea. Phylogenetic relationships within supersection Cieca are investigated by means of phenetic and cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular (ITS 1 & 2) characters. The morphological and molecular data sets were analyzed separately because of incongruity due to taxon sampling and the complicated evolutionary history of entities within the Passiflora suberosa complex. All analyses confirm the monophyly of the supersection. They also show that the Passiflora suberosa complex is a non-monophyletic group of cryptic species, and inter-taxic hybridization and polyploidy have contributed to the confusing and complex pattern of variation evident within the group. Four taxa that were formerly included in this complex are recognized: Passiflora pallida, Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa, Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis, and Passiflora tridactylites. On the basis of molecular and morphological data, three species from the Passiflora coriacea complex are recognized: Passiflora coriacea, Passiflora sexocellata, and Passiflora megacoriacea. A key, detailed descriptions, distribution maps, and illustrations are included in the revision. Pollination, dispersal, and herbivory of the group are reviewed. The

  1. A high density COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array for identification and detection of species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Seifert, K A; Lévesque, C A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array based on 358 sequences, including 58 known and two new species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium, and 12 allied species. The array was robotically spotted at near microarray density on membranes. Species and clade-specific oligonucleotides were selected using the computer programs SigOli and Array Designer. Robotic spotting allowed 768 spots with duplicate sets of perfect match and the corresponding mismatch and positive control oligonucleotides, to be printed on 2 × 6 cm(2) nylon membranes. The array was validated with hybridizations between the array and digoxigenin (DIG)-labelled COX1 polymerase chain reaction amplicons from 70 pure DNA samples, and directly from environmental samples (cheese and plants) without culturing. DNA hybridization conditions were optimized, but undesired cross-reactions were detected frequently, reflecting the relatively high sequence similarity of the COX1 gene among Penicillium species. Approximately 60% of the perfect match oligonucleotides were rejected because of low specificity and 76 delivered useful group-specific or species-specific reactions and could be used for detecting certain species of Penicillium in environmental samples. In practice, the presence of weak signals on arrays exposed to amplicons from environmental samples, which could have represented weak detections or weak cross reactions, made interpretation difficult for over half of the oligonucleotides. DNA regions with very few single nucleotide polymorphisms or lacking insertions/deletions among closely related species are not ideal for oligonucleotide-based diagnostics, and supplementing the COX1-based array with oligonucleotides derived from additional genes would result in a more robust hierarchical identification system.

  2. New malaria parasites of the subgenus Novyella in African rainforest birds, with remarks on their high prevalence, classification and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Loiseau, Claire; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2009-04-01

    Blood samples from 655 passerine birds were collected in rainforests of Ghana and Cameroon and examined both by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was 46.6%, as determined by combining the results of both these diagnostic methods. In comparison to PCR-based diagnostics, microscopic examination of blood films was more sensitive in determining simultaneous infection of Plasmodium spp., but both detection methods showed similar trends of prevalence of malaria parasites in the same study sites. Plasmodium (Novyella) lucens n. sp., Plasmodium (Novyella) multivacuolaris n. sp. and Plasmodium (Novyella) parahexamerium n. sp. were found in the olive sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea (Nectariniidae), yellow-whiskered greenbul Andropadus latirostris (Picnonotidae), and white-tailed alethe Alethe diademata (Turdidae), respectively. These parasites are described based on the morphology of their blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene, which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis of these species. Illustrations of blood stages of new species are given, and phylogenetic analysis identifies DNA lineages closely related to these parasites. Malaria parasites of the subgenus Novyella with small erythrocytic meronts clearly predominate in African passerines. It is probable that the development of such meronts is a characteristic feature of evolution of Plasmodium spp. in African rainforest birds. Subgeneric taxonomy of avian Plasmodium spp. is discussed based on the recent molecular phylogenies of these parasites. It is concluded that a multi-genome phylogeny is needed before revising the current subgeneric classification of Plasmodium. We supported a hypothesis by Hellgren, Krizanauskiene, Valkiūnas, Bensch (J Parasitol 93:889-896, 2007), according to which, haemosporidian species with a genetic differentiation of over 5% in mitochondrial cyt b gene are expected to be

  3. Extensive trans-species mitochondrial polymorphisms in the carabid beetles Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus caused by repeated introgressive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sota, T; Ishikawa, R; Ujiie, M; Kusumoto, F; Vogler, A P

    2001-12-01

    To study the potential importance of introgressive hybridization to the evolutionary diversification of a carabid beetle lineage, we studied intraspecific and trans-species polymorphisms in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene sequence (1083 bp) in four species of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) in central and eastern Honshu, Japan. Of the four species, C. insulicola is parapatric with the other three, and can hybridize naturally with at least two. This species possesses two haplotypes of remote lineages. We classified ND5 haplotypes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism with TaqI endonuclease for 524 specimens, and sequenced 143 samples. Analysis revealed that each species was polyphyletic in its mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, representing a marked case of trans-species polymorphism. Recent one-way introgression of mitochondria from C. arrowianus nakamurai to C. insulicola, and from C. insulicola to C. esakii, was inferred from the frequency of identical sequences between these species and from direct evidence of hybridization in their contact zones. Other intraspecific polymorphisms in the four species may be due to undetected introgressive hybridization (e.g. C. insulicola to C. maiyasanus) or from stochastic lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. This beetle group has a genital lock-and-key system, with species-specific or subspecies-specific genital morphology that may act as a barrier to hybridization. However, our results demonstrate that introgressive hybridization has occurred multiple times, at least for mitochondria, despite differences among, and stability within, morphological characters that distinguish local populations. Thus, hybridization and introgression could have been key processes in the evolutionary diversification of Ohomopterus.

  4. Multilocus analyses reveal little evidence for lineage-wide adaptive evolution within major clades of soft pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Bower, Andrew D; Jermstad, Kathleen D; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Knaus, Brian J; Syring, John V; Neale, David B

    2013-11-01

    Estimates from molecular data for the fraction of new nonsynonymous mutations that are adaptive vary strongly across plant species. Much of this variation is due to differences in life history strategies as they influence the effective population size (Ne ). Ample variation for these estimates, however, remains even when comparisons are made across species with similar values of Ne . An open question thus remains as to why the large disparity for estimates of adaptive evolution exists among plant species. Here, we have estimated the distribution of deleterious fitness effects (DFE) and the fraction of adaptive nonsynonymous substitutions (α) for 11 species of soft pines (subgenus Strobus) using DNA sequence data from 167 orthologous nuclear gene fragments. Most newly arising nonsynonymous mutations were inferred to be so strongly deleterious that they would rarely become fixed. Little evidence for long-term adaptive evolution was detected, as all 11 estimates for α were not significantly different from zero. Nucleotide diversity at synonymous sites, moreover, was strongly correlated with attributes of the DFE across species, thus illustrating a strong consistency with the expectations from the Nearly Neutral Theory of molecular evolution. Application of these patterns to genome-wide expectations for these species, however, was difficult as the loci chosen for the analysis were a biased set of conserved loci, which greatly influenced the estimates of the DFE and α. This implies that genome-wide parameter estimates will need truly genome-wide data, so that many of the existing patterns documented previously for forest trees (e.g. little evidence for signature of selection) may need revision.

  5. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  6. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  7. Carabus of Subgenus Cathoplius C.G. Thomson, 1875, with description of their life-way, life-cycle and pre-imaginal morphology (Coleoptera: Carabidae) .

    PubMed

    Busato, Enrico; Ghittino, Claudio; Casale, Achille

    2014-09-25

    According to current taxonomy, Subgenus Cathoplius C.G. Thomson, 1875, within the Genus Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 (in the broad sense), includes two species: C. (Cathoplius) asperatus (Dejean, 1826), monotypic with a northern distribution, and the southern polytypic substitutive species C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. The authors describe the life-way, life-cycle and pre-imaginal characters of the taxa currently ascribed to Subgenus Cathoplius, with details never provided before. Cathoplius are ground beetles adapted to live in arid environments and extreme habitats such as sub-desert areas. All of them are strictly helicophagous, both during the pre-imaginal stages and as adults, and are localized in a narrow fringe along the Atlantic coast of northwestern Africa. Several data and observations on the eco-ethology of the different taxa, obtained both in field and in laboratory, are reported. The life-cycle of Cathoplius belongs to the winter breeding type, with an extremely high fecundity rate concentrated in a very short period of time, that has no similarity to any other Carabus species. Eggs, larvae and pupae of the different species and subspecies of Cathoplius are described and illustrated. Larval characters clearly place Subgenus Cathoplius into the lineage of Neocarabi, confirming it as a monophyletic and homogeneous assemblage. Hybridization trials between some taxa led to a reduced survival rate of the progeny, thus confirming their specific or subspecific differentiation as proposed by classical taxonomy. Furthermore, hybridization results suggest that C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus aliai could be considered as a distinct species. Notes about the origin, biogeography and phylogeny of Cathoplius are also provided.

  8. Two new species of Centris (Aphemisia) Ayala, 2002 from Colombia with a synopsis of the subgenus for the country (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2016-03-21

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Aphemisia Ayala in Colombia is presented. A total of six species were recognized: C. lilacina Cockerell, C. mocsaryi Friese, C. plumipes Smith and C. quadrimaculata Packard, including C. celadonia n. sp. and C. vallecaucensis n. sp., two new species described from the Departments of Huila and Valle del Cauca, respectively. Diagnoses, descriptions, information on geographical distribution and an identification key to all species are provided. The previously unknown male of C. plumipes is described for the first time.

  9. Palaearctic Protosmia bees of the subgenus Chelostomopsis (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas

    2017-02-02

    Chelostomopsis represents a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Protosmia (Megachilidae) containing three Palaearctic and one Nearctic species. Analysis of female pollen loads and literature data indicate that all Chelostomopsis species are broad pollen generalists exploiting the flowers of numerous plant families, such as Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Cistaceae and Brassicaceae. Preexisting linear cavities in dead wood or pine cones serve as nesting sites and pure resin is used to construct cell partitions and nest plug. The taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic P. (Chelostomopsis) species revealed the existence of a still undescribed species from the Levant, Protosmia (Chelostomopsis) angustimandibulae spec. nov. Keys for the identification of the three Palaearctic P. (Chelostomopsis) species are given.

  10. A multiplex PCR-based molecular identification of five morphologically related, medically important subgenus Stegomyia mosquitoes from the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Yukiko; Toma, Takako; Tsuda, Yoshio; Miyagi, Ichiro

    2010-09-01

    Internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA were sequenced, and new species-specific primers were designed to simplify the molecular identification of five morphologically related subgenus Stegomyia mosquito species--Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. riversi, Ae. flavopictus, and Ae. daitensis--found in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Each newly designed primer was able to amplify a species-specific fragment with a different size. Conditions for multiplex PCR were optimized to identify all five species in a single PCR. This method is a convenient tool for entomological field surveys, particularly in arbovirus endemic/epidemic areas where some of these species coexist.

  11. Description of a new species of Ectinorus (E. spiculatus) (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae) from Argentina and a review of the subgenus Ichyonus Smit, 1987.

    PubMed

    Hastriter, Michael W; Sage, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    A new species, Ectinorus spiculatus, is described from Phyllotis xanthopygus (Waterhouse) and Akodon iniscatus Thomas from Neuquén Province, Argentina. Habitat characteristics are presented for the type locality. A change in status of four additional subspecies of the Ectinorus subgenus Ichyonus Smit is provided. Ectinorus onychius onychius Jordan and Rothschild, Ectinorus onychius deplexus Smit and Ectinorus onychius angularis Smit & Rosický were elevated to specific status. Ectinorus (Ichyonus) onychius fueginus was relegated as a junior synonym of the nominate species. Phyllotis xanthopygus, Abrothrix olivaceus xanthorhinus, Loxodontomys micropus Waterhouse, and Euneomys chinchilloides (Waterhouse) are new host records for Ectinorus onychius. A key to the three species of Ichyonus is included.

  12. A new flea, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae, Parapsyllinae), with notes on the subgenus Ectinorus in Chile and comments on unciform sclerotization in the superfamily Malacopsylloidea.

    PubMed

    Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Belaz, Sorya; Muñoz-Léal, Sebastián; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A list is provided for the species of Ectinorus sensu stricto from Chile. Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. is described from Chile: this species is characterized by the male genitalia. In the subgenus Ectinorus, the authors report the presence in Chile of E. pilosus Beaucournu & Carmen Castro, 2002 described from Argentina and E. simonsi (Rothschild, 1904) described from Bolivia but also known from Peru. A female neallotype is designated for E. ineptus Johnson, 1957. "Unciform sclerotization" is noted and illustrated for the first time, in all Malacopsylloidea, and a list is given for all studied species. © J.-C. Beaucournu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  13. A new flea, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae, Parapsyllinae), with notes on the subgenus Ectinorus in Chile and comments on unciform sclerotization in the superfamily Malacopsylloidea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A list is provided for the species of Ectinorus sensu stricto from Chile. Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. is described from Chile: this species is characterized by the male genitalia. In the subgenus Ectinorus, the authors report the presence in Chile of E. pilosus Beaucournu & Carmen Castro, 2002 described from Argentina and E. simonsi (Rothschild, 1904) described from Bolivia but also known from Peru. A female neallotype is designated for E. ineptus Johnson, 1957. “Unciform sclerotization” is noted and illustrated for the first time, in all Malacopsylloidea, and a list is given for all studied species. PMID:24125080

  14. Badister Clairville 1806: A new species and new continental record for the nominate subgenus in Amazonian Perú (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Licinini)

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Terry L.; Ball, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Badister (Badister) amazonus sp. n. is described from Perú, Loreto, 1.0 km SW Boca del Rio Samiria, Vigilante Post 1, 130m, “04°40.5'S, 074°18.9'W" its type locality. It is known also from two other localities in Loreto Department, Perú, in both the Varzea and Igapó river systems. This new species is sufficiently different that a new informal higher taxon, the amazonus species complex, is recognized. An updated key to the Western Hemisphere species of subgenus Badister is provided. PMID:22371669

  15. Development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring system for Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad C; Roland, Jens; Evenden, Maya L

    2009-04-01

    Sympatric insect species that do not share sex pheromone components but have a common host and overlapping adult flight periods are potential targets for the development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring tool. A system using a single synthetic pheromone blend in a single lure to bait a single trap to monitor two pests simultaneously represents a novel approach. In this study, a combined pheromone-based monitoring system was developed for two lepidopterous defoliators of trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michenaux in western Canada, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Efficacy and longevity of a lure containing both species' pheromones were tested. Immature stages of each species were sampled to evaluate the ability of pheromone traps baited with the combined lure to predict population density. The combined lure was as attractive to M. disstria and C. conflictana males as were traps baited with each species' pheromone alone. Lure age had no effect on attraction of male C. conflictana to the combined lure but had a negative effect on attraction of M. disstria. The number of male moths captured in traps baited with the combined lure was related to immature counts for both species. Pupal counts of M. disstria and larval counts of C. conflictana provided the best relationships with male captures. The combined lure does not attract M. disstria males in direct proportion to population density, because trap catch was comparatively low at high-density M. disstria sites.

  16. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  17. Transgenic bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expressed a synthetic cry2A gene and exhibited high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile cues usually are essential for phytophagous insects to locate the food source and oviposition site. ...

  18. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  19. First record of the leafhopper genus Varicopsella Hamilton, 1980 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China, with descriptions of a new subgenus and new species, a checklist, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A new monobasic leafhopper subgenus, Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai, and Li, subgen. nov., of the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae) is proposed to accommodate Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) hamiltoni Li, Dai, and Li, sp. nov.from Guangxi province of China. The new subgenus and new species are described and illustrated. They can be distinguished mainly by characteristics of the fore wings with two anteapical cells; weak dorsoventrally flattened body; aedeagal shaft with paired apical processes on ventral margin; and the shape of the dorsal connective. An updated checklist and an illustrated key for identification of the species of Varicopsella along with geographical distributions of the species are given.

  20. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS and ETS sequences.

    PubMed

    Kay, Kathleen M; Reeves, Patrick A; Olmstead, Richard G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2005-11-01

    We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series of lineages basal to a monophyletic neotropical species radiation. The neotropical species have large, showy flowers visited by either euglossine bees or hummingbirds. The hummingbird pollination syndrome is supported as a derived character state from the bee pollination syndrome, and we estimate that it has evolved independently seven or more times in the neotropics. A molecular clock approach suggests that diversification of the neotropical clade has been recent and rapid and that it coincides with dramatic climatic and geologic changes, Andean orogeny, and the closing of the Panama isthmus that occurred in the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. We propose a scenario for the diversification of Costus, in which rapid floral adaptation in geographic isolation and range shifts in response to environmental changes contribute to reproductive isolation among close relatives. We suggest that these processes may be common in other recently diversified plant lineages centered in Central America or the Northern Andean phytogeographic region.

  1. Seven new Australian species of the southern hemisphere horse fly subgenus Scaptia (Pseudoscione) (Diptera: Tabanidae), including descriptions and a revised key.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Bryan D; Yeates, David K

    2012-11-01

    Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are ecologically important pollinators and vectors of many disease-causing organisms, as adult females are known to mechanically transfer multiple disease agents during feeding affecting humans, livestock, and many native mammals. Scaptia (Pseudoscione) Lutz in Lutz, Araujo, & Fonseca 1918 has the widest distribution of all genera in the tribe Scionini, occurring in Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and South America. Seven new species of Australian S. (Pseudoscione) are described and included in an updated key to the subgenus. The new species are: S. (Pseudoscione) baylessi sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) casseli sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) mackerrasi sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) moritae sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) turcatelae sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) turneri sp. nov. Lessard, and S. (Pseudoscione) wiegmanni sp. nov. Lessard. In addition, S. (Pseudoscione) occidentalis Mackerras, 1960, previously described as a subspecies, has been raised to species level. One new species significantly extends the known distribution of Scaptia into central Australia, >1,200 km NW from the nearest recorded species within the subgenus.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the Ceratosolen species pollinating Ficus of the subgenus Sycomorus sensu stricto: biogeographical history and origins of the species-specificity breakdown cases.

    PubMed

    Kerdelhue, C; Le Clainche, I; Rasplus, J Y

    1999-04-01

    The 14 species of Ficus of the subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae) are invariably pollinated by Ceratosolen species (Hym. Chalcidoidea), which in turn reproduce in the fig florets. They are distributed mostly in continental Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene and Comoro Islands, but 1 species extends its geographical range all over the Oriental region. Fig-pollinator relationships are usually strictly species specific, but exceptions to the 'one-to-one' rule occur within the group we studied. In order to understand both the biogeographical history of the Ceratosolen species associated with Ficus of the subgenus Sycomorus and the origins of the specificity breakdown cases, we have used cytochrome b sequences to reconstruct a phylogeny of the fig wasps. The results show that the pollinators from the Malagasy region and those from continental Africa form two distinct clades, which probably diverged after the crossing of the Mozambique Channel by an ancestral population. The Oriental wasp species show strong affinities with the African species. The two species-specificity exceptions are due to different evolutionary events. The occurrence of the two West African pollinators associated with F. sur can be explained by successive speciation events of the mutualistic partner without plant radiation. In contrast, we hypothesize that C. galili shifted by horizontal transfer from an unknown, presumably extinct, Ficus species to F. sycomorus after this native Malagasy fig species colonized Africa.

  3. Plastid genome evolution across the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae): two clades within subgenus Grammica exhibit extensive gene loss.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Thomas; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanovic, Sasa

    2013-02-01

    The genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae, the morning glory family) is one of the most intensely studied lineages of parasitic plants. Whole plastome sequencing of four Cuscuta species has demonstrated changes to both plastid gene content and structure. The presence of photosynthetic genes under purifying selection indicates that Cuscuta is cryptically photosynthetic. However, the tempo and mode of plastid genome evolution across the diversity of this group (~200 species) remain largely unknown. A comparative investigation of plastid genome content, grounded within a phylogenetic framework, was conducted using a slot-blot Southern hybridization approach. Cuscuta was extensively sampled (~56% of species), including groups previously suggested to possess more altered plastomes compared with other members of this genus. A total of 56 probes derived from all categories of protein-coding genes, typically found within the plastomes of flowering plants, were used. The results indicate that two clades within subgenus Grammica (clades 'O' and 'K') exhibit substantially more plastid gene loss relative to other members of Cuscuta. All surveyed members of the 'O' clade show extensive losses of plastid genes from every category of genes typically found in the plastome, including otherwise highly conserved small and large ribosomal subunits. The extent of plastid gene losses within this clade is similar in magnitude to that observed previously in some non-asterid holoparasites, in which the very presence of a plastome has been questioned. The 'K' clade also exhibits considerable loss of plastid genes. Unlike in the 'O' clade, in which all species seem to be affected, the losses in clade 'K' progress phylogenetically, following a pattern consistent with the Evolutionary Transition Series hypothesis. This clade presents an ideal opportunity to study the reduction of the plastome of parasites 'in action'. The widespread plastid gene loss in these two clades is hypothesized to be a

  4. Plastid genome evolution across the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae): two clades within subgenus Grammica exhibit extensive gene loss

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae, the morning glory family) is one of the most intensely studied lineages of parasitic plants. Whole plastome sequencing of four Cuscuta species has demonstrated changes to both plastid gene content and structure. The presence of photosynthetic genes under purifying selection indicates that Cuscuta is cryptically photosynthetic. However, the tempo and mode of plastid genome evolution across the diversity of this group (~200 species) remain largely unknown. A comparative investigation of plastid genome content, grounded within a phylogenetic framework, was conducted using a slot-blot Southern hybridization approach. Cuscuta was extensively sampled (~56% of species), including groups previously suggested to possess more altered plastomes compared with other members of this genus. A total of 56 probes derived from all categories of protein-coding genes, typically found within the plastomes of flowering plants, were used. The results indicate that two clades within subgenus Grammica (clades ‘O’ and ‘K’) exhibit substantially more plastid gene loss relative to other members of Cuscuta. All surveyed members of the ‘O’ clade show extensive losses of plastid genes from every category of genes typically found in the plastome, including otherwise highly conserved small and large ribosomal subunits. The extent of plastid gene losses within this clade is similar in magnitude to that observed previously in some non-asterid holoparasites, in which the very presence of a plastome has been questioned. The ‘K’ clade also exhibits considerable loss of plastid genes. Unlike in the ‘O’ clade, in which all species seem to be affected, the losses in clade ‘K’ progress phylogenetically, following a pattern consistent with the Evolutionary Transition Series hypothesis. This clade presents an ideal opportunity to study the reduction of the plastome of parasites ‘in action’. The widespread plastid gene loss in these two clades is

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  6. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  8. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  9. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  10. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors. PMID:21711872

  11. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  12. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)(n) intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study.

  14. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species. PMID:28339501

  15. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  16. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  17. Revision of the subgenus Tinotus Sharp, stat. n., of the parasitoid rove-beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shûhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Tinotus Sharp, 1833, stat. n., of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 (Aleocharini: Aleocharina) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East is revised. Tinotus is a new record from the latter two regions. Three species are recognized: Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802, comb. n. [Japan (new record), the Russian Far East (new record)], Aleochara (Tinotus) eoa nom. n. [replacement name for Tinotus japonicus Cameron, 1933; Japan, Taiwan (new record)], and Aleochara (Tinotus) takashii sp. n. (central Honshû, Japan). The systematic position of Tinotus is discussed. All species are (re-)described, keyed, and figured. A world checklist of Tinotus species, comprising 40 valid species, is provided in an appendix. Additional taxonomic changes are proposed, including a new synonymy, a revalidation, 13 new replacement names, and 27 new combinations. PMID:27006606

  18. Description of a new species of Ectinorus (E. spiculatus) (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae) from Argentina and a review of the subgenus Ichyonus Smit, 1987

    PubMed Central

    Hastriter, Michael W.; Sage, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Ectinorus spiculatus, is described from Phyllotis xanthopygus (Waterhouse) and Akodon iniscatus Thomas from Neuquén Province, Argentina. Habitat characteristics are presented for the type locality. A change in status of four additional subspecies of the Ectinorus subgenus Ichyonus Smit is provided. Ectinorus onychius onychius Jordan and Rothschild, Ectinorus onychius deplexus Smit and Ectinorus onychius angularis Smit & Rosický were elevated to specific status. Ectinorus (Ichyonus) onychius fueginus was relegated as a junior synonym of the nominate species. Phyllotis xanthopygus, Abrothrix olivaceus xanthorhinus, Loxodontomys micropus Waterhouse, and Euneomys chinchilloides (Waterhouse) are new host records for Ectinorus onychius. A key to the three species of Ichyonus is included. PMID:21998530

  19. Phylogeny of New World Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) based on cpDNA (psbA-trnH) and nrDNA (ITS) sequence data.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Aaron A; Walker, Jay B; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2013-07-01

    Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) is economically and ethnomedicinally significant and comprised of more than 500 species. Although strongly supported as monophyletic, it has received no comprehensive systematic research since the initial establishment of 91 taxonomic sections in 1939. Representative taxa of 73 sections of Calosphace were sampled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and identify major lineages using chloroplast (intergenic spacer psbA-trnH) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer). Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data sets established monophyly of seven sections (Blakea, Corrugatae, Erythrostachys, Hastatae, Incarnatae, Microsphace, and Sigmoideae) and four major lineages (S. axillaris, "Hastatae clade", "Uliginosae clade", and "core Calosphace"). Sections spanning two or more centers of diversity are not supported by our results; rather, supported relationships exhibit significant geographic structure. Mexico is supported as the geographic origin of Calosphace, and no more than seven dispersal events to South America are required to account for current disjunct distributions.

  20. Procambarus (Girardiella) holifieldi, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Alabama with a revision of the Hagenianus Group in the subgenus Girardiella.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Guenter A; Taylor, Christopher A; Adams, Susan B

    2015-09-24

    Procambarus (Girardiella) holifieldi, new species, is a primary burrowing crayfish from a low-lying field in Perry County, Alabama. It belongs to the Hagenianus Group in the subgenus Girardiella.  The new species is morphologically most similar to Procambarus (Girardiella) barbiger.  They differ in the size and shape of the caudal processes.  Procambarus barbiger has a beard along the mesial margin of the palm of the chela, while the new species lacks the beard.  In addition to the description of the new species, the Hagenianus Group is reviewed and new synonymies are provided. We demonstrate that a cephalic process is indeed present in the Hagenianus Group.

  1. Annotated checklist of the Blennidus subgenus Agraphoderus species from Peru with description of B. bombonensis n. sp. and synonymic notes (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae).

    PubMed

    Allegro, Gianni; Giachino, Pier Mauro

    2015-08-13

    Forty species belonging to the subgenus Agraphoderus of Blennidus have been recorded so far from Peru. An annotated checklist is provided with information about their type locality, distribution and habitat. The nomenclature of each species is also provided, together with some notes on their systematic status. Blennidus bombonensis n. sp. from Cerro de Pasco is described; Blennidus pseudangularis nomen novum for Ogmopleura angularis Straneo, 1993 (nec Straneo, 1985) is proposed and the following synonymies are stated: Blennidus pseudangularis Allegro & Giachino, nomen novum = Blennidus rectangulus (Straneo, 1993) syn. nov.; Ogmopleura minor Straneo, 1993 = Blennidus rectangulus (Straneo, 1993) syn. nov. Type specimens of most species are illustrated, as well as male genitalia. Finally, a revised key to all the Agraphoderus species from Peru is provided.

  2. Chromosomes Carrying Meiotic Avoidance Loci in Three Apomictic Eudicot Hieracium Subgenus Pilosella Species Share Structural Features with Two Monocot Apomicts1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Takashi; Ito, Kanae; Johnson, Susan D.; Oelkers, Karsten; Suzuki, Go; Houben, Andreas; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Koltunow, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) locus is one of two dominant loci known to control apomixis in the eudicot Hieracium praealtum. LOA stimulates the differentiation of somatic aposporous initial cells after the initiation of meiosis in ovules. Aposporous initial cells undergo nuclear proliferation close to sexual megaspores, forming unreduced aposporous embryo sacs, and the sexual program ceases. LOA-linked genetic markers were used to isolate 1.2 Mb of LOA-associated DNAs from H. praealtum. Physical mapping defined the genomic region essential for LOA function between two markers, flanking 400 kb of identified sequence and central unknown sequences. Cytogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the LOA locus is located on a single chromosome near the tip of the long arm and surrounded by extensive, abundant complex repeat and transposon sequences. Chromosomal features and LOA-linked markers are conserved in aposporous Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides but absent in sexual Hieracium pilosella. Their absence in apomictic Hieracium aurantiacum suggests that meiotic avoidance may have evolved independently in aposporous subgenus Pilosella species. The structure of the hemizygous chromosomal region containing the LOA locus in the three Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species resembles that of the hemizygous apospory-specific genomic regions in monocot Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris. Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious conservation, indicating that they are unlikely to share a common ancestral origin. This suggests convergent evolution of repeat-rich hemizygous chromosomal regions containing apospory loci in these monocot and eudicot species, which may be required for the function and maintenance of the trait. PMID:21896890

  3. A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15,000 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. ...

  4. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  5. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  6. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  7. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  8. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Wheat, Christopher W; Peña, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1) at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya), 2) at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3) a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya.

  9. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  10. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  11. A new phycitine moth (Vorapourouma basseti, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Panama feeding on Pourouma Aubl. (Urticaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study of the insects associated with the tree Pourouma bicolor Martius (Cecropiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the discovery of a new phycitine moth genus and species, Vorapourouma basseti (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The immatures were collected by beating vegetation using the Fort Sherman Canopy Cran...

  12. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  13. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  14. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  15. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  16. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Treesearch

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  18. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  19. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  20. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  1. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With the Southern Pine Coneworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Attacking Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Nenad Mihelcic; James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    Larvae of the Southern pine coneworm, Diorycha amateella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were collected monthly during the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., seed orchards in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia, and examined for pathogenic microorganisms. One fungus,

  2. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  3. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.

  4. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  5. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  6. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  7. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  8. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  10. A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from southeastern Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) is described from the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, USA. Ogdoconta margareta sp. n., is related closely to Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes) from Texas. Modifications are proposed to a recently published key to the Ogdoconta species north of Mexico to allow identification of the new species. PMID:26692787

  11. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  12. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  13. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  14. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  15. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  16. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  17. Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species

    Treesearch

    M.A. Keena

    2003-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introducedinto North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven...

  18. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  19. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  20. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  1. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  2. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  3. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  4. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  5. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gan, Shanshan; Zuo, Ni; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Ying; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 15,143 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 putative protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to those of other lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI gene which uses CGA as its start codon. Nine PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA, whereas the COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 genes end with single T. All tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for the tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of its DHU stem. The 316 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 19-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8(AT) and (TA)4 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  7. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy.

  8. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  9. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  12. Control of the eupyrene-apyrene sperm dimorphism in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Friedländer, M

    1997-11-01

    Lepidoptera males bear concomitantly nucleate (eupyrene) and anucleate (apyrene) spermatozoa. Both kinds of spermatozoa reach the spermatheca of inseminated females but only the eupyrene ones fertilize the eggs. The functions of the apyrene spermatozoa are still uncertain. Eupyrene spermatogenesis is regular and highly sensitive to genetic and experimental manipulations while apyrene spermatogenesis is irregular and withstands these manipulations. Both kinds of spermatozoa derive from the same kind of bipotential spermatocytes. The shift of spermatocyte commitment from eupyrene to apyrene spermatogenesis is induced by a haemolymph factor that becomes active just before or after pupation, depending on species. Accordingly, eupyrene spermatogenesis starts during larval instars and stops after pupation while apyrene spermatogenesis begins just before or after pupation, depending on the species, and persists in the imago. The shift is related to shortening of meiotic prophases and blocking synthesis of a meiotic lysine-rich protein fraction in apyrene cells. From spermatogonia proliferation to early spermatocytes, spermatogenesis is a quasi-independent process. Afterwards, it becomes discontinuous and is punctuated by predetermined stations. Progress to a subsequent station is an 'all or none' phenomenon, regulated by cues linked to fluctuations of the main morphogenetic hormones titers. In absence of a particular cue, the cells stop advancing towards the next station and eventually degenerate.

  13. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  14. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  15. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bauder, J A-S; Warren, A D; Krenn, H W

    2014-12-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly's flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths.

  16. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-04-01

    The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).

  19. Notes on two species of the cavernicolous subgenus Neobisium (Blothrus) Schiödte, 1847 (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) from Transylvania (Romania), with a key to the species of the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Novák, János

    2014-05-19

    Redescriptions of Neobisium (Blothrus) minutum (Tömösváry, 1882) and N. (B.) brevipes (Frivaldszky, 1865) are given, accompanied by new illustrations. Neobisium (B.) brevipes montanum is elevated to full species rank as N. (B.) montanum Beier, 1939. New records of N. (B.) minutum and N. (B.) brevipes from Romania are presented. A key to the members of the subgenus Blothrus occurring in the Carpathian Mountains is provided.

  20. [Occurrence of Salmonella in healthy snakes and snake cadavers- isolation of a new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) (AUTHOR'S TRANSL)].

    PubMed

    Pagon, S; Rohde, R; Schweizer, R

    1976-12-01

    Forty-seven isolation attempts performed with 20 fecal samples of exotic snakes yielded 27 Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus I-IV. The majority of isolates (78.7%), however, was identified as sub-genus III (Arizona). The snakes under study were hold captured for less than one year (one part) or for longer than one year. Bacteriological investigations of the 7 snakes studied, repeated 7 to 21 months thereafter, revealed uniformly other Salmonella species in comparison to those found at primary examination. Necropsy investigations were performed with materials from 3 snakes. One Salmonella species (Arizona) was isolated from the colon of one snake presenting with massive necrotic enteritis. The results with blood, bile and other colon sections were negative. Several Salmonella species were found in the colon of two other snakes presenting with infiltrative and necrotic changes in the organs, but without any pathologic finding in the intestinal tract. A new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) was recovered from fecal sample of a Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) and another Cascabel snake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

  1. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  2. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.

  3. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  4. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  5. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  6. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  7. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM.

  8. Shifts in developmental diet breadth of Lymantria xylina (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Hwang, Fu-Chang; Shen, Tse-Chi

    2007-08-01

    The moth Lymantria xylina Swinhoe (1903) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a major defoliator of hardwood and fruit trees in Taiwan. Although the plants identified as host plants of L. xylina usually refer to plants used as food or as shelter, most of the host plant identifications have not considered the role of these hosts on larval development. This study investigated various instars feeding on different plants to assess the developmental diet breath of L. xylina. Forty-seven plant species, belonging to 25 families were used in feeding trials. Various bioassays, including first instar survival and long-term feeding trials, indicated the most suitable host plants for the different developmental stages. Results of the first instar survival trial indicated that first instars could survive only on 13 of the tested plant species. In addition, first instars could only successfully grow to pupa on seven of these 13 test plants species. To assess the developmental diet breath shifts of this moth, 38 plant species (excluding those nine plant species that the first instars did not feed upon) were fed to third and fifth instars in long-term feeding trials. Survival to pupa was noted on 12 and 13 test plant species for the third and fifth instars, respectively. In short, we found that the larvae performed differently when fed on various host plants and that the host plant range increased with the larval stage. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the host plant range of this moth and to consider host plant breadth together with the developmental stages of caterpillars.

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, James C; Kavanaugh, David H

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho.

  11. Isolation of subgenus B adenovirus during a fatal outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sibu, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Cardosa, M J; Krishnan, S; Tio, P H; Perera, D; Wong, S C

    1999-09-18

    In mid-1997, several children died in Sarawak, Malaysia, during an epidemic of enterovirus-71 (EV71) hand, foot, and mouth disease. The children who died had a febrile illness that rapidly progressed to cardiopulmonary failure and the cause was not satisfactorily resolved. We describe the isolation and identification of a subgenus B adenovirus from the children who died. We studied two groups of children presenting to Sibu Hospital from April 14 to Sept 30, 1997. For children who died, the inclusion criterion was death after febrile illness, and for those who did not die it was acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested for IgM antibodies to Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses. Viruses isolated were identified by immunofluorescence, reverse-transcriptase PCR, or PCR and DNA sequencing. Enterovirus was isolated in three (19%) of 16 children who died and in none of the eight surviving children with AFP. However, an agent that was initially difficult to identify was found in ten (63%) children who died and five (63%) surviving children who had AFP. The agents isolated from ten (66.7%) of these 15 children were eventually identified as adenoviruses and were isolated mainly from clinically important sterile sites or tissues. All the enterovirus-positive children who died had this second agent. Our data raises doubts that EV71 was the only aetiological agent in these deaths.

  12. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, James C.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho. PMID:21852918

  13. A new species of Reithrodontomys, subgenus Aporodon (Cricetidae: Neotominae), from the highlands of Costa Rica, with comments on Costa Rican and Panamanian Reithrodontomys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Alfred L.; Carleton, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of the rodent genus Reithrodontomys (Cricetidae: Neotominae) is described from Cerro Asuncion in the western Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. The long tail, elongate rostrum, bulbous braincase, and complex molars of the new species associate it with members of the subgenus Aporodon, tenuirostris species group. In its diminutive size and aspects of cranial shape, the new species (Reithrodontomys musseri, sp. nov.) most closely resembles R. microdon, a form known from highlands in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. In the course of differentially diagnosing the new species, we necessarily reviewed the Costa Rican and Panamanian subspecies of R. mexicanus based on morphological comparisons, study of paratypes and vouchers used in recent molecular studies, and morphometric analyses. We recognize Reithrodontomys cherrii (Allen, 1891) and R. garichensis finders and Pearson, 1940, as valid species, and allocate R. mexicanus potrerograndei Goodwin, 1945, as a subjective synonym of R. brevirostris Goodwin, 1943. Critical review of museum specimens collected subsequent to Hooper's (1952) revision is needed and would do much to improve understanding of Reithrodontomys taxonomy and distribution in Middle America.

  14. Microstructure and diversity of the bursa copulatrix wall in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Fernández, Guillermo; Baixeras, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    The inner surface and muscle structure of the bursa copulatrix are examined for the first time with Electron Microscopy in some representatives of the family Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). The internal microprotuberances reveal taxon dependent characters unstudied in the Lepidoptera until now. Acanthae occur in almost all taxa studied, whereas ctenidia and papillae are found only in representatives of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae, respectively. Muscles are radially arranged from the signa. Areas of muscle insertion on the bursal wall are not covered by other muscle fibers. Muscle attachments to evaginated areas, e.g. capitulum and diverticulum, suggest an apodeme role for these structures, correlated with long protruding signa. The potential evolutionary and adaptive significance of these new findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  16. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A; Ferguson, Laura C; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P; Schulman, Alan H; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-09-05

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

  17. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  19. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  20. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  1. Feeding mechanisms of adult Lepidoptera: structure, function, and evolution of the mouthparts.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Harald W

    2010-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  3. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNAMet. The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNASer(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNASer(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification. PMID:20376208

  6. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs.

  7. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Herpetogramma sphingealis sp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated. PMID:22207790

  8. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Herpetogramma sphingealissp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated.

  9. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  10. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L; Backoulou, G F; McCornack, B P; Pendleton, B B; Royer, T A

    2014-04-01

    Panicle caterpillars comprise an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The sorghum panicle caterpillar complex consists of larvae of two polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sampling for panicle caterpillars in sorghum fields is usually accomplished by the beat bucket sampling technique with a fixed sample size of 30 beat bucket samples of one sorghum panicle each per 16.2 ha of field. We used Wald's sequential probability ratio test for a negative binomial distribution to develop a sequential sampling plan for panicle caterpillars. In total, 115 sorghum fields were sampled in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas from June to August 2010. Panicle caterpillars had an aggregated distribution of counts confirmed by Pearson's chi-square statistic for lack of fit to the negative binomial distribution for each sampled field. A sequential sampling plan was developed using a high threshold (an economic threshold) of 0.5 caterpillars per sorghum panicle, a low threshold (a safe level) of 0.20 caterpillars per panicle, and fixed error rates (alpha = 0.10 and beta = 0.05). At caterpillar densities > 0.45 and < 0.12 per panicle, the average number of panicles inspected to make a decision was less than the current recommendation of 30. In a 2013 validation test of 25 fields, the expected number of samples taken from average sample number curve was in close agreement with the number of samples required using the sequential plan (r2 = 0.93), and all fields were correctly classified when compared with a fixed sample size result. The plan improved upon current sampling recommendations for panicle caterpillars in sorghum because at known acceptable fixed error rates fewer samples were required when caterpillars are scarce or abundant, whereas more samples were

  11. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  12. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  13. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  14. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  15. Assessing the Value of DNA Barcodes and Other Priority Gene Regions for Molecular Phylogenetics of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John James

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite apparently abundant amounts of observable variation and species diversity, the order Lepidoptera exhibits a morphological homogeneity that has provided only a limited number of taxonomic characters and led to widespread use of nucleotides for inferring relationships. This study aims to characterize and develop methods to quantify the value of priority gene regions designated for Lepidoptera molecular systematics. In particular, I assess how the DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene performs across a broad temporal range given its number one position of priority, most sequenced status, and the conflicting opinions on its phylogenetic performance. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene regions commonly sequenced for Lepidoptera phylogenetics were scored using multiple measures across three categories: practicality, which includes universality of primers and sequence quality; phylogenetic utility; and phylogenetic signal. I found that alternative measures within a category often appeared correlated, but high scores in one category did not necessarily translate into high scores in another. The DNA barcode was easier to sequence than other genes, and had high scores for utility but low signal above the genus level. Conclusions/Significance Given limited financial resources and time constraints, careful selection of gene regions for molecular phylogenetics is crucial to avoid wasted effort producing partially informative data. This study introduces an approach to assessing the value of gene regions prior to the initiation of new studies and presents empirical results to help guide future selections. PMID:20479871

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Mormon metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Apodemia mormo in the lepidopteran family Riodinidae. The 15,262 bp long complete genome was comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the arrangement typically found in the majority of Lepidoptera. The genes of A. mormo were interleaved with a total of 168 bp, which were spread over 16 regions and overlapped 58 bp at eight locations. All tRNAs of the A. mormo mitogenome formed a typical cloverleaf structure, except tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which formed a truncated dihydrouridine arm. The COI gene started with CGA as seen in other Lepidoptera, instead of canonical ATN. The 349 bp long A + T-rich region harbored conserved sequence blocks, such as an ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, a conserved ATTTA sequence, and a microsatellite A/T repeat typically found in Lepidoptera, but absent from the tRNA-like pseudogene.

  17. Enigmatic Liaisons in Lepidoptera: A Review of Same-Sex Courtship and Copulation in Butterflies and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera. PMID:23452066

  18. Enigmatic liaisons in Lepidoptera: a review of same-sex courtship and copulation in butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera.

  19. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  20. Genetic basis of resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Thomas D; Bushman, B Shaun; Williams, W Paul; McMullen, Micheal D; Buckley, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Leaf-feeding damage by first generation larvae of fall armyworm, Spodopter frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause major economic losses each year in maize, Zea mays L. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to reduced leaf-feeding damage by these insects in the maize line Mp704. This study was initiated to identify QTL and their interactions associated with first generation leaf-feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL associated with fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance in resistant line Mp708 were identified and compared with Mp704. Multiple trait analysis (MTA) of both data sets was then used to identify the most important genetic regions affecting resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage. Genetic models containing four and seven QTL explained southwestern corn borer and fall armyworm resistance, respectively, in Mp708. Key genomic regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 were identified by MTA in Mp704 and Mp708 that confer resistance to both fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 contained resistance to both insects and were present in both resistant lines. These regions correspond with previously identified QTL related to resistance to other lepidopteran insects, suggesting that broad-spectrum resistance to leaf feeding is primarily controlled by only a few genetic regions in this germplasm.

  1. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  2. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (H E = 0.502-0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (R ST = 8.7-16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis.

  3. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (HE = 0.502–0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (RST = 8.7–16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis. PMID:25360279

  4. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3–16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14–17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti

  5. Cambarus (Depressicambarus) clairitae, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Alabama with a review of the halli Group in the subgenus Depressicambarus.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Guenter A; Taylor, Christopher A

    2016-11-15

    Cambarus (Depressicambarus) clairitae, new species, is an epigean crayfish from two drainages of the Locust Fork system in Blount and Jefferson counties, Alabama. It belongs to the halli Group in the subgenus Depressicambarus. The new species is morphologically most similar to Cambarus (Depressicambarus) englishi. They differ in a several morphological characters. Cambarus englishi has a more strongly recurved central projection, a wider areola, and a more distinct and set off rostral acumen than the new species. It also has light gray to white antennae while the antennae of the new species are brown. In addition to the description of the new species, the halli Group in Alabama is discussed.

  6. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3-16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14-17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti is the first

  7. Alpha taxonomy of the genus Kessleria Nowicki, 1864, revisited in light of DNA-barcoding (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of Kessleria, a highly specialized montane genus of Yponomeutidae with larval host restriction to Saxifragaceae and Celastraceae (Saxifraga spp. – subgenus Kessleria; Saxifraga spp. and Parnassia spp. – subgenus Hofmannia), is revised based on external morphology, genitalia and DNA barcodes. An integrative taxonomic approach supports the existence of 29 species in Europe (the two known species from Asia and North America are not treated herein). A full 658 bp fragment of COI was obtained from 135 specimens representing 24 species, a further seven sequences are >560 bp. Five new species are described: Kessleria cottiensis sp. n. (Prov. Torino, Italy; Dep. Hautes Alpes, France), Kessleria dimorpha sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France), Kessleria alpmaritimae sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-Maritimes, France), Kessleria apenninica sp. n. (Prov. Rieti, Prov. L´Aquila, Italy), and Kessleria orobiae sp. n. (Prov. Bergamo, Italy). PMID:26019672

  8. On the taxonomy of the genus Acronicta (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). III. Acronicta lutea species group.

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Stüning, Dieter; Matov, Alexej Yu

    2016-11-17

    The present paper is the third in a series of articles on the genus Acronicta Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Volynkin et al. 2015; Volynkin 2015). Here we focus on the taxonomy of the Acronicta lutea species group, designating the lectotype of Acronicta lutea (Bremer & Grey, 1852), revising synonym status of Acronycta metaxantha funesta Draudt, 1950 and Pharetra leucoptera Butler, 1881, transferring Acronicta nigricans (Leech, 1900) to the subgenus Viminia Chapman, 1890 and introducing the new synonymy A. nigricans = Acronicta regifica Draudt, 1937 syn. n.

  9. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera.

  10. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  11. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-05-03

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  12. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  13. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  14. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  15. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  16. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  17. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  18. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  19. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  20. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  1. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  2. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Treesearch

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  3. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  4. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  5. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  6. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  7. Interspecific synchrony among foliage-feeding forest Lepidoptera species and the potential role of generalist predators as synchronizing agents

    Treesearch

    Sandy Raimondo; Marek Turcáni; Jan Patoèka; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2004-01-01

    While synchrony among geographically disjunct populations of the same species has received considerable recent attention, much less is known about synchrony between sympatric populations of two or more species. We analyzed time series of the abundance of ten species of spring foliage feeding Lepidoptera sampled over a 25- year period at 20 sites in the Slovak Republic...

  8. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  9. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  10. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  11. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  12. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  13. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  14. Behavior of Over-wintering Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae and Their Control with Steinernema carpocapsae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts in North America. The effect of nematode rate, water volume, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in field trials in fall and spring (October 2007 and May 200...

  15. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  16. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera. PMID:26196395

  17. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  18. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  19. Uca (Petruca), a new subgenus for the rock fiddler crab Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) from Central America, with comments on some species of the American broad-fronted subgenera.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Ng, Peter K L; Christy, John H

    2015-10-30

    Among the fiddler crabs from the Americas, Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae) is unusual in its behavior and ecology, living in stony habitats rather than sandy or muddy substrates. This species also has several unusual morphological characters of the carapace and major and minor chelae, and had been placed in either the subgenera Minuca Bott, 1954, or Leptuca Bott, 1973. The armature at the inner corner of the orbital floor, as well as the morphology of the urocardiac ossicles of the gastric mill of U. panamensis, are, however, plesiomorphic characters, and are closer to the condition in species belonging the subgenera Uca and Afruca. Phylogenetic relationships, based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA, supported by its unusual morphological features indicate that this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Petruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. panamensis. In addition, the status of Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, U. umbratila Crane, 1941, U. virens Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, and U. longisignalis Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, are revised and discussed based on a reappraisal of their phylogenetic relationships.

  20. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  1. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  2. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  3. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  4. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  5. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  6. A morphology based key to the genera of the tribe Nemoriini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan

    2017-02-23

    A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.

  7. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  8. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.

  9. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  10. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  11. Development of Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Markers for Chinese Oaks (Quercus Subgenus Quercus) and Assessment of Their Utility as DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia; Vázquez, Lucía; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Zhanlin; Zhao, Guifang

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation. With the comparison, nine and 14 plastid markers were selected as barcoding and phylogeographic candidates for the Chinese oaks. Five (psbA-trnH, matK-trnK, ycf3-trnS, matK, and ycf1) of the nine plastid candidate barcodes, with the addition of newly designed ITS and a single-copy nuclear gene (SAP), were then tested on 35 Chinese oak species employing four different barcoding approaches (genetic distance-, BLAST-, character-, and tree-based methods). The four methods showed different species identification powers with character-based method performing the best. Of the seven barcodes tested, a barcoding gap was absent in all of them across the Chinese oaks, while ITS and psbA-trnH provided the highest species resolution (30.30%) with the character- and BLAST-based methods, respectively. The six-marker combination (psbA-trnH + matK-trnK + matK + ycf1 + ITS + SAP) showed the best species resolution (84.85%) using the character-based method for barcoding the Chinese oaks. The barcoding results provided additional implications for taxonomy of the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus, basically identifying three major infrageneric clades of the Chinese oaks (corresponding to Groups Quercus, Cerris, and Ilex) referenced to previous phylogenetic classification of Quercus. While the morphology-based allocations proposed for the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus were challenged. A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and complex

  12. Development of Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Markers for Chinese Oaks (Quercus Subgenus Quercus) and Assessment of Their Utility as DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia; Vázquez, Lucía; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Zhanlin; Zhao, Guifang

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation. With the comparison, nine and 14 plastid markers were selected as barcoding and phylogeographic candidates for the Chinese oaks. Five (psbA-trnH, matK-trnK, ycf3-trnS, matK, and ycf1) of the nine plastid candidate barcodes, with the addition of newly designed ITS and a single-copy nuclear gene (SAP), were then tested on 35 Chinese oak species employing four different barcoding approaches (genetic distance-, BLAST-, character-, and tree-based methods). The four methods showed different species identification powers with character-based method performing the best. Of the seven barcodes tested, a barcoding gap was absent in all of them across the Chinese oaks, while ITS and psbA-trnH provided the highest species resolution (30.30%) with the character- and BLAST-based methods, respectively. The six-marker combination (psbA-trnH + matK-trnK + matK + ycf1 + ITS + SAP) showed the best species resolution (84.85%) using the character-based method for barcoding the Chinese oaks. The barcoding results provided additional implications for taxonomy of the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus, basically identifying three major infrageneric clades of the Chinese oaks (corresponding to Groups Quercus, Cerris, and Ilex) referenced to previous phylogenetic classification of Quercus. While the morphology-based allocations proposed for the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus were challenged. A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and complex

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  14. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00. PMID:27694403

  15. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed.

  17. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  18. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  20. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  1. Barcoding lepidoptera: current situation and perspectives on the usefulness of a contentious technique.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Lyra, Mariana L; Freitas, André V L

    2009-01-01

    Faced by a growing need of identification and delimitation of new and established cryptic species that are being lost at an increasing rate, taxonomists can now more than ever take advantage of an enormous variety of new molecular and computational tools. At this moment they should be open to all new available technologies in the so called 'technology-driven revolution' in systematics. The use of the 'DNA barcode' has been discussed by those applying successfully this approach to identify and diagnose species and by those who believe that the flaws in the use of this molecular marker are as many as to negate the worth of its employment. For insects of the order Lepidoptera neither side seems totally correct or wrong, and although many groups of lepidopterans have been taxonomically resolved by using exclusively or additionally this marker for diagnoses, for others the 'barcode' helped little to resolve taxonomic issues. Here we briefly present some pros and cons of using DNA barcode as a tool in taxonomic studies, with special attention to studies with groups of Lepidoptera developed in the last few years.

  2. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  3. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Lucas E; Silk, P; Eveleigh, E S

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana.

  4. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated. PMID:24146595

  5. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  6. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  7. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management.

  8. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-07-19

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite.

  9. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  10. Did the genus Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Callichromatini) cross the Wallace line? The taxonomic status of Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives 2009 and a new subgenus of Hexamitodera Heller, 1896, with notes on convergent evolution and secondary sexual characters

    PubMed Central

    Perger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genera Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 and Hexamitodera Heller, 1896 are reviewed and redescribed. Based on the combination of chromatic sexual dimorphism, velvety pubescence on the whole dorsal body and distinctly developed carina on the elytra, Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives, 2009 is transferred to Hexamitodera. A new subgenus, Sulcognatha Perger, is instituted to accommodate mandible, head and metasternal modifications in Hexamitodera blairi comb. n. that are lacking in the type species of Hexamitodera, Hexamitodera semivelutina. As indicated by fundamental structural differences in the mandibles of Parandrocephalus and Hexamitodera (Sulcognatha) blairi comb. n., the exaggerated secondary sexual traits and open procoxal cavities in both taxa are presumably the result of convergent evolution. Contrary to Bentanachs & Vives (2009), the presence of the two Parandrocephalus species in Sundaland and the endemism of Hexamitodera on Sulawesi agree well with the zoogeographical separation of both areas by the Wallace line. PMID:23794868

  11. Further contribution to the knowledge of Georgian species of the Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 subgenus Neoplectes Reitter, 1885, with description of a new subspecies of C. titarenkoi Zamotajlov & Fominykh, 2014 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini).

    PubMed

    Fominykh, Dmitriy D; Zamotajlov, Alexandr S; Titarenko, Andrey Yu

    2016-10-31

    Based on material collected by the authors in 2015 in Georgia, further data are provided on the distribution, ecology, and morphology of the Carabus subgenus Neoplectes Reitter, 1885. A preliminary original identification key to the known species is provided, and a new subspecies, C. (Neoplectes) titarenkoi djanoliensis subsp. nov., is described from Dzhanoli river valley. The statuses of C. (Neoplectes) lafertei Chaudoir, 1846, C. (Neoplectes) chaudoirianus Lapouge, 1909, C. (Neoplectes) martviliensis Retezár & Djavelidze, 1992, C. (Neoplectes) prunierianus Deuve, 2012, and C. (Neoplectes) titarenkoi Zamotajlov & Fominykh, 2014 are resurrected to specific. C. (Neoplectes) mellyi boulbenorum Deuve, 2015 is synonymized with the nomynotypical subspecies. A new status of the subspecies Carabus (Neoplectes) lafertei montreuilianus Deuve, 2014, stat. nov. is also proposed.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  13. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  14. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  15. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  16. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  17. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-09-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) was determined to be 15,298 bp and has the typical gene organization of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The A+T content of this mitogenome is 80.83% and the AT skew is slightly positive. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which is initiated by CGA. Only the cox2 gene has an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. All the tRNA genes display a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome is 332 bp in length, including several common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the D. pyloalis is close to Pyralididae.

  18. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2010-08-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn by using previously published data describing immature developmental times and survivorship, and adult longevity and fecundity. The model accurately simulated population development of Indianmeal moths in corn stored during fall and into winter of three separate storage seasons in South Carolina. This is the period when the Indianmeal moth is a pest in stored corn in South Carolina. The model predicted that populations would increase after winter as grain temperatures rose, but observed populations in the grain bins never increased after winter. Despite this, the model should be useful from a management perspective because the corn is being sold off or used up after winter, and the observed Indianmeal moth populations never reached damaging levels after winter.

  19. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg−1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (<12 h) tomato borer mortality. The cis isomer of pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin.

  20. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  1. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    PubMed

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  2. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  4. The genus Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia: resurrection of two species from synonymy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-09-29

    Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae.

  6. False Codling Moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Cold Disinfestation Treatment Using Grapes as the Test Medium.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N

    2016-10-01

    Some countries consider false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a phytosanitary pest and may require the application of a mitigation treatment before accepting T. leucotreta-susceptible produce. This research reports on cold treatments that provide the phytosanitary security that this pest would not be accidentally imported alive. More than 35,000 individuals were treated for 20 d at 0.8 °C and >30,000 individuals subjected to - 0.6 °C for 18 d, with no survivors. The adoption of these treatments in international fruit trade protocols is recommended. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  8. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  9. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  10. Taxonomic changes of some neotropical species of Arctiini Leach (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2017-05-30

    Arctiini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) is the most speciose tribe of tiger moths. In this study, the taxonomy of some Neotropical species of this tribe is reviewed based on habitus and, in some cases, genitalia of type specimens. Lectotypes are designated for two names. Four new combinations are proposed: Agaraea sericeum (Zerny, 1931) comb. n., Biturix nigrostriata (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n., Carales fasciatus (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n. and Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910) comb. n. Six new synonymies are proposed: Agaraea nigrotuberculata Bryk, 1953 (=Agaraea klagesi (Rothschild, 1909)), Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 and Pelochyta fergusoni Watson & Goodger, 1986 (=Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910)), Melese flavescens Joicey & Talbot, 1918 (=Melese paranensis Dognin, 1911), Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882) (=Pareuchaetes aurata aurata (Butler, 1875)) and Tessellota pura Breyer, 1957 (=Tessellota cancellata (Burmeister, 1878)). Moreover, Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 comb. rev. is returned to the original genus. For each rearrangement, both remarks and information about type specimens are provided.

  11. One century after: a reappraisal of the gnathos (sensu Pierce, 1914)
    in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-06-23

    One century ago, F.N. Pierce in his well-known monograph on the genitalia of Geometridae (Lepidoptera), divided the family into two major subdivisions, the Gnathoi and the Agnathoi, depending on the presence or absence of the gnathos in males. In his study, Pierce assigned the Larentiinae to the Agnathoi based on the apparent absence of the gnathos in this subfamily. A re-examination of the male genitalic characters of numerous larentiine species representing 14 different tribes provided, contrary to Pierce's results, evidence for the presence of the gnathos in Larentiinae. Illustrations of the gnathos (or its remnants) in male genitalia of selected species are provided and the value of the uncus and gnathos for inferring phylogenetic relationships is discussed.

  12. Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

    2014-02-27

    The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied.

  13. Can the amount of corn acreage predict fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation levels in nearby cotton?

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2009-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L., and a significant, but more sporadic, pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies showed that the cotton infestations primarily involve a fall armyworm subpopulation known as the "corn-strain" for which corn is the preferred host plant. It was suggested that the fall armyworm infesting cotton originated in corn and spread into secondary hosts as their numbers increased. In this study, high positive correlations were found between corn acreage and fall armyworm infestation levels in cotton. These occurred between areas that are either geographically close or along plausible migration pathways. Formulae were derived from scatter plot and linear regression analysis that can predict infestation levels in cotton based on corn acreage. The implications of these results for describing and predicting fall armyworm population movements are discussed.

  14. Leucine transport is affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins in brush border membrane vesicles from Ostrinia nubilalis Hb (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) midgut.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M Giovanna; Caccia, Silvia; González-Cabrera, Joel; Ferré, Juan; Giordana, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming activity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Fa and Cry1Ca toxins and their interaction with leucine transport mediated by the K(+)/leucine cotransporter were studied in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides. In both species, as in other Lepidoptera, leucine uptake by BBMVs can take place in the absence of cations, but it can also be driven by a K(+) gradient. Experiments with the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide proved that Cry1Ab, a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin active in vivo, enhanced the membrane permeability to potassium in O. nubilalis BBMVs. This result is in agreement with similar effects observed in S. nonagrioides BBMV incubated with various Cry1 toxins active in vivo. The effect of the above toxins was tested on the initial rate of 0.1 mM: leucine influx. Instead of an increase in leucine influx, a reduction was observed with the Cry1 toxins active in vivo. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa, but not the inactive toxin Cry1Da, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner leucine uptake both in the absence and in the presence of a K(+) gradient, a clear indication that their effect is independent of the channel formed by the toxins and that this effect is exerted directly on the amino acid transport system.

  15. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  16. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  17. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  19. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  20. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  1. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers.

  2. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  3. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251 bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332 bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17 bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor.

  4. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Canfield, Michael R; Greene, Erick; Moreau, Corrie S; Chen, Nancy; Pierce, Naomi E

    2008-11-01

    The moth genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes 134 described species whose larvae and adults display a considerable range of phenotypic plasticity in coloration and morphology. We reconstructed the phylogeny of 54 species of Nemoria and seven outgroups using characters from the mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII), and the nuclear gene, Elongation Factor-alpha (EF-1alpha). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny. The 54 ingroup species represented 13 of the 15 recognized species groups of Nemoria [Ferguson, D.C., 1985. Fasc. 18.1, Geometroidea: Geometridae (in part). In: Dominick, R.B. (Ed.), The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 18.1. Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria, Lissochlora and Chavarriella, with particular reference to the species of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 62, 39-159], and the seven outgroups came from four tribes of Geometrinae. These data support Nemoria as a monophyletic group and largely recover the species groupings proposed in previous taxonomic analyses using morphological characters. Phenotypic plasticity of larvae is not correlated with plasticity of adults among those species of Nemoria where life histories are known, and appears to be evolutionarily labile for both life history stages: Species exhibiting larval phenotypic plasticity, such as N. arizonaria and N. outina, are placed in several distinct clades, suggesting that this trait has evolved multiple times, and species displaying adult phenotypic plasticity are likewise distributed throughout the phylogeny. A comparative analysis of the biogeographic history of Nemoria supports a South American origin for the genus with multiple introductions into North America, and an application of published substitution rates to the phylogram provides an age estimate

  5. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation.

  6. Production, identification, and field evaluation of sex pheromone from calling females in Diaphania angustalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Zhitao; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Shengnan; Shi, Xianhui; Sun, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyang; Jia, Caijuan; Wang, Changlu; He, Yurong; Wen, Xiujun

    2017-09-12

    Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Production peak of female sex pheromone occurred on the third day of age at 5 h into the scotophase with the EAG test, and the hexane extracts were attractive to males in the wind tunnel test. GC-EAD analysis of virgin males to gland extracts that were subsequently evaluated showed two active compounds, (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10E12-16:Ald) and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10E12-16:OH), based on comparison of retention time and mass spectrum, with suitable synthetic compounds. Under laboratory conditions, the blend of E10E12-16:Ald and E10E12-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1 elicited a stronger EAG response than other treatments or a single component. In the field, more male moths were captured by traps baited with the mixture of E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1, whereas a mixture of 8:1 and 10:1 also caught males. Accordingly, E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH were regarded as the major sex pheromone components in D. angustalis females.

  7. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    PubMed

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  9. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  10. Early-diverging bumblebees from across the roof of the world: the high-mountain subgenus Mendacibombus revised from species' gene coalescents and morphology (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul H; Huang, Jiaxing; Rasmont, Pierre; An, Jiandong

    2016-12-01

    The bumblebees of the subgenus Mendacibombus of the genus Bombus are the sister group to all other extant bumblebees and are unusual among bees for specialising in some of the highest elevation habitats with entomophilous plants on Earth. Most named taxa in this group (24 available names, from a total of 49 published names) were described originally from small differences in the colour pattern of the hair, many as parts (e.g. subspecies) of just one species. Subsequent taxonomic treatments recognised multiple species, but have described very few morphological characters, most of which are in the male genitalia. We examined 4413 specimens representing all of the named taxa from throughout the group's global range to describe variation in DNA, in skeletal morphology, and in the colour patterns of the hair. Using Bayesian inference of the phylogeny from an evolutionary model for the fast-evolving COI gene, and fitting either general mixed Yule/coalescent models or Poisson tree process models, we identify COI gene coalescents, which are expected to characterise species as evolutionarily independent lineages. None of the conditions most likely to compromise this interpretation (biased sampling, paralogy, introgression, heteroplasmy, incomplete lineage sorting) appears to be a substantial problem in this case. In an integrative analysis, we show that colour patterns are often variable within these groups and do not diagnose the same groups as we recognise from genes; in contrast, the groups recognised from gene coalescents can also be diagnosed from differences we identify in morphology. We infer that the 12 groups with coalescents in the COI gene that are corroborated by morphology constitute species, whereas many of these species are polymorphic in colour pattern. Lectotypes are designated for 15 taxa in order to reduce uncertainty in the identity and application of the names. We provide new morphological keys and distribution maps for the species. Then we use four

  11. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  12. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  13. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance

  14. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of “Agehana” has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, “Agehana” fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present “East Asia-America” disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  15. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  16. The subgenus Monotarsobius in the Iberian Peninsula with a description of a new pseudo-cryptic species from Northern Spain revealed by an integrative revision of Lithobius crassipes L. Koch, 1862 (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Voigtländer, Karin; Iorio, Etienne; Decker, Peter; Spelda, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The widespread European centipede species Lithobius (Monotarsobius) crassipes L. Koch, 1862 was revised using an integrative approach incorporating sequence data and morphology. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 21 individuals from northern Spain, France and Germany as well as for individuals of three other species of the subgenus Monotarsobius Verhoeff, 1905. The dataset was used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination. In addition, Monotarsobius specimens from more than 100 localities in northern Spain, France, and Germany were morphologically investigated. Both morphological and molecular data indicate that specimens from the Navarre and Gipuzkoa provinces, northern Spain, represent a distinct pseudo-cryptic species, only differing in some minor characters from L. crassipes. The new species L. (Monotarsobius) crassipesoides sp. n. is described and compared to L. crassipes in detail using morphology and morphometric statistics for body, head, and antennae length, number of ocelli and coxal pores, as well as the starting leg for legpair spines Vmt and DaP. The Iberian and European records of L. crassipes are discussed. The subspecies L. crassipes morenoi Garcia Ruiz, 2014 from Southern Spain is elevated to species as L. morenoi stat. n. A checklist, distribution map and key to all five species of Monotarsobius of the Iberian Peninsula are presented. PMID:28769719

  17. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species.

  18. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  19. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Treesearch

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  20. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...