An audiogram is a hearing test conducted under ideal listening conditions in a soundproof booth. The test includes different pitches and intensities and the results are conveyed in graphical form. If there is hearing loss an audiogram helps distinguish conductive loss (outer/middle ear) from sensorineural loss (cochlea/cochlear nerve).
Pérez-Carbonell, Tomàs; Pla-Gil, Ignacio; Redondo-Martínez, Jaume; Morant-Ventura, Antonio; García-Callejo, Francisco Javier; Marco-Algarra, Jaime
We included 9 patients implanted with Baha(®) Attract. All our patients were evaluated by free field tonal audiometry, free field verbal audiometry and free field verbal audiometry with background noise, all the tests were performed with and without the device. To evaluate the subjective component of the implantation, we used the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB). The auditive assessment with the device showed average auditive thresholds of 35.8dB with improvements of 25.8dB over the previous situation. Speech reception thresholds were 37dB with Baha(®) Attract, showing improvements of 23dB. Maximum discrimination thresholds showed an average gain of 60dB with the device. Baha(®) Attract achieves auditive improvements in patients for whom it is correctly indicated, with a consequent positive subjective evaluation. This study shows the attenuation effect in transcutaneous transmission, that prevents the device achieving greater improvements.
Aimoni, Claudia; Ciorba, Andrea; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Mazzoli, Manuela; Bianchini, Chiara; Rosignoli, Monica; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H.
Background Cochlear implants (CIs) have been recognized as a safe and effective means for profound hearing loss rehabilitation in children and adults and recently their use has been extended to subjects over 65 years of age. The aim of this paper was to assess indices related to changes in the quality of life (QoL) in elderly CI recipients. Material/Methods A case-control paradigm was used to assess the effects of CIs on the QoL. Forty-two subjects were assigned to the Case group and 15 subjects to the Control group. All 57 subjects were affected by profound hearing loss and had received a CI. Audiological data were collected from both groups at: (i) 1 month pre-implantation [T1]; (ii) 1 day pre- implantation [T2]; (iii) 30 days post-implantation, with CI used in free field [T3]; and (iv) 12 months post-implantation, with CI used in a free field [T4]. The QoL was assessed via a Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, adapted to otolaryngology. To compare subjects across different ages with varying degrees of speech development, a perception parameter was used from the Speech Perception Categories test developed by Geers and Moog. Results Hearing performance was considerably improved after CI. In relation to the hearing performance at time T1, statistically significant threshold gains were observed in both groups in the T3 and T4 observation windows. At time T4, a threshold gain of 70 dB HL in the Case group and a gain of 84 dB HL in the Control group were observed. With speech therapy rehabilitation, a perception level of 6 was reached by 80.0% of patients in the Case group and by 100% of patients in the Control group. In terms of QoL, both groups showed improved post-CI scores. Statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups, with the Control group outperforming the Case group in all but the social section. Conclusions Despite age-related changes in auditory system and prolonged hearing deprivation, CIs offer audiological and QoL benefits in the
Borg, E; Wilson, M; Samuelsson, E
An acoustic laboratory for reproduction of speech and acoustic environments is presented along with two sound field tests. Its design has been inspired by the LEDE (Living End Dead End) principle for construction of radio and music control rooms. The equipment and the 12 loudspeakers can simultaneously reproduce several stereophonic and monophonic recordings. The interesting feature is that the delayed first reflex in the LEDE room allows for a realistic perception of the recording room. A preliminary presentation of two newly developed tests for sound field listening is given. In DSIN. Directional Speech In Noise, the JFC (just follow conversation) threshold for continuous discourse is determined in 12 directions in quiet and in noise from +/- 60 degrees azimuth. In SEIT (Sound Environmental Identification Test), stereophonic acoustic environments are presented and the subject is asked to identify specific components and to characterize each environment as closely as possible. Results from tests with normal hearing subjects and examples of results with hearing impaired subjects are presented. The potential of the technique for use in aural rehabilitation, functional definition of auditory communication and quality assessment of hearing aids is discussed. It is pointed out that the term ecological audiology is suitable for describing the interaction between the communicating individual and the environment in a broad sense.
Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L
In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.
Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho
Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193
Desai, Urmen; Rosen, Heather; Mulliken, John B; Gopen, Quinton; Meara, John G; Rogers, Gary F
Hearing loss has been described in patients with certain craniosynostotic syndromes but is poorly defined in Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). Our objective was to characterize the otologic and audiologic findings in PS. The records of PS patients evaluated at our craniofacial center over a 30-year period were culled. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis and formal audiologic examination were included. Diagnostic criteria were characteristic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 or 2 (FGFR1, FGFR2) or, in the absence of genetic testing, typical clinical findings of PS as determined by a clinical geneticist or the most senior author. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had hearing loss. Twenty patients had traditional audiologic testing: 14 (70%) had pure conductive loss (minor to severe), and 3 (15%) had a mixed conductive/sensorineural loss (minor to severe). Two additional patients had hearing loss by Behavioral Observational Audiometry (sound fields method). One patient with early conductive hearing loss was subsequently determined to have a pure sensorineural deficit. Nine patients (45%) had permanent hearing loss significant enough to require audiologic amplification. All patients with PS demonstrated hearing loss, although the severity and the anatomic basis (ie., neural vs conductive) were variable. Conductive hearing loss, possibly caused by structural abnormalities, was most common. Sensorineural hearing loss was less common and may be related to the effect of FGFR mutations on cranial nerve and/or inner-ear development.
... CEU Manager by April 21. Audiology News 27 Mar Suppressors: Hearing Protection or Safety Threat? 22 Mar Is There a Genetic Component to Tinnitus? 03 Mar Celebrate World Hearing Day with the Academy! 23 ...
Background and Objectives The auditory profile of a large number of persons with late onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is recently described in the Indian context. The purpose of study was 1) to profile data on routine audiological parameters, cortical evoked potentials, and temporal processing, 2) to analyze the benefit from hearing aids for persons with ANSD, and 3) to understand the association between benefit from hearing aids and auditory profile. Subjects and Methods Thirty-eight adults with late onset ANSD and a matched group of 40 normally hearing adults participated in the study. Basic audiological tests, recording of cortical evoked potentials, and temporal processing tests were carried out on both groups of participant while only persons with ANSD were fitted with hearing aid. Results Subjects in the two groups were significantly different on all the audiological parameters. ANSD group seemed to benefit from hearing aids variably. The mean amplitude of N2 was significantly different between normally-hearing participants and patients with ANSD. Conclusions Residual temporal processing, particularly amplitude modulation detection seems to be associated with benefit from hearing aids in patients with ANSD. PMID:27942602
Munjal, Sanjay K.; Panda, Naresh K.; Verma, Roshan K.
Purpose. Subjective tinnitus has different forms and degrees of severity. Many studies in the literature have assessed psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus but hardly any of them had focused on the association of audiological profile with onset duration and loudness perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus loudness/onset duration and audiological profile to explain differences in prognosis. Method. Study design was prospective. The sample consisted of 26 subjects having tinnitus, which was divided into tinnitus and nontinnitus ears. Audiological profile included pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex test, and auditory evoked potentials (early and middle latency). Unpaired t-test was applied to compare two subgroups. Correlation and association between tinnitus onset duration/loudness perception and audiological profile were also assessed by calculating Spearman's coefficient and Fischer exact value. Results. The two subgroups had significant differences for pure-tone and speech audiometry hearing thresholds. A significant association was observed between the high frequency/extended high frequency and tinnitus loudness/onset duration. Conclusion. The changes in hearing thresholds and auditory pathway are associated with an increase in tinnitus loudness and its onset duration. This knowledge would be helpful to differentiate between severity and chronicity of the patients for planning therapeutic management and predicting prognosis. PMID:24078882
Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.
The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…
Kara, Ahmet; Iseri, Mete; Durgut, Merve; Topdag, Murat; Ozturk, Murat
The aim of this study was to compare audiological test results obtained from a sound processor (SP) attached to a Softband with those obtained from direct (abutment connection) bone conduction implant systems and magnetic passive bone conduction implant systems with different magnet strengths on patients implanted at our clinic. Twenty-four patients who were implanted with either an abutment or magnetic bone conduction implant system between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed for hearing results, such as free-field hearing thresholds, direct bone conduction hearing thresholds, and speech discrimination scores with aided and unaided conditions Both magnetic and direct osseointegrated bone conduction implant systems, as well as the Softband system, provide good hearing outcomes when compared with unaided performance; however, the abutment connection system gives better hearing thresholds in the higher frequencies. No significant difference in hearing gain was found between the Softband system, magnet 5, and magnet used by the patient. Magnetic and direct bone conduction hearing implant systems are both effective for rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss when conventional hearing aids cannot be used. However, patients with high-frequency hearing loss may be better suited to an abutment connection system if they are not satisfied with high-frequency hearing gains provided via the trial Softband system preoperatively and should be counseled accordingly.
Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578
Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H
The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.
Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike
This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.
Russo, I C
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the field of clinical and rehabilitative audiology for children and adults in Brazil, while simultaneously offering some data and results from several different research studies within the country. The theme will address seven main topics: (1) the status of services and assistance for the hearing impaired; (2) the results of five different institutional research studies showing the main causes of hearing impairment in children in the city of Săo Paulo; (3) a review of subjective and objective methods for early diagnosis and audiological habilitation of children, including parent counseling, hearing aids, and cochlear implants; (4) a discussion of hearing conservation in different settings; (5) a brief consideration of audiological rehabilitation for hearing-impaired elderly adults in the country; (6) the main results of the First and Second Brazilian National Campaigns of Deafness Prevention; and (7) conclusions.
VENTO, BARBARA A.
This article presents a review of the book Telepractice in Audiology, authored by Emma Rushbrooke MPhil(AUD), BA, DipAud., MAudSA., LSLS. Cert. AVT, RNC, and K. Todd Houston, PhD, CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT, and 13 contributing authors. This is the first book entirely devoted to tele-audiology. It provides practical information for working with clients across the lifespan and for multiple practice settings. Reviewer Dr. Barbara Vento endorses this work as a comprehensive resource on the topic of teleaudiology for both students and aspiring teleaudiologists.
Gravel, Judith S.
This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…
Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M
The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Johnston, J Cyne Topshee; Angus, Doug; Durieux-Smith, Andrée
The population health perspective has become increasingly apparent in the medical, public health, and policy literature. This article emphasizes the value of applying the population health perspective and associated frameworks to the rehabilitative sciences and particularly to the field of audiology. Key components of the population health perspective--including the determinants of health, the importance of evidence-based practice, and the value of transdisciplinarity--are used to illustrate the relevance of population health to the field of audiology. Using these key concepts from a population health framework and examples from audiology, the adoption of a population health perspective is proposed.
Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V
The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau.
Oh, Soo Hee
The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085
Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak
The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels.
Antonelli, A R; Bonfioli, F; Garrubba, V; Ghisellini, M; Lamoretti, M P; Nicolai, P; Camerini, C; Maiorca, R
The audiological results of 46 patients (m/f 27/19, mean age; 57.4 +/- 11.1) with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing dialysis were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 25). Mean pure tone average from 0.5 to 8 kHz was about 15 dB higher in CRF patients than in control subjects. The ABR parameters of the test group were then contrasted with those recorded in a second control group (n = 47, m/f 26/21, mean age: 56.1 +/- 11.4) matched by age, gender and degree of hearing loss (HL). After assessing the normality of the groups by the usual criteria, using the data of a sample of normal young adults, the ABR were found to be abnormal in 23.9% of the controls and in the 39.13% of the CRF patients. Wave V, I-III, III-V and I-V delays were significantly shorter in the females of the control group; in the CRF group, only the V and the I-V delays were shorter in females. The only age-dependent effect was found in the CRF sample, in which older patients had significantly longer I-III IPLD. The degree of HL influenced the latency of the waves in both groups but only the I-V IPLD was longer in CRF patients with pronounced high tone loss. The most distinguishing feature between the effects of CRF plus ageing and those of normal ageing was the lengthening of the I-III IPLD in the test group. This finding is likely to reflect a subclinical disorder of the VIII nerve function that is a part of the axonal uremic neuropathy.
Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L
No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.
THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK IS TO HELP TEACHERS, PARENTS, DOCTORS, AND WORKERS IN AUDIOLOGY CLINICS MAKE THE MOST OF SOUND IN THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TREATMENT OF DEAFNESS. ASPECTS OF SOUND AMPLIFICATION CONSIDERED ARE THE NATURE OF SOUND, ELECTRICAL AMPLIFICATION, AND VARIOUS TYPES OF HEARING AIDS (INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, INDUCTION LOOP, SPEECH…
Fabry, David A
Although private practice in audiology has evolved during the past 40 years, hearing aids have remained as a central component to success. This article will discuss present and future trends for the next 40 years, including parallels to other professions and the need to innovate beyond technology.
Magnusson, S P; Gleim, G W; Nicholas, J A
To quantify normal biological variability of shoulder abduction strength testing with an isokinetic and a hand-held dynamometer, we tested nine healthy subjects over a clinically relevant period. One side was tested with a Cybex at 60 deg/sec and the other with a hand-held dynamometer. Six maximal trials, following warmup, were conducted on each of 5 days, separated by 1 to 2 weeks. Intraday correlations of individual trials ranged from 0.82 to 0.995 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.996 for Cybex. Interday correlations ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.97 for Cybex. The best values to use for Cybex interday variability were the average of the first three repetitions, and yielded standard errors of 8.6% to 19.2% of the sample mean. The average of the last three repetitions were the best for hand-held dynamometers, and yielded standard errors of 5.5% to 10.8%. There was a significant decline (P less than 0.05) in strength of the mean of the last three versus the mean of the first three daily repetitions on Day 1 and 4 for hand-held dynamometers, and a trend toward this on the other days, that was not seen with Cybex. Regression of average Day 1 values for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer yielded r = 0.86 (P less than 0.01) with a slope of 1.07 indicating good agreement between modalities. In conclusion, intraday/interday correlations were high for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer. Interday variability was minimized by using the mean score of the first three and last three repetitions for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer, respectively. Changes in Cybex and hand-held dynamometer strength of less than 19% and 11%, respectively, are within the area of "measurement error" and should therefore not be considered clinically significant.
Hall, James W
The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses.
The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077
Thornton, Rebecca L.
This paper examines the effects of learning HIV status on economic behavior among rural Malawians. According to economic life-cycle models, if learning HIV results is informative about additional years of life, being diagnosed HIV-positive or negative should predict changes in consumption, investment and savings behavior with important micro and macro-economic implications. Using an experiment that randomly assigned incentives to learn HIV results, I find that while learning HIV results had short term effects on subjective belief of HIV infection, these differences did not persist after two years. Consistent with this, there were relatively few differences two years later in savings, income, expenditures, and employment between those who learned and did not learn their status. PMID:24369439
Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill
Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…
Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo
This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…
Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Singh, Gurjit
Recent advances in research and clinical practice concerning aging and auditory communication have been driven by questions about age-related differences in peripheral hearing, central auditory processing, and cognitive processing. A “site-of-lesion” view based on anatomic levels inspired research to test competing hypotheses about the contributions of changes at these three levels of the nervous system. A “processing” view based on psychologic functions inspired research to test alternative hypotheses about how lower-level sensory processes and higher-level cognitive processes interact. In the present paper, we suggest that these two views can begin to be unified following the example set by the cognitive neuroscience of aging. The early pioneers of audiology anticipated such a unified view, but today, advances in science and technology make it both possible and necessary. Specifically, we argue that a synthesis of new knowledge concerning the functional neuroscience of auditory cognition is necessary to inform the design and fitting of digital signal processing in “intelligent” hearing devices, as well as to inform best practices for resituating hearing aid fitting in a broader context of audiologic rehabilitation. Long-standing approaches to rehabilitative audiology should be revitalized to emphasize the important role that training and therapy play in promoting compensatory brain reorganization as older adults acclimatize to new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an integrated framework for understanding how auditory and cognitive processing interact when older adults listen, comprehend, and communicate in realistic situations, to review relevant models and findings, and to suggest how new knowledge about age-related changes in audition and cognition may influence future developments in hearing aid fitting and audiologic rehabilitation. PMID:16528429
This research investigates the stability of marker characteristics within a very short period of time for both tests on the same subject as well as tests on different subjects. It reports on the scoring of the scripts of the whole cohort of students that took three high stakes tests in 2003 in a European country: a Language test consisting of a Literacy and a Literature paper and a History test. The many-facets Rasch model was used to study marker severity and marking consistency and it was found that some markers had more stable characteristics than others. Although the stability of marker characteristics was generally weak, it was non-negligible (correlation indices as indicators of stability ranged up to 0.707). This study, however, is not absolutely accurate due to the small sample sizes employed and it can be added that more research is needed to reach definite results.
Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola
Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations.
Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola
Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144
McCracken, Wendy; Ravichandran, Aarthy; Laoide-Kemp, Siobhan
Meeting the audiological management needs of deaf children with learning disabilities is demanding. The study specifically focused on the age at which audiological certainty, the degree, configuration and type of hearing loss, was established in 20 individuals with severe learning disability. Audiological records relating to each individual were…
Saad, Michele A.; McKnight, Patrick; Quartuccio, Jacob; Nicholas, David; Jaladi, Ramesh; Corriveau, Philip
We take a look at crowdsourcing for subjective image quality evaluation using real image stimuli with nonsimulated distortions. Our aim is to scale the task of subjectively rating images while ensuring maximal data validity and accuracy. While previous work has begun to explore crowdsourcing for quality assessment, it has either used images that are not representative of popular consumer scenarios or used crowdsourcing to collect data without comparison to experiments in a controlled environment. Here, we address the challenges imposed by the highly variable online environment, using stimuli that are subtle and more complex than has traditionally been used in quality assessment experiments. In a series of experiments, we vary different design parameters and demonstrate how they impact the subjective responses obtained. Of the parameters examined are stimulus display mode, study length, stimulus habituation, and content homogeneity/heterogeneity. Our method was tested on a database that was rated in a laboratory test previously. Once our design parameters were chosen, we rated a database of consumer photographs and are making this data available to the research community.
Gegenava, Kh A; Japaridze, Sh V; Kevanishvile, Z Sh; Lomidze, L S; Khechenashvili, T R
Cigarette smoking and related diseases are global problem of health. Discussion regarding influence of smoking on hearing function has been continued about 20 years. The aim of our study was estimation of relation between smoking and development of cochlear neuritis. Research was conducted at Ltd. National Centre of ENT - Japaridze-Kevanishvili clinic and Ltd.Audiology National Center. The data were collected from September 2011 to December 2013. Cross- sectional observational study was carried out. 600 persons (mean age - 45.4±10.4) were enrolled in the research. After filling the informed consent persons were divided into two groups: smokers (300 smokers, apparently healthy persons, mean age 44.3±10.6 years) and control group (300 healthy non-smoker persons, mean age 46.5±10.2 years). All persons completed a questionnaire, which includes questions about smoking status too. The inclusion criterion in smokers group was a smoking habit during 5 years at least 10 cigarettes per day. Otoscopy and Acoustic impedance test (timpanometry, reflexometry, testing for Eustachian tube conductivity) were used for verification of outer and middle-ear normality. Pure Tone Audiometry was performed for hearing measure and identifies hearing nerve condition. Obtained results were statistically treated by the student's t-distribution. For minimal level of significance was taken p<0,05. In smokers group hearing loss was proved in 31.33% (94 persons) and in control group - in 17.34% (52 persons). Hearing-loss vs. normal-hearing ratio amounted hence to 0.46 (P<0.01) in the smokers group and to 0.21 (P<0.01) in the nonsmokers'. Hearing loss in smokers may be provided by different pathological mechanisms.
Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket
This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…
Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…
Sarin, Vanita; Anand, Vanika; Bhardwaj, Bhanu
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate audiological outcomes following adenoidectomy by the classical method and by endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a powered instrument (microdebrider). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center. It included 40 patients divided into two equal groups of 20 each. Group-A patients underwent classical adenoidectomy, while Group-B patients were subjected to endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider. Hearing outcome was measured by post-operative pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry. Results: The post-operative average air-bone gap (ABG) was reduced from 19.6 dB to 11.8 dB in Group A and from 17.6 dB to 8.7 dB in Group B (P=0.010). There was reversal of tympanometric curves from type-B and type-C to type-A in 55% of the patients in Group A, while type-A curve was seen in 90% cases in Group B in the post-operative period. Conclusion: Audiological outcomes of endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider were superior compared with classical adenoidectomy. PMID:26878001
Haumann, Sabine; Hohmann, Volker; Meis, Markus; Herzke, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas
Owing to technological progress and a growing body of clinical experience, indication criteria for cochlear implants (CI) are being extended to less severe hearing impairments. It is, therefore, worth reconsidering these indication criteria by introducing novel testing procedures. The diagnostic evidence collected will be evaluated. The investigation includes postlingually deafened adults seeking a CI. Prior to surgery, speech perception tests [Freiburg Speech Test and Oldenburg sentence (OLSA) test] were performed unaided and aided using the Oldenburg Master Hearing Aid (MHA) system. Linguistic skills were assessed with the visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, and general state of health, socio-economic status (SES) and subjective hearing were evaluated through questionnaires. After surgery, the speech tests were repeated aided with a CI. To date, 97 complete data sets are available for evaluation. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between postsurgical speech reception threshold (SRT) measured with the adaptive OLSA test and pre-surgical data such as the TRT test (r=−0.29), SES (r=−0.22) and (if available) aided SRT (r=0.53). The results suggest that new measures and setups such as the TRT test, SES and speech perception with the MHA provide valuable extra information regarding indication for CI. PMID:26557327
Spitz, H H; Carroll, J G; Johnson, S J
By making a discrimination problem's solution equivalent to an hypothesis (response alternation) known to be more dominant in retarded subjects than college students, superior performance by retarded subjects can be accurately predicted.
Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Lower Body Negative Pressure Experiment. Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, assists Kerwin with the blood pressure cuff. They are in the experiment and work area of the Orbital Workshop crew quarters of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Kerwin is lying in the lower body negative pressure device. The purpose of the M092 experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The data collected in support of M092 are blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, LBNPD pressure, leg volume changes, and body weight.
Burke, W F; Warnecke, A; Schöner-Heinisch, A; Lesinski-Schiedat, A; Maier, H; Lenarz, T
Mutations in the GJB2 gene are known to represent the commonest cause of hereditary and congenital hearing loss. In this study, a complete sequencing of the GJB2 gene in a cohort of 506 patients from a single, large cochlear implant program in Europe was performed. Audiological testing for those patients who could actively participate was performed using pure tone audiometry (PTA). Those unable to undergo PTA were measured using click-auditory brainstem response (ABR). Data analysis was performed to determine genotype-phenotype correlations of the mutational status vs. audiological profiles and vs. age at the time of presentation. An overall prevalence of biallelic mutations of 13.4% was found for the total collective. When subsets of younger patients were examined, the prevalence increased to 27% of those up to age 18 and 35% of those up to age 5 at the time of testing, respectively. This increase was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Analysis of the mean PTA thresholds revealed a strong correlation between allele combination status and mean PTA (p = 0.021). The prevalence of simple heterozygotes was found to be approximately 10.1%, which is around 3.3 times the value expected in the general population. As GJB2 follows a recessive pattern of inheritance, the question arises as to why such a large fraction of simple heterozygotes was observed among the hearing impaired patients included in this study.
Cinar, Saniye; Cinar, Fikret; Kiran, Sibel
Behçet disease is known to be a multisystem condition. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in patients with Behçet disease and to identify any associations between audiologic findings and other clinical manifestations and treatment. Our study group was made up of 41 adults with Behçet disease and 41 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. All patients and controls underwent a complete clinical otolaryngologic examination, which included pure-tone audiometry, acoustic impedance testing, and otoacoustic emissions testing. Audiology revealed that the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was significantly higher in the Behçet patients than in the controls-68.3 vs. 22.0% (p < 0.002). The duration of Behçet disease had no significant impact on whether patients did or did not experience hearing loss. Hearing loss was the fourth most common clinical finding in the Behçet group, after oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and skin lesions. We conclude that SNHL is present in a significant number of Behçet patients, and we suggest the need for an adequate investigation of hearing in the routine follow-up of these patients.
Prabhu, Prashanth; Shivaswamy, Jyothi
Summary Reported here are audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that he had a thinner cochlear nerve in the left ear than in the right ear. He had a higher degree of hearing loss in the left ear and poor speech recognition scores for both ears. He had normal middle ear and cochlear functioning. The auditory brainstem response and acoustic reflexes were absent, indicating a retrocochlear pathology. Long latency responses (LLR) revealed normal cortical functioning. Hence, implantation of an auditory brainstem implant might be an option, but the patient would need to be aware of its limitations. This case highlights the importance of MRI in evaluating congenital malformations of the cochlear nerve when audiological findings indicate a retrocochlear pathology. PMID:28357188
Goulios, H; Patuzzi, R B
This paper describes the international education and practice of audiology with the broader aim of proposing possible cost-effective and sustainable education models to address the current situation. Major audiology organizations worldwide were surveyed from February 2005 to May 2007, and organizations from 62 countries (78% of the world population) returned a completed survey. Overall, the results suggested a wide range of professionals providing hearing health care, and 86% of the respondents reported a need for more audiologists. There was also considerable variation in the scope of practice among the different hearing health care professionals, and the minimum education levels of audiologists with similar scopes of practice. The countries surveyed fell into four broad categories in terms of professional resources, and the results highlighted the urgent need for forward planning at both national and international levels. The study highlights options for addressing some of the challenges in educating audiologists and the provision of hearing health care services globally.
Rodríguez Valiente, Antonio; Roldán Fidalgo, Amaya; Villarreal, Ithzel M; García Berrocal, José R
Early detection and appropriate treatment of hearing loss are essential to minimise the consequences of hearing loss. In addition to conventional audiometry (125-8,000 Hz), extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz) is available. This type of audiometry may be useful in early diagnosis of hearing loss in certain conditions, such as the ototoxic effect of cisplatin-based treatment, noise exposure or oral misunderstanding, especially in noisy environments. Eleven examples are shown in which extended high-frequency audiometry has been useful in early detection of hearing loss, despite the subject having a normal conventional audiometry. The goal of the present paper was to highlight the importance of the extended high-frequency audiometry examination for it to become a standard tool in routine audiological examinations.
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Hixon, Jon E.
Interviews with elementary students before and after tests in three subjects investigated how grade level and subject affected students' ability to predict test scores. Results found a significant grade-subject area interaction for predictions prior to testing. Posttest predictions differed only slightly from pretest. Prediction accuracy was…
Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun
In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean ABG was 22.4 dB and postoperative mean ABG was 16.4 dB in abnormal middle ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between middle ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has passed. 799.18 Section 799.18 Protection of... Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has passed....
Erb, C; Adler, M; Stübiger, N; Wohlrab, M; Zrenner, E; Thiel, H J
The aim of the study was to obtain normal values for the colour-arrangement test, Roth 28-hue desaturated. In 146 healthy non-smokers colour vision was tested monocularly. The subjects were divided into four age groups: 0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years. The overall error score for all groups was 54 +/- 24 (median +/- mean absolute deviation). The values for the 20-39 year group were significantly lower than those for the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis: P < 0.0001 with subsequent multiple Mann-Whitney test). An increasing predominance of errors along the blue-yellow-axis was observed with increasing age. The error scores of normal subjects tested by the Roth 28-hue desaturated were comparable with those on the well-known Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM-100). Because the Roth 28-hue desaturated is shorter and simpler to administer, it is an alternative to the FM-100 in situations that need to assess colour discrimination and error axis quantitatively and quickly.
Trevisi, P; Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bovo, R; Martini, A
The aim of this paper is to assess the long-term audiological features and outcomes of hearing rehabilitation in a large group of individuals with CHARGE Syndrome. The study has been conducted retrospectively, on a paediatric patient database, at the Audiology Department of the University Hospitals of Ferrara and Padua. The study sample included 31 children presenting with different degrees of hearing impairment associated with CHARGE syndrome. Hearing was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or electrocochleography, or conditioned audiometry (visual reinforcement audiometry [VRA] or play audiometry). Auditory-perceptual outcomes in terms of communication skills and expressive language were also recorded. The effects of hearing rehabilitation (with hearing aids or cochlear implants) in this group of children and language outcomes after rehabilitation were monitored during long-term follow-up. The outcomes of rehabilitation measures differed in relation to the heterogeneous and often severe disabilities associated with CHARGE syndrome, e.g. developmental delay, intellectual delay, visual impairment, thin 8(th) nerve with retrocochlear auditory dysfunction (as described in cases of auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony). Oral expressive language was severely impaired in most cases, even after lengthy follow-up, suggesting the need for alternative augmentative communication modes. The early identification of sensorineural hearing loss, and carefully planned rehabilitation treatments, can be of some benefit in children with CHARGE syndrome.
Becker, G. W.
Testing device stretches elastic materials biaxially over large deformation ranges and varies strain ratios in two perpendicular directions. The device is used in conjunction with a tensile testing machine, which holds the specimen and permits control over the direction and magnitude of the stresses applied.
Beber, Bárbara Costa; Brandão, Lenisa; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes
This article aims to warn the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology scientific community about the importance and necessity of scientific and clinical activities regarding Primary Progressive Aphasia. This warning is based on a systematic literature review of the scientific production on Primary Progressive Aphasia, from which nine Brazilian articles were selected. It was observed that there is an obvious lack of studies on the subject, as all the retrieved articles were published in medical journals and much of it consisted of small samples; only two articles described the effectiveness of speech-language therapy in patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia. A perspective for the future in the area and characteristics of Speech-Language Therapy for Primary Progressive Aphasia are discussed. As a conclusion, it is evident the need for greater action by Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology on Primary Progressive Aphasia.
Horn, David L; Davis, Rebecca A O; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T
We investigated the predictive relations between pre-implant visuomotor integration ability and subsequent oral speech/language outcomes in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Prior to implantation, children were given a task that tested their accuracy in copying geometric forms. Performance on this task predicted speech perception, sentence comprehension, and speech intelligibility outcomes over 3 years of CI use. We conclude that individual differences in visuomotor integration ability are predictive of some audiological outcome measures in deaf children with CIs.
Horn, David L.; Davis, Rebecca A.O.; Pisoni, David B.; Miyamoto, Richard T.
We investigated the predictive relations between pre-implant visuomotor integration ability and subsequent oral speech/language outcomes in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Prior to implantation, children were given a task that tested their accuracy in copying geometric forms. Performance on this task predicted speech perception, sentence comprehension, and speech intelligibility outcomes over 3 years of CI use. We conclude that individual differences in visuomotor integration ability are predictive of some audiological outcome measures in deaf children with CIs. PMID:23060686
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda
In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda
In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.
Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT), which 31 k 1CkiD1LG PA4ii BLAW - OT F12 , j the US Army Tropic Test Center carried out in 1976-1977.8 In this...Seventeenth Street, NW Fort Knox , KY 40121 Washington, DC 20036 Commander Institute for Applied Technology 1 US Army Natick Research and Development
BGM, a Los Angeles-based advertising agency, has created a campaign for the Pediatrics AIDS Foundation to promote awareness of the importance of HIV testing of all pregnant women. The agency is taking a personal stake in the campaign by offering its services pro bono.
Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; de Andrade, Camila Quintiliano; Pereira, Marília Barbieri; Matas, Carla Gentile
Summary Introduction: Few population-based studies have quantified hearing levels in Brazil; additional studies on this subject are needed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the population served by the Clinical Audiology Service of an Academic Health Center in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2008. An additional aim was to check whether there is a positive association between the signs/symptoms and type of hearing loss. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of 2,145 patients. The health history, tonal and vocal audiometry, and imitanciometry findings were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.6 years. The majority of the subjects had normal hearing thresholds, and the prevalence of hearing loss was approximately 35%. As the patient's age increased, the frequency of conductive hearing loss decreased and that of sensorineural hearing loss increased. There was a tendency toward hearing loss worsening with age. Conclusion: Hearing complaints can predict the type of hearing loss; therefore, they should always be valued because they can be used as a form of screening and thus help to determine the diagnostic hypothesis. This could help to reduce the gap between the patient's perception of the complaints and the audiological assessment and thus improve the prognosis. PMID:25992004
Prasad, Narasimha S.
Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials by studying the response of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment. MISSE 6 was transported to the international Space Station (ISS) via STS 123 on March 11. 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the passive experiment containers (PEC) to external handrails of the international space station (ISS) and opened up for long term exposure. After more than a year of exposure attached to the station's exterior, the PEC with several hundred material samples returned to the earth with the STS-128 space shuttle crew that was launched on shuttle Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Aug. 28. Meanwhile, MISSE 7 launch is scheduled to be launched on STS 129 mission. MISSE-7 was launched on Space Shuttle mission STS-129 on Atlantis was launched on November 16, 2009. This paper will briefly review recent efforts on MISSE 6 and MISSE 7 missions at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).
Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert
Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.
This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high
Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.
Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound—broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech—resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics). PMID:18664499
Parker, David J
Audiology has developed significantly over the last 30 years leading to better identification and assessment of hearing loss and better habilitation services for both children and adults with congenital or acquired deafness. Advancement in the profession and its services has been largely dependent on the technological development of key methodologies such as the auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions. These methodologies have been used for the identification and assessment of the severity of hearing loss. As a result, these methodologies have underpinned the emergence of service development initiatives such as hearing screening and provision of hearing aids, particularly for newborn babies and young children. This review identifies, describes and evaluates the key methodologies and services involved and presents a hearing scientist's perspective on the developments to date. The aim is to provide state-of-the-art information to those working with children and adults with communication disorders, particularly speech and language therapists.
Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A
Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).
Lintilhac, P.M.; Vesecky, T.B.
An apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user. 8 figs.
Lintilhac, Phillip M.; Vesecky, Thompson B.
Apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user.
Musiek, F E
Thirty adult subjects with intracranial lesions (12 brain stem and 18 hemispheric) were tested using Competing Sentences, Staggered Spondaic Words, and Dichotic Digits. In comparing these dichotic tests for their ability to detect abnormal performance for individual subjects, the Digit test appeared most sensitive, followed by the Staggered Spondaic Word test and Competing Sentences. This trend seemed to prevail for subjects with hemispheric and brain stem lesions. All three tests demonstrated greater ipsilateral ear deficits for subjects with brain stem lesions. However, for subjects with hemispheric lesions all tests showed generally poorer scores for the ear contralateral to the lesion. These results, as well as other types of analyses for comparing the three dichotic tests in this study, are discussed.
Verrilli, Michael J.; Lee, Kuan
The acoustic liner system designed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was tested in a thermal-acoustic environment. Five ceramic matrix composite (CMC) acoustic tile configurations, five bulk acoustic absorbers, and one thermal protection system design were tested. The CMC acoustic tiles were subjected to two 2 3/4 hr ambient temperature acoustic exposures to measure their dynamic response. One exposure was conducted on the tiles alone and the second exposure included the tiles and the T-foam bulk absorber. The measured tile RMS strains were small. With or without the T-foam absorber, the dynamic strains were below strain levels that would cause damage during fatigue loading. After the ambient exposure, a 75-hr durability test of the entire acoustic liner system was conducted using a thermal-acoustic cycle that approximated the anticipated service cycle. Acoustic loads up to 139 dB/Hz and temperatures up to 1670 F (910 C) were employed during this 60 cycle test. During the durability test, the CMC tiles were exposed to temperatures up to 1780 F and a transient through thickness gradient up to 490 F. The TPS peak temperatures on the hot side of the panels ranged from 750 to 1000 F during the 60 cycles. The through thickness delta T ranged from 450 to 650 F, varying with TPS location and cycle number. No damage, such as cracks or chipping, was observed in the CMC tiles after completion of the testing. However, on tile warped during the durability test and was replaced after 43 or 60 cycles. No externally observed damage was found in this tile. No failure of the CMC fasteners occurred, but damage was observed. Cracks and missing material occurred, only in the fastener head region. No indication of damage was observed in the T-foam acoustic absorbers. The SiC foam acoustic absorber experienced damage after about 43 cycles. Cracking in the TPS occurred around the attachment holes and under a vent. In spite of the development of damage, the TPS maintained
Scafe, Marla G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group testing as a pedagogical technique to enhance learning in a difficult subject such as statistics. Individual test scores were compared to their group test scores for the same, identical test. A t test was used to compare the scores for 157 randomly selected MBA students enrolled…
Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio
The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896
Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan
Objectives To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. Methods This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects were divided into seven groups according to the temperature differences between operated and unoperated sites. The thermal differences were correlated with the results from Minor's starch iodine test and the subjective symptoms questionnaire. Results Of the 59 patients, 20 patients (33.9%) reported subjective symptoms after eating; 30 patients (50.8%) tested positive for Minor's starch iodine test, 19 patients (63.3%) of which reported subjective symptoms. Of the 29 patients who were negative for the iodine test, 2 patients (6.9%) reported subjective symptoms. Thus, subjective symptoms were well correlated with Minor's starch iodine test (r=0.589, P<0.001). As the thermal differences with infrared thermography increased, the number of patients with subjective symptoms increased (χ2=22.5, P<0.001). Using infrared thermography, the mean temperature difference in the positive group for the iodine test was 0.82℃±0.26℃, and that in the negative group was 0.10℃±0.47℃. With increased thermal differences, more patients showed positivity in the iodine test (χ2=29.9, P<0.001). Conclusion Subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test, and infrared thermography are well correlated with one another. Quantitative thermography provides clues for the wide variation in the incidence of Frey's syndrome, and could be a useful method for diagnosing and studying Frey's syndrome. PMID:24353866
Kierkegaard, Marie; Tollbäck, Anna
The objective was to describe test-retest reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in adult subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Twelve subjects (28-68 years, mean 44) performed three six minute walk tests on two occasions, one week apart. Relative reliability was high (ICC(2.1)=0.99) and absolute reliability values were low (standard error of measurement 12 m, repeatability 33 m). Feasibility was investigated in a sample of 64 subjects (19-70 years, mean 43). Fifty-two subjects were able to perform two tests on the same day. Subjects with severe proximal weakness had difficulties performing repeated tests. A practice trial followed by a second test on the same day can be recommended for most subjects, and the best test should be used for evaluations. In conclusion, even though the study sample was small, the present study indicates that the six minute walk test is reliable and feasible in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1.
Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio
The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit.
Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter
Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968
Al-Swiahb, Jamil Nasser; Hwang, Eul Seung; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae
This study was performed to analyze clinical and audiologic characteristics of sensorineural tinnitus and to investigate the associating factors reflecting psychological aspects of stress and depression of the patients. This is a retrospective analytical study conducted in a tinnitus clinic of a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. The medical records of 216 patients suffering from sensorineural tinnitus were thoroughly evaluated to determine correlations between clinical and audiological characteristics, including age, sex, predisposing or etiologic factors, hearing levels up to extended high frequencies, and tinnitus severity. Psychological aspects of stress and depression were also evaluated and analyzed to seek the associations with tinnitus severity. All data were stored in our database bank and were statistically analyzed. Our study subjects showed a slight male predominance. The highest percentage of tinnitus was found in patients of 60-80 years old. Only 32.5 % of tinnitus patients were subjectively aware of their hearing loss, whereas 73 % of subjects had hearing deficits in some frequencies in their audiogram. Hearing impairments were of the low-frequency sensorineural type in 18.2 % of patients and were limited to the high frequencies in 77.9 % of patients. Tinnitus was unilateral in 51 % of patients and had a tonal nature in 45 % of patients. In total, 45.8 % of patients with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss had high-pitched tinnitus. There were significant correlations between tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance. Correlations with THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and Beck depression index scores were also found. Sensorineural tinnitus was related with hearing loss in some frequencies nevertheless of patients' own awareness of hearing loss. Loudness and annoyance of tinnitus seems to be two important factors reflecting psychological problems of patients' stress and depression.
Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L; Kuhn, M; Basketter, D A
Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been identified as a cause of contact allergy in personal care products. Furthermore, it has been suggested that chemicals responsible are impurities, especially dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). However, skin contact concentrations with these impurities, especially DMAPA, are very low. The aim of the study was to analyse whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB would react in provocative use tests of a product containing CAPB. 10 individuals with a clinical history of contact allergy to CAPB (by positive patch test and history) took part in a ROAT which used a CAPB-based shower gel at 25% (DMAPA concentration < 1 ppm). None of the subjects showed positive allergic reactions. 1 of the test subjects did experience a flare of atopic dermatitis at the treatment site. Later, all 10 subjects were patch tested to 3 different concentrations of CAPB and DMAPA (0.1%, 0.3%, 1%) to verify the threshold that was capable of inducing a positive test reaction. 5/10 showed clear + reactions to 1% CAPB (typically at D3), whilst a further 3 gave marginal and/or irritant reactions. Only 1 of the subjects showed an allergic reaction to DMAPA. Finally, in uncontrolled use testing with the shower gel, none of the test subjects reported any adverse skin reactions. Thus, the study confirmed that CAPB-sensitive individuals can use a CAPB-based rinse-off product without the risk of experiencing an allergic reaction to CAPB.
Zocoli, Angela Maria Fontana; Morata, Thais Catalani; Marques, Jair Mendes; Corteletti, Lilian Jacob
The objective of this study was to examine behaviors and attitudes of Brazilian teenagers towards noise, and determine their audiological characteristics. Participants were 245 young persons (14 to 18 years old) who attended private school. Behaviors and attitudes were measured using the validated Portuguese version of the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS). Pure-tone audiometry was used to evaluate the hearing of a sub-sample of 24 participants. Music played through personal media players was the most common exposure reported. A substantial percentage of participants reported temporary tinnitus (69%) after attending discos, music concerts, and listening to music through headphones. Tinnitus complaints were more frequent among females (41%) than males (27%). Four participants (1.6%) reported use of a hearing protector. Among a subsample of 24 participants, two (8%) young women had bilateral audiometric notches. YANS scores in the present study were slightly lower than those obtained in Sweden and the US, indicating a more negative attitude towards noise. Gender, age, country, and/or region are variables that will influence exposure to noise or music and possibly hearing outcomes.
... annually during the period from the effective date of the test rule to the end of the reimbursement period... or analysis for development of a product) from the effective date of the test rule to the end of the... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons subject to a test rule....
Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H
Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.
Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob
A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.
... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...
... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...
... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...
... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...
Ward, Jamie; Vella, Claire; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.
Somatic tinnitus is the ability to modulate the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus by somatic manoeuvres. The condition is still not fully understood and further identification of this subtype is essential, particularly for the purpose of establishing protocols for both its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of somatic tinnitus within a large UK cohort using a largely unselected sample. We believe this to be relatively unique in comparison to current literature on the topic. This was investigated by using a total of 608 participant assessments from a set of recognised tinnitus and audiology measures. Results from a set of chi-square tests of association found that amongst the individuals with somatic tinnitus, a higher proportion had pulsatile tinnitus (different from heartbeat), were under the age of 40, reported variation in the loudness of their tinnitus and reported temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. The same pattern of results was confirmed using a multivariate analysis of the data based on logistic regression. These findings have strong implications towards the profiling of somatic tinnitus as a distinct subtype of general tinnitus. PMID:25996779
Lalaiants, M R; Markova, T G; Bakhshinian, V V; Bliznets, E A; Poliakov, A V; Tavartikiladze, G A
The objective of the present work was to study specific features of the audiological phenotype and the prevalence of GJB2-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in the infants suffering acoustic disturbances. The study included 264 children with bilateral non-syndromic sensorineural loss of hearing diagnosed during the first year of life by means of detailed audiological examination that included tympanometry, registration of short-latency auditory action potentials (SLAAP), delayed evoked otoacoustic emission (DEOAE), distortion product-frequency otoacoustic emission (DPFOAE), and auditory brain-stem response (ABR). In addition, stationary acoustically evoked responses (SAER) were recorded in 38 children presenting with hearing impairment associated with GJB2-related sensorineural loss of hearing. The follow-up dynamic study involved 113 children subjected to repeated audiological examination. The study revealed the genotype with pathological mutations in 182 (69.0%) children including 171 (64.8%) ones with biallelic mutations and 11 (4.2%) with a single mutation (heterozygous genotype). Eighty two (31.0%) children had genotype without mutations. A total of 21 different mutations and 30 different genotypes were identified. Analysis of the family histories of the children showed that neither the absence of relatives suffering from hearing impairment nor the presence of risk factors of acquired hearing impairment excludes the possibility of GJB2-related sensorineural loss of hearing in the infants. Otoacoustic emission fails to be registered in the majority of the children with the altered genotype (87%) during the stay in the maternity house. Mutations in the GJB2 gene are most frequently diagnosed in the patients with the moderate, moderately severe, and severe loss of hearing. At the same time, almost half of the infants presenting with the mild loss of hearing were found to exhibit changes in the GJB2 gene. The thresholds of registration of short
Settlage, Daniel Murray; Wollscheid, Jim R.
The Major Field Test is a commonly used assessment instrument, but little emphasis has been put on analyzing student-level subject area indicator scores. The Educational Testing Service recently made these data available to institutions, and it is analyzed here. This analysis builds on previous work by incorporating demographic and programmatic…
Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Luttrell, Claire Roberta
Although biaxial flexure tests have been used extensively to measure the strength of brittle materials, the tests and analyses have been limited to materials of uniform properties. Despite the increasing applications of multilayered structures, characterization of their strengths using biaxial flexure tests has been difficult because the analytical description of the strength-fracture load relation for multilayers subjected to biaxial flexure tests is unavailable. The newly derived closed-form solutions for the elastic stress distributions in multilayered discs subjected to ring-on-ring tests are summarized here. These solutions are obtained by (i) finding the correlation between monolayered and multilayered discs subjected to biaxial bending moment and (ii) conversion from the existing solutions for monolayers. Using this methodology, the closed-form solutions for multilayers subjected to other biaxial flexure tests can also be obtained. Finite element results for ring-on-rings tests performed on (i) porcelain/zirconia bilayered discs and (ii) solid oxide fuel cells trilayered discs are also presented to validate the closed-form solutions. The closed-form solutions hence provide a basis for evaluating biaxial strength of multilayers using biaxial flexure tests.
Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla
The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…
My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.
Ifuku, Hirotoshi; Moriyama, Kayo; Arai, Kuniko; Shiraishi-Hichiwa, Yumiko
By using (dP/dt)/P of carotid artery pulse, a non-invasive index of cardiac contractility, we examined the regulatory mechanism of cardiac function during a cold pressor test in athletes and untrained subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects (9 athletes, 8 untrained subjects, and 7 hyperreactors of 4 athletes and 3 untrained subjects with a rise of 15 mmHg or greater in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure) underwent the cold pressor test according to Hines and Brown (Am Heart J 11:1-9, 1936): immersion of the right hand in 4 degrees C water for 1 min. Although mean blood pressure increased during the cold stress in all the groups, cardiac function differed. In athletes, heart rate and cardiac contractility caused cardiac output to increase while total peripheral resistance (TPR) did not change. In untrained subjects, however, heart rate and cardiac contractility tended to decrease cardiac output and thus TPR increased. In hyperreactors, heart rate and cardiac contractility increased during cold stress, and also TPR increased. After the end of the test, heart rate and cardiac contractility decreased only in untrained group. The findings that during a cold pressor test heart rate and cardiac contractility are enhanced in athletes but depressed in untrained subjects indicate that the state of physical training influences cardiac sympathetic neural reactivity to cold stress, except for hyperreactors.
Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale
U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.
Pracharitpukdee, N; Phanthumchinda, K; Huber, W; Willmes, K
The Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), originally developed as a test for aphasia language disorders in Germany, consists of six spontaneous speech rating scales and five subtests: Token Test, Repetition, Written Language, Confronting Naming and Comprehension. The study aimed to describe the linguistic properties of the AAT Thai version and to investigate the test performances of the normal subjects. In this study some problems of linguistic changes in the construction of the Thai version were discussed. The results revealed that the normal subjects' performances on the test were independent of age, sex and education level. Therefore, the Thai version of AAT is applicable to the differential diagnosis of the communicative abilities of Thai aphasic patients.
Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T
The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.
Huttunen, K H
Speech and language therapists have rather diverse educational backgrounds globally. Their qualifications vary from a 1 to 2-year diploma or certificate programme in a non-university educational setting, to a 6-year university graduate education. Although speech and language therapy is generally considered an interdisciplinary profession, both in education and in clinical practice, in some countries the main emphasis may still be on special education, medicine (mainly medical audiology) or, because of a joint qualification, psychology. This article discusses the requirements for audiological education in proper assessment and (re)habilitation of hearing impairments. Future challenges of both the profession and the discipline of speech and language therapy are also highlighted.
Marchette, Frances Lenora
The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.
Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio
We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...
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... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS § 1702.10 Human experimental data...
Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer
Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…
City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.
Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…
City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.
Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…
Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.
This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…
Directors of 100 undergraduate training programs in speech language pathology and audiology were surveyed about the readability level and faculty satisfaction with currently used textbooks. For each of seven fundamental courses, Ss were asked to indicate the academic level at which students typically completed the courses, the textbook currently…
Eechaute, Christophe; Vaes, Peter; Duquet, William; Van Gheluwe, Bart
Context: Sudden ankle inversion tests have been used to investigate whether the onset of peroneal muscle activity is delayed in patients with chronically unstable ankle joints. Before interpreting test results of latency times in patients with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects, the reliability of these measures must be first demonstrated. Objective: To investigate the test-retest reliability of variables measured during a sudden ankle inversion movement in standing subjects with healthy ankle joints. Design: Validation study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 15 subjects with healthy ankle joints (30 ankles). Intervention(s): Subjects stood on an ankle inversion platform with both feet tightly fixed to independently moveable trapdoors. An unexpected sudden ankle inversion of 50° was imposed. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured latency and motor response times and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle, along with the time and angular position of the first and second decelerating moments, the mean and maximum inversion speed, and the total inversion time. Correlation coefficients and standard error of measurements were calculated. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.17 for the electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle (standard error of measurement = 2.7 milliseconds) to 0.89 for the maximum inversion speed (standard error of measurement = 34.8 milliseconds). Conclusions: The reliability of the latency and motor response times of the peroneus longus muscle, the time of the first and second decelerating moments, and the mean and maximum inversion speed was acceptable in subjects with healthy ankle joints and supports the investigation of the reliability of these measures in subjects with chronic ankle instability. The lower reliability of the electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle and the angular positions of both decelerating moments calls the use of these
Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.
In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.
Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.
SUMMARY Twenty four patients meeting R.D.C. criteria for schizophrenia were assessed using the B.P.R.S. before starting neuroleptics. They were then given a standardized test dose of haloperidol. Their subjective response to the test dose was assessed 4 hours later by a blind rater. The B.P.R.S. ratings were repeated after 3 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. A dysphoric response to the test dose was associated with a poor therapeutic outcome. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21897458
Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P
The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (P<0.05) when compared to distal initiation sequence (0.08±1.26 cm). The change in the ROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.
Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn
The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.
Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis
Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.
Mendes, M F; Tilbery, C P; Balsimelli, S; Moreira, M A; Cruz, A M
Recently new disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced which can change the natural course of the disease. In clinical trials with these new agents the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is often used as a primary outcome instrument to measure neurological impairment and disability. A number of limitations have been identified when using the EDSS, some of wich are because the EDSS is an ordinal scale that is heavily biased to locomotor function. In this study we applied the box and block test of manual dexterity in normal subjects and relapsing-remitting MS patients. The results were that 64.8% of the female and 80.7% of the male patients had significant changes on this task compared with normal subjects, and as this test is easily applied and is sensitive in detecting upper extremity functional ability, we recommend its use in clinical trials to evaluate new drugs in MS patients.
Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Skylab Human Vestibular Function M131 Experiment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Dr. Garriott is seated in the experiment's litter chair which can rotate the test subject at predetermined rotational velocity or programmed ecceleration/decelerational profile. The objectives of the M131 experiment are to obtain data pertinent to establishing the validity of measurements of specific behavioral/physiological responses influenced by vestibular activity under one-G and zero-G conditions; to determine man's adaptability to unusual vestibular conditions and predict habitability of future spacecraft conditions involving reduced gravity and Coriollis forces; and to measure the accuracy and variability in man's judgement of spatial coordinates based on atypical gravity receptor cues an
Reibman, Amy R.
Specification-based subjective tests (SBSTs) form the basis for almost all performance analysis of image and video quality estimators (QEs). Our ability to compare the efficacy of different QEs across a wide range of applications depends on careful design of these SBST, so the conclusions that are drawn about how well a QE performs are reliable and accurate. In this paper, we explore methods to design biased SBSTs for image and video QEs. A biased SBST will produce an estimate of the performance of a given QE that is systematically different than its actual performance. We demonstrate by proof of concept that it's possible to create SBSTs that generate misleading or biased Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients between subjective and objective scores, and we present some diagnostics that begin to evaluate when influential observations have been included in the SBST. Understanding how to create biased tests is a first step toward the overall goal of creating more effective unbiased SBSTs.
Watanabe, S; Tasaki, H; Hojo, K; Yoshimura, I; Sato, T; Nakaoka, T; Iwabuchi, T
The authors made neuropsychological studies by the tachistoscope and the dichotic listening test on a subject who had undergone the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum. As to the tachistoscopic recognition, stimulus material was composed with the various Japanese letters (Katakana, Hiragana, Kanji), various faces (variations of the eyebrow form and the mouth form) and various slopes of line. Table 1 shows results of the cases (the subject was the present case, subjects 1 and subject 2 were past cases). It was seen that the performance of the subject on Japanese letters tasks showed greater right visual field superiority than the one of subject 1 and subject 2. As to the auditory recognition, the tasks used for the dichotic listening test were the following (Table 2, 3, 4). Different digits (three pairs) of the subject showed greater right ear superiority (right ear: 61.1, left ear 5.9) than the ones of subject 1 and subject 2.
Knowlton, Glenn E; Larkin, Kevin T
Vocal characteristics of therapists, including voice volume, pitch and timbre of speech, and rate of speech have been hypothesized to facilitate the therapeutic process, particularly during procedures like progressive relaxation training (PRT). Very little empirical work, however, has examined the relation between vocal characteristics and treatment process or outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocal characteristics during a single session of PRT applying technological innovations devised for speech pathology and audiology settings for evaluating therapist's vocal characteristics. Forty-eight high anxious young adult women were randomly assigned to one of four conditions for training: PRT with the recommended therapist voice (RV) that decreased in tone, volume, and rate across the session, PRT with conversational therapist voice during the session (CV), a credible treatment control called systematic self-relaxation (SR), or no treatment control (NT). All subjects participated in a single PRT session during which heart rate, EMG, self-report measures of tension (SRT) and anxiety, and treatment credibility ratings were obtained. Results revealed significant reductions in SRT, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate for participants in all groups. Only the RV group displayed significant reductions in EMG when compared with the other three groups. Participants in the RV group also rated the therapist's voice as "more facilitating" of relaxation when compared to the CV group. These results suggest that methods employed for evaluating the quality of vocal characteristics in speech and audiology clinics may be useful for evaluating the quality of therapist's voice when conducting PRT.
de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria
It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213
Lin, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chih-Min; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Shan, Jia-Chi; Hsieh, Ming H.; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
Background Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III). The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ) were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%). Conclusions/Significance MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility. PMID:22496807
Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.
Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.
Objectives: To describe exposure categories and HIV prevalence among subjects voluntarily tested in Spain by country of origin. Methods: HIV prevalence and exposure categories were compared between national and non-Spanish subjects voluntarily tested in 18 sexually transmitted disease/HIV testing clinics from 16 Spanish cities in 2000. Results: Of 8861 testers, 2810 (31.7%) came from foreign countries; 73.1% from Latin America, 9.1% from western Europe, 6.2% from central/eastern Europe, 4.4% from northern Africa, and 4.2% from sub-Sahara Africa. Among women from Latin America, 78% were sex workers compared to 5.5% Spanish women. HIV infection was diagnosed in 170 persons, 34.7% from foreign countries. HIV prevalence for Spanish subjects (23% for men and 1.0% for women) was significantly different from men and women from Latin America (11.3% and 0.3% respectively), Sub-Saharan Africa (9.1% and 7.5% respectively), and women from the north of Africa (11.8%). Compared with Spaniards, analyses of persons of the same exposure category showed higher HIV prevalence in men who had sex with men from Latin America (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–6.9), heterosexual men from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 19.3; 95% CI: 6.4–58.0), and Latin America (OR: 9.4; 95% CI: 3.4–25.9), heterosexual women from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 16.9; 95% CI: 3.5–82.4) and from northern Africa (OR: 15.3; 95% CI: 3.2–73.2). Conclusions: An important proportion of HIV testers from these clinics came from foreign countries and some groups showed a high prevalence of HIV infection. Specific prevention and testing programmes adapted to the needs of migrants in Spain should be developed. PMID:12181461
Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L
How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.
Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo
This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086
Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L
The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.
Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant
To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test.
Villafañe, Jorge H.; Valdes, Kristin
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of pinch strength testing in elderly subjects with thumb CMC OA. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 27 patients with unilateral right-thumb CMC OA (mean ± SD age: 81.3 ± 4.7 years) were recruited. Each patient performed three pain-free maximal isometric contractions on each hand on two occasions, one week apart. Three different measurements were taken: tip, tripod, and key pinch strength. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) calculations were performed. [Results] Test-retest reliability of measurements of tip, tripod, and key pinch strength was excellent for the affected side (ICC=0.93, 0.96, and 0.99) and the contralateral thumb (ICC=0.91, 0.92, and 0.94). [Conclusions] The present results indicate that maximum pinch strength can be measured reliably using the Pinch Gauge Dynamometer, in patients with thumb CMC OA, which enables its use in research and in the clinic to determine the effect of interventions on improving pinch strength. PMID:25140081
Bruhn, A R; Reed, M R
The study found that nonbraindamaged college subjects could not simulate organicity on the Bender-Gestalt test when instructed to do so. Although Pascal-Suttell and Canter scoring methods failed to differentiate malingerers from an organic criterion group, an ABPP clinician sorted 89% of the records correctly in a pilot study. Differentiating criteria were then spelled out from the pilot study protocols. In the main study the expert clinician correctly identified all 20 malingerers. Subsequent studies of intra- and inter-rater reliability produced satisfactory results.
Caruso, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Sozzi, Valerio; Sanna, Mario
To investigate the surgical and audiological outcomes of an installation of a bone-anchored hearing system (BAHS) procedure without tissue reduction using Ponto implants and abutments. Retrospective consecutive case series. Forty-nine patients, 18 years or older and eligible for treatment with a bone-anchored hearing system with tissue preservation surgery, were included in the study. Following a systematic scheme for medical outcomes, we collected the data regarding surgical intervention, quality of life (GBI), skin and soft tissue reactions (Holgers grading system), pain and numbness (VAS). Hearing performance (aided thresholds and speech recognition in noise) was recorded in 20 patients. No implants were lost, skin, and soft tissue reactions were mild in 96 % of the all visits. Quality of life (GBI) generally improved in the aided condition compared to prior to implantation. Audiologically, 100 % of the 20 patients examined showed improvement of speech reception and sound field thresholds comparing aided to unaided. An average improvement of 33 dB on PTA was recorded. The study, presenting data on a large population, treated with tissue preservation and modern titanium implants, shows that this treatment is a viable solution that results in fewer complications, high degree of predictability and good audiological results.
Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni
In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.
Derosa, G; D'Angelo, A; Salvadeo, S A T; Ferrari, I; Fogari, E; Gravina, A; Mereu, R; Palumbo, I; Maffioli, P; Randazzo, S; Cicero, A F G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the level of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation markers in healthy subjects (H) and diabetic overweight patients (D). We enrolled 256 healthy subjects and 274 type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated blood glucose (BG), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline and after OGTT. We observed that BG, sICAM-1, IL-6, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and TNF-alpha values were higher in D group than in H group. In a large sample of adult healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics we observed that both answer to an OGTT with a significant increase in biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin. Type 2 diabetics experienced, however, a more significant increase in TNF-alpha, and sE-selectin.
Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness. PMID:27630984
Prasad, Narasimha S.
.The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.
Prasad, Narasimha S.
The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.
Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.
The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.
Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark
The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in a space environment for more than one and a half years included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator (AOM) devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.
Gagné, J P
Three topics related to treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation are discussed. First, the International Classification of Impairments, Activities and Participation (ICIDH-2) (World Health Organization, 1999) is described and proposed as a general conceptual framework for the design of intervention and research activities in audiological rehabilitation. Second, the three main domains of treatment evaluation research (efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency) are briefly outlined. Third, the various consumers of treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation are identified. Also, the domains of treatment evaluation research that are of interest to each of these consumer groups are presented. An analysis of the main interests of each group of stakeholders suggests that, at present, evaluative research in audiological rehabilitation does not adequately meet the needs of all stakeholders. Nevertheless, the future of evaluative research in audiological rehabilitation is promising, for several reasons: 1) research related to audiological rehabilitation is being actively pursued especially in the areas of treatment efficacy and treatment effectiveness; 2) the audiological rehabilitation community should be able to adapt its endeavors to the proposed conceptual framework of health conditions fairly easily (ICIDH-2; World Health Organization, 1999); 3) the research needs of the primary stakeholders of audiological rehabilitation are known; and 4) there is a keen interest within the professional community to develop this area of research. All of these conditions are propitious for setting the research agenda of treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation for the next several years.
Castro, José J.; Jiménez, José R.; Ortiz, Carolina; Alarcón, Aixa; Anera, Rosario G.
We develop a new visual test, designed as software for quantifying discrimination capacity under low-illumination conditions. This is an important task in the presence of visual disturbances, such as those perceived by subjects with some ocular pathologies. For this purpose, we propose a visual-disturbance index, checking the test with two groups of observers having different ocular pathologies: a group with unilateral keratitis and another group affected with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). To compare the test results to objective data, we use a double-pass device to measure the Strehl ratio, a parameter that quantifies the retinal-image quality, taking into account aberrations, retinal reflection, and intraocular scattering working jointly. Diseased eyes present higher disturbance indexes and a lower Strehl ratio compared to their healthy fellow eyes, registering a significant descending correlation between the disturbance index and the Strehl ratio. The lower the Strehl ratio is, the higher the disturbance index for the eyes studied. Therefore, in keratitis and ARMD eyes, our results demonstrate a deterioration in the retinal-image quality and a lower discrimination capacity to peripheral stimuli, reducing visual performance. The test presented here could be useful for the study and time course in different eye diseases, especially those involving an increase in scattered light or alterations in the ocular media, as shown in this work.
Rausch, R A
Research on candidate reflective materials for use in solar thermal power applications is reported. The candidate materials have been subjected to exposure tests conducted previously at the Phoenix, Arizona test site. The samples have been exposed to each of three test conditions - one non-accelerated and two different accelerated tests (nominally 8 suns). Post-exposure optical measurements of spectral reflectance were then conducted for the exposure test samples. Reflectance specularity data for the subject materials are obtained from optical measurements performed by Battelle-PNL. Summarized is an investigation of the accumulated reflectance data for correlations using three of the various materials included in the exposure test sample set. (LEW)
Welcher, J B; Szabo, T J
The mitigation of whiplash associated disorders (WAD) has received increased priority in the last 10 years. Although the exact mechanism(s) for WAD causation have not been established, several have been proposed and it is likely the mechanism(s) are associated with the kinematics of the head relative to the torso. It follows that automotive seat designs that address reductions in certain head-torso kinematics may lead to a reduction in WAD potential. Seat properties that may have an effect on head-neck kinematics include geometry, stiffness and energy absorption. This study evaluated the performance of five seats with varying properties, including the new Volvo 'WHIPS' seat. Seat properties such as geometry relative to the occupant's head, dynamic and static stiffness, and energy absorption were determined via component testing. A new prototype dynamic seat test, which used a pendulum and seat back pan, was evaluated. Human subject impact tests were conducted using three occupants in rear impacts with velocity changes of 4 and 8 km/h. Potentially relevant occupant kinematic parameters were identified, and then correlated with seat properties in an attempt to determine any relative influence of seat properties on potential WAD mechanisms. Two higher velocity human subject tests using the Volvo Whiplash Injury Protection System (WHIPS) seat were also conducted. Vertical and horizontal head to head restraint distances were found to be most influential on occupant head-neck kinematics. Horizontal and vertical head to head restraint offsets were significantly correlated with rearward translational motion of the head center of gravity relative to the upper torso across all occupants. Rearward offset was also significantly correlated with rearward rotation of the head relative to upper torso, while vertical offset was significantly correlated with head acceleration relative to the upper torso during the flexion phase of the impact. Seat constitutive properties such as
Conrad, Amy L.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; DeVolder, Ian; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg
Objective Evaluate speech, hearing, and neuropsychological correlates to reading among children, adolescents and young adults with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Method All testing was completed in one visit at a Midwestern university hospital. Subjects in both the NSCL/P (n = 80) and control group (n = 62) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (average age = 17.60 and 17.66, respectively). Subjects completed a battery of standardized tests evaluating intelligence, neuropsychological skills, and word reading. Subjects with NSCL/P also underwent speech assessment and past audiology records were evaluated. Results After controlling for age and SES, subjects with cleft performed significantly worse on a test of word reading. For subjects with cleft, word reading deficits were not associated with measures of speech or hearing, but were correlated with impairments in auditory memory. Conclusions These findings show poorer reading among subjects with NCL/P compared to those without. Further work needs to focus on correlates of reading among subjects with cleft to allow early identification and appropriate intervention/accommodation for those at risk. PMID:24188114
Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Skylab Human Vestibular Function M131 Experiment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The objectives of the M131 experiment are to obtain data pertinent to establishing the validity of measurements of specific behavioral/physiological responses influenced by vestibular activity under one-G and zero-G conditions; to determine man's adaptability to unusual vestibular conditions and predict habitability of future spacecraft conditions involving reduced gravity and Coriollis forces; and to measure the accuracy and variability in man's judgement of spatial coordinates based on atypical gravity receptor cues and inadequate visual cues.
Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.
Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743
Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.
Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a
Özgül, Özüm Simal; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Vollert, Jan; Fischer, Marc; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver
Pain-related-evoked potentials (PREP) is an established electrophysiological method to evaluate the signal transmission of electrically stimulated A-delta fibres. Although prerequisite for its clinical use, test-retest-reliability and side-to-side differences of bilateral stimulation in healthy subjects have not been examined yet. We performed PREP twice within 3 to 14days in 33 healthy subjects bilaterally by stimulating the dorsal hand. Detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) after electrical stimulation, the corresponding pain ratings, latencies of P0, N1, P1 and N2 components and the corresponding amplitudes were assessed. Impact of electrically induced pain intensity, age, sex, and arm length on PREP was analysed. MANOVA, t-Test, interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Bland-Altmann-Analysis as well as ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. Measurement from both sides on both days resulted in mean N1-latencies from 142.39 ±18.12ms to 144.03 ±16.62ms and in mean N1P1-amplitudes from 39.04 ±12.26μV to 40.53 ±12.9μV. Analysis of a side-to-side effect showed for the N1-latency a F-value of 0.038 and for the N1P1-amplitude of 0.004 (p >0.8). We found intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) from 0.88 to 0.93 and a standard error of measurement (SEM) < 10% of mean values for all measurements concerning the N1-Latency and N1P1-amplitude. Intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement and Bland-Altman-Analyses revealed excellent test-retest-reliability for N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude without systematic error and there was no side-to-side effect on PREP. N1-latency (r=0.35, p <0.05) and N1P1-amplitude (r=-0.45, p <0.05) correlated with age and additionally N1-latency correlated with arm length (r=0.45, p<0.001). In contrast, pain intensity during the stimulation had no effect on both N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude. In summary, PREP showed high test
Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida
OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265
Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C. J.; Lammaing, Karen; Cropley, Mark
Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ judgements of the effectiveness of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapies offered in a specialist UK National Health Service audiology department. Design: Cross-sectional service evaluation questionnaire survey. Patients were asked to rank the effectiveness of the treatment they received on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no effect, 5 = very effective). Study sample: The questionnaire was sent to all patients who received treatment between January and March 2014 (n = 200) and 92 questionnaires were returned. Results : The mean score was greatest for counselling (Mean = 4.7, SD = 0.6), followed by education (Mean = 4.5, SD = 0.8), cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.7), and hearing tests (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.9). Only 6% of responders rated counselling as 3 or below. In contrast, bedside sound generators, hearing aids, and wideband noise generators were rated as 3 or below by 25%, 36%, and 47% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective components of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy interventions were judged by the patients to be counselling, education, and CBT. PMID:27195947
Sharma, Vishal; Bhagat, Sanjeev; Verma, Bhimsain; Singh, Ravinder; Singh, Surinderpal
Introduction: The incidence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis is increasing in developing countries. Aminoglycosides are an integral part of second-line drugs, however ototoxicity is a major limitation for their use. This study aims to determine the extent of hearing loss in patients taking one of the commonly prescribed drugs for Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), Kanamycin, at a Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab, India, which is a 1200 bed tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients (68 males and 32 females) with confirmed diagnosis of MDR-TB were included in this study conducted between January 2012 and February 2014. Subjects were between 15 to 60 years of age, with a mean age of 37.46 ± 10.1. Pure tone audiometry (PTA) was performed before the start of the therapy, as a baseline, and was repeated after 1 week and 6 weeks of Kanamycin use to assess hearing loss as an effect of therapy. Results: Of the 100 patients examined, ototoxicity was found in 18 subjects post therapy. Incidence of high frequency hearing loss was 2% at week 1, and 12% after 6 weeks of follow up. However, 4% of the cases developed flat loss at week 6. The hearing loss was bilateral in 13 patients and unilateral in 5 patients. Ototoxicity was more common in males (66.67%) compared to females (33.3%). Maximum cases were found in the age group of 36 to 45 years (36.8%), the majority being from a rural background (83.3%). The association with socioeconomic status (P=0.024) and co-morbid conditions like diabetes and hypertension (P=0.001) reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Lack of specific guidelines to monitor patients taking aminoglycosides makes ototoxicity a major adverse effect of their use in MDR-TB. More studies are mandated to study the risk factors associated with the development of ototoxicity and for the development of alternate drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:27429949
Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is any influence of systemic arterial hypertension on the peripheral auditory system. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 40 individuals between 30 and 50 years old, who were divided into groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension, using data from high-frequency audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The results were compared with those from groups of normal-hearing individuals, with and without systemic arterial hypertension, who underwent the pure-tone audiometry test. All individuals also underwent the following procedures: otoscopy, acoustic immittance measures, pure-tone audiometry at frequencies from 250 to 16000 Hz, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions test and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension in either conventional or high-frequency audiometry. Regarding transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, there was a trend toward statistical significance whereby the systemic arterial hypertension group showed lower results. Regarding distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, the systemic arterial hypertension group showed significantly lower results at the following frequencies: 1501, 2002, and 3003 Hz. A discriminant analysis indicated that the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions variables best distinguished individuals with and without systemic arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: Data from this study suggest cochlear dysfunction in individuals with systemic arterial hypertension because their otoacoustic emission results were lower than those in the systemic arterial hypertension group. PMID:27166767
Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung
Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups—healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy—were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation. PMID:24632582
Yeh, Jia-Rong; Hsu, Li-Chi; Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung
Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups--healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy--were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation.
Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study.
Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.
Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.
Ravn, Gert; Preves, David
Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709
Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria
Introduction Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal-dominant genetic condition with high penetrance and variable expressivity, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 40,000. Approximately 40% of the patients with the syndrome have mutations in the gene EYA1, located at chromosomal region 8q13.3, and 5% have mutations in the gene SIX5 in chromosome region 19q13. The phenotype of this syndrome is characterized by preauricular fistulas; structural malformations of the external, middle, and inner ears; branchial fistulas; renal disorders; cleft palate; and variable type and degree of hearing loss. Aim Hearing loss is part of BOR syndrome phenotype. The aim of this study was to present a literature review on the anatomical aspects and audiological profile of BOR syndrome. Data Synthesis Thirty-four studies were selected for analysis. Some aspects when specifying the phenotype of BOR syndrome are controversial, especially those issues related to the audiological profile in which there was variability on auditory standard, hearing loss progression, and type and degree of the hearing loss. Mixed loss was the most common type of hearing loss among the studies; however, there was no consensus among studies regarding the degree of the hearing loss. PMID:25992067
This table lists all chemical substances and mixtures that are and/or have been the subject of final TSCA Section 4 test rules and/or TSCA Section 4 enforceable consent agreements/orders (ECAs) issued under the TSCA Existing Chemicals Testing Program.
Lee, W. R.; John, J. E. J.; Fowweather, F.
Reliable measurement of hearing by audiometry requires quiet surroundings for which suggested criteria exist. When field studies of hearing are carried out it is frequently most practicable to use a vehicle in which these desired sound levels are obtained. It was decided to incorporate in the design of this vehicle a consulting room and a waiting room so that the patient could adjust to the surroundings for what is essentially a psychological test. Ventilation is effected by input and extractor fans. As a basis for the acoustic design the sound levels in typical situations where the van was to be used were determined. From these it is possible to estimate the attenuation required. The walls and roof of the vehicle are of solid construction with a surface density of 5 lb./sq. ft., and the floor has a surface density of 6 lb./sq. ft. A commercially made booth is suspended on resilient mountings inside the consulting room. The total weight of all the equipment and the sound proofing is in the region of 2 to 3 tons. After construction the sound attenuation of the vehicle was measured in nearly uniform sound fields, provided by a power station and jet engines. Measurements were made simultaneously outside the vehicle, in the consulting room, and inside the booth. The readings were taken in ⅓ octave bands with a calibrated condenser microphone and audio-frequency spectrometer. The results show that the attenuation of the vehicle shell closely follows the predicted value for 5 lb./sq. ft. Subtraction of the overall attenuation from the octave band sound levels in typical factory yards gave a measure of the sound levels to be expected within the booth under field conditions. These showed that the vehicle should be suitable for audiometric measurements of frequencies above 100 cycles per second. To get an accurate value of the attenuation of the booth, which is not symmetrically placed in the consulting room, a source giving a uniform field in the horizontal plane was
Zihl, Josef; Fink, Thomas; Pargent, Florian; Ziegler, Matthias; Bühner, Markus
Cognitive reserve (CR) is understood as capacity to cope with challenging conditions, e.g. after brain injury or in states of brain dysfunction, or age-related cognitive decline. CR in elderly subjects has attracted much research interest, but differences between healthy older and younger subjects have not been addressed in detail hitherto. Usually, one-time standard individual assessments are used to characterise CR. Here we observe CR as individual improvement in cognitive performance (gain) in a complex testing-the-limits paradigm, the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), with 10 repeated measurements, in 140 younger (20–30 yrs) and 140 older (57–74 yrs) healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed attention, memory and executive function, and mood and personality traits as potential influence factors for CR. We found that both, younger and older subjects showed significant gains, which were significantly correlated with speed of information processing, verbal short-term memory and visual problem solving in the older group only. Gender, personality traits and mood did not significantly influence gains in either group. Surprisingly about half of the older subjects performed at the level of the younger group, suggesting that interindividual differences in CR are possibly age-independent. We propose that these findings may also be understood as indication that one-time standard individual measurements do not allow assessment of CR, and that the use of DSST in a testing-the-limits paradigm is a valuable assessment method for CR in young and elderly subjects. PMID:24404176
Govender, S M; Mars, M
Approximately 32 million children globally present with disabling hearing loss. Despite evidence describing the negative consequences of hearing loss, there is still a lack of hearing screening programmes in South Africa. Audiologists have been exploring the use of information and communication technologies (tele-audiology) to provide services to children and it is currently being evaluated to determine its feasibility.
Nober, E. Harris
Researchers investigated a variety of audiologic procedures to determine whether they could differentiate between auditory thresholds and cutile (cutaneous-tactile) thresholds of 32 deaf adolescents. Ss were classified into one of the following three groups: a cutile group with no pure tone thresholds beyond 750 Hertz (Hz); a group of questionable…
Ances, Beau; Vaida, Florin; Ellis, Ronald; Buxton, Richard
Subject performance, scanner hardware, or biological factors can affect single session neuroimaging measures. Stability studies using calibrated blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) have been performed in health but not disease. We utilized calibrated BOLD-fMRI to determine the effects of HIV on neurovascular coupling. 6 clinically stable HIV-infected patients (HIV+) and 10 seronegative controls (HIV−) were scanned at two separate sessions approximately 3 months apart. Both mild hypercapnia (5% CO2) exposure and a visual functional activation task were performed. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and inter-subject variance were determined for calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures (baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional CBF, BOLD, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) changes) for HIV+ and HIV− subjects. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, or education. HIV+ subjects had lower mean baseline CBF (p <0.04, Cohen’s d=−1.07) and functional BOLD responses (p< 0.001, Cohen’s d=−2.47) and a trend towards a decrease in mean functional CBF responses (p= 0.07, Cohen’s d=−0.92) despite similar mean functional CMRO2 changes (p= 0.71, Cohen’s d=0.19). The stability of each calibrated BOLD-fMRI measure, as assessed by ICC, was significantly lower for HIV+ subjects. In addition, HIV+ participants had greater inter-subject variability for baseline CBF (p <0.02), functional BOLD (p< 0.001), CBF (p< 0.001), and CMRO2 (p< 0.002) responses. Our results demonstrate that calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures have excellent stability within healthy controls. In contrast, these values have greater variability in clinically stable HIV+ subjects and may reflect alterations in coupling between CBF and CMRO2 with disease. PMID:20932922
Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan
Introduction Cochlear or neural mechanisms of tinnitus generation may affect auditory temporal resolution in tinnitus patients even with normal audiometry. Thus, studying the correlation between tinnitus characteristics and auditory temporal resolution in subjects with tinnitus may help in proper modification of tinnitus management strategy. Objective This study aims to examine the relationship between the psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and the auditory temporal resolution in subjects with normal audiometry. Methods Two normal hearing groups with ages ranging from 20 to 45 years were involved: control group of 15 adults (30 ears) without tinnitus and study group of 15 adults (24 ears) with tinnitus. Subjective scaling of annoyance and sleep disturbance caused by tinnitus, basic audiological evaluation, tinnitus psychoacoustic measures and Gaps in Noise test were performed. Data from both groups were compared using independent sample t-test. Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group were correlated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Significantly higher hearing threshold, higher approximate threshold and lower correct Gaps in Noise scores were observed in tinnitus ears. There was no significant correlation between psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group. Conclusion Auditory temporal resolution impairment was found in tinnitus patients, which could be attributed to cochlear impairment or altered neural firing within the auditory pathway. It is recommended to include temporal resolution testing in the tinnitus evaluation battery to provide a proper management planning. PMID:28382121
...) Persons required to submit study plans, conduct tests, and submit data. All persons who manufacture... reimbursement period shall submit letters of intent to test, submit study plans, conduct tests, and submit data... exclusions contained in § 790.42(a)(2), (a)(4) and (a)(5). These sections provide that processors,...
Hugo, S R; Uys, I C
The aim of this article is to discuss some of the important issues that form the basis of curriculum development for education in speech-language therapy and audiology. The demands of the profession are such that a horizontal occupational structure is no longer adequate in the multicultural, multilingual RSA context. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative educational options to accommodate current needs. These may include diploma training for technicians, certificate programmes for community rehabilitation workers and professionally directed masters courses. It is also apparent that the professional functions of the speech-language therapist and audiologist have extended to the point where aspects such as computer literacy, management functions, community work and consultation should play a greater role in the curriculum than is the case at present.
Arthaud-day, Marne L.; Rode, Joseph C.; Mooney, Christine H.; Near, Janet P.
Using structural equation modeling, we found empirical support for the prevailing theory that subjective well-being consists of three domains: (1) cognitive evaluations of one's life (i.e., life satisfaction or happiness); (2) positive affect; and (3) negative affect. Multiple indicators of satisfaction/happiness were shown to have strong…
Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…
Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Rosenthal, Renathe H.; Clegg, Kathleen A.; Crosby, Ross D.
OBJECTIVE: The authors explored psychiatry clerkship usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Subject Test. METHODS: U.S. and Canadian psychiatry clerkship directors (N=150) were sent an 18-item questionnaire surveying evaluation and remediation practices. RESULTS: Of 111 questionnaires (74%) returned, 76 (69%) reported using the…
Verheij, E; Kist, A L; Mink van der Molen, A B; Stegeman, I; van Zanten, G A; Grolman, W; Thomeer, H G X M
Hearing loss is frequently present in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Our aim was to describe the audiologic and otologic features of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary referral center. We reviewed medical files of all patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who visited an otolaryngologist, plastic surgeon or speech therapist, for audiologic or otologic features. Hearing loss was defined as a pure tone average (of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) of >20 decibel hearing level. Audiograms were available for 102 of 199 included patients, out of which 163 ears were measured in the required frquencies (0.5-4 kHz). Median age at time of most recent audiogram was 7 years (range 3-29 years). In 62 out of 163 ears (38%), hearing loss was present. Most ears had conductive hearing loss (n = 58) and 4 ears had mixed hearing loss. The severity of hearing loss was most frequently mild (pure tone average of ≤40 decibel hearing level). In 22.5% of ears, otitis media with effusion was observed at time of most recent audiogram. Age was not related to mean air conduction hearing thresholds or to otitis media with effusion (p = 0.43 and p = 0.11, respectively). In conclusion, hearing loss and otitis media are frequently present in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Moreover, our results suggest that children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome remain susceptible for otitis media as they age.
Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.
Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.
Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.
Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.
Hagen, Katja; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Haeussinger, Florian B; Heinzel, Sebastian; Dresler, Thomas; Mueller, Laura D; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Metzger, Florian G
Cognitive decline is very common in age and particularly in subjects with neurodegenerative conditions. Besides memory and language, executive functions are very often affected in elderly and patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. However, the neural alterations associated with these executive deficits are still not fully understood. Therefore, we measured cortical activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 16 healthy elderly subjects (50-75 years) performing the Trail Making Test (TMT), a widely used neuropsychological instrument measuring executive function. In line with previous studies focusing on younger subjects, the results showed frontal activation during the TMT A and the TMT B in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the frontopolar area and also Broca's area. Furthermore, significant activation in the left motor, somatosensory cortices and somatosensory association cortices was demonstrated. Additionally, after a median split the differences between younger (<58 years) and older (>58 years) subjects were analyzed with the older subjects showing a less focused prefrontal activation. Altogether, fNIRS was found to be suitable to detect cortical activation in elderly subjects during performance of the TMT as well as aging-related differences in prefrontal activation topography. These neural correlates of executive functions should be further investigated as a potential prodromal neural marker of executive deficits and neurodegenerative processes.
Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.
Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520
Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.
Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.
Himani; Dahiya, Ratna
In this paper, a contribution to the development of low-cost wind turbine (WT) test rig for stator fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator is proposed. The test rig is developed using a 2.5kW, 1750 RPM DC motor coupled to a 1.5kW, 1500 RPM self-excited induction generator interfaced with a WT mathematical model in LabVIEW. The performance of the test rig is benchmarked with already proven wind turbine test rigs. In order to detect the stator faults using non-stationary signals in self-excited induction generator, an online fault diagnostic technique of DWT-based multi-resolution analysis is proposed. It has been experimentally proven that for varying wind conditions wavelet decomposition allows good differentiation between faulty and healthy conditions leading to an effective diagnostic procedure for wind turbine condition monitoring.
Greenmun, Renny; And Others
This study was to identify variables potentially useful in predicting a larger proportion of variance in community college study fields than accounted for by the current Washington Pre-College (WPC) battery. Selected tests from the Comparative Guidance and Placement (CGP) Core and Research Batteries, and the Tool and Form Matching subtests from…
Troncossi, M.; Di Sante, R.; Rivola, A.
High-cycle fatigue life tests conducted using controlled random vibrations are commonly used to evaluate failure in components and structures. In most cases, a Gaussian distribution of both the input vibration and the stress response is assumed, while real-life loads may be non-Gaussian causing the response to be non-Gaussian as well. Generating non-Gaussian drive signals with high kurtosis and a given power spectral density, however, does not always guarantee that the stress response will actually be non-Gaussian, because this depends on the adherence of the tested system to the Central Limit Theorem. On the other side, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations, and therefore to evaluate and select input loads. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and non-stationary non-Gaussian excitation signals. The Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) technique was used for the first time in this type of test, to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response in terms of differential displacement at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal drops occurring during the experiment is described and the results are discussed with respect to the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal.
Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne
Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798
Nataraja, M.C.; Dhang, N.; Gupta, A.P.
The variation in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete as determined from a drop weight test is reported. The observed coefficients of variation are about 57 and 46% for first-crack resistance and the ultimate resistance in the case of fiber concrete and the corresponding values for plain concrete are 54 and 51%, respectively. The goodness-of-fit test indicated poor fitness of the impact-resistance test results produced in this study to normal distribution at 95% level of confidence for both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete. However, the percentage increase in number of blows from first crack to failure for both fiber-reinforced concrete and as well as plain concrete fit to normal distribution as indicated by the goodness-of-fit test. The coefficient of variation in percentage increase in the number of blows beyond first crack for fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete is 51.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Minimum number of tests required to reliably measure the properties of the material can be suggested based on the observed levels of variation.
Verrilli, Michael; Calomino, Anthony; Thomas, David J.; Robinson, R. Craig
Vane subelements were fabricated from a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. A cross-sectional slice of an aircraft engine metal vane was the basis of the vane subelement geometry. To fabricate the small radius of the vane's trailing edge using stiff Sylramic SiC fibers, a unique SiC fiber architecture was developed. A test configuration for the vanes in a high pressure gas turbine environment was designed and fabricated. Testing was conducted using a pressure of 6 atm and combustion flow rate of 0.5 kg/sec, and consisted of fifty hours of steady state operation followed by 102 2-minute thermal cycles. A surface temperature of 1320 C was obtained for the EBC-coated SiC/SiC vane subelement. This paper will briefly discuss the vane fabrication, test configuration, and results of the vane testing. The emphasis of the paper is on characterization of the post-test condition of the vanes.
... Section 790.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... evaluation of risks: (i) Primarily associated with manufacture of the chemical, or (ii) Associated with both... notice as set forth in § 790.48(b). (3) If testing is being required to allow evaluation of...
Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori
Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150
Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; Andrade, Adriano O
The purpose of this study was to determine whether general fatigue induced by incremental maximal exercise test (IMET) affects gait stability and variability in healthy subjects. Twenty-two young healthy male subjects walked in a treadmill at preferred walking speed for 4min prior (PreT) the test, which was followed by three series of 4min of walking with 4min of rest among them. Gait variability was assessed using walk ratio (WR), calculated as step length normalized by step frequency, root mean square (RMSratio) of trunk acceleration, standard deviation of medial-lateral trunk acceleration between strides (VARML), coefficient of variation of step frequency (SFCV), length (SLCV) and width (SWCV). Gait stability was assessed using margin of stability (MoS) and local dynamic stability (λs). VARML, SFCV, SLCV and SWCV increased after the test indicating an increase in gait variability. MoS decreased and λs increased after the test, indicating a decrease in gait stability. All variables showed a trend to return to PreT values, but the 20-min post-test interval appears not to be enough for a complete recovery. The results showed that general fatigue induced by IMET alters negatively the gait, and an interval of at least 20min should be considered for injury prevention in tasks with similar demands.
Fernandes, Antonio C.; Oliveira, Allan C.
The methodology to obtain the non-linear roll damping from decay tests is very old. It has been proposed by Froude in the 19th century and used from then on. Behind it there is a quadratic model [dot θ |dot θ |] for the damping and a subsequent equivalent linearization. Probably all model basin in the world follows this approach to assess the damping from a decay test. This is well documented and so is the methods to get the p 1- p 2 coefficients. This is very general in the sense that in principle, it could be applied to any kind of hull. However, it has become clear that for hull with a flat bottom such as a very large crude carrier (VLCC), this approach may lead to confusing results such as negative p 2. Faced with this, the work presents a completely new idea. Avoiding the polynomial approximation, the basic attitude is to devise two regions from the decaying test response. The first, called the large amplitude response region yields a larger damping, probably due to the large bilge keel vortices that are attracted to the hull flat bottom. The second is the small amplitude response region where the vortices are not attracted to the bottom but travels approximately 45° sidewise. These observations has led to a new approach called the bi-linear approach as discussed in the work after analyzing several (many) model test results. In fact, a new modified bi-linear approach is ultimately proposed after the understanding of a transition region instead of a transition angle.
Chen, L; Faas, G C; Ferando, I; Mody, I
The forced-swim test (FST) is one of the most widely used rodent behavioral assays, in which the immobility of animals is used to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. However, the existing, and mostly arbitrary, criteria used for quantification could lead to biased results. Here we believe we uncovered new confounding factors, revealed new indices to interpret the behavior of mice and propose an unbiased means for quantification of the FST. PMID:25871976
Chen, L; Faas, G C; Ferando, I; Mody, I
The forced-swim test (FST) is one of the most widely used rodent behavioral assays, in which the immobility of animals is used to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. However, the existing, and mostly arbitrary, criteria used for quantification could lead to biased results. Here we believe we uncovered new confounding factors, revealed new indices to interpret the behavior of mice and propose an unbiased means for quantification of the FST.
Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig
The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.
Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric
The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them.
Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane Santana; Santos Gomes, Karina; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz
In recent years, there has been a notable interest in studying prey-predator relationships to develop rodent-based models for the neurobehavioral aspects of stress and emotion. However, despite the growing use of transgenic mice and results showing important differences in the behavioral responses of rats and mice, little research has been conducted regarding the responses of mice to predators. The rat exposure test (RET), a recently developed and behaviorally validated prey-predator (mouse-rat)-based model, has proven to be a useful tool in evaluating the defensive responses of mice facing rats. To further validate the RET, we investigated the endocrine and behavioral responses of mice exposed to this apparatus. We first constructed a plasma corticosterone secretion curve in mice exposed to a rat or to an empty cage (control). Rat-exposed mice showed a pronounced rise in corticosterone levels that peaked 15 min from the beginning of the predator exposure. The corticosterone levels and behavioral responses of mice exposed to a rat or to a toy in the RET apparatus were then measured. We observed high plasma corticosterone levels along with clear avoidance behaviors represented by decreases in tunnel and surface area exploration and increases in risk assessment behaviors and freezing. This strongly suggests that the test elicits a repertoire of behavioral responses compatible with an aversion state and indicates that it is a promising model for the evaluation of prey-predator interactions. However, more physiological, neurochemical, and pharmacological studies are needed to further validate the test.
Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric
The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800
Formby, C.; Gagne, J. P.
Ira Hirsh's contributions to clinical science and research are diverse and significant. In fact, approximately one-third of the 100+ publications that Ira lists in his curriculum vitae (CV) are clinical in nature, dealing with various aspects of audiology, deafness, hearing aids, aural rehabilitation, and speech and language pathology. The majority of these citations, fully one-quarter of his publication list, addresses problems specific to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment. Undoubtedly, the most influential of these published works appears in his CV under the citation ``The Measurement of Hearing.'' The forward for this publication, his only textbook, was penned in June, 1952 (now precisely half a century past at the time of this session). The aims of this presentation are to (1) provide perspective on the fundamental importance of his virtually timeless text in shaping the fledgling discipline of audiology, and (2) celebrate Ira's many contributions to the profession and practice of audiology. [Preparation for this presentation was supported, in part, by a K24 career development award from NIDCD.
Ferraro, Pietro; De Nicola, Sergio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Finizio, Andrea; Iodice, Mario; Magro, Carlo; Pierattini, Giovanni
We have applied digital holography (DH) as interferometric tool for measuring the out of plane deformation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical structures. DH has been adopted as method for determining with high accuracy deformations due to the residual stress introduced by fabrication process evaluating MEMS behavior subjected to thermal load. A thermal characterization of these structures requires to cope two fundamental problems. The first one regards the loss of the focus due to thermal expansion of the MEMS sample support. With an out-of-focus image, a correct reconstruction of the sample image can not be obtained. To overcome the problem an auto-tracking procedure has been adopted. The other problem regards the direct comparison of images reconstructed at two different distances. In fact, in DH the numerical reconstruction image is enlarged or contracted according to the reconstruction distance. To avoid this problem, we have adopted a novel but very simple method for keeping constant the image size by imposing the reconstruction pixel constant through the fictitious enlargement of the number of the pixel of the recorded digital holograms. These procedures have been employed in order to characterize MEMS with different shapes and dimensions. The measured profiles obtained by DH can be employed to evaluate both the residual stress induced during the fabrication processes and its dependence on the temperature.
Ferraro, Pietro; De Nicola, Sergio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Finizio, Andrea; Iodice, Mario; Magro, Carlo; Pierattini, Giovanni
We have applied digital holography (DH) as interferometric tool for measuring the out of plane deformation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical structures. DH has been adopted as method for determining with high accuracy deformations due to the residual stress introduced by fabrication process evaluating MEMS behavior subjected to thermal load. A thermal characterization of these structures requires to cope two fundamental problems. The first one regards the loss of the focus due to thermal expansion of the MEMS sample support. With an out-of-focus image, a correct reconstruction of the sample image can not be obtained. To overcome the problem an auto-tracking procedure has been adopted. The other problem regards the direct comparison of images reconstructed at two different distances. In fact, in DH the numerical reconstruction image is enlarged or contracted according to the reconstruction distance. To avoid this problem, we have adopted a novel but very simple method for keeping constant the image size by imposing the reconstruction pixel constant through the fictitious enlargement of the number of the pixel of the recorded digital holograms. These procedures have been employed in order to characterize MEMS with different shapes and dimensions. The measured profiles obtained by DH can be employed to evaluate both the residual stress induced during the fabrication processes and its dependence on the temperature.
Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Thompson, G. A.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Becher, Paul F
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.
Ricardi, F C F; Zaia, L L; Pellegrino-Rosa, I; Rosa, J T; Mantovani de Assis, O Z; Saldanha, P H
Piagetian scales and the Bender visual motor gestalt test (BT) were applied to 28 subjects with universal 45,X Turner syndrome (TS), and their respective controls, in order to investigate their cognitive performance. Dermatoglyphics were also analyzed to obtain clues concerning embryological changes that may have appeared during development of the nervous system and could be associated with cognitive performance of TS patients. Dermatoglyphic pattern distribution was similar to that reported in previous studies of TS individuals: ulnar loops in the digital patterns and finger ridge, a-b, and A'-d counts were more frequent, while arch and whorl patterns were less frequent compared to controls. However, we did not find higher frequencies of hypothenar pattern, maximum atd angle, and ulnarity index in our TS subjects, unlike other investigations. Furthermore, we found significant differences between TS and control T line index values. The BT scores were also lower in probands, as has been previously reported, revealing a neurocognitive deficit of visual motor perception in TS individuals, which could be due to an absence of, or deficiency in, cerebral hemispheric lateralization. However, TS subjects seemed to improve their performance on BT with age. Cognitive performance of the TS subjects was not significantly different from that of controls, confirming a previous study in which TS performance was found to be similar to that of the normal Brazilian population. There were significant correlations between BT scores and Piagetian scale levels with dermatoglyphic parameters. This association could be explained by changes in the common ectodermal origin of the epidermis and the central nervous system. TS subjects seem to succeed in compensating their spatial impairments in adapting their cognitive and social contacts. We concluded that genetic counseling should consider cognitive and psychosocial difficulties presented by TS subjects, providing appropriate treatment and
Alkaabi, Juma; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Saadi, Hussein; Gariballa, Salah; Yasin, Javed
The consumption of dates with coffee is common among Arabs and may affect postprandial hyperglycemia ex-cursion. The study aimed to determine the effect of coffee on the glycemic index of a common variety of dates (Khalas) tested in healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals. Study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 40.2±6.7 years) and ten diabetic participants with a mean HbA1c of 6.6±(0.7%) and a mean age of 40.8±5.7 years. Each subject participated in five days of tests with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the dates (with/without coffee). Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the interventions. Statistical analyses were performed using the independent samples and paired t-tests. Mean±SE glycemic indices of the Khalas dates for the healthy individuals were 55.1±7.7 and 52.7±6.2 without and with coffee consumption, respectively. Similar values were observed for those with diabetes (53.0±6.0 and 41.5±5.4). Differences between glycemic indices of Khalas with or without coffee were not significant (p=0.124). There were no significant differences in glycemic index between the diabetic and healthy subjects (p=0.834 and p=0.202 without and with coffee respectively). In conclusion, at least in the short term, coffee does not adversely affect capillary glucose levels following Khalas dates consumption in healthy and diabetic volunteers.
Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko
Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk
Kane, R J; Baluyot, E V
The iButton is a 'one-wire', temperature sensor and data logger in a short metal cylinder package 17 mm in diameter and 6 mm tall. The device is designed to be attached to a surface and acquire temperature samples over time periods as short as 1 second to as long as 300 minutes. Both 8-bit and 16-bit samples are available with 8kB of memory available. Lifetime is limited to an internal battery that cannot be replaced or recharged. The RF test interest originated with the concern that the data logger could inadvertently record electrical emanations from other nearby equipment. The normal operation of the data logger does not support high speed sampling but the control interface will operate at either 15.4 kbps or 125 kbps. There were no observable effects in the operation of the module or in the data that could be attributed to the use of RF energy. They made the assumption that these devices would potentially show RF sensitivity in any of the registers and in the data memory equally, therefore gross changes in the data might show RF susceptibility. No such sensitivity was observed. Because significant power levels were used for these tests they can extrapolate downward in power to state that no RF susceptibility would occur at lower power levels given the same configurations.
Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig
The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.
Zhang, Wenxue; Chen, Yu
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.
Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin
The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols.
Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona
Background Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils’ comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman’s sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. Conclusions/Significance In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils’ comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (p<0.001) and distance to the loudspeakers (p<0.001). Of the physical classroom features, presence of suspended acoustic panels (p<0.05) and length of the classroom (p<0.01) predicted speech comprehension. Of the pupils’ descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (p<0.05) predicted speech comprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil’s descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom. PMID:25615692
Venhovens, J.; Meulstee, J.; Verhagen, W. I. M.
ABSTRACT The static subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed in 24 healthy volunteers with different preset angles (i.e., 10, 20, and 30 degrees), and in 20 other volunteers, the static SVV was tested and retested 1 week later. The static SVV results are influenced by the side of the preset angle (Wilcoxon test, p ≤ 0.001), but not by the preset angle deviation. The test-retest static SVV outcomes are stable at a group level; however, they show statistically relevant variability at an individual level (−0.240 ≤ intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ≤ 0.508). A robust static SVV protocol is described in this paper. PMID:27928394
Pitcher, Mark J.; Behm, David G.; MacKinnon, Scott N.
Studies employing modified Biering-Sørenson tests have reported that low back endurance is related to the potential for developing low back pain. Understanding the manner in which spinal musculature fatigues in people with and without LBP is necessary to gain insight into the sensitivity of the modified Biering-Sørenson test to differentiate back health. Twenty male volunteers were divided into a LBP group of subjects with current subacute or a history of LBP that limited their activity (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The median frequency of the fast Fourier transform was calculated from bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) of the upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), lower lumbar erector spinae (LLES) and biceps femoris while maintaining a prescribed modified Biering-Sørensen test position and exerting isometric forces equivalent to 100, 120, 140 and 160% of the estimated mass of the head-arms-trunk (HAT) segment. Time to failure was also investigated across the percentages of HAT. Fatigue time decreased with increasing load and differences between groups increased as load increased, however these differences were not significant. Significant differences in the EMG median frequency between groups occurred in the right biceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05) with significant pairwise differences occurring at 140% for the left biceps femoris and at 160% for the right biceps femoris. There were significant pairwise differences at 120% for average EMG of the right biceps femoris and at 140% for the right ULES, and right and left biceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05). The modified Biering-Sørensen test as usually performed at 100% HAT is not sufficient to demonstrate significant differences between controls and subjects with varying degrees of mild back disability based on the Oswestry classification. Key pointsThe results do not wholly support the modified Biering-Sørensen test utilizing resistance of 100% HAT to discern differences in fatigue in subjects with mild low back
Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.
Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang
Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.
Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel
A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems.
The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relation between power performance of the Wingate test (WT) and isometric leg strength (ILS) and explosive leg strength (ELS) characteristics in young men and women with different physical fitness levels. A total of 166 subjects, including 98 young men and 68 young women, were included in the study. The subjects were divided into a regular exercise group and a sedentary group. The physical and body mass index characteristics of the subjects were not different, and they had not taken part in the directed jumping. When the regular exercise and sedentary groups were considered together with men, women, and total population groups, no significant correlation existed between WT anaerobic fatigue index and ILS and ELS (p > 0.05), but significant positive correlations existed among peak power, peak power per weight, mean power, mean power per weight, and WT power, which were recorded in 5-second intervals (p < 0.001). Although the 5-second WT parameters were significantly correlated with ILS and ELS for the first 15-second period, this correlation was more pronounced for the last 15 seconds for all groups (p < 0.01). As a result, this study indicated that regular physical activity has a positive significant relation on WT power, ILS, and ELS in both sedentary men and women and those engaged in regular sports activities.
Freire-Lista, D. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Fort, R.
A specific leucogranite (fine to medium grain sized) from Cadalso de los Vidrios, Madrid, Spain, from where it takes the name of the stone variety, which is a traditional heritage building material used in Central Spain, was subjected to freezing-thaw durability tests or accelerated artificial ageing tests (according to Spanish standard EN 12371:2001) to assess its durability by means of ultrasonic velocity measurements (a non-destructive technique), and optical and fluorescence petrography using a polarized optical microscope (destructive technique), both techniques used before, during and after laboratory ageing tests, or in other words, what is determined is the improvement or deterioration in some properties. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity in the leucogranite cubic test specimens along the freezing-thaw cycles shown that the velocity diminishes with the number of cycles, in relation to the decay that the stones were experiencing. This deterioration can be observed by the loss of crystalline minerals in the surface of the analyzed samples and by the micro-fractures appearance up to one centimeter deep, which have been detected by the petrographic techniques previously mentioned. The images taken by means of the fluorescence microscope clearly show the micro-fractures generated during the durability test. These images have been processed and analyzed by the UTHSCSA Image Tool program with the purpose of being able to quantify the degree of decay that this type of crystalline materials undergone, when subjected to a number of freezing-thaw test cycles. It is therefore an effective, reliable and complementary technique to that of the petrography analysis, both optical and fluorescence ones. In the first cycles of the ageing test, the micro-fractures propagate along crystals edges and during the last cycles of the test, intracrystalline micro-fractures are generated, which are developed in different ways depending on the mineralogy of the crystals. Thus
Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan
This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…
Winters, Marcus A.; Trivitt, Julie R.; Greene, Jay P.
An important criticism of high-stakes testing policies--policies that reward or sanction schools based on their students' performance on standardized tests--is that they provide schools with an incentive to focus on those subjects that play a role in the accountability system while decreasing attention to those subjects that are not part of the…
Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Kohannim, Omid; Jahanshad, Neda; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Kim, Sungeun; Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Potkin, Steven G.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.
Imaging traits provide a powerful and biologically relevant substrate to examine the influence of genetics on the brain. Interest in genome-wide, brain-wide search for influential genetic variants is growing, but has mainly focused on univariate, SNP-based association tests. Moving to gene-based multivariate statistics, we can test the combined effect of multiple genetic variants in a single test statistic. Multivariate models can reduce the number of statistical tests in gene-wide or genome-wide scans and may discover gene effects undetectable with SNP-based methods. Here we present a gene-based method for associating the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18,044 genes across 31,662 voxels of the whole brain in 731 elderly subjects (mean age: 75.56 ± 6.82SD years; 430 males) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Structural MRI scans were analyzed using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to compute 3D maps of regional brain volume differences compared to an average template image based on healthy elderly subjects. Using the voxel-level volume difference values as the phenotype, we selected the most significantly associated gene (out of 18,044) at each voxel across the brain. No genes identified were significant after correction for multiple comparisons, but several known candidates were re-identified, as were other genes highly relevant to brain function. GAB2, which has been previously associated with late-onset AD, was identified as the top gene in this study, suggesting the validity of the approach. This multivariate, gene-based voxelwise association study offers a novel framework to detect genetic influences on the brain. PMID:21497199
Prasad, Narasimha S.
The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.
Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.
We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.
Sziegoleit, W; Lautenschläger, C; Walther, C; Presek, P
The influences of both being in a supine position for a prolonged period and food intake on cardiovascular variables were studied under clinical-pharmacological test conditions. In a randomized crossover design study without drug or placebo administration, 6 healthy male volunteers received a light standard meal before and during test A and fasted in test B. In both tests, while they were continuously supine for more than 8 h, a synchronous recording of cardiovascular variables was done at 24, 26 and 28 min after starting the supine position (first recordings) and 25 times from 2 to 480 min after the first recordings. Using a multifactorial statistical analysis, each parameter was evaluated regarding the factors eating and time of supine recording. Eating led to a significant decrease in diastolic and mean blood pressure, PQ time and QS₂ time, a downward trend in systemic vascular resistance and an upward trend in systolic blood pressure and cardiac output. When the subjects remained in a supine position for prolonged periods, significant increases in systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance were noted as well as significant decreases in cardiac output and QS₂ time. Thus, eating and remaining in a supine position for prolonged periods should be considered as sources of bias in clinical-pharmacological studies on cardiovascular drug effects and accompanying placebo controls.
Teryutin, F M; Barashkov, N A; Kunel'skaya, N L; Pshennikova, V G; Solov'ev, A V
In the course of previous investigations carried out in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), we have identified the main molecular-genetic factor responsible for the hereditary impairment of hearing among the indigenous population (mostly the Yakuts).The disease was shown to be attributable to the c.-23+1G>A mutation localized in the splice donor site (exon 1) of the GJB2 (Cx26) gene. The present study involved the comprehensive audiological analysis of the patients homozygous for the c.-23+1G>A mutation in the GJB2 gene based on the results of the study of a large sample of the patients residing in Yakutiya. All individuals with the GJB2 genotype c.-23+1G>A/c.-23-1G>A (n=108) at the mean age of 14.32±4.7 years (all ethnic Yakuts)were examined with the use oftonal threshold audiometry for air conduction testing at the frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 kHz and bone conduction testing at the frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 with a step of 5.0 dB.The results of the ASSR test were used whenever tonal threshold audiometry proved impracticable The data obtained in the study characterize the allelic form of the disease associated with the GJB2 genotype c.-23+1G>A/c.-23-1G>A as the congenital bilateral symmetric (90.1%), sensorineural (90.1%) form of hearing impairment of variable severity (from grade 1 to complete deafness) with the «flat» audiological profile (median slope not more than 5.0 dB in the extended frequency range (EFR) of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0, kHz). It is concluded that the results of the audiological analysis performed in the present study give evidence of relatively homogeneous but variable in terms of severity impairment of hearing in the patients homozygous for the c.-23+1G>A mutation in the GJB2 (Cx26) gene. It may serve as a positive prognostic sign to be used in the development and prescription of hearing aids.
Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild
Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli.
Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.
Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329
Solmaz, F; Akduman, D; Haksever, M; Gündoğdu, E; Yanılmaz, M; Mescioğlu, A
Cartilage is one of the most preferable grafts for tympanoplasty (TPL). The anatomical and audiological results and take rates of perichondrium attached cartilage island graft in tympanoplasty (PACIT) are presented herein. One hundred ninety four ears of 191 patients (108 male, 83 female) were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the type of surgery, graft take rate and hearing results. Type I, II, and III TPL were performed in 127 (65.46%), 45 (23.20%), and 22 (11.34%) ears, respectively. The overall mean preoperative pure tone average-air bone gaps (PTA-ABGs) for TPL types were 33.74 ± 9.60, 52.58 ± 9.07, and 56.58 ± 10.27 dB HL, respectively; postoperative mean values for TPL groups were 18.55 ± 9.25, 31.21 ± 4.36, and 44.84 ± 12.45 dB HL. Postoperative hearing results showed an improvement (≥ 10 dB) in 76.81% of ears with a mean gain of 20 dB HL (range 10-40 dB). However, 19.07% of ears showed no change (< 10, ≥ 0 dB) in hearing, and hearing worsened in 4.12% of ears (< 0 dB) postoperatively. Overall, graft take was 91.24% at least 13 months (mean 68.64) after surgery with a graft failure rate of 8.76%. Graft take was successful in TPL groups. Postoperative PTA-ABG results demonstrated significant improvement. The long-term eligibility of perichondrium attached cartilage island graft in TPL is emphasised with this study.
Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T
Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls.
Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant
To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017
Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.
Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy
The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid.
Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy
The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162
Steinert, R E; Poller, B; Castelli, M C; Friedman, K; Huber, A R; Drewe, J; Beglinger, C
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts several effects on glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake. After its release from intestinal L cells, GLP-1 is subject to (i) rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and (ii) high liver extraction. The highest concentrations of GLP-1 are found in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation. An oral delivery system would mimic endogenous secretion. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) effects of a single dose (2 mg) of oral GLP-1 administered prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 16 healthy males. GLP-1 was rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to tenfold higher plasma concentrations compared with controls. The PD profile was consistent with reported pharmacology; GLP-1 significantly stimulated basal insulin release (P < 0.027), with marked effects on glucose levels. The postprandial glucose peak was delayed with GLP-1, suggesting an effect on gastric emptying.
Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc
Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.
Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc
Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the 'wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, 'wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.
Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.
Astronauts have the task of retrieving and deploying satellites and handling massive objects in a around the payload bay. Concerns were raised that manual handling of such massive objects might induce loads to the shuttle suits exceeding the design-certified loads. The Crew and Thermal Division of NASA JSC simulated the satellite handling tasks (Satellite Manload Tests 1 and 3) and determined the maximum possible load that a suited member could impart onto the suit. In addition, the tests revealed that the load to the suit by an astronaut could be calculated from the astronaut's maximum hand grasp breakaway strength. Thus, this study was conducted to document that hand grasp breakaway strengths of the astronauts who were scheduled to perform EVA during the upcoming missions. In addition, this study verified whether the SML 3 test results were sufficient for documenting the maximum possible load. An attempt was made to predict grasp strength from grip strength and hand anthropometry. Based on the results from this study, the SML 3 test results were deemed sufficient to document the maximum possible load on the suit. Finally, prediction of grasp strength from grip strength was not as accurate as expected. Hence, it was recommended that grasp strength be collected from the astronauts in order to obtain accurate load estimation.
Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )
Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs.
Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy
Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating
Tzaneva, L; Savov, A; Damianova, V
Tinnitus is a hearing sensation appearing without available sound fluctuations in the external environment. It is one of the major, constant and earliest symptoms suggesting different pathology of the hearing analyser. It must be considered, though, that it is evidenced also at disturbed functions of other organs and systems of the organism. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the state of the hearing analyser in patients with tinnitus occupationally exposed to noise and vibrations in relation to therapy. The study was performed on 67 miners, aged 34-55, mean age 44.5 years. The workers with subjective tinnitus (29 persons--43% of the studied group) are the object of this investigation. They were subjected to the following tests of the hearing analyser: pure tone audiometry; above-threshold audiometry (Carhardt's adaptation test, Lusher's differential threshold, SISI test, Kietz test. The evidence reveals that the studied group of workers occupationally exposed to noise, vibrations, dust, toxic substances etc. complain predominantly of tinnitus. It is accompanied by vertigo, headache and disturbed balance. Changes in the hearing function are observed; manifested by different degree of hypacusia concerning air and bone conductivity in the pure tone audiometry. The above-threshold tests also evidence deviations suggesting disturbed hearing function. These changes can be explained by mechanical-toxic pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral and vestibular dysfunction most probably of vascular-circulatory type manifested by the above stated deviations. The results are the basis for the following conclusions: 1. The anamnestic profile of workers with tinnitus exposed to noise and vibrations shows a prevalent percentage of vertigo, followed by headache and disturbed balance. 2. The otoneurological profile shows changes in the air and bone conductivity manifested by different degree of hypacusia. 3. The evaluation of the above-threshold tests also confirms the
Gnanasegaram, Joshua J.; Parkes, William J.; Cushing, Sharon L.; McKnight, Carmen L.; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.
Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2 ± 4.0 years of age) with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of nine young adults with normal hearing (28.8 ± 7.7 years). Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]). The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards center (i.e., normal; p = 0.007). Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function. PMID:27679562
Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.
Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F
Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation.
Byrd, Larry; Rickerd, Greg; Wyen, Travis; Cooley, Glenn; Quast, Jeff
Sonic fatigue of aircraft is characterized by fully reversed bending of components subjected to acoustic excitation. This problem is compounded in high temperature environments because solutions for acoustics which tend to result in stiff structures make thermal problems worse. Conversely solutions to the thermal problem which allow expansion often fail in the presence of high acoustic levels. Errors in fatigue life prediction in the combined environment often range from a factor of 4 to 10. This results in either heavy, overly stiff structure or premature failure. This work will test the hypothesis that the fatigue life of a layered functionally graded material (FGM) will be dominated by the failure of the stiffest outer layer. This is based on the observation that for isotropic materials the life is approximately 90% crack initiation and only 10% crack growth before failure. Four sets of cantilever specimens will be tested using an electro-mechanical shaker for base excitation. The excitation will be narrow band random around the fundamental frequency. Two sets of specimens are of uniform composition consisting of 85%TiB/Ti and two are graded specimens consisting of layers that vary from commercially pure titanium to 85%TiB/Ti. Strain vs number of cycles to failure curves will be generated with both constant amplitude sine and narrow band random around the fundamental frequency excitation. The results will be examined to compare life of the uniform material to the functionally graded material. Also to be studied will be the use of Miner's rule to predict the fatigue life of the randomly excited specimens.
Grant, Mary C.; Zhang, Lilly; Damiano, Michele
This study investigated kernel equating methods by comparing these methods to operational equatings for two tests in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] program. GENASYS (ETS, 2007) was used for all equating methods and scaled score kernel equating results were compared to Tucker, Levine observed score, chained linear, and chained equipercentile equating…
Winters, Marcus A.; Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.
School systems across the nation have adopted policies that reward or sanction particular schools on the basis of their students' performance on standardized math and reading tests. One of the most frequently raised concerns regarding such "high-stakes testing" policies is that they oblige schools to focus on subjects for which they are…
Longford, Nicholas T.
A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…
AD-A163 614 ’Poss-ible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents Volume 3 Final Report Current Health Status of Test ...Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents Vol. 3--Current Health Status of Test Subjects 1.2PRSONAU AUITORS) Committee on Toxicology, Board on Toxicolo y...Effects of Chemical Agents Used in Human Testing --Morbidity Studies" (DAMD17-83-C-3185-- (over) _____________________ CODSS. SUBJECT TERMS (ConteW an en e
Watanabe, S; Hojo, K; Sato, T; Tanaka, T; Watanabe, K; Yoshimura, I
We made the neuropsychological auditory studies of two right-handed subjects who had undergone the transection of the splenium of the corpus callosum for the pineal operation (the teratoma by the histopathological examination). The transection grades were 2.0 cm and 2.5 cm. The truncus and splenium of the second subject were flat by the compression of the tumor. We examined these subjects by the some audiolocigal methods. 1. Pure tone audiometry. 2. Fixed frequency Békésy audiometry. 3. SISI test (short increment sensitivity index test). 4. Speech audiometry. 5. Distorted speech test (filtered speech test). 6. Binaural fusion test. 7. Dichotic listening test. The tasks used for the dichotic listening test were following. Different digits (one pair, three pairs), different words (from two to four syllables) and different vowels and consonants were presented simultaneously to the two ears by means of a dual-channel tape recorder with stereophonic earphone. The result shows that the first subject (whose section of the spelenium was 2.0 cm) shows a slight but not significant superiority on the right ear to the one pair digits and words (p less than 0.1), and the second subject (whose section of the splenium was 2.5 cm and whose splenium and truncus of the corpus callusum were flatten by the compression of the tumor) shows a significant superiority on the right ear to the one pair digits, words, three pairs digits and vowels (p less than 0.05). But there was no definitive abnormalities at the pure tone audiometry, the fixed frequency Békésy audiometry, SISI test, distorted speech test and binaural fusion test of two cases. The result shows that the commissure fibres of the auditory perception of the speech of two hemispheres connect through from splenium to the truncus of the corpus callosum.
Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan
The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the
Palma, S M; Guimarães, F S; Zuardi, A W
1. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of two anxiety-inducing tests, simulated public speaking (SPS) and the stroop color word test (SCWT), in healthy subjects with different trait-anxiety levels. 2. The mean (+/- SD) trait-anxiety score of 524 university students, measured by Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), was 40.8 +/- 8.9. Based on these scores, 26 students from our sample were divided into low (score less than 1 SD from the mean, N = 10), medium (score between -1 and +1 SD from the mean, N = 7) and high (score more than 1 SD from the mean, N = 9) trait anxiety. 3. Each subject was submitted to the SPS and SCWT tests in the same experimental session. The sequence of test presentation was randomized between subjects. No effect of test order presentation was found. 4. SPS induced significant increases in the anxiety factor of Norris' visual analogue mood scale (VAMS) in all groups, without difference between them. The SCWT, on the other hand, did not induce an increase in subjective anxiety in any group. In the high trait group, however, there was a general increase in anxiety feelings that was evident even before the test, and might have been caused by the presence of the experimenter. 5. The results suggest that SPS is a more effective anxiety-inducing test, and is not dependent on previous trait-anxiety levels.
Decruyenaere, M.; Evers-Kiebooms, G.; Boogaerts, A.; Cassiman, J. J.; Cloostermans, T.; Demyttenaere, K.; Dom, R.; Fryns, J. P.
BACKGROUND—Psychometric testing of participants in predictive DNA testing for Huntington's disease (HD) has shown that 15% of the subjects at risk for HD had at least mild depression or a high score for general anxiety or both in the pre-test period. The main aim of the study was the delineation of variables associated with pre-test distress of applicants for predictive testing for HD. Based on theoretical considerations, four specific hypotheses were tested regarding the role of (1) the test participant's age at the (perceived) parental onset of HD, (2) the affected parent's sex, (3) the perception of the risk for HD, and (4) the subjective proximity of the disease. Secondly, these four variables were used in multiple regression analyses to select the best predictors of pre- and post-test psychological functioning (one year after the test). Increasing the understanding of pre- and post-test distress is important for developing better counselling and support strategies for test applicants. METHODS—Data were collected by means of clinical interviews and psychometric questionnaires during the pre- and post-test (one year after the test) counselling sessions for predictive testing for HD. RESULTS—We found significant associations of the participant's age at the parental onset, the subjective proximity of the disease onset, and the perceived risk with pre-test psychometric measures of psychological functioning. Multiple regression analyses showed that the best predictors of pre-test functioning were the perceived proximity of the disease onset and its interaction with risk perception. Regarding post-test functioning, none of the proposed variables had a unique contribution beyond that accounted for by pre-test psychological functioning. CONCLUSIONS—Test participants who are close to the perceived age of onset of HD and who have a pessimistic risk perception should be given special attention during pre-test counselling because of their possible negative
Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.
Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.
Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W
In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.
Silva, Paula F. S.; Quintino, Ludmylla F.; Franco, Juliane; Faria, Christina D. C. M.
Background Subjects with neurological disease (ND) usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. Objective To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. Method A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro) were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Results Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99) for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99) for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99) for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77), and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement properties were
Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T
In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Zenker Castro, Franz; Fernández Belda, Rafael; Barajas de Prat, José Juan
In this study we present a case of a 71-year-old female patient with sensorineural hearing loss and fitted with bilateral hearing aids. The patient complained of scant benefit from the hearing aid fitting with difficulties in understanding speech with background noise. The otolaryngology examination was normal. Audiological tests revealed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with threshold values of 51 and 50 dB HL in the right and left ear. The Dichotic Digit Test was administered in a divided attention mode and focalizing the attention to each ear. Results in this test are consistent with a Central Auditory Processing Disorder.
Andrade, Carlos Henrique Silva de; Cianci, Reinaldo Giovanini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal
Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.
Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X
This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P < 0·01). No significant difference was found in the percentage change in MBF between groups. The duration of the fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P < 0·05). Our results suggest that, compared to healthy subjects, patients with TMD become more easily fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted.
Cowan, Pamela; Morrison, Hugh
Highlights problems associated with pen-and-paper testing, recommending a computerized adaptive testing system which measures students' abilities against the levels of the United Kingdom National Curriculum in mathematics. The current prototype of this system can be used on a school's network. Results are issued at the time of testing, and…
Miller, M J
Single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dsb) was measured before and during immersion of one hand in ice water (cold pressor test) in the following three groups of subjects: (1) normal subjects; (2) patients with isolated Raynaud's disease; and (3) patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and progressive systemic sclerosis. No change in Dsb was found in normal subjects or patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Patients with isolated Raynaud's disease showed a rise in Dsb during cold pressor testing, the mean increase being 8 percent. These results suggest that a rise in Dsb during exposure to cold is a response unique to patients with isolated Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's phenomenon without progressive systemic sclerosis, and not a normal physiologic response to cold. The lack of change in Dsb in response to cold in progressive systemic sclerosis, interpreted by other authors as an indicator of pulmonary vascular disease, resembles the normal response to a challenge with cold.
Honeybourne, D; Moore, A J; Butterfield, A K; Azzan, L
The Lion Intoximeter 3000 has been used for evidential breath testing in the U.K. for some years. Some individuals with lung diseases have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the device. This study describes an investigation that we have carried out on a newer instrument--the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK--which is now in use in the U.K. The study was designed to investigate the ability of subjects with a variety of lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using this device. The 40 adult subjects investigated comprized 10 normal controls, 10 with asthma, 10 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 10 with restrictive lung disease. After baseline spirometry, subjects were given alcohol to drink, the quantity based upon body weight. After a gap of at least 20 min, subjects were asked to provide evidential breath samples in accordance with.the test procedure built into the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK. The results showed that two asthmatic subjects, four with COPD and three with restrictive lung disease failed to provide evidential breath samples even after four attempts. Despite the device requiring a minimum sample volume of 1.2 l, eight of the nine subjects who failed had a forced vital capacity (FVC) of more than 1.5 l. Seven of these nine subjects had a forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) of less than 1.0 l. In conclusion, this study has shown that some subjects with lung diseases may have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 UK.
Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.
Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the `like-new` condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed.
Koeda, T; Terakawa, S; Shiota, M
For the diagnosis of specific reading disorder (SRD) we studied the distribution in 187 elementary school children of the scores of Token test. Token test was performed under two conditions: listening and reading by presenting the same sentences. The diagnosis required a normal score under the listening condition, an abnormally low score under the reading condition and significantly large discrepancy between them. This test is valid and convenient for the diagnosis of SRD.
Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco
Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests.
Buckley, Pepper D.
The past 11 years of published research investigating the use of the Bender Gestalt Test with school-age children are reviewed. Seen as a psychometric instrument, scored according to standardized procedures, this recent work does not conclusively support use of the test for prediction of school achievement or emotional disturbance. (Author)
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
An English version, a translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale written originally in Arabic, was prepared. Several cycles of translation and back translation were carried out. Bilingual Arab college students, studying English language and literature (N=74) responded to the two versions of this scale in counterbalanced order. The correlation between the two forms was .96 denoting high cross-language equivalence. The nonsignificant mean difference for total scores between the two versions was an indication that they functioned as equivalent stimuli. Thus, the English version of the scale is highly recommended for use with English-speaking subjects.
Watanabe, Flávia Tieme; Koch, Vera Herminia Kalika; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Cunha, Maristela Trevisan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exercise tolerance and the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test in Brazilian children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease and to compare their functional exercise capacities with reference values for healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the use of the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents aged 6-16 with stage V chronic kidney disease. For statistical analysis of exercise tolerance, including examinations of correlations and comparisons with reference values, the longest walked distances were considered. The reproducibility of the six-minute walk test was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (14 females and 24 males) were evaluated, including 5 on peritoneal dialysis, 12 on hemodialysis and 21 who had undergone renal transplantation, with a median age of 11.2 years (6.5-16). The median walked distance was 538.5 meters (413-685) and the six-minute walk test was found to be reproducible. The walked distance was significantly correlated with age (r=0.66), weight (r=0.76), height (r=0.82), the height Z score (r=0.41), hemoglobin (r=0.46), hematocrit (r=0.47) and post-test systolic blood pressure (r=0.39). The chronic kidney disease patients predicted walked distance was 84.1% of the reference value according to age, 90.6% according to age-corrected height and 87.4% according to a predictive equation. CONCLUSIONS: The stage V chronic kidney disease patients had a significantly decreased functional exercise capacity, as measured by the six-minute walk test, compared with the healthy pediatric reference values. In addition, the six-minute walk test was shown to be well tolerated, reliable and applicable as a low-cost tool to monitor functional exercise capacity in patients with renal disease. PMID:26872080
Background In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. Methods In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. Results We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusions A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment. PMID:25079703
Aluko, Oritoke M.; Umukoro, Solomon; Annafi, Olajide S.; Adewole, Folashade A.; Omorogbe, Osarume
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an anti-stress hormone released by plants in response to external stressors and aids adaptation to stress. In this study, we evaluated the anti-stress activity of MJ using the forced swim endurance test (FSET) and anoxic tolerance test in mice. Male Swiss mice were given MJ (25–100 mg/kg, i.p) 30 min before the FSET and anoxic test were carried out. The first occurrence of immobility, duration of immobility, time spent in active swimming, and latency to exhaustion were assessed in the FSET. The onset to anoxic convulsion was measured in the anoxic tolerance test. MJ significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the first occurrence of immobility and shortened the period of immobility, which indicates anti-stress property. MJ also increased the time spent in active swimming and prolonged the latency to exhaustion, which further suggests anti-stress activity. In addition, it also exhibited anti-stress property as evidenced by prolonged latency to first appearance of anoxic convulsions. The results of this study suggest that MJ demonstrated anti-stress activity and may be useful as an energizer in times of body weakness or exhaustion. Although more studies are necessary before concluding on how MJ exerts its anti-stress activity, the present data suggest an action similar to adaptogens in boosting energy and resilience in the face of stress. PMID:26839844
Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.
from point A to B, umax and umm are the maximum and minimum bending-displacements and Rd is the ratio umax/umin. The testing consisted of conducting...data, but only specifically chosen intervals. Each Gauss- point , in addition to being assigned the damage variable D, is also assigned the state...variable NJUMP1, which is the number of cycles that can be skipped over without losing accuracy for that particular point . Next, looping over all Gauss
Hall, Lucas K; Day, Casey C; Westover, Matthew D; Edgel, Robert J; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; McMillan, Brock R
Animals that are potential prey do not respond equally to direct and indirect cues related to risk of predation. Based on differential responses to cues, three hypotheses have been proposed to explain spatial variation in vigilance behavior. The predator-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey increase vigilance where there is evidence of predators. The visibility-vigilance hypothesis suggests that prey increase vigilance where visibility is obstructed. Alternatively, the refuge-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey may perceive areas with low visibility (greater cover) as refuges and decrease vigilance. We evaluated support for these hypotheses using the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), a solitary carnivore subject to intraguild predation, as a model. From 2010 to 2012, we used infrared-triggered cameras to record video of kit fox behavior at water sources in Utah, USA. The refuge-vigilance hypothesis explained more variation in vigilance behavior of kit foxes than the other two hypotheses (AICc model weight=0.37). Kit foxes were less vigilant at water sources with low overhead cover (refuge) obstructing visibility. Based on our results, the predator-vigilance and visibility-vigilance hypotheses may not be applicable to all species of prey. Solitary prey, unlike gregarious prey, may use areas with concealing cover to maximize resource acquisition and minimize vigilance.
Doba, N; Kushiro, T; Tomiyama, H; Hayashida, N; Yamashina, A; Abe, H; Hinohara, S
The oxygen transport system (OTS) function was evaluated with multistage treadmill stress testing on 171 normal control subjects and 80 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). After Bruce's definition, OTS function was expressed with functional aerobic impairment (FAI), left ventricular impairment (LVI) or myocardial aerobic impairment (MAI), heart rate impairment (HRI) or chronotropic reserve impairment (CRI) and peripheral circulatory impairment (PCI). All subjects were monitored on heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and endtidal O2 and CO2 before and every one minute during the symptom limited maximal stress testing. Seventy three of 80 coronary patients were subjected to the coronary arteriography and were classified into four groups; 31 with single vessel disease (SVD), 20 with double vessel disease (DVD), 15 with triple vessel disease (TVD) and 7 with A-C bypass surgery. Comparison between normal control subjects and the CHD patients with regard to the relation of age and VO2max derived from the linear regression analysis disclosed the identical age-related decrease in VO2max in both groups. The age corrected VO2max in the CHD patients, however, was 2.2 METS less than that of normal control subjects. Therefore, the level of VO2max in CHD patients was determined not only by disease, but also by ageing process itself. Comparisons among three CHD groups with regard to FAI, LVI, HRI and PCI clearly demonstrated different functional impairments paralleling to the severity of the disease process. On the other hand, the patients with A-C bypass surgery revealed almost identical functional impairment to the patients with SVD. In conclusion, these simple and noninvasive evaluations of the oxygen transport system could give us valuable informations reasonably differentiating the clinical status of the patients with CHD.
Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu
Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds.
Gimenez, M; Servera, E; Salinas, W
A new 45 min Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test (SWEET) performed on a cycle ergometer and designed for endurance training was studied in 43 normal subjects: Untrained (U), twelve women and seven men and Trained (T), eight women and 16 men. Among them seven were elite sportsmen (E). Preliminary measurements were made of VO2 max by constant power and Maximal Tolerated Power (MTP) in a progressive test (+ 30 W/3 min). To the SWEET's base, established as a % of individual MTP, a peak of 1 min at MTP was added every 5 minutes. Maximum Intensity of Endurance during the SWEET (MIE45) is defined by both maximal heart rate (HR) at the end of the test and the impossibility of maintaining 5% above the percent MTP of the MIE45 for 45 min. Exhaustion was reached at the end of the MIE45, which could be expressed as % MTP, as total energy expenditure (TEE) in liters of O2, or as total mechanical work (TMW) in kiloJoules per kg of weight (kJ . kg-1). VE, VCO2, VO2 and HR were continuously measured. VO2 max, TMW and % MTP were significantly higher in T than in U subjects. The E subjects show the highest values of those parameters. TMW and TEE were well correlated (r = 0.992, p less than 0.001, n = 43) indicating good efficiency. TMW in T (r = 0.453) and in E men (r = 0.442) were however less well correlated to the VO2 max. MIE45 therefore gives different information in the evaluation of "endurance capacity" at the time of measurement than that provided by VO2 max. Because of the high TEE per session it could be useful for endurance training of T and U subjects.
Petrov, Mikhail A.; Kosatchyov, Nikolay V.; Petrov, Pavel A.
The paper represents the results of the study concerning the investigation of the influence of the filling grade (material density) on the force characteristic during the uniaxial compression test of the cylindrical polymer probes produced by additive technology based on FDM. The authors have shown that increasing of the filling grate follows to the increase of the deformation forces. However, the dependency is not a linear function and characterized by soft-elastic model of material behaviour, which is typical for polymers partly crystallized structure.
Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.
During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.
Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie; Chang, Sungwon
The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing. The present study used a cross-sectional survey design undertaken at a large tertiary institution in Western Sydney (Australia) between May and August 2013. It comprised three distinct and sequential phases: (i) items were generated representing the four dimensions of the theory of planned behaviour; (ii) face and content validity were tested by a representative reference group and panel of experts; and (iii) survey data from 1109 first- and second-year and 619 third-year students were used in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the scale. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Items generated for the ASPIRE scale were subject to face and content validity testing. Results showed good factorial validity and reliability for the final 14-item scale. Principal axis factoring revealed a one-factor solution, the hypothesized model being supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The ASPIRE scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing among Bachelor of Nursing students.
Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.
Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Mittal, Susheel K; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar
Impact of agriculture crop-residue burning (ACRB) was studied on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 50 healthy subjects (13-53 years). Human subjects with no previous history of lung disease were residents of five sampling sites. Investigations were carried out from February 2007 to January 2010 using spirometry. Simultaneously, concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) and fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored using high volume sampler and Anderson Cascade Impactor, respectively. The PFTs show a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, while PM shows momentous increase during exhaustive burning of wheat and rice crop residues. Effect of ACRB on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) is more than that on force expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). The PEF and FEF25-75% recovered to some extent on completion of burning period, while PFTs like force vital capacity and force expiratory volume did not show a significant improvement. Due to greater concentration of fine particulates during rice crop-residue burning (CRB) than wheat CRB, there was a greater effect on pulmonary functions. The ACRB, in general, poses more effect on the lower and upper age groups in comparison to the middle age group subjects. All the analyses are well supported with large significant levels (p < 0.05) obtained by using the paired t-test.
Gallegos, J. J.
A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.
Zapata, Brian Jarvis
As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations
intense erythema 4 a. erythema with edema b. dry scaling of scrotum c. maceration of axillary skin 5 a. vesicle b. numerous pinpoint vesicles c. crusting... skin reaction following exposure to H vapor in the man-chamber are discussed. Eight kodachrone prints, illustrating pertinent features, are included...Reactions for a Given Test Dose - 12 F. Changes in Threshold ------------------ 12 G. Abnormal Skin Reactions Following Chamber Exposures to H Vapor
Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank
The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.
Dourado, Victor Zuniga; Guerra, Ricardo Luís Fernandes; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Antunes, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira; Godoy, Irma
OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated 103 healthy participants ≥ 40 years of age (54 women and 49 men). We fitted each participant with a gas analysis system for use during the ISWT. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, heart rate (HR), ISWD, and maximal walking velocity (MWV) were obtained as primary outcomes. We also assessed hand grip strength (HGS) and lean body mass (LBM). RESULTS: The regression analysis models, including physiological variables, ISWD, and MWV (adjusted for age, body mass, height, and sex), produced R2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.65 (for HR and peak VO2, respectively). Using the models including LBM or HGS, we obtained no significant increase in the R2 values for predicting peak VO2, although the use of those models did result in slight increases in the R2 values for ISWD and MWV (of 8% and 12%, respectively). The variables ISWD, MWV, and ISWD × body mass, respectively, explained 76.7%, 73.3%, and 81.2% of peak VO2 variability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide reference values for ISWD and physiological responses to the ISWT, which can be properly estimated by determining simple demographic and anthropometric characteristics in healthy adults ≥ 40 years of age. The ISWT could be used in assessing physical fitness in the general adult population and in designing individualized walking programs. PMID:23670504
Gentile, S; Marmo, R; Costume, A; Orlando, C; D'Alessandro, R; De Bellis, G; Porcellini, M; Coltorti, M
In 9 healthy subjects we evaluated the effect of a constant ranitidine infusion (100 mg) on glucose (mg/dl), insulin (microU/ml) and C-peptide (ng/ml) serum levels promoted by oral glucose tolerance test (75 g). Ranitidine significantly increased the area under concentration/time curves for glucose and insulin but not that of C-peptide. Our data indicate that ranitidine does not affect pancreatic insulin release nor peripheral glucose utilization and are consistent with the hypothesis that ranitidine influences the hepatic clearance of glucose and insulin both of which undergo high first-pass liver extraction.
Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A
The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6). In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7). Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01). The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).
Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.
Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.
Colahan, Patrick T; Bailey, James E; Chou, Chi-Chung; Johnson, Martha; Rice, Brett L; Jones, Galin L; Cheeks, Joseph P
Twelve clinically sound, healthy, athletically conditioned Thoroughbred horses were subjected to an incremental exercise stress test to determine the effects and period of detection of a single dose of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg by intravenous injection) in serum and urine by ELISA. Flunixin concentrations, performance, and hematologic and clinical chemical parameters were measured. All horses were rotated through four treatment groups of a Latin-square design providing for each horse to serve as its own control. Flunixin meglumine reduced prostaglandin F(1alpha) and thromboxane concentrations that had been increased by intense exercise. Performance parameters did not improve and prostaglandin concentrations did not significantly correlate with total run time. Exercise did not change the flunixin elimination profile in either serum or urine, and concentrations were found to be below the detection limit of the ELISA test within 36 hours in serum and 120 hours in urine.
Watanabe, Hiroki; Horita, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ota, Erika; Kaneko, Takeshi
Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic dissection (AAD) has not been evaluated by meta-analysis with the bivariate model methodology. Four databases were electrically searched. We included both case-control and cohort studies that could provide sufficient data concerning both sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for AAD. Non-English language articles and conference abstract were allowed. Intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer were regarded as AAD. Based on 22 eligible articles consisting of 1140 AAD subjects and 3860 non-AAD subjects, the diagnostic odds ratio was 28.5 (95% CI 17.6–46.3, I2 = 17.4%) and the area under curve was 0.946 (95% CI 0.903–0.994). Based on 833 AAD subjects and 1994 non-AAD subjects constituting 12 studies that used the cutoff value of 500 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 0.952 (95% CI 0.901–0.978), the specificity was 0.604 (95% CI 0.485–0.712), positive likelihood ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.8–3.3), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.079 (95% CI 0.036–0.172). Sensitivity analysis using data of three high-quality studies almost replicated these results. In conclusion, D-dimer has very good overall accuracy. D-dimer <500 ng/ml largely decreases the possibility of AAD. D-dimer >500 ng/ml moderately increases the possibility of AAD. PMID:27230962
A comparative evaluation of whole blood total antioxidant capacity using a novel nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test in patients with periodontitis and healthy subjects: A randomized, controlled trial.
Konuganti, Kranti; Seshan, Hema; Zope, Sameer; Silvia, Wilma Delphine
The investigation of disease-related oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is difficult due to the limited availability of specific biomarkers of oxidative stress, and the fact that measurement of individual antioxidant may give misleading picture because antioxidants work in concert through chain breaking reactions. Therefore, analysis of total antioxidant capacity may be the most relevant investigation. As the total blood is continuously exposed to oxidative stress, the aim of the current study was to investigate total blood antioxidant capacity in healthy and periodontitis patients by using novel Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction test. The study was conducted on 30 non-smoking volunteers with age ranging between 18-40 years. They were categorized into two groups; chronic periodontitis group and healthy group, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity in whole blood was assessed using Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction test. Results of the present study has shown that the total antioxidant capacity in whole blood in patients with periodontitis was significantly (P<0.005) lower than in control subjects. The reduced total blood antioxidant status in periodontitis subjects warrants further investigation as it may provide a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and several other free radical-associated chronic inflammatory diseases.
Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Gupta, Deepali
The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of ondansetron on the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice for behavioral and biochemical alterations using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Animals were fed with high fat diet for 14 weeks and subjected to different stress procedures for 4 weeks. Treatment with ondansetron was started on day 15. After day 28 behavioral assays and biochemical estimations were performed. Behavioral paradigms viz. sucrose preference test, locomotor score, forced swim test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM), whereas biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were estimated. Results examines that in behavioral assays, ondansetron significantly (P < 0.05) increased sucrose consumption, reduced immobility time in FST, increased the percent entries and time in open arm in EPM. In biochemical assessments elevated plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by ondansetron treatment in HFD obese animals subjected to CUMS. The study indicates that the obese mice subjected to CUMS exhibited severe depressive-like symptoms and ondansetron significantly reversed the behavioral and biochemical alterations. In the present study the plasma glucose level indicates that, it could be "altered glucose level" playing an important role in depression co-morbid with obesity. Ondansetron through allosteric modulation of serotonergic system elevates the serotonin level and thereby regulates the insulin secretion and hence, reversing the "altered glucose level", could be the possible antidepressive-like mechanism against depression co-morbid with obesity.
Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola
A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588
CALIXTRE, Letícia Bojikian; GRÜNINGER, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; HAIK, Melina Nevoeiro; ALBURQUERQUE-SENDÍN, Francisco; OLIVEIRA, Ana Beatriz
ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program based on cervical mobilization and exercise on clinical signs and mandibular function in subjects with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Material and Methods: Single-group pre-post test, with baseline comparison. Subjects Twelve women (22.08±2.23 years) with myofascial pain and mixed TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Outcome measures Subjects were evaluated three times: twice before (baseline phase) and once after intervention. Self-reported pain, jaw function [according to the Mandibular Functional Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ)], pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of both masseter and temporalis muscles were obtained. Baseline and post-intervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen’s d coefficient. Results Jaw function improved 7 points on the scale after the intervention (P=0.019), and self-reported pain was significantly reduced (P=0.009). Pain-free MMO varied from 32.3±8.8 mm to 38±8.8 mm and showed significant improvement (P=0.017) with moderate effect size when compared to the baseline phase. PPT also increased with moderate effect size, and subjects had the baseline values changed from 1.23±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left masseter (P=0.03), from 1.31±0.28 kg/cm2 to 1.51±0.2 kg/cm2 in the right masseter (P>0.05), from 1.32±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.46±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left temporalis (P=0.047), and from 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.67±0.3 kg/cm2 in the right temporalis (P=0.06). Conclusions The protocol caused significant changes in pain-free MMO, self-reported pain, and functionality of the stomatognathic system in subjects with myofascial TMD, regardless of joint involvement. Even though these differences are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is still questionable. PMID:27383698
Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji
Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p < 0.01). Despite similar BSPs in all age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.
Sampath, Smita; Klimas, Michael; Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Manigbas, Elaine; Liang, Ai-Leng; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Chin, Chih-Liang
Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF). Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs), that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV) systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC) imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR) ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR) ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain-rate, diastolic E
Basirudeen, S; Rajasekaran, S; Alamelu, R
We aimed to compare the positivity of the QuantiFERON TB gold in-tube (QFT-IT antigens) specific Interferon gamma (IFN-γ/QFT-IT) and IFN-γ nducible protein-10 (IP-10/QFT-IT) assays with tuberculin skin test (TST) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a TB endemic setting. A total of 180 HIV infected subjects, with no evidence of active TB were recruited. IFN-γ nd IP-10 levels specific to QFT-IT antigens were measured in plasma from QFT-IT tubes. The overall positivity of TST at 5mm cut-off point (19%) was significantly lower when compared to IFN-γ/QFT-IT (38%) and IP-10/QFT-IT (45%) assays. The positivity of IP-10/QFT-IT was significantly higher than IFN-γ/QFT-IT (p=0.038). Indeterminate results for IFN-γ/QFT-IT and IP-10/QFT-IT were more frequent in subjects with CD4 count <100 cells/µl, than those with >100 cells/µl. IFN-γ/QFT-IT (9%) yielded significantly higher number of indeterminate results than IP-10/QFT-IT (5%). The frequency of these responses is higher than the proportion of individuals with positive TST results. However, 6 IFN-γ/QFT-IT or IP-10/QFT-IT negative subjects were positive for TST at 5mm cut-off point. Prospective and prognostic studies are required to clarify the significance of these data. PMID:21996360
Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława
Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.
Schileo, Enrico; Taddei, Fulvia; Cristofolini, Luca; Viceconti, Marco
No agreement on the choice of the failure criterion to adopt for the bone tissue can be found in the literature among the finite element studies aiming at predicting fracture risk of bones. The use of stress-based criteria seems to prevail on strain-based ones, while basic bone biomechanics suggest using strain parameters to describe failure. The aim of the present combined experimental-numerical study was to verify, using subject-specific finite element models able to accurately predict strains, if a strain-based failure criterion could identify the failure patterns of bones. Three cadaver femurs were CT-scanned and subsequently fractured in a clinically relevant single-stance loading scenario. Load-displacement curves and high-speed movies were acquired to define the failure load and the location of fracture onset, respectively. Subject-specific finite element models of the three femurs were built from CT data following a validated procedure. A maximum principal strain criterion was implemented in the finite element models, and two stress-based criteria selected for comparison. The failure loads measured were applied to the models, and the computed risks of fracture were compared to the results of the experimental tests. The proposed principal strain criterion managed to correctly identify the level of failure risk and the location of fracture onset in all the modelled specimens, while Von Mises or maximum principal stress criteria did not give significant information. A maximum principal strain criterion can thus be defined a suitable candidate for the in vivo risk factor assessment on long bones.
Schnell, Knut; Heekeren, Karsten; Schnitker, Ralf; Daumann, Jörg; Weber, Jochen; Hesselmann, Volker; Möller-Hartmann, Walter; Thron, Armin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne
Contemporary theories of motor control assume that motor actions underlie a supervisory control system which utilizes reafferent sensory feedbacks of actions for comparison with the original motor programs. The functional network of visuomotor action monitoring is considered to include inferior parietal, lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. To study both sustained monitoring for visuomotor incongruence and the actual detection of incongruence, we used a hybrid fMRI epoch-/event-related design. The basic experimental task was a continuous motor task, comprising a simple racing game. Within certain blocks of this task, incongruence was artificially generated by intermittent takeover of control over the car by the computer. Fifteen male subjects were instructed to monitor for incongruence between their own and the observed actions in order to abstain from their own action whenever the computer took over control. As a result of both sustained monitoring and actual detection of visuomotor incongruence, the rostral inferior parietal lobule displayed a BOLD signal increase. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited two different activation patterns. Dorsolateral (BA 9/46) and medial/cingulate (BA 8, BA 32) areas of the PFC displayed a greater increase of activation in sustained monitoring, while ventrolateral PFC showed greater event-related activation for the actual detection of visuomotor incongruence. Our results suggest that the rostral inferior parietal lobule is specifically involved in the reafferent comparison of the test subjects' own actions and visually perceived actions. Different activation patterns of the PFC may reflect different frontoparietal networks for sustained action monitoring and actual detection of reafferent incongruence.
Mangileva, T A
Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p < 0.05) and dynamic changes of HRV after glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p < 0.05). Changes in vegetative nervous system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p < 0.05), which at that moment were higher than in patients with high normal BP (p < 0.05). Fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations and glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p < 0.05). In both groups positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR were observed (r1 = 0.70 & r2 = 0.78). Subjects with optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP.
Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise
Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families.
Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M
Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P < 0.001). Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.
Hummel, T; Kobal, G; Gudziol, H; Mackay-Sim, A
"Sniffin' Sticks" is a test of nasal chemosensory function that is based on pen-like odor dispensing devices, introduced some 10 years ago by Kobal and co-workers. It consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. Previous work established its test-retest reliability and validity. Results of the test are presented as "TDI score", the sum of results obtained for threshold, discrimination, and identification measures. While normative data have been established they are based on a relatively small number of subjects, especially with regard to subjects older than 55 years where data from only 30 healthy subjects have been used. The present study aimed to remedy this situation. Now data are available from 3,282 subjects as compared to data from 738 subjects published previously. Disregarding sex-related differences, the TDI score at the tenth percentile was 24.9 in subjects younger than 15 years, 30.3 for ages from 16 to 35 years, 27.3 for ages from 36 to 55 years, and 19.6 for subjects older than 55 years. Because the tenth percentile has been defined to separate hyposmia from normosmia, these data can be used as a guide to estimate individual olfactory ability in relation to subject's age. Absolute hyposmia was defined as the tenth percentile score of 16-35 year old subjects. Other than previous reports the present norms are also sex-differentiated with women outperforming men in the three olfactory tests. Further, the present data suggest specific changes of individual olfactory functions in relation to age, with odor thresholds declining most dramatically compared to odor discrimination and odor identification.
It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.
Agostinho, Claudia Maria Santos; Scherens, Andrea; Richter, Helmut; Schaub, Claudia; Rolke, Roman; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Maier, Christoph
We investigated habituation effects during thermal quantitative sensory testing (tQST) using 8 repetitive measurements for thermal detection and pain thresholds. The same measurements were repeated two days later. 39 healthy subjects and 36 patients with chronic non-neuropathic pain syndromes (migraine, tension-type headache, non-radicular back pain) were enrolled. The pain intensity was assessed using an 11-point (0-10) numerical rating scale. Measurements correlated significantly over the two days in both groups (r=0.41...0.62). Warm detection (WDT) and heat pain threshold (HPT) revealed no significant differences over these days. Cold detection (CDT) and pain thresholds (CPT) showed significant differences but these were small compared to the range of normal variability (CDTDelta -0.28 degrees C; CPTDelta 1.51 degrees C). On both days, WDT showed no habituation during measurements. Although there was a small difference in CDT and CPT between first and second measurement, there was no habituation beyond the second stimuli. In contrast, HPT significantly increased between first and sixth stimuli, indicating pronounced habituation. Average HPT of first to third measurement was significantly lower than HPT of the fourth to sixth assessment (45.9 degrees C; 47.7 degrees C) with a good day-to-day repeatability. Repeatability and habituation was identical in both groups. Ongoing pain intensity in the patient groups correlated significantly with CDT/WDT but not with CPT, HPT, indicating that ongoing pain might suppress the sensitivity to non-painful stimuli. In summary, tQST proved a reliable diagnostic tool for clinical practice. Day-to-day differences were small but without clinical relevance. Habituation was most pronounced for HPT, probably due to peripheral fatigue of the receptors.
Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Theakston, Anna L.
One of the most influential recent accounts of pronoun case-marking errors in young children's speech is Schutze & Wexler's (1996) Agreement/Tense Omission Model (ATOM). The ATOM predicts that the rate of agreeing verbs with non-nominative subjects will be so low that such errors can be reasonably disregarded as noise in the data. The present…
... over each 1-hour period. 2. Each new and existing sulfur recovery unit: Option 2 (TRS limit). a. Select... percent excess air.sa Equation 1 of § 63.1568. h. Establish each operating limit in Table 30 of this... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards...
... over each 1-hour period. 2. Each new and existing sulfur recovery unit: Option 2 (TRS limit). a. Select... percent excess air.sa Equation 1 of § 63.1568. h. Establish each operating limit in Table 30 of this... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards...
... over each 1-hour period. 2. Each new and existing sulfur recovery unit: Option 2 (TRS limit). a. Select... percent excess air.sa Equation 1 of § 63.1568. h. Establish each operating limit in Table 30 of this... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards...
... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards for Sulfur Oxides 32 Table 32 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt....
Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P
The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.
Edwards, Aretha Hargrove
The purpose of this study was to examine Mississippi Delta area public high school counselors' and principals' perception of the impact of SATP2 testing on counselors' services to students in order to determine whether or not testing responsibilities have an adverse effect on counselors' delivery of services to students. This study was similar to…
Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz
In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…
Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy
Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.
The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.
Buckalew, W.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.
As part of the ongoing joint NRC/CEA cooperative test program to investigate the relative effectiveness of beta and gamma irradiation to produce damage in polymer base materials, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) specimens, in slab geometry, were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays and accelerator produced electron beams. Specimens were irradiated and evaluated at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). These tests included several electron beam energies, sample thicknesses, exposure doses, and dose rates. Based on changes in the tensile properties, of the test specimens, results of these studies suggest that material damage resulting from electron and gamma irradiations can be correlated on the basis of absorbed radiation dose.
Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A
A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record
Leutenegger, Ralph R.
The phonetic transcription ability of 78 college students whose transcription instruction was administered by means of pre-programed Language Master cards was compared with that of 81 students whose instruction was non-automated. Ability was measured by seven weekly tests. There was no significant relationship on any of 29 variables with type of…
Background Potential methods of application of self-administered Web-based pure-tone audiometry conducted at home on a PC with a sound card and ordinary headphones depend on the value of measurement error in such tests. Objective The aim of this research was to determine the measurement error of the hearing threshold determined in the way described above and to identify and analyze factors influencing its value. Methods The evaluation of the hearing threshold was made in three series: (1) tests on a clinical audiometer, (2) self-tests done on a specially calibrated computer under the supervision of an audiologist, and (3) self-tests conducted at home. The research was carried out on the group of 51 participants selected from patients of an audiology outpatient clinic. From the group of 51 patients examined in the first two series, the third series was self-administered at home by 37 subjects (73%). Results The average difference between the value of the hearing threshold determined in series 1 and in series 2 was -1.54dB with standard deviation of 7.88dB and a Pearson correlation coefficient of .90. Between the first and third series, these values were -1.35dB±10.66dB and .84, respectively. In series 3, the standard deviation was most influenced by the error connected with the procedure of hearing threshold identification (6.64dB), calibration error (6.19dB), and additionally at the frequency of 250Hz by frequency nonlinearity error (7.28dB). Conclusions The obtained results confirm the possibility of applying Web-based pure-tone audiometry in screening tests. In the future, modifications of the method leading to the decrease in measurement error can broaden the scope of Web-based pure-tone audiometry application. PMID:23583917
Flexion (Top), Extension (Middle), and Lateral Bending (Bottom) 27 2.7 Typical EMG and Force Results from Isometric Strength Tests 28 3.1 MVMA-2D...60.5 degrees respectively aE measured from the Frankfort Plane position. Reflex times were similar for flexion, extension, and lateral bend , being 53.5...ztrengths were in extension where the average is about 33% yrcater than in flexion or lateral bend . Where appropriate, these measurement results for 5
Loomba, Rohit S; Danduran, Michael; Nielsen, Kim G; Ring, Astrid M; Kovach, Joshua; Anderson, Robert H
Isomerism, also known as heterotaxy, is a clinical entity that impacts multiple organ systems both anatomically and functionally. The airways and lungs are involved in a great number of these patients, leading to increased sinopulmonary symptoms, increased need for oxygenation, and increased postoperative ventilatory support. Additionally, these patients often have congenital heart disease requiring Fontan palliation. What has not been previously described, and is the focus of this study, is the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in those who have undergone Fontan palliation with and without isomerism. We have now compared these finding with those from patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia, as many patients with isomerism have ciliary dyskinesia. We identified patients having the Fontan circulation with and without isomerism who had undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comparing the findings from healthy individuals undergoing exercise, and a comparable number of individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia but no congenital heart disease. We were able to include a total of 68 patients in our study, with 17 in each of the four groups. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing yielded the best results in healthy patients. All patients with the Fontan circulation demonstrated mixed pulmonary disease, although those with isomerism had greater FVC and FEV1. Exercise times did not differ, although peak consumption of oxygen was greater in those with isomerism. Those with ciliary dyskinesia had only obstructive pulmonary disease and had the lowest FEF25-75 between all groups. Those with isomerism had a lesser degree of obstructive pulmonary disease when compared to those with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Patients with the Fontan circulation with and without isomerism have relatively subtle differences in their cardiopulmonary exercise testing, with both groups demonstrating restrictive lung disease. In regard to obstructive lung disease, those with isomerism tend
Paungmali, Aatit; Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Taneyhill, Khanittha; Pirunsan, Ubon; Uthaikhup, Sureeporn
Purpose This preliminary study aimed to determine the intrarater reliability of the quantitative tests for the study of non-specific low back pain. Methods Test-retest reliability of the measurements of ratio data was determined by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurements (SEMs), coefficient of variation (CV), and one-way repeated measures ANOVA using the values collected from 13 young individuals (25.8 ± 6.2 years) with chronic non-specific low back pain on two occasions separated by 2 days. Percent agreement of the ordinal data was also determined by Cohen's Kappa statistics (kappa). The measures consisted of tissue blood flow (BF), average pain visual analog scales (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT) and lumbo-pelvic stability test (LPST). An acceptable reliability was determined as the ICC values of greater than 0.85, SEMs less than 5%, CV less than 15%, the kappa scores of greater than 80% and no evidence of systematic error (ANOVA, P>0.05). Results ICC of all measures in the lumbo-sacral area were greater than 0.87. The kappa was also greater than 83%. Most measures demonstrated a minimal error of measurements and less potential of systemic error in nature. Only the SEMs and the CV of the CPT exceeded the acceptable level. Conclusions It is concluded that most of the quantitative measurements are reliable for the study of non-specific low back pain, however the CPT should be applied with care as it has a great variation among individuals and potential of measurement error. PMID:22461960
Avram, G; Zavate, O; Combiescu, A A; Perşu, A; Ivan, A; Constantiniu, S; Pancu, V; Popovici, S; Boghean, T; Nicola, P
The rotaviral antigen was detected by a screening test using the ELISA-IC kit in 17.6% out of 415 children with acute gastroenteritis. The highest frequency (28.9%) was found in children hospitalized in pediatric services with a diagnosis of diarrhoeic disease associated to acute respiratory infection. The rotavirus infection incidence was about three times higher during the cold season than during summer (30.4% versus 10.5%). The 6-11 month age group was the most severely affected.
Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.
Riad, A M; Elminir, Hamdy K; Own, Hala S; Azzam, Yosry A
This work presents the applicability of applying a fuzzy logic approach to the calculation of noontime erythemal UV irradiance for the plain areas of Egypt. When different combinations of data sets were examined from the test performance point of view, it was found that 91% of the whole series was estimated within a deviation of less than +/-10 mW/m(2), and 9% of these deviations lay within the range of +/-15 mW/m(2) to +/-25 mW/m(2).
Background In humans, corticospinal excitability is known to increase following motor electrical stimulation (ES) designed to mimic a voluntary contraction. However, whether the effect is equivalent with different application durations and whether similar effects are apparent for short and long applications is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the duration of peripheral motor ES influenced its effect on corticospinal excitability. Methods The excitability of the corticomotor pathway to abductor pollicis brevis (APB) was measured in fourteen health subjects using transcranial magnetic stimulation before, immediately after and 10 minutes after three different durations (20-, 40-, 60-min) of motor ES (30Hz, ramped). This intervention was designed to mimic a voluntary contraction in APB. To control for effects of motor ES on the peripheral elements (muscle fibre, membrane, neuromuscular junction), maximum compound muscle actions potentials (M-waves) were also recorded at each time point. Results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Peripheral excitability was reduced following all three motor ES interventions. Conversely, corticospinal excitability was increased immediately following 20- and 40-min applications of motor ES and this increase was maintained at least 20-min following the intervention. A 60-min application of motor ES did not alter corticospinal excitability. Conclusions A 20-min application of motor ES that is designed to mimic voluntary muscle contraction is as effective as that applied for 40-min when the aim of the intervention is to increase corticospinal excitability. Longer motor ES durations of 60-min do not influence corticospinal excitability, possibly as a result of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. PMID:23758902
Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.
Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708
Muffels, Ruud; Headey, Bruce
In Sen's Capability Approach (CA) well-being can be defined as the freedom of choice to achieve the things in life which one has reason to value most for his or her personal life. Capabilities are in Sen's vocabulary therefore the real freedoms people have or the opportunities available to them. In this paper we examine the impact of capabilities alongside choices on well-being. There is a lot of theoretical work on Sen's capability framework but still a lack of empirical research in measuring and testing his capability model especially in a dynamic perspective. The contribution of the paper is first to test Sen's theoretical CA approach empirically using 25 years of German and 18 years of British data. Second, to examine to what extent the capability approach can explain long-term changes in well-being and third to view the impact on subjective as well as objective well-being in two clearly distinct welfare states. Three measures of well-being are constructed: life satisfaction for subjective well-being and relative income and employment security for objective well-being. We ran random and fixed effects GLS models. The findings strongly support Sen's capabilities framework and provide evidence on the way capabilities, choices and constraints matter for objective and subjective well-being. Capabilities pertaining to human capital, trust, altruism and risk taking, and choices to family, work-leisure, lifestyle and social behaviour show to strongly affect long-term changes in subjective and objective well-being though in a different way largely depending on the type of well-being measure used.
Pascoe, Michelle; Norman, Vivienne
In this editorial introduction we aim to explore the notion of contextually relevant resources. We argue that it is the responsibility of speech-language therapists (SLTs) and audiologists (As) working in South Africa to develop contextually relevant resources, and not to rely on the countries or cultures where the professions originated to do so. Language is often cited as the main barrier to contextually relevant resources: most SLTs and As are aware of the need for more resources in the local languages. However, the issue is not as straightforward as translating resources from English into other languages. The challenges related to culture, e.g. formal education and familiarity with the test situation, have to be considered, as well as the population on which norms were obtained and the nature of vocabulary or picture items. This paper introduces four original research papers that follow in this edition of the journal, and showcases them as examples of innovative development in our field. At the same time we call for the further development of assessment materials, intervention resources, and contributions to the evidence base in our context. We emphasise the importance of local knowledge to drive the development of these resources in innovative and perhaps unexpected ways, and suggest that all clinicians have an important role to play in this process.
Münstedt, Karsten; Sheybani, Babak; Hauenschild, Annette; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Winter, Daniel
Studies suggest that honey has less influence on serum glucose concentrations than monosaccharides and disaccharides. This study aimed to confirm these findings conclusively by comparing directly the effects of honey, an identical sugar solution, and oral glucose tolerance (OGT) test solution on serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men with a mean age of 27.7 years, a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2), and no history of metabolic disorders participated in the study. Subjects underwent OGT testing to establish values and exclude preclinical diabetes. One week later they were randomly assigned to basswood honey or a glucose-fructose solution (honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution). The following week subjects were given the other solution. All solutions contained 75 g of glucose. Serum glucose was measured before drinking test solutions and every 10 minutes for 120 minutes afterwards. C-peptide and insulin were measured at 60 and 120 minutes. Serum insulin and C-peptide values at 60 minutes were significantly lower for honey. The mean serum glucose concentration was also lower for honey, but direct comparisons at the various times showed no statistically significant differences between solutions. However, the area under the concentration-time profile for glucose response was lower for the honey than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Honey had less effect on serum glucose, C-peptide, and insulin values than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Further study to elucidate underlying mechanisms may be worthwhile, as may investigation of the implications of these findings for diabetic patients.
Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A
Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).
Fulton, Robert T., Ed.; And Others
Directed to professionals with a basic knowledge of audiological principles, the text presents a review of audiological assessment procedures and their applicability to the retarded. Pure-tone, speech, and Bekesy audiometry are described. Also discussed are differential diagnosis of auditory impairments, conditioning and audiological assessment,…
I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…
This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…
Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Baldini, Alberto; Pavoni, Chiara; Bollero, Patrizio; Cozza, Paola
Summary Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of consecutive subjects. Materials and methods TMDs were recorded in a sample of 580 subjects (279 M, 301 F; mean age: 13.4y). For each subject a case history was compiled to evaluate the social and demographic parameters. An extraoral exam was effected to point out the face proportions, and an intraoral exam was performed to analyze dental occlusion, mandibular deviation during opening, presence of cross-bites, overjet and overbite. A functional exam was carried out to evaluate mandibular movements and to find joint sounds and myofascial pain. The sample was divided into 6 groups according to the: gender, age (ages 6y–11y and 12y–16y), Angle Dental Class, cross-bite, midline deviation and chewing side. For this investigation latex gloves, a millimeter calipers (precision 0,01 mm) and a phonendoscope were used. The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the ?2-test with Yates correction to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMDs, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain. Results The prevalence of TMDs in the total sample was 13,9%. Among 6y–11y subjects the percentage of TMD was 7,3% while it was 16,1% among 12y–16y subjects (?2=1.634;; p=0.201). Females showed a percentage of 16,6% of TMDs while males one of 10,8% (?2=0.556;; p=0.456). According to angle malocclusion, the prevalence was 14% in subjects with Class I malocclusion, 15% in sample with Class II and 9% in patients with Class III (?2=0.540;; p=0.763). According to presence or absence of crossbite, prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was 13,8% among subjects without crossbite and 14,3% among subjects with crossbite, with no significant difference between the two subgroups (?2= 0,047619;; p=0.050). In relation of midline deviation, prevalence of TMDs was 15% in subjects without deviation, 15,8% in functional deviation
Since 1945, a method of catalog classification, originally devised by H.W. Eppelsheimer for the Mainz City Library, has found wide acceptance. It is a complex of catalogs which combines features of both subject classification and alphabetical subject indexing. (25 references) (Author/NH)
MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY
The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169
Monini, S; Filippi, C; Atturo, F; Biagini, M; Lazzarino, A I; Barbara, M
Trans-cutaneous bone conduction (BC) stimulators, when coupled to the HB (BC-HB), are generally used to predict the results that could be achieved after bone conductive implant (BCI) surgery, and their performance is generally considered inferior to that provided by the definitive percutaneous system. The aim of the present study was to compare the performances between BC-HB and BCI of the same typology, when the former's sound processor is fitted in accordance to the individual auditory situation. Twenty-two patients selected for surgical application of a BCI were evaluated and the same audiological protocol was used to select the candidate and assess the final outcome. The BC-HB was properly fitted based on individual hearing loss and personal auditory targets, and tested as primary step of the protocol to obtain the most reliable predictive value. The BAHA Divino and BP100 sound processors were applied in 12 patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss (CMHL) and in 10 subjects with single sided deafness (SSD). Audiometric evaluation included the pure tone average (PTA3) threshold between 250-1000 Hz; the PTA thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz; intelligibility scores as percentage of word recognition (WRS) in quiet and in noise; and subjective evaluation of perceived sound quality by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation with a student's t test was used for assessment of efficacy of BC-HB and BCI compared with the unaided condition. Spearman's Rho coefficient was used to confirm the reliability of the BC-HB simulation test as a predictor of definitive outcome. The results showed that the mean PTA difference between BCI and BC-HB ranged from 2.54 to 8.27 decibels in the CMHL group and from 1.27 to 3.9 decibels in the SSD group. Compared with the BC-HB, BCI showed a better WRS both in CMHL (16% in quiet and 12% in noise) and in SSD (5% in quiet and a 1% in noise) groups. Spearman's Rho coefficient, calculated for PTA, WRS in quiet and in noise and VAS
Chang, Chia-Yuan; Rupp, Jonathan D; Reed, Matthew P; Hughes, Richard E; Schneider, Lawrence W
In a previous study, the authors reported on the development of a finite-element model of the midsize male pelvis and lower extremities with lower-extremity musculature that was validated using PMHS knee-impact response data. Knee-impact simulations with this model were performed using forces from four muscles in the lower extremities associated with two-foot bracing reported in the literature to provide preliminary estimates of the effects of lower-extremity muscle activation on knee-thigh-hip injury potential in frontal impacts. The current study addresses a major limitation of these preliminary simulations by using the AnyBody three-dimensional musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle forces produced in 35 muscles in each lower extremity during emergency one-foot braking. To check the predictions of the AnyBody Model, activation levels of twelve major muscles in the hip and lower extremities were measured using surface EMG electrodes on 12 midsize-male subjects performing simulated maximum and 50% of maximum braking in a laboratory seating buck. Comparisons between test results and the predictions of the AnyBody Model when it was used to simulate these same braking tests suggest that the AnyBody model appropriately predicts agonistic muscle activations but under predicts antagonistic muscle activations. Simulations of knee-to-knee-bolster impacts were performed by impacting the knees of the lower-extremity finite element model with and without the muscle forces predicted by the validated AnyBody Model. Results of these simulations confirm previous findings that muscle tension increases knee-impact force by increasing the effective mass of the KTH complex due to tighter coupling of muscle mass to bone. They also indicate that muscle activation preferentially couples mass distal to the hip, thereby accentuating the decrease in femur force from the knee to the hip. However, the reduction in force transmitted from the knee to the hip is offset by the increased force
Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi
We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375
Salami, A; Guglielmetti, G; Bindi, G F; Dellepiane, M
The relative lack of data on the dynamic posturography led us to start a study in order to give our contributions to the standardization of M1, M2, M3, response parameters in normal subjects. Our research was carried out on 35 normal subjects aged 21 to 50. All of them were standing in Romberg's position on a Tönnies model board in a normally lit and ventilated room. We performed two tests: the first one open-eyed staring at no point, the second, 5 minutes later, closed-eyed. The EMG signals were obtained by surface electrodes on triceps sural and front tibial muscles. The EMG recording was determined by a "tilt" movement of the board at a steady speed of 50 per sec. and 4 wide. We use a XT 286 IBM computer with "T POST" software for checking and testing the data. Our results showed a significant variation in the value of the duration parameter in open-eyed and closed-eyed tests. Latency and area values were inferior to those obtained by other authors, except for Diener and Dichgans (3) whose results differ in latency value only.
Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.
Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.
Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)
Cho, Misook Kim; Apple, Michael W.
Analyzes the ways in which administrators, teachers, and students in two commercial high schools responded to the educational policies and work subjectivities that were articulated by the dominant faction in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and that resulted from the concern about the lack of manual workers in the country. (CMK)
Zeng, F G; Martino, K M; Linthicum, F H; Soli, S D
The auditory efferent nerve is a feedback pathway that originates in the brainstem and projects to the inner ear. Although the anatomy and physiology of efferents have been rather thoroughly described, their functional roles in auditory perception are still not clear. Here, we report data in six human subjects who had undergone vestibular neurectomy, during which their efferent nerves were also presumably severed. The surgery had alleviated these subjects' vertigo but also resulted in mild to moderate hearing loss. We designed our experiments with a focus on the possible role of efferents in anti-masking. Consistent with previous studies, we found little effects of vestibular neurectomy on pure-tone detection and discrimination in quiet. However, we noted several new findings in all subjects tested. Efferent section increased loudness sensation (one subject), reduced overshoot effect (five subjects), accentuated 'the midlevel hump' in forward masking (two subjects), and worsened intensity discrimination in noise (four subjects). Poorer speech in noise recognition was also observed in the surgery ear than the non-surgery ear in three out of four subjects tested, but this finding was confounded by hearing loss. The present results suggest an active role of efferents in auditory perception in noise.
McCarty, Robbie V.
Introduces an activity for fifth grade elementary students on water, cohesion, and adhesion. Provides a list of necessary materials and includes a checklist for performance based assessment. Recommends follow up experiments for testing cohesive property with different liquids. (YDS)
Novella, Enric J
This article reviews the project of capturing, describing and cataloging subjective experiences as the constitutive and founding event of psychiatric knowledge. To substantiate this view, it provides first a look at the origins (and problems) of psychiatric semiology in the pioneering work of Philippe Pinel. Afterwards, it describes some of the resources used by his successors in order to gain access to the madman's inner world, expose the folds of his intimacy and enhance the scope of the psychopathological gaze and the semiological repertoire of psychological medicine. And finally it discusses the contraposition between the practice of the gaze and the practice of listening carried out by psychiatrists as a significant correlate of an epistemic culture obsessed with gaze, but whose very eagerness to take the human being as an object of inquiry in its double physical and moral condition doomed it to cultivate listening.
Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal
Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.
Cao, Li; Mathew, Thomas
This paper addresses hypothesis testing problems concerning the subject-by-formulation interaction matrix for the assessment of multivariate bioequivalence. Two problems are addressed: (a) the problem of testing if the subject-by-formulation interaction matrix itself is zero, and (b) the problem of testing if suitable scalar valued functions of the subject-by-formulation interaction matrix is below a threshold. Approximate tests are developed in both cases and the accuracy of the approximation is numerically investigated. The results are illustrated with an example. Even though the literature on univariate bioequivalence testing addresses average bioequivalence, variance bioequivalence and subject-by-formulation interaction, the literature on multivariate bioequivalence deals only with the problem of average bioequivalence. This work appears to be the first attempt to address tests for the subject-by-formulation interaction matrix for testing multivariate bioequivalence.
Benson, Etienne S
Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.
Goikhburg, M V; Bakhshinyan, V V; Petrova, I P; Vazhybok, A; Kol'meier, B; Tavartkiladze, G A
The deterioration of speech intelligibility in the patients using cochlear implantation (CI) systems is especially well apparent in the noisy environment. It explains why phrasal speech tests, such as a Matrix sentence test, have become increasingly more popular in the speech audiometry during rehabilitation after CI. The Matrix test allows to estimate speech perception by the patients in a real life situation. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of audiological rehabilitation of CI patients using the Russian-language version of the matrix test (RUMatrix) in free field in the noisy environment. 33 patients aged from 5 to 40 years with a more than 3 year experience of using cochlear implants inserted at the National Research Center for Audiology and Hearing Rehabilitation were included in our study. Five of these patients were implanted bilaterally. The results of our study showed a statistically significant improvement of speech intelligibility in the noisy environment after the speech processor adjustment; dynamics of the signal-to-noise ratio changes was -1.7 dB (p<0.001).
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...
Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary
Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.
Smith, H F
Analysts use the concepts of subjectivity and intersubjectivity to support many different technical recommendations; this represents a misuse of theory. The dichotomy between subjectivity and objectivity is a false one. Arguing against the notion of objectivity, analysts conflate it with the idealized notion of pure objectivity and then eliminate various technical devices in its name. One cannot have a concept of subjectivity without a concept of objectivity, or an intersubjective perspective that does not include some agreed-upon concept of objectivity. The simplest definition of objectivity is a directional one. Objectivity is the perception or experience of the external; subjectivity is the perception or experience of the internal. Subjectivity and objectivity are both necessary pathways to knowledge and are dependent on each other. Any form of looking or listening does to some extent preclude another, but to speak solely from a subjective or an objective perspective represents a regression in thinking to a form of naive objectivism or naive subjectivism. Clinical examples illustrate how the forming and testing of hypotheses require the cooperation of both subjective and objective listening.
Forogh, Bijan; Mirshaki, Zohre; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Ali; Mansoori, Korosh; Ahadi, Tannaz
Subjective tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an identifiable external source. This distressing audiological symptom can severely affect the quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that can induce short-term relief in tinnitus in some patients. The purpose of this pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether repeated application of anodal tDCS over left temporoparietal area could induce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic tinnitus. Twenty-two patients with chronic tinnitus for at least 6 months were randomly allocated into two groups and received five sessions of anodal (N = 11) or sham (N = 11) stimulation in five consecutive days. A current intensity of 2 mA for 20 min was used for anodal stimulation. Outcomes were assessed using Persian version of tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), loudness and distress visual analog scale (VAS) scores and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The trial is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the reference ID of IRCT2014082018871N1. No statistically significant difference was found between anodal and sham stimulation regarding either immediate or long-lasting effects over the 2 weeks follow-up period. Deterioration of symptoms and alteration in tinnitus characteristics were reported by a few patients. There were no significant long-term beneficial effects following tDCS of the left temporoparietal area.
Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others
A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)
Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene
It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…
Kunel'skaia, N L; Skriabina, L Iu
The objective of the present work was to study the state of the hearing function and the prevalence of ear pathologies in the applicants and students of a higher education institution. A total of 44.525 subjects at the age varying from 15 to 30 years were available for the examination of whom 42.829 ones were involved in the routine medical examination programs for the applicants and students; 1696 persons presenting with acute ear diseases and impairment of hearing passed the primary medical examination in the University polyclinic. The hearing function was evaluated with the help of the speech and tuning fork tests; in part of the patients it was evaluated by tonal threshold audiometry in both the standard and the extended frequency ranges, tympanometry, registration of the ipsilateral acoustic reflex, and a questionnaire study. Chronic ear pathology is known to occur in 1.77-2.09% of the young people; it is the third most frequent condition after diseases of throat, nose, and paranasal sinuses in the structure of chronic ENT morbidity. The structure of chronic ear diseases is dominated by Eustachian tube pathology (0.99-1.4%) followed by chronic middle and inner ear diseases (0.35-0.62% and 0.15-0.26% respectively). The commonest chronic disease of the middle ear is adhesive otitis media that is accompanied by the conductive impairment of hearing in 53.5% of the cases. Next in importance is chronic suppurative otitis media associated with the conductive or mixed-type loss of hearing in 91.7% of the patients. The subclinical form of sensorineural hearing loss was found in 11.7-15.1% of the young subjects Including minimal sensorineural hearing loss (enhancement of the hearing threshold by 1-3 frequencies) in 11.7-12.4% of the patients. A frequent cause of impaired hearing in the case of chronic sensorineural hearing loss is a single or repeated acoustic trauma.
Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno
We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.
Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…
Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers
Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz
The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (Tavr), maximum temperature (Tmax), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, Tavr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for Tavr, Tmax, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for Tavr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for Tavr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486
This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.
Head-to-head comparison of second-generation nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae on urine samples from female subjects and self-collected vaginal swabs.
Chernesky, Max; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Hatchette, Todd; Poirier, André; Flandin, Jean-Frederic; Smieja, Marek; Ratnam, Sam
In a comparison of 4 second-generation nucleic acid amplification tests performed with self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from 575 women, SCVS specimens indicated more infections than did FVU specimens in all assays. The prevalence rates were 9% (53/575 patients) for Chlamydia trachomatis and 2% (11/575 patients) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The clinical sensitivities for testing SCVS specimens for C. trachomatis were 98.1% on a Tigris system and 96.2% on a Panther system for the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Hologic Gen-Probe), 98.0% for the RealTime CT/NG assay on an m2000 instrument (Abbott), 90.6% for the ProbeTec CT/GC Q(x) assay on the Viper system (Becton Dickinson), and 84.6% for the cobas CT/NG assay on the cobas 4800 platform (Roche). Clinical sensitivities for C. trachomatis in FVU specimens were 88.7% (Tigris) and 88.0% (Panther) for the Aptima Combo 2 assay, 76.9% for the RealTime CT/NG assay, 75.5% for the ProbeTec CT/GC Q(x) assay, and 81.1% for the cobas CT/NG assay. Clinical sensitivities of the assays for N. gonorrhoeae, with limited positive results, ranged from 63.6% to 100%. Specificities for both infections ranged from 98.4 to 100%. Differences in analytical sensitivities and levels of molecular targets in clinical samples but not inhibitors of amplification may explain the differences in clinical sensitivities.
Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.
Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.
Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.
In real life experience, machine and structure elements are subjected to complex loading history. Combined loading testes facilitate the understanding of materials behavior subjected to multiaxial stress state. In this paper are presented experimental investigations used to evaluate the influence of an initial type of loading on material properties which will be subsequently tested through another load type. Initial tests are tension tests, by different elongations, and subsequent tests are torsion tests, until break. Circular cross section specimens will be used in these tests. Tension tests have been performed on a universal testing machine. Subsequently torsion tests have been conducted through an attachable device. It was found that the energy associated with plastic deformation obtained by subsequent torsional tests has the dominant influence on the material total plastic energy, although initial test was tension.
Nagy, E.; Bencze, G.; Csengery, A.; Almasi, A.; Grosz, A.
In our previous examinations we examined the behaviour of diagonal optokinetic nystagmus (DOKN), as well as the cardio-pulmonary changes in antiorthostatic posture (AP).The aim of our present study is the following: how modelled microgravitation influences the pure tone threshold and the speech threshold.The body fluids (blood, liquor, lymph) shift to the cranial direction because of the effect of microgravitation. Both the antigravitational muscular activity and the blood-vessel reflexes, which are habituated to the earthy relations, have got part in this. We examined the effect of cranial shifting of fluids in simulated microgravitational position caused by -300 antiorthostatic position lasting for 3 hours.
Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Wilmington, Debra J.; Gordon, Jane S.; Reavis, Kelly M.; Fausti, Stephen A.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, commonly prescribed for adults and children to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, are potentially ototoxic, often causing irreversible damage to the auditory and vestibular systems. Ototoxic hearing loss usually begins at the higher frequencies and can progress to lower frequencies necessary for understanding…
Stiles, Derek J
In my quest to become a better professor, I have been searching for the instructional paradigms that best facilitate the educational process between me and my students. To support this endeavor, I opted to study learning diversity. The results of my investigation led me to reflect upon whether my teaching strategies inadvertently engaged only a subset of my students. I believe that was the case. In this article, I will describe the experiential learning model, how I used it to measure my students' learning styles, and how I used the model to make my teaching more holistic.
Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.
HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.
Corballis, M C; Ogden, J A
Three commissurotomized and two left-hemispherectomized subjects were tested on spoken report of sequences of three dichotic pairs of digits. With instruction to report only one digit from each pair, there was an overall advantage to the ear contralateral to the hemisphere mediating speech, but report of ipsilateral-ear digits ranged from 40 to 100%. In commissurotomized subjects, the more extreme ipsilateral suppression under instructions to report all digits may be due to failure to gain access to unattended information stored in the right hemisphere, rather than to suppression of the ipsilateral pathway. However one commissurotmized patient did appear to have access to right-hemisphere items, the result either of subcortical transfer or of external cross-cueing. The hemispherectomized subjects seemed able to store both attended and unattended information in the same hemisphere.
Dufour, André; Després, Olivier; Candas, Victor
Many studies have reported that blind people compensate for their visual deficit by sharpening auditory processes. Here we compare the sensitivity to echo cues between blind and sighted subjects. In the first experiment, the blind subjects were more accurate than the sighted subjects in localizing an object on the basis of echo cues. To ensure that enhanced echolocalization abilities were not only due to the fact that blind individuals are more used to consciously paying attention to echo cues and are more familiar with this kind of tasks than sighted subjects, we tested both groups of subjects in a simple azimuthal localization task of auditory stimuli. In this second experiment, we evaluated the influence of irrelevant echo signals on auditory localization by placing the subjects and the sound sources at different positions in a sound reverberant room. Results revealed that blind subjects exhibit a higher sensitivity to echo signals than sighted subjects.
Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen
Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.
Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge
Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.
Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge
Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648
Kottow, Andrea R; Kottow, Michael H
Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease. PMID:17603873
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa
Brussell, Edward M.; And Others
The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)
Fontana, Alan F.; And Others
Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…
Diercks, Michael J. K.
This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…
Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Cavallin, Lena; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Kramberger, Milica Gregoric; Winblad, Bengt; Jelic, Vesna; Eriksdotter, Maria
Background The clinical challenge in subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is to identify which individuals will present cognitive decline. We created a statistical model to determine which variables contribute to SCI and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnoses. Methods A total of 993 subjects diagnosed at a memory clinic (2007-2009) were included retrospectively: 433 with SCI, 373 with MCI and 187 with AD. Descriptive statistics were provided. A logistic regression model analyzed the likelihood of SCI and MCI patients being diagnosed with AD, using age, gender, Mini-Mental State Examination score, the ratio of β-amyloid 42 divided by total tau, and phosphorylated tau as independent variables. Results The SCI subjects were younger (57.8 ± 8 years) than the MCI (64.2 ± 10.6 years) and AD subjects (70.1 ± 9.7 years). They were more educated, had less medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and frequently normal cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Apolipoprotein E4/E4 homozygotes and apolipoprotein E3/E4 heterozygotes were significantly less frequent in the SCI group (6 and 36%) than in the AD group (28 and 51%). Within the regression model, cardiovascular risk factors, confluent white matter lesions, MTA and central atrophy increased the AD likelihood for SCI subjects. Conclusions SCI patients form a distinct group. In our model, factors suggesting cardiovascular risk, MTA and central atrophy increased the AD likelihood for SCI subjects. PMID:25538726
Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor
Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.
Schieppati, M.; Tacchini, E.; Nardone, A.; Tarantola, J.; Corna, S.
OBJECTIVES AND METHOD—The relation between body sway recorded through a stabilometric platform and the subjective report of steadiness was studied in 20 young and 20 elderly subjects and 20 neuropathic and 20parkinsonian patients standing upright. The trials were performed under two stances (feet apart, feet together) and two visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed). At the end of each trial, subjects scored their performance on a scale from 10 (complete steadiness) to 0(fall). RESULTS—In all subjects, independently of the stance conditions, the larger the body sway the smaller the reported score. The function best fitting this relation was linear when sway was expressed on a logarithmic scale. The scoring reproducibility proved high both within and across subjects. Despite the different body sways and scores recorded under the different visual and postural conditions (eyes closed >eyes open, feet together>feet apart) in all groups of subjects and patients, the slopes of the relations between sway and score were broadly superimposable. In the normal subjects, the scores were slightly higher during eyes open than eyes closed trials for corresponding body sways. This was interpreted as a sign of perception of greater stability when vision was allowed. Parkinsonian patients swayed to a similar extent as normal subjects, and their scores were accordingly similar, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Neuropathic patients swayed to a larger extent than normal subjects, and their scores were matched appropriately. Although the slope of their relation with eyes closed was not different from that of normal subjects, with eyes open it was steeper and similar to that with eyes closed, suggesting that these patients did not feel more stable when they could take advantage of vision. CONCLUSIONS—The subjective evaluation of body sway, irrespective of stance condition, age, neuropathy, and basal ganglia disease, reflects the actual sway, and is inversely proportional
Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....
this article we develop an alternative account of subjective contours that derives from the developing computational theory of vision [see Marr 1982...with iistial agnosia who could not sec subjective contours when thecy were presented monocularly, but who could see thein whenI they were presented...a blob like that shown in (a) with a piece cut ouL Consider figure 29. For this article , the crucial point is that figure 29b appears to be
known results of de Finetti (1937, 1972, 1974), Smith (1961), and Savage (1971) and some recent results of Lind- ley (1980) concerning the use of...provides the motivation for de Finettis definition of subjective probabilities as coherent bet prices. From the definition of the probability measure...subjective probability, the probability laws which are traditionally stated as axioms or definitions are obtained instead as theorems. (De Finetti F -7
Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N
The mechanical properties of a matrix are studied upon changing the size and shape of biological tissues during dehydration caused by weak laser-induced heating. The cartilage deformation, dehydration dynamics, and hydraulic conductivity are measured upon laser heating. The hydrated state and the shape of samples of separated fascias and cartilaginous tissues were controlled by using computer-aided processing of tissue images in polarised light. (laser biology)
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....
Subjective rating scales are widely used in almost every aspect of ergonomics research and practice for the assessment of workload, fatigue, usability, annoyance and comfort, and lesser known qualities such as urgency and presence, but are they truly scientific? This paper raises some of the key issues as a basis for debate. First, it is argued that all empirical observations, including those conventionally labelled as 'objective', are unavoidably subjective. Shared meaning between observers, or intersubjectivity, is the key criterion of scientific probity. The practical steps that can be taken to increase intersubjective agreement are discussed and the well-known sources of error and bias in human judgement reviewed. The role of conscious experience as a mechanism for appraising the environment and guiding behaviour has important implications for the interpretation of subjective reports. The view that psychometric measures do not conform to the requirements of truly 'scientific' measurement is discussed. Human judgement of subjective attributes is essentially ordinal and, unlike physical measures, can be matched to interval scales only with difficulty, but ordinal measures can be used successfully both to develop and test substantive theories using multivariate statistical techniques. Constructs such as fatigue are best understood as latent or inferred variables defined by a set of manifest or directly observed indicator variables. Both construct validity and predictive validity are viewed from this perspective and this helps to clarify several problems including the dissociation between measures of different aspects of a given construct, the question of whether physical (e.g. physiological) measures should be preferred to subjective measures and whether a single measure of constructs which are essentially multidimensional having both subjective and physical components is desirable. Finally, the fitness of subjective ratings to different purposes within the broad
Pagnacco, Guido; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena
When repeating tests on a subject it is important to know if changes of the results are significant. Researchers have used measures of reliability, e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimum detectable change (MDC), to assess reliability and validity of balance measures and equipment, and to determine what constitutes a significant change (SC). Using ICC and MDC assumes measurement differences are random in nature, i.e., that within-subject variability is similar between subjects. We investigated if this assumption holds true for center of pressure based balance measures. 20 repetitions of the tests comprising the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration in Balance (mCTSIB) protocol were performed by two 17-subject groups simulating laboratory and clinical conditions. Force platform based computerized dynamic posturography Vestibular Technologies CAPS(®) systems exceeding ISPGR recommended accuracy, precision and resolution were used to perform the testing and collect the data. The MDC was compared with the SC computed from individual subjects' within-subject standard deviation, with and without averaging 3 repetitions. We found within-subjects variability was not similar between subjects, rendering the applicability of ICC and MDC questionable. The MDC greatly underestimated the SC for some subjects and overestimated it for others, therefore it should be used with extreme caution, if at all. It seems that for balance measures the SC is more a subject's rather than an instrument's or test's characteristic and should be evaluated on an individual basis. We suggest doing so might provide useful additional clinical information about a subject.
Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.
Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.
Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari
Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.
Pea, R. O.
Inductive vibration sensor measures the surface displacement of nonferrous metal panels subjected to vibration or flutter. This transducer does not make any physical contact with the test panel when measuring.
Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea
Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255
Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason
This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…
Dysfunctions of the organ of hearing are a significant limitation in the performance of occupations that require its full efficiency (vehicle driving, army, police, fire brigades, mining). Hearing impairment is associated with poorer understanding of speech and disturbed sound localization that directly affects the worker's orientation in space and his/her assessment of distance and location of other workers or, even most importantly, of dangerous machines. Testing sound location abilities is not a standard procedure, even in highly specialized audiological examining rooms. It should be pointed out that the ability to localize sounds which are particularly loud, is not directly associated with the condition of the hearing organ, but is rather considered an auditory function of a higher level. Disturbances in sound localization are mainly associated with structural and functional disturbances of the central nervous system and occur also in patients with normal hearing when tested with standard methods. The article presents different theories explaining the phenomenon of sound localization, such as interaural differences in time, interaural differences in sound intensity, monaural spectrum shape and the anatomical and physiological basis of these processes. It also describes methods of measurement of disturbances in sound localization which are used in Poland and around the world, also by the author of this work. The author analyzed accessible reports on sound localization testing in occupational medicine and the possibilities of using such tests in various occupations requiring full fitness of the organ of hearing.
To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…
In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239
Stewart, John J.; Wood, Mary J.; Wood, Charles D.
Seven human volunteers were subjected to stressful Coriolis stimulation (rotating chair) either during the fasted state or following the ingestion of yogurt (6 oz). Subjects tested after yogurt reached a malaise-III (M-III) endpoint of motion sickness after significantly (p smaller than 0.01) fewer head movements than subjects tested in the fasted state. Surface electrogastrogram (EGG) recordings at M-III were similar for both dietary stats and consisted of a brief period of tachygastria, followed by a period of low-amplitude EGG waves. Ingestion of yogurt enhanced susceptibility to motion sickness but did not affect the associated pattern of EGG.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the past, present and future of financial conflict of interest regulation in biomedical human subject testing. Part I will briefly review the forces giving rise to the current controversy. Part II will examine the more influential ethical codes on human subject testing and argue that they are inconclusive on the subject of financial conflicts of interest. Part III will examine the various regulations now in place and identify their serious flaws. Part IV will critique the leading proposals for reform. The Conclusion will synthesize the best features of the various proposals for reform and suggest improvements left unaddressed by these proposals.
Rice, Justin K; Rorden, Christopher; Little, Jessica S; Parra, Lucas C
EEG (electroencephalography) has been used for decades in thousands of research studies and is today a routine clinical tool despite the small magnitude of measured scalp potentials. It is widely accepted that the currents originating in the brain are strongly influenced by the high resistivity of skull bone, but it is less well known that the thin layer of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has perhaps an even more important effect on EEG scalp magnitude by spatially blurring the signals. Here it is shown that brain shift and the resulting small changes in CSF layer thickness, induced by changing the subject's position, have a significant effect on EEG signal magnitudes in several standard visual paradigms. For spatially incoherent high-frequency activity the effect produced by switching from prone to supine can be dramatic, increasing occipital signal power by several times for some subjects (on average 80%). MRI measurements showed that the occipital CSF layer between the brain and skull decreases by approximately 30% in thickness when a subject moves from prone to supine position. A multiple dipole model demonstrated that this can indeed lead to occipital EEG signal power increases in the same direction and order of magnitude as those observed here. These results suggest that future EEG studies should control for subjects' posture, and that some studies may consider placing their subjects into the most favorable position for the experiment. These findings also imply that special consideration should be given to EEG measurements from subjects with brain atrophy due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases, since the resulting increase in CSF layer thickness could profoundly decrease scalp potential measurements.
This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatigue, toxic chemicals, are mentioned where appropriate. Diazepam is used as an example. There is no particular performance emphasis since the tests are intended to have wide applicability. However, vehicle-driving performance is discussed because it has been the subject of a great deal of research and is probably one of the most important areas of application. Performance tests are discussed in terms of the four main underlying models--factor analysis, general information processing, multiple resource and strategy models, and processing-stage models--and in terms of their psychometric properties--sensitivity, reliability, and content, criterion, construct, and face validity. Some test taxonomies are presented. Standardization is also discussed with reference to the reaction time, mathematical processing, memory search, spatial processing, unstable tracking, verbal processing, and dual task tests used in the AGARD STRES battery. Some comments on measurement strengths and appropriate study designs and methods are included. PMID:9182033
Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…
Hunsberger, Peter Hume
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients.
In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…
The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.
Intensification is a means of indexing the speakers' perspective. This paper attempts to show the semantic development of particular intensifiers following Langacker's framework of subjectivity. In this framework, the focus lies on the way the conceptualizer construes an event or a situation as an observer or as an experiencer with degrees of…
Hornbrook, David, Ed.
This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…
Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…
This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…
In 1971 the author introduced an interdisciplinary course, "Women in Modern Society," at Loyola College, Montreal, which now has a complete Women's Studies Program. She relates the development of her interest in the subject, problems encountered in obtaining support and approval, and the success of the first course with 50 students. (JT)
This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…
Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…
The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…
Smith, Arthur A.
The doctrine of informed consent has been enumerated to protect the rights of human subjects involved in biomedical research. The elements of informed consent are summarized along with the changes of emphasis that have evolved. The issue of liability and means for minimizing its impact are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.
A series of laboratory studies were conducted at LaRC to: (1) quantify the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness; (2) evaluate candidate loudness metrics; (3) quantify the effects of signature asymmetry on loudness; and (4) document sonic boom acceptability within the laboratory. A total of 212 test subjects evaluated a wide range of signatures using the NASA Langley Research Center's sonic boom simulator. Results indicated that signature shaping via front-shock minimization was particularly effective in reducing subjective loudness without requiring reductions in peak overpressure. Metric evaluations showed that A-weighted sound exposure level, Perceived Level (Stevens Mark 7), and Zwicker's Loudness level were effective descriptors of the loudness of symmetrical shaped signatures. The asymmetrical signatures were generally rated as being quieter than symmetrical signatures of equal calculated metric level. The magnitude of the loudness reductions were observed to increase as the degree of asymmetry increased and to be greatest when the rear half of the signature was loudest. This effect was not accounted for by the loudness metrics. Sonic boom acceptability criteria were determined within the laboratory. These agreed well with results previously obtained in more realistic situations.
Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Stufflebeam, S M; Fullerton, B C; Carlisle, E W; Furst, M; Rosen, B R; Kiang, N Y
In order to relate human auditory processing to physiological and anatomical experimental animal data, we have examined the interrelationships between behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical data obtained from human subjects with focal brainstem lesions. Thirty-eight subjects with multiple sclerosis were studied with tests of interaural time and level discrimination (just noticeable differences or jnds), brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Interaural testing used two types of stimuli, high-pass (> 4000 Hz) and low-pass (< 1000 Hz) noise bursts. Abnormal time jnds (Tjnd) were far more common than abnormal level jnds (70% vs 11%); especially for the high-pass (Hp) noise (70% abnormal vs 40% abnormal for low-pass (Lp) noise). The HpTjnd could be abnormal with no other abnormalities; however, whenever the BAEPs, LpTjnd and/or level jnds were abnormal HpTjnd was always abnormal. Abnormal wave III amplitude was associated with abnormalities in both time jnds, but abnormal wave III latency with only abnormal HpTjnds. Abnormal wave V amplitude, when unilateral, was associated with a major HpTjnd abnormality, and, when bilateral, with both HpTjnd and LpTjnd major abnormalities. Sixteen of the subjects had their MR scans obtained with a uniform protocol and could be analyzed with objective criteria. In all four subjects with lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, the BAEPs and both time jnds were abnormal. Of the twelve subjects with no lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, all had normal BAEPs and level jnds, ten had normal LpTjnds, but only five had normal HpTjnds. We conclude that interaural time discrimination is closely related to the BAEPs and is dependent upon the stimulus spectrum. Redundant encoding of low-frequency sounds in the discharge patterns of auditory neurons, may explain why the HpTjnd is a better indicator of neural desynchrony than the LpTjnd. Encroachment of MS lesions upon the pontine
Furman, J M
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.
Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.
Reports the test-retest reliabilities for the Schedule of Recent Experiences (item counts) and the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire and compares the two scales. Subjects (N=109) were men and women enlisted in the US military reserves. Results indicated the two questionnaires demonstrate acceptable test-retest reliability. (BH)
Cureton, Kirk J.
The increasing use of various VO2 max expressions as test measures is a problem because the magnitude of sex difference varies considerably with each expression. A valid match of male and female test subjects would consider physical activity history and the amount of endurance exercise done in the previous year. (Author/FG)
Mechanical testing techniques, electrical and electronics testing techniques, thermal testing techniques, and optical testing techniques are the subject of the compilation which provides technical information and illustrations of advanced testing devices. Patent information is included where applicable.
coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the
Kondraske, George V; Stewart, R Malcolm
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is classified as a progressively degenerative movement disorder, affecting approximately 0.2% of the population and resulting in decreased performance in a wide variety of activities of daily living. Motivated by needs associated with the conduct of multi-center clinical trials, early detection, and the optimization of routine management of individuals with PD, we have developed a three-tiered approach to evaluation of PD and other neurologic diseases/disorders. One tier is characterized as 'web-based evaluation', consisting of objective performance capacity tests and subjective questionnaires that target history and symptom evaluation. Here, we present the initial evaluation of three representative, self-administered, objective, web-based performance capacity tests (simple visual-hand response speed, rapid alternating movement quality, and upper extremity neuromotor channel capacity). Twenty-one subjects (13 with PD, 8 without neurologic disease) were evaluated. Generally good agreement was obtained with lab-based tests executed with an experienced test administrator. We conclude that objective performance capacity testing is a feasible component of a web-based evaluation for PD, providing a sufficient level of fidelity to be useful.
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742
Grebniak, N P; Shchudro, S A
The integral criterion for subject difficulties in senior classes is substantiated in terms of progress in studies, variation coefficient, and subjective and expert appraisals of the difficulty of subjects. The compiled regression models adequately determine the difficulty of academic subjects. According to the root-mean-square deviation, all subjects were found to have 3 degrees of difficulty.
Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)
Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.
Hausmann, Markus; Corballis, Michael C; Fabri, Mara; Paggi, Aldo; Lewald, Jörg
The question of whether there is a right-hemisphere dominance in the processing of auditory spatial information in human cortex as well as the role of the corpus callosum in spatial hearing functions is still a matter of debate. Here, we approached this issue by investigating two late-callosotomized subjects and one subject with agenesis of the corpus callosum, using a task of sound lateralization with variable interaural time differences. For comparison, three subjects with left or right hemispherectomy were also tested by employing identical methods. Besides a significant reduction in their acuity, subjects with total or partial section of the corpus callosum exhibited a considerable leftward bias of sound lateralization compared to normal controls. No such bias was found in the subject with callosal agenesis, but merely a marginal reduction of general acuity. Also, one subject with complete resection of the left cerebral cortex showed virtually normal performance, whereas another subject with left hemispherectomy and one subject with right hemispherectomy exhibited severe deficits, with almost total loss of sound-lateralization ability. The results obtained in subjects with callosotomy indicate that the integrity of the corpus callosum is not indispensable for preservation of sound-lateralization ability. On the other hand, transcallosal interhemispheric transfer of auditory information obviously plays a significant role in spatial hearing functions that depend on binaural cues. Moreover, these data are compatible with the general view of a dominance of the right cortical hemisphere in auditory space perception.
Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane
Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.
Nicoli, Rene M., And Others
Describes problems with the preservation of anatomy subjects (cadavers) for subsequent studies. Occasionally, the subjects are diseased, and the process of bacteriomycosis and entomobacteriomycosis makes them worthless as anatomy subjects. (Author/ABB)
Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.
Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.
AL-TR-1991-0057 AD-A268 221• ~~II lI ii 111 1111 Ui!~I II II hl %- METABOUIC MONITORING OF HYPOBARIC SUBJECTS 7(A SR SM Janet F. Wiegman Sean A...62202F IPR - 7930 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - 18 Jaret F. Wiegman Robert W. Olson WU - Y1 Sean A. McLean Andrew A. Pilmanis 17. PERFrRMI,-" ORGANIZATION...Olson, J. Webb, and J. Wiegman . Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise on Altitude Decompression Sickness. USAFSAM Experimental Protocol #87-15. 2
Mars, Franck; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Popov, Konstantin
Previous studies demonstrated that sensory stimulation could differentially affect the subjective vertical (SV) and the subjective body orientation (SBO). This suggests that the central nervous system elaborates various references of verticality in function of the task demands and of the available sensory information. In this study, we tested whether the dissociation between SV and SBO appears for a selective stimulation of the vestibular system, by using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Seated subjects performed vertical settings by controlling the orientation of a visual rod during GVS. Subjects were also instructed to evaluate the orientation of the head and trunk relative to gravity. The results revealed a large variability in the way SV and SBO were affected. In all cases, the effect of GVS on SV was not a mirror image of a distorted SBO. We propose that this dissociation is mainly determined by central processes involved in the estimation of sensory cues reliability. GVS also yielded a tilt of the head when the head was unrestrained. The results suggest that changes in actual head orientation yielded by GVS may be related to the perceived direction of gravity but cannot be explained by a compensation of an illusory orientation of the head.
The chapter gives an overview of the use of subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Unconscious knowledge is knowledge we have, and could very well be using, but we are not aware of. Hence appropriate methods for indicating unconscious knowledge must show that the person (a) has knowledge but (b) does not know that she has it. One way of determining awareness of knowing is by taking confidence ratings after making judgments. If the judgments are above baseline but the person believes they are guessing (guessing criterion) or confidence does not relate to accuracy (zero-correlation criterion) there is evidence of unconscious knowledge. The way these methods can deal with the problem of bias is discussed, as is the use of different types of confidence scales. The guessing and zero-correlation criteria show whether or not the person is aware of knowing the content of the judgment, but not whether the person is aware of what any knowledge was that enabled the judgment. Thus, a distinction is made between judgment and structural knowledge, and it is shown how the conscious status of the latter can also be assessed. Finally, the use of control over the use of knowledge as a subjective measure of judgment knowledge is illustrated. Experiments using artificial grammar learning and a serial reaction time task explore these issues.
... difference between lifelong impairment and healthy development. Which Tests Are Offered? Newborn screening varies by state and is subject to change, especially given advancements in technology. However, the disorders listed here are those usually ...
Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A
Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns
Ford, Carolyn G.; McFarland, Mark A.; Stange, Irena W.
To develop accurate objective measurements (models) for video quality assessment, subjective data is traditionally collected via human subject testing. The ITU has a series of Recommendations that address methodology for performing subjective tests in a rigorous manner. These methods are targeted at the entertainment application of video. However, video is often used for many applications outside of the entertainment sector, and generally this class of video is used to perform a specific task. Examples of these applications include security, public safety, remote command and control, and sign language. For these applications, video is used to recognize objects, people or events. The existing methods, developed to assess a person's perceptual opinion of quality, are not appropriate for task-based video. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, under a program from the Department of Homeland Security and the National Institute for Standards and Technology's Office of Law Enforcement, has developed a subjective test method to determine a person's ability to perform recognition tasks using video, thereby rating the quality according to the usefulness of the video quality within its application. This new method is presented, along with a discussion of two examples of subjective tests using this method.
Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.
In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts
Clinical testing of nanomedicines presents two challenges to prevailing, human subject-centered frameworks governing research ethics. First, some nanomedical applications may present risk to persons other than research subjects. Second, pressures encountered in testing nanomedicines may present threats to the kinds of collaborations and collective activities needed for supporting clinical translation and redeeming research risk. In this article, I describe how similar challenges were encountered and addressed in gene transfer, and sketch policy options that might be explored in the nanomedicine translation arena.
Cook, M.; Jex, H. R.; Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.
Operant conditioning procedures, specifically the use of negative reinforcement, in achieving stable learning behavior is described. The critical tracking test (CTT) a method of detecting human operator impairment was tested. A pass level is set for each subject, based on that subject's asymptotic skill level while sober. It is critical that complete training take place before the individualized pass level is set in order that the impairment can be detected. The results provide a more general basis for the application of reward/penalty structures in manual control research.
Almăşan, O C; Băciuţ, M; Hedeşiu, M; Bran, S; Almăşan, H; Băciuţ, G
Objectives The aim of the study was to establish the changes in posteroanterior cephalometric variables in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). Methods Posteroanterior cephalograms of 61 subjects (age range 16–36.6 years, standard deviation 4.88 years) were used to determine cephalometric differences. Subjects were classified according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Joint Disorders into three groups: unilateral TMD, bilateral TMD and no TMD. 14 linear and angular measurements were assessed on the posteroanterior cephalogram. For assessing facial asymmetry, the asymmetry index for bilateral measurements was calculated between the right and the left side. In cases with unilateral TMD, the asymmetry index was calculated using the difference between the unaffected and affected side. The differences among multiple groups were analysed using the one-way analysis of variance test and Scheffé post hoc test. Results 47 subjects were females (77%) and 14 were males (23%). 19 subjects had unilateral TMDs and 16 subjects had bilateral TMDs. The asymmetry index of the distance from the horizontal plane to the antegonion was higher in subjects with unilateral TMD than in patients with bilateral or no TMD (p < 0.05). Also, the asymmetry index of the distances from the vertical plane to the condyle (p = 0.05), gonion (Go) (p = 0.0004), antegonion (p = 0.002) and chin (Ch) (p = 0.02) was higher in subjects with unilateral TMDs. The asymmetry index of the O point–Go–Go′ and O point–Ch–Ch′ angles differed significantly in subjects with unilateral TMDs (p < 0.05). Conclusions Unilateral TMDs are associated with changes in posteroanterior cephalometric measurements. The assessment of posteroanterior cephalometric variables could be used as a key factor for evaluating the presence of TMDs. PMID:23253565
Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki
The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was
Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane
Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031
Books in the field Academic Library – catalog search Amazon.com Worldcat Graduate School Locators (Princeton Review, Educational Testing Service) Fi...Names of graduates from their department UNCLASSIFIED – Approved for Public Release Finding SME’s: Databases S h Di i li D t b• earc sc p ne a...Public Release Databases will give you: Authors of articles – social scientists Click on author’s name and automatically access other works
Buros, Oscar K., Ed.
Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…
Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dellavia, Claudia; Zanotti, Gianfranco; Sforza, Chiarella
The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 selected soft tissue facial landmarks were digitized on 28 white Italian subjects with Down syndrome (17 male and 11 female subjects aged 12 to 45 years) and 429 healthy controls of comparable ages by an electromechanical instrument. From the landmarks, 16 facial dimensions were calculated. Data were compared with those collected in healthy individuals by computing z-scores. Overall, most variables were smaller in subjects with Down syndrome than in their normal controls selected for sex, age, and ethnicity (negative z-scores), even if not all of them reached statistical significance. Independently of sex, subjects with Down syndrome had faces that were significantly (P <0.05, paired Student t test) narrower (skull base and mandible), less deep (upper, middle, and lower face), and shorter (face and nose height) than the faces of normal subjects. Additionally, ear width and length were significantly reduced on both sides of the face. Only facial height was significantly different between sexes (P = 0.023, unpaired Student t test), with a female z-score that was more than two times the relevant male value. The present investigation represents the first detailed quantitative analysis of the facial soft tissue characteristics of Italian white subjects with Down syndrome.
Criss, Amy H.
Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…
Mølhave, Lars; Grønkjær, John; Larsen, Søren
Human subjective reactions to indoor air pollution in the form of volatile organic compounds in five concentrations ⩽ mg m -3 were examined in a climate chamber under controlled conditions in a balanced experimental design. The reactions of 25 subjects were registered in two questionnaires containing 25 and six questions and on a linear analogue rating scale. Each subject was tested for one day including four runs in each of the five treatments of 50 min duration. Dose effects were found for perceived odour intensity at 3 mgm -3. Air quality, need for ventilation, irritation of eye and nose showed significant effect at 8 mg m -3. Significant reduced well being was reported at 25 mgm -3. The analyses indicated that lower threshold for some of these effects would have been found if more subjects or longer exposure-times had been used. Gender, age, occupational education and smoking habits were co-factors for many of the symptoms reported.
Yeh, Y. H.; Wickens, C. D.
Dissociation between performance and subjective workload measures was investigated in the theoretical framework of the multiple resources model. Subjective measures do not preserve the vector characteristics in the multidimensional space described by the model. A theory of dissociation was proposed to locate the sources that may produce dissociation between the two workload measures. According to the theory, performance is affected by every aspect of processing whereas subjective workload is sensitive to the amount of aggregate resource investment and is dominated by the demands on the perceptual/central resources. The proposed theory was tested in three experiments. Results showed that performance improved but subjective workload was elevated with an increasing amount of resource investment. Furthermore, subjective workload was not as sensitive as was performance to differences in the amount of resource competition between two tasks. The demand on perceptual/central resources was found to be the most salient component of subjective workload. Dissociation occurred when the demand on this component was increased by the number of concurrent tasks or by the number of display elements. However, demands on response resources were weighted in subjective introspection as much as demands on perceptual/central resources. The implications of these results for workload practitioners are described.
Reduction of subsurface movement of liquids was the subject of a 1-day symposium sponsored by Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and cosponsored by the U.S. Committee on Large Dams (USCOLD) of the International Commission on Large Dams. The Symposium on Impermeable Barriers for Soil and Rock, the first specialized symposium of its kind, was held in Denver, Colorado, on June 25, 1984. The program emphasized the interaction of the environmental system of soil and rock containment, impermeable barriers, and enclosed liquids. The theory, testing, and design considerations of such interactive systems was explored in relation to slurry walls and clay and earth additive linings as applied to geotechnical engineering projects such as tailings and waste containment ponds, landfills, solar and biomass ponds, ditches, canals, and reservoirs. A number of papers presented research results on the interaction of various chemical and hazardous wastes with the soil and rock materials and lining or slurry materials.
Ijichi, Carrie; Collins, Lisa M; Creighton, Emma; Elwood, Robert W
Objective assessment of animal personality is typically time consuming, requiring the repeated measure of behavioural responses. By contrast, subjective assessment of personality allows information to be collected quickly by experienced caregivers. However, subjective assessment must predict behaviour to be valid. Comparisons of subjective assessments and behaviour have been made but often with methodological weaknesses and thus, limited success. Here we test the validity of a subjective assessment against a battery of behaviour tests in 146 horses (Equus caballus). Our first aim was to determine if subjective personality assessment could predict behaviour during behaviour testing. We made specific a priori predictions for how subjectively measured personality should relate to behaviour testing. We found that Extroversion predicted time to complete a handling test and refusal behaviour during this test. It also predicted minimum distance to a novel object. Neuroticism predicted how reactive an individual was to a sudden visual stimulus but not how quickly it recovered from this. Agreeableness did not predict any behaviour during testing. There were several unpredicted correlations between subjective measures and behaviour tests which we explore further. Our second aim was to combine data from the subjective assessment and behaviour tests to gain a more comprehensive understanding of personality. We found that the combination of methods provides new insights into horse behaviour. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the idea of horses showing different coping styles, a novel finding for this species.
Twohig, Brian T.
Designed to measure the subject's ability to discriminate among alphabetic letters varied over three spatial dimensions (left-right, vertical, and combination left-right and vertical), the tests can be administered in groups and take about twenty minutes to complete. Ten letters of the alphabet were selected for assymetry (for example, b-d) and…
Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing; Epelboim, Julie; Lu, Zhong-Lin
In three experiments, electric brain waves of 19 subjects were recorded under several different experimental conditions for two purposes. One was to test how well we could recognize which sentence, from a set of 24 or 48 sentences, was being processed in the cortex. The other was to study the invariance of brain waves between subjects. As in our earlier work, the analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. A least-squares criterion of fit between prototypes and test samples was used for classification. In all three experiments, averaging over subjects improved the recognition rates. The most significant finding was the following. When brain waves were averaged separately for two nonoverlapping groups of subjects, one for prototypes and the other for test samples, we were able to recognize correctly 90% of the brain waves generated by 48 different sentences about European geography. PMID:10536029
Metaphors and analogies are more than figurative language suitable only for English classes and standardized test questions. They are "power tools" that can electrify learning in every subject and at all grade levels. Metaphors show students how to make connections between the concrete and the abstract, prior knowledge and unfamiliar concepts, and…
Gargiulo, R.; Stokes, Mark A.
The Theory of Homeostasis posits that Subjective Well-being (SWB) is regulated by a dynamic biological mechanism, assisting to maintain a positive view of life. Further, the theory suggests that clinical depression is the loss of SWB due to the defeat of this homeostatic defence system. To test this hypothesis it was predicted that people who were…
Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.
Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.
The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…
Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani
The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…
capability under conditions of sustained intensive air operations requires the use of specialized measures of operator workload which are matched to the...or during operational test exercises. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of traditional subjective report and behavioral measures of...workload in a variety of evaluation environments. Unfortunately, no widely accepted standards for workload measurement presently exist, and the choice
Davis, Rebecca A. O.; Bockbrader, Marcia A.; Murphy, Robin R.; Hetrick, William P.; O'Donnell, Brian F.
Case reports and sensory inventories suggest that autism involves sensory processing anomalies. Behavioral tests indicate impaired motion and normal form perception in autism. The present study used first-person accounts to investigate perceptual anomalies and related subjective to psychophysical measures. Nine high-functioning children with…
Capodaglio, E M; Capodaglio, P
This paper reports a study on the dynamics of tolerability in performing dynamic cycling in healthy subjects. Data on individually tolerable levels (power x duration) was obtained from 9 subjects by means of three submaximal tests on an ergometric bicycle lasting < or = 40 minutes, with constant load (50%, 65% and 80% of maximum VO2 reached during a previous test of increasing difficulty within the limits of the symptoms). During performance of the test we monitored heart rate and subjective perception of fatigue (Borg's 10-point scale). We then defined the individual functions of "isoperception", which expressed the individual trend of the product "power x duration" at identical subjective perception score. On the basis of the metabolic parameters monitored, the individual isoperceptive functions at a "moderate" level of fatigue (3 on the Borg scale) were defined as "tolerability) threshold" for prolonged dynamic cycling. The product "power x duration" defined by the isoperceptive curves at a "moderate" level of fatigue does in fact reflect the individual aerobic capacity that can be sustained for prolonged dynamic activity (under 60 minutes). In order to validate the hypothesis of tolerability of the functions identified, three further short tests were performed (duration < or = 8.5 minutes) on an ergometric bicycle, with measurement of ventilatory and metabolic parameters.
Suppes, P; Han, B; Epelboim, J; Lu, Z L
In three experiments, electric brain waves of 19 subjects were recorded under several different experimental conditions for two purposes. One was to test how well we could recognize which sentence, from a set of 24 or 48 sentences, was being processed in the cortex. The other was to study the invariance of brain waves between subjects. As in our earlier work, the analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. A least-squares criterion of fit between prototypes and test samples was used for classification. In all three experiments, averaging over subjects improved the recognition rates. The most significant finding was the following. When brain waves were averaged separately for two nonoverlapping groups of subjects, one for prototypes and the other for test samples, we were able to recognize correctly 90% of the brain waves generated by 48 different sentences about European geography.
Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others
To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…
Heated discussions about the comparability of standards between examination subjects have kept Qualification Authorities, Testing Services, independent researchers and academics around the world busy for many years. As a result, many countries have adopted statistical techniques which aspire to make aggregated scores based on different subjects…
Reverberant and direct acoustic test comparisons were analyzed in this viewgraph presentation. The acoustic test data set includes: 1) CloudSat antenna subjected to PF reverberant chamber acoustic test; 2) CloudSat subjected to a PF direct speaker acoustic test; and 3) DAWN flight spacecraft subjected to PF direct speaker and a workmanship reverberant chamber acoustic test.
Morrow, P.E.; Utell, M.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Smeglin, A.M.; Frampton, M.W.; Cox, C.; Speers, D.M.; Gibb, F.R. )
Symptoms and changes in pulmonary function of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and elderly normal subjects, induced by a 4-h exposure to 0.3 ppm NO2, were investigated using a double-blind, crossover design with purified air. The 5-day experimental protocol required approximately 2 wk with at least a 5-day separation between randomized 4-h exposures to either NO2 or air which included several periods of exercise. Over a 2-yr period, COPD subjects, all with a history of smoking, consisting of 13 men and 7 women (mean age of 60.0 yr) and 20 elderly normal subjects of comparable age and sex were evaluated. During intermittent light exercise, COPD subjects demonstrated progressive decrements in FVC and FEV1 compared with baseline with 0.3 ppm NO2, but not with air. Differences in percent changes from baseline data (air-NO2) showed an equivocal reduction in FVC by repeated measures of analysis of variance and cross-over t tests (p less than 0.10). Subgroup analyses suggested that responsiveness to NO2 decreased with severity of COPD; in elderly normal subjects, NO2-induced reduction in FEV1 was greater among smokers than never-smokers. A comparison of COPD and elderly normal subjects also revealed distinctions in NO2-induced responsiveness.
Jacobsen, K; Magnussen, S; Smith, L
The visual acuity of twelve multi-handicapped, mentally retarded subjects, diagnosed as deaf-blind, was measured on two occasions with the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC). Eight subjects scored above the criterion for legally blind and the results of six of these indicated various degrees of poor to approaching-normal eyesight. To evaluate high-level vision four subjects were tested with the Fagan Test, assessing visual recognition memory for faces subsequent to familiarization with the preferential looking technique. The results for three subjects showed evidence for perceptual recognition. It is concluded that TAC combined with the Fagan Test may detect perceptual capacities unnoticed by clinical observation.
Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.
Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…
Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…
Russell, Joyce E. A.
Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…
Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…
O'Grady, William; And Others
Proposes that the optional subject phenomenon in early child language arises because children have not yet acquired the morphological elements (primarily modal and tense) necessary to distinguish subject-taking verbs (e.g., finite verbs) from their non-subject-taking counterparts (e.g., infinitives). (Author/CB)
Smith, Deborah L.; And Others
A discussion of informed consent by human subjects in experimentation presents background on the consent issue, including federal requirements; lists factors that may affect a subject's ability to understand the consent document; and offers suggestions for preparing consent forms to ensure the subject's better comprehension. (Author/MSE)
Mandel, Carol A.
This review of the research on subject access to library collections focuses on the problems of and prospects for improved online subject access to library collections. Summaries of the general findings of studies on library catalog use and catalog users and some reasons for the frequent failure of subject searches in library catalogs are followed…
This paper addresses some of the discursive practices of neoliberal government through which the subject is constituted as a subject of choice--subjects whose life trajectory is shaped by the imperatives of a labour market in which they will become mobile and flexible workers with multiple careers and jobs. Mobility among these multiple careers…
Cochrane, Pauline A.; And Others
Contains nine papers read at the National Cataloguing Conference for 1981 of the section entitled, "Subject Retrieval in the 1980s." Topics include cost of subject access, research problems, options for automated subject access, and authority control. (Library Association of Australia, The Science Center, 35 Clarence St., Sydney, NSW…
During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.
Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.
Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA, developed an electronic Critical Tracking Task (CTT) system that analyzes and rates a subject's visual/motor responses for Ames Research Center. Originally applied to measuring the effects of long term confinement in the mid 1960's, the CTT system is now marketed as FACTOR 1000 by Performance Factors, Inc. Alameda, CA, under a licensing agreement with Systems Technology. The system is a non-invasive, self-administered test that takes less than a minute and detects impairment from a broad range of causes, including stress, fatigue, illness, drugs, or alcohol. It is used daily by Old Town Trolley Tours, San Diego, CA, to assess each driver's physical coordination skills prior to the start of each shift. FACTOR 1000 reduces liabilities and costs related to accidents, and costs less than one dollar per day per employee. Performance Factors is now BioFactors, Inc.
Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet
This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.
... test IBC; (ii) The calculated superimposed test load weight loaded on either a flat plate or a... their base on level, hard ground and subjected to a uniformly distributed superimposed test load for a..., 11HH2, 21HH1, 21HH2, 31HH1 and 31HH2) which bear the stacking load must be subjected to the test for...
... test IBC; (ii) The calculated superimposed test load weight loaded on either a flat plate or a... their base on level, hard ground and subjected to a uniformly distributed superimposed test load for a..., 11HH2, 21HH1, 21HH2, 31HH1 and 31HH2) which bear the stacking load must be subjected to the test for...
... test IBC; (ii) The calculated superimposed test load weight loaded on either a flat plate or a... their base on level, hard ground and subjected to a uniformly distributed superimposed test load for a..., 11HH2, 21HH1, 21HH2, 31HH1 and 31HH2) which bear the stacking load must be subjected to the test for...
Curry, Donald M.; Pham, Vuong T.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis C.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)
Results of arc-jet tests conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) samples subjected to hypervelocity impact are presented. The RCC test specimens are representative of RCC component used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The objective of the arc jet testing was to establish the oxidation characteristics of RCC when hypervelocity projectiles, simulating meteoroid/orbital debris (MOD), impact the RCC material. In addition, analytical modeling of the increased material oxidation in the impacted area, using measured hole growth data, to develop correlations for use in trajectory simulations is also discussed.
Sun, Xing-Guo; Hansen, James E; Garatachea, Nuria; Storer, Thomas W; Wasserman, Karlman
When evaluating dyspnea in patients with heart or lung disease it is useful to measure the quantity of ventilation needed to eliminate metabolically produced CO2 (i.e., the ventilatory efficiency). Mathematically, the relationship between ventilation (VE) and CO2 output is determined by the arterial CO2 pressure and the physiologic dead space-tidal volume ratio. We decided to determine how age, sex, size, fitness, and the type of ergometer influenced ventilatory efficiency in normal subjects. Three methods were compared for expressing this relationship: (1) the VE versus CO2 output slope below the ventilatory compensation point, commonly used by cardiologists for estimating the severity of heart failure; (2) the VE/CO2 output ratio at the anaerobic threshold, commonly used by pulmonologists; and (3) the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio during exercise, the latter parameter not previously reported. We studied 474 healthy adults, between 17 and 78 years of age during incremental cycle and treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise tests at three test sites, correcting the total VE for the equipment dead space. The lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was insignificantly different from the ratio at the anaerobic threshold, less variable than that for the slope relationship, and unaffected by the site, ergometer, and gas exchange measurement systems. The regression equation for the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was 27.94 + 0.108 x age + (0.97 = F, 0.0 = M) - 0.0376 x height, where age is in years and height is in centimeters. We conclude that the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio is the preferred noninvasive method to estimate ventilatory inefficiency.
Resnik, David B
Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice in research involving human subjects requires equal protection of rights and equal protection from harm and exploitation. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of unequal treatment of research subjects. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a genuine dispute concerning the appropriateness of equal treatment. Patently unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is not a genuine dispute about the appropriateness of equal treatment. Allegedly unequal treatment will probably always occur in research with human subjects due to disagreements about fundamental questions of justice. The best way to deal with allegedly unequal treatment is to promote honest and open discussions of the issues at stake. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, ethical review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Federal agencies have provided interpretive guidance that can help promote consistent review and oversight of human subjects research. Additional direction may be needed on topics that are not adequately covered by current guidance or regulations. International guidelines can help promote equal treatment of human subjects around the globe. While minor variations in the treatment of research subjects should be tolerated and even welcomed, major ones (i.e. those that significantly impact human rights or welfare) should be avoided or minimized.
Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891
Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred
Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…
Stieler, Olgierd; Sekula, Alicja
Early diagnosis of congenital defect of hearing poses new challenges for a multidisciplinary team of pedoaudiologists, ENT (ear-nose-throat) specialists and speech therapists. This study assessed the perception of phonemes in children with a cochlear implant and the possibilities of applying acoustical solutions in the audiologic evaluation. The participants were 17 implanted children, aged 5-9 years, who received a cochlear implant when they were from 18 months to 3 years old. Detection thresholds and discrimination score were assessed. This study also aimed at verifying the possibilities of applying the digital audioprocessing algorithm in clinical practice. The test based on the phonemes aa, uu, ii, ss, sh (Ling 5 sound test) was used. The test was modified in the frequency domain - the main aim of this modification was to improve the precision of the reconstruction of the audible threshold. The results indicated significant correlations between pure tone audiometry results and thresholds of phoneme detection [dB SPL]. The identification score in this group was 95-100% for sound pressure level 65 dB SPL.
Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.
Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449
Makino, Y; Tagami, F
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self-writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.
Taylor, Arlene G.
Review of the 1991 literature on subject access in online systems discusses users and subject searching; subject access in online catalogs, including improvement of the database, search processing, the user interface, and user understanding; subject cataloging and indexing; information retrieval; thesaurus and indexing approaches; classification;…
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