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Sample records for subjective audiological tests

  1. Audiological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Darrell E., Ed.

    The text, designed for students and others interested in clinical audiology, is intended to provide comprehensive coverage of not only important concepts in audiology but particularly of the methods and procedures used in audiological assessment. The functions of tests, the administration of specific tests, and the analysis of test results are…

  2. Cochlear Implants in Subjects Over Age 65: Quality of Life and Audiological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Aimoni, Claudia; Ciorba, Andrea; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Mazzoli, Manuela; Bianchini, Chiara; Rosignoli, Monica; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cochlear implants (CIs) have been recognized as a safe and effective means for profound hearing loss rehabilitation in children and adults and recently their use has been extended to subjects over 65 years of age. The aim of this paper was to assess indices related to changes in the quality of life (QoL) in elderly CI recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control paradigm was used to assess the effects of CIs on the QoL. Forty-two subjects were assigned to the Case group and 15 subjects to the Control group. All 57 subjects were affected by profound hearing loss and had received a CI. Audiological data were collected from both groups at: (i) 1 month pre-implantation [T1]; (ii) 1 day pre- implantation [T2]; (iii) 30 days post-implantation, with CI used in free field [T3]; and (iv) 12 months post-implantation, with CI used in a free field [T4]. The QoL was assessed via a Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, adapted to otolaryngology. To compare subjects across different ages with varying degrees of speech development, a perception parameter was used from the Speech Perception Categories test developed by Geers and Moog. RESULTS Hearing performance was considerably improved after CI. In relation to the hearing performance at time T1, statistically significant threshold gains were observed in both groups in the T3 and T4 observation windows. At time T4, a threshold gain of 70 dB HL in the Case group and a gain of 84 dB HL in the Control group were observed. With speech therapy rehabilitation, a perception level of 6 was reached by 80.0% of patients in the Case group and by 100% of patients in the Control group. In terms of QoL, both groups showed improved post-CI scores. Statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups, with the Control group outperforming the Case group in all but the social section. CONCLUSIONS Despite age-related changes in auditory system and prolonged hearing deprivation, CIs offer audiological and QoL benefits in

  3. Cochlear Implants in Subjects Over Age 65: Quality of Life and Audiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aimoni, Claudia; Ciorba, Andrea; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Mazzoli, Manuela; Bianchini, Chiara; Rosignoli, Monica; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) have been recognized as a safe and effective means for profound hearing loss rehabilitation in children and adults and recently their use has been extended to subjects over 65 years of age. The aim of this paper was to assess indices related to changes in the quality of life (QoL) in elderly CI recipients. Material/Methods A case-control paradigm was used to assess the effects of CIs on the QoL. Forty-two subjects were assigned to the Case group and 15 subjects to the Control group. All 57 subjects were affected by profound hearing loss and had received a CI. Audiological data were collected from both groups at: (i) 1 month pre-implantation [T1]; (ii) 1 day pre- implantation [T2]; (iii) 30 days post-implantation, with CI used in free field [T3]; and (iv) 12 months post-implantation, with CI used in a free field [T4]. The QoL was assessed via a Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, adapted to otolaryngology. To compare subjects across different ages with varying degrees of speech development, a perception parameter was used from the Speech Perception Categories test developed by Geers and Moog. Results Hearing performance was considerably improved after CI. In relation to the hearing performance at time T1, statistically significant threshold gains were observed in both groups in the T3 and T4 observation windows. At time T4, a threshold gain of 70 dB HL in the Case group and a gain of 84 dB HL in the Control group were observed. With speech therapy rehabilitation, a perception level of 6 was reached by 80.0% of patients in the Case group and by 100% of patients in the Control group. In terms of QoL, both groups showed improved post-CI scores. Statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups, with the Control group outperforming the Case group in all but the social section. Conclusions Despite age-related changes in auditory system and prolonged hearing deprivation, CIs offer audiological and QoL benefits in the

  4. A Browser-Server-Based Tele-audiology System That Supports Multiple Hearing Test Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Daoyuan; Givens, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Millions of global citizens suffering from hearing disorders have limited or no access to much needed hearing healthcare. Although tele-audiology presents a solution to alleviate this problem, existing remote hearing diagnosis systems support only pure-tone tests, leaving speech and other test procedures unsolved, due to the lack of software and hardware to enable communication required between audiologists and their remote patients. This article presents a comprehensive remote hearing test system that integrates the two most needed hearing test procedures: a pure-tone audiogram and a speech test. Materials and Methods: This enhanced system is composed of a Web application server, an embedded smart Internet-Bluetooth® (Bluetooth SIG, Kirkland, WA) gateway (or console device), and a Bluetooth-enabled audiometer. Several graphical user interfaces and a relational database are hosted on the application server. The console device has been designed to support the tests and auxiliary communication between the local site and the remote site. Results: The study was conducted at an audiology laboratory. Pure-tone audiogram and speech test results from volunteers tested with this tele-audiology system are comparable with results from the traditional face-to-face approach. Conclusions: This browser-server–based comprehensive tele-audiology offers a flexible platform to expand hearing services to traditionally underserved groups. PMID:25919376

  5. Towards an ecological audiology: stereophonic listening chamber and acoustic environmental tests.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Wilson, M; Samuelsson, E

    1998-01-01

    An acoustic laboratory for reproduction of speech and acoustic environments is presented along with two sound field tests. Its design has been inspired by the LEDE (Living End Dead End) principle for construction of radio and music control rooms. The equipment and the 12 loudspeakers can simultaneously reproduce several stereophonic and monophonic recordings. The interesting feature is that the delayed first reflex in the LEDE room allows for a realistic perception of the recording room. A preliminary presentation of two newly developed tests for sound field listening is given. In DSIN. Directional Speech In Noise, the JFC (just follow conversation) threshold for continuous discourse is determined in 12 directions in quiet and in noise from +/- 60 degrees azimuth. In SEIT (Sound Environmental Identification Test), stereophonic acoustic environments are presented and the subject is asked to identify specific components and to characterize each environment as closely as possible. Results from tests with normal hearing subjects and examples of results with hearing impaired subjects are presented. The potential of the technique for use in aural rehabilitation, functional definition of auditory communication and quality assessment of hearing aids is discussed. It is pointed out that the term ecological audiology is suitable for describing the interaction between the communicating individual and the environment in a broad sense. PMID:9832401

  6. Audiology Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Pre-College Programs.

    The manual describes audiology services offered at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD). Components are listed for diagnostic services, instructional services, program development, training, and publications. Testing and reporting procedures for MSSD students are outlined. Testing includes pure-tone air conduction testing, tympanometry,…

  7. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  8. A Survey of the Deaf Community Concerning Their Opinions, Needs and Knowledge of Audiology and Audiology Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Charles E.; Martin, Frederick N.

    1987-01-01

    A survey questionnaire of 32 adult deaf subjects evaluated their knowledge of and interest in audiology and services of audiologists. Issues examined included communication, practices in audiology, deafness, hearing, the auditory system, delivery of specific services to the deaf community and general interrelationships in the deaf community.…

  9. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  10. Audiology in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, Laura

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 37 individuals in Nicaragua were the basis of this review of the audiology field in that nation. The review covers the prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment, training for audiologists, government services for individuals with hearing impairment, private agencies concerned with hearing impairment, and fitting and use of…

  11. Audiological Assessment of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.

    The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…

  12. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  13. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  14. Bridging the Gap between Audiology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razack, Zaim Riza

    1995-01-01

    This article examines issues related to the provision of educational audiological services that are sensitive to the needs of a diverse population. The focus is on paradigm shifts from traditional clinical audiology to classroom-based educational audiology and use of a cyclical reflective process. Critical components of courses offered at York…

  15. Prisoner subjects and drug testing.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1977-09-01

    Objections to prison research are based more often on opposition to the evils of prison life than to unethical practices and to the memories of atrocities committed in the name of science in Nazi prison camps during World War II. The National Commission's pronouncements on prison research specifically illustrate this general phenomenon. Having decided that research on prisoners can be performed ethically, and having learned that most prisoner volunteers bitterly resent being deprived of the opportunity to participate in research, the Commission has nevertheless stipulated prison conditions that cannot realistically be met and thus has de facto eliminated such research. The most serious potential loss is the elimination of the unique facility in Lexington, Kentucky--the Addiction Research Center. Predicting the addiction liability of drugs is not likely to be feasible in any nonprison setting, so that the addiction potential of new marketed drugs will be established in the future as it was in the past--by trial-and-error in patients, who will become the unwilling, uninformed research subjects in this area. PMID:892002

  16. Book Review: Telepractice in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    VENTO, BARBARA A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of the book Telepractice in Audiology, authored by Emma Rushbrooke MPhil(AUD), BA, DipAud., MAudSA., LSLS. Cert. AVT, RNC, and K. Todd Houston, PhD, CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT, and 13 contributing authors. This is the first book entirely devoted to tele-audiology. It provides practical information for working with clients across the lifespan and for multiple practice settings. Reviewer Dr. Barbara Vento endorses this work as a comprehensive resource on the topic of teleaudiology for both students and aspiring teleaudiologists.

  17. A Support Program: Audiological Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunblatt, Henna; Daar, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    A program was developed by a school audiologist and school counselor to provide information to children (ages 3-15) about their deafness. The program consists of informational classes addressing basic audiology, hearing aids, frequency modulation (FM) systems, audiograms, and student concerns; and individualized counseling sessions. (Author/JDD)

  18. Best Practices in Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris

    1991-01-01

    Members (n=182) of the Educational Audiology Association were surveyed to determine emerging levels of best practices in the field. Demographic data, uses of amplification, the role of the educational audiologist as case manager/consultant, and both clinical and professional concerns are discussed. Areas for further research are suggested.…

  19. Preserved Hearing Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Audiological Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Christopher D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Audiologic test results were reviewed for 30 patients whose hearing was preserved following eighth nerve tumor surgery. Improved auditory brainstem response tracings were seen as probably indicating increased neural synchrony due to reduced pressure on the cochlear nerve following surgery, whereas reduced hearing sensitivity probably reflects…

  20. Macular dazzling test on normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M

    1986-01-01

    The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979

  1. Subjective testing methodology in MPEG video verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenimore, Charles; Baroncini, Vittorio; Oelbaum, Tobias; Tan, Thiow K.

    2004-11-01

    The development of new video processing, new displays, and new modes of dissemination and usage enables a variety of moving picture applications intended for mobile and desktop devices as well as the more conventional platforms. These applications include multimedia as well as traditional video and require novel lighting environments and bit rates previously unplumbed in Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) video compression. The migration to new environments poses a methodological challenge to testers of video quality. Both the viewing environment and the display characteristics differ dramatically from those used in well-established subjective testing methods for television. The MPEG Test Committee has adaptated the television-centric methodology to the new testing environments. The adaptations that are examined here include: " The display of progressive scan pictures in the Common Intermediate Format (CIF at 352x288 pixel/frame) and Quarter CIF (QCIF at176x144 pixel/frame) as well as other, larger moving pictures requires new ways of testing the subjects including different viewing distances and altered ambient lighting. " The advent of new varieties of display technologies suggests there is a need for methods of characterizing them to assure the results of the testing do not depend strongly on the display. " The use of non-parametric statistical tests in test data analysis. In MPEG testing these appear to provide rigorous confidence statements more in line with testing experience than those provided by classical parametric tests. These issues have been addressed in a recent MPEG subjective test. Some of the test results are reviewed; they suggest that these adaptations of long-established subjective testing methodology for TV are capable of providing practical and reliable measures of subjective video quality for a new generation of technology.

  2. Comparing subjective video quality testing methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Margaret H.; Wolf, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    International recommendations for subjective video quality assessment (e.g., ITU-R BT.500-11) include specifications for how to perform many different types of subjective tests. Some of these test methods are double stimulus where viewers rate the quality or change in quality between two video streams (reference and impaired). Others are single stimulus where viewers rate the quality of just one video stream (the impaired). Two examples of the former are the double stimulus continuous quality scale (DSCQS) and double stimulus comparison scale (DSCS). An example of the latter is single stimulus continuous quality evaluation (SSCQE). Each subjective test methodology has claimed advantages. For instance, the DSCQS method is claimed to be less sensitive to context (i.e., subjective ratings are less influenced by the severity and ordering of the impairments within the test session). The SSCQE method is claimed to yield more representative quality estimates for quality monitoring applications. This paper considers data from six different subjective video quality experiments, originally performed with SSCQE, DSCQS and DSCS methodologies. A subset of video clips from each of these six experiments were combined and rated in a secondary SSCQE subjective video quality test. We give a method for post-processing the secondary SSCQE data to produce quality scores that are highly correlated to the original DSCQS and DSCS data. We also provide evidence that human memory effects for time-varying quality estimation seem to be limited to about 15 seconds.

  3. Learning Disability Assessed through Audiologic and Physiologic Measures: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Edward R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The report describes a child with central auditory dysfunction, the first reported case where brain-stem dysfunction on audiologic tests were associated with specific electrophysiologic changes in the brain-stem auditory-evoked responses. (Author/CL)

  4. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau. PMID:14590626

  5. Audiologic Assessment of Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Judith S.

    This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…

  6. A brief history of audiology at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Wayne O; Rose, Darrell E; Hedgecock, Leroy D

    2003-01-01

    Audiometric hearing tests were conducted at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester at the beginning of the 1930s. The list price for one of its audiometers at that time was 3,500 dollars, which translates into approximately 37,000 dollars in 2003 currency. Physicians and residents in training were responsible for conducting hearing tests in the 1930s and 1940s. In the early 1940s a registered nurse was trained as an audiometrist to assist for some of the audiometric testing. The first "consulting audiologist" at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester was hired in 1949, early in the development of audiology as a profession. Growth in demand for audiologic services for larger numbers of patients and in the variety of services provided to them led to marked increases in personnel, space, and specialization over the years. PMID:12940701

  7. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels.

  8. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  9. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  10. Experimental Tests of Subjective Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li,Yuelin; Krantz, David H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Samaniego and Reneau's 1994 novel weight method for eliciting subjective probability estimates. Experiment 1 replicated their experiment (subjects weighed their prior estimate against 10 new observations), with an additional weight judgment against 50 observations. In Experiment 2, subjects gave prior estimates to questions in a…

  11. Survey of Educational Preparation in Pediatric Audiology: A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, Robert F.; Gross, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed audiology program directors (N=46) and audiologists (N=70) concerning preparation in pediatric audiology, specifically general program characteristics, education and training in pediatric audiology, affiliation with a pediatric medical facility, affiliation with school systems, and perceived adequacy of preparation. Comparison…

  12. Audiological findings in Infantile Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Vandana, V P; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Taly, Arun B

    2015-08-01

    Audiological manifestations in a four-year-old child with Infantile Refsum disease are reported. He was born to non-consanguineous parents and had normal birth history and mildly delayed milestones prior to presentation. Clinical features were characterized by neuroregression, retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss, peripheral neuropathy and white matter signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of long chain fatty acid and phytanic acid confirming the diagnosis. The audiological profile was characterized by absent auditory brainstem responses with robust otocoustic emissions, which indicated auditory neuropathy as the possible cause of hearing loss.

  13. Dimensions of Multiskilling: Considerations for Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiskilling and use of support personnel in educational audiology in reference to the following principles: guidelines, models of multiskilling, components of successful multiskilling, and do's and don'ts for multiskilling. These principles are illustrated through the use of multiskilling in the establishment of a hearing-aid…

  14. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  15. Educational Audiology Hard of Hearing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frederick S.

    The audiology curriculum of the Department of Communicative Disorders at Utah State University which has been developed to prepare specialists in clinical and/or educational management of aurally handicapped children is described. Focused upon are prevalence of children's unilateral and bilateral hearing loss, areas affected by hearing impairment…

  16. APPLIED AUDIOLOGY FOR CHILDREN. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALE, D.M.C.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK IS TO HELP TEACHERS, PARENTS, DOCTORS, AND WORKERS IN AUDIOLOGY CLINICS MAKE THE MOST OF SOUND IN THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TREATMENT OF DEAFNESS. ASPECTS OF SOUND AMPLIFICATION CONSIDERED ARE THE NATURE OF SOUND, ELECTRICAL AMPLIFICATION, AND VARIOUS TYPES OF HEARING AIDS (INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, INDUCTION LOOP, SPEECH…

  17. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hall, James W

    2016-09-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  18. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses.

  19. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  20. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  1. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  2. Educational Audiology: A Comparison of Service Delivery Systems Utilized by Missouri Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, J. Brad; Golden, Diane Cordry

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of three audiology service delivery systems--(1) school-based audiology within the district, (2) non-school-based audiology in the community, and (3) school-based audiology in a remote community--found the local school-based delivery system superior on various quality indicators. (Author/DB)

  3. Audiological findings in Williams syndrome: a study of 69 patients.

    PubMed

    Barozzi, Stefania; Soi, Daniela; Comiotto, Elisabetta; Borghi, Anna; Gavioli, Chiara; Spreafico, Emanuela; Gagliardi, Chiara; Selicorni, Angelo; Forti, Stella; Ambrosetti, Umberto; Cesarani, Antonio; Brambilla, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in a clinical setting, the auditory function of a group of individuals affected by Williams syndrome (WS). Sixty-nine patients with WS, aged 2-30, underwent comprehensive audiological testing including air/bone conduction behavioral audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry and measurement of the acoustic reflex, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and brainstem auditory evoked responses. Hearing loss, defined by a pure-tone average above 15 dB HL, affected 22.6% of the patients studied with traditional audiometry and was mostly slight in severity. Hearing loss was conductive in 9.4% of patients, mainly children with otitis media with effusion, and sensorineural in 13.2% of patients. However, 30% of the ears studied had a hearing impairment in the high frequency range (high-frequency pure-tone audiometry above 15 dB HL), higher in participants above 15 years (46.15%) than in the younger ones (23.45%). Contralateral stapedial reflexes were present in all patients with A-type tympanograms. Transient otoacoustic emissions were absent in 44% of the ears of patients with normal hearing. Brainstem auditory evoked responses fell within normal ranges thus confirming the absence of retrocochlear dysfunction. Although hearing loss does not seem to be frequent, a cochlear fragility, especially in the high frequency range, related to outer hair cells is characteristic of WS. Therefore we strongly recommend monitoring patients affected by WS using annual audiometric tests and performing otoacoustic emissions in order to identify a subclinical cochlear dysfunction which might benefit from an audiological follow up before the possible onset of hearing loss. PMID:22411878

  4. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel.

  5. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel. PMID:27551847

  6. Digital sound: Subjective tests on commentary-quality codecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.; Oxenham, A. J.

    Subjective tests have been carried out on five commentary-quality audio codecs on behalf of CCIR Task Group 10/2. All codecs operated at a bit rate of 60 kbit/s per mono signal, and were tested in both mono and stereo configurations. Significant differences in performance were found. All codecs introduced some impairment on the most critical program items.

  7. [Educational audiology: joint consultation in special eduation].

    PubMed

    Pottas, L; Hugo, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of educational audiology in the in-service training of teachers of children with hearing loss, in the South African context. Two questionnaires were developed which teachers and headmasters of schools for the deaf/hard of hearing in the Gauteng and Northwest provinces completed. The aim of the first questionnaire was to obtain background information regarding the 10 schools included in this study. The purpose of the second questionnaire was to determine the knowledge of 211 teachers regarding the child with a hearing loss. The background information obtained from the first questionnaire made it possible for the researchers to compare the knowledge of two different groups of teachers on the basis of in-service training. The results indicated definite limitations in the knowledge of the teachers, which must be viewed in light of the specific audiological needs of the child with a hearing loss, who may thus not fulfill his/her potential in the school setting. In spite of in-service training there was no significant difference between the two groups of teachers, which questions the value of existing training. PMID:14968696

  8. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  9. Construct Validity of the Ecological Momentary Assessment in Audiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. Purpose This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. Research Design This is an observational study. Study Sample Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Data Collection and Analysis In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid

  10. Audiological findings in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  11. Audiological Findings in Patients with Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  12. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice.

  13. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice. PMID:27516719

  14. Audiological Certainty in Deaf Children with Learning Disabilities: An Imperative for Inter-Agency Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Ravichandran, Aarthy; Laoide-Kemp, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the audiological management needs of deaf children with learning disabilities is demanding. The study specifically focused on the age at which audiological certainty, the degree, configuration and type of hearing loss, was established in 20 individuals with severe learning disability. Audiological records relating to each individual were…

  15. Basic audiological and related services in the north -- the role of a native technician.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M

    1980-12-01

    Over an 18 month period a native technician in the James Bay area was selected, trained, and supervised in the execution of certain audiological functions including record keeping, basic testing, hearing aid "trouble shooting", taking of impressions for moulds, and follow-up. The evidence indicates that this is an effective program which can supplement the occasional services of otolaryngologists and audiologists in the James Bay area. In particular, language barriers are overcome, there is continuity of care, and there is some indication of cost benefit. Recommendations are made for the continuance and possible expansion of this type of service. PMID:7206038

  16. Universal neonatal audiological screening: experience of the University Hospital of Pisa.

    PubMed

    Ghirri, Paolo; Liumbruno, Annalisa; Lunardi, Sara; Forli, Francesca; Boldrini, Antonio; Baggiani, Angelo; Berrettini, Stefano

    2011-04-11

    The early identification of pre-lingual deafness is necessary to minimize the consequences of hearing impairment on the future communication skills of a baby. According to the most recent international guidelines the deafness diagnosis must occur before the age of three months and the prosthetic-rehabilitative treatment with a traditional hearing aid should start within the first six months. When a Cochlear implant becomes necessary, the treatment should start between the age of 12 months and 18 months. The only way to diagnose the problem early is the implementation of universal neonatal audiological screening programs. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) is the most adequate test because it's accurate, economic and of simple execution. Automatic auditory brainstem response (AABR) is necessary to identify patients with auditory neuropathy but it is also important to reduce the number of false-positives.The 20-30% of infant hearing impairment is represented by progressive or late-onset hearing loss (HL) so it's also necessary to establish an audiological follow up program, especially in infants at risk.From November 2005 all neonates born in the University hospital of Pisa undergo newborn hearing screening. From 2008 the screening program follows the guidelines for the execution of the audiological screening in Tuscany which have been formulated by our group according to the 2007 JCIH Position Statement and adaptated to our regional reality by a multidisciplinary effort. From November 2005 to April 2009 8113 neonates born in the Neonatal Unit of Santa Chiara Hospital (Pisa) have undergone newborn hearing screening. 7621 neonates (93.9%) without risk factors executed only the TEOAE test. 492 (6.1%) neonates had audiological risk factors and thus underwent TEOAE and AABR. 84 patients (1,04%) failed both TEOAE and AABR tests. 78 of them underwent further investigations. 44 patients resulted false positives (the 0,54% of the screened newborns). 34 neonates

  17. A Guide to Clinical Services in Speech Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A listing of speech pathology and audiology services in the United States, the guide includes the names of 910 clinics and of 216 members of the American Speech and Hearing Association who are engaged in full time private practice. Arranged geographically, by state and city, the guide specifies the following for each clinic: official name,…

  18. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  19. From Colorado to Guam: Infant Diagnostic Audiological Evaluations by Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…

  20. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    Developed as a reference guide, this handbook contains the text of laws, rules and regulations of the State of New York Department of Education governing speech-language pathology and audiology practice in the state. An introductory section provides an overview of professional regulations in New York, describing aspects such as professional…

  1. Educational Audiology: A Proposal for Training and Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenich, Jennifer Komnick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of educational audiology, its legislative basis, and services offered to hearing-impaired children, such as a high-risk register/referral system, comprehensive screening program, and classroom acoustics management. A plan for in-service education and a proposal for an accreditation program in Educational Audiology…

  2. A Systematic Analysis of Audiological Services in EHDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.; Nelson, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For audiological evaluation and services, 299 items were listed by 49 coordinators, and themes were identified within each SWOT category.…

  3. SAT® II: Subject Tests in Foreign Languages--Using the Tests for Admission and Placement. Research Summary RS-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, 2002

    2002-01-01

    As an admissions test, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages allow students to demonstrate academic competence in the selected language area. As a placement tool, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages serve the same function as the SAT II: Subject Tests do in other academic areas such as world history, chemistry, or math. SAT II:…

  4. Development of a progressive audiologic tinnitus management program for Veterans with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Myers, Paula J; Griest, Susan; Kaelin, Christine; Legro, Marcia W; Schmidt, Caroline J; Zaugg, Tara L; Henry, James A

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is the most prevalent service-connected disability awarded to Veterans. However, clinical protocols for management of tinnitus have been inconsistent across Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. A study was funded to develop and pilot test a protocol to provide tinnitus services consistently across VA audiology clinics. Drawing on a series of prior VA and external research projects, a clinical model was formulated, supporting materials in multimedia were developed, and a pilot study was conducted. Five hierarchical levels of care were defined and labeled the Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM) model. The model facilitates access to medical services for tinnitus and includes detailed protocols for evaluation, education, and counseling of patients. Patients at each level of care have the option to "progress" to the next level of PATM if further services are required. Clinical procedures were defined for each level and materials were produced for audiologists and patients. The PATM model was then piloted with clinical patients at the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital (JAHVH) in Tampa, Florida. Throughout the pilot study, feedback from patients and clinicians was carefully noted. Training materials for audiologists, incorporation of the protocol into clinic activities, and patient outcomes were evaluated. The model was implemented within the JAHVH Audiology Clinic and to assist Veterans with tinnitus management. The most notable finding was how little tinnitus-specific intervention was required for the majority of patients. This finding supports a clinical model that offers stepped-care ("progressive") levels of care until tinnitus management is achieved by the patient. PMID:25144174

  5. Pediatric Audiology Report: Assessment and Revision of an Audiology Report Written to Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…

  6. Testing a New Design for Subject Access to Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Karen M.; Weller, Marjorie S.

    Over the last decade, studies of online catalogs have revealed that they frequently discourage users. Subject queries often fail to produce retrievals or produce retrieval sets that are too large and unwieldy to be easily scanned. Research shows that users are seeking alternative approaches to those that manipulate the subject headings in catalog…

  7. A multiple-channel cochlear implant and wearable speech-processor: an audiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y C; Clark, G M; Dowell, R C; Martin, L F; Seligman, P M; Patrick, J F

    1981-01-01

    Stand audiological tests were administered to a totally deaf multiple-channel cochlear implant patient with a wearable speech-processor in a monitored sound field under the following conditions: a wearable unit activated alone (WA), lipreading with the wearable unit off (LA), and wearable unit activated in combination with lipreading (WL). Thresholds obtained for narrow-band noise signals indicated that the wearable unit allowed the patient to detect a variety of sounds at different frequencies. The results obtained in closed-set word tests and open-set word and sentence tests showed significant improvements in word and sentence scores from LA to WL. In the open-set (C.I.D.) sentence test, the patient scored 22% for LA and 76% for WL. The WL score of 76% correlates with a satisfactory performance in understanding connected speech. The patient also scored 30% correct in a test involving the recognition of environmental sounds.

  8. Indication criteria for cochlear implants and hearing aids: impact of audiological and non-audiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Haumann, Sabine; Hohmann, Volker; Meis, Markus; Herzke, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Owing to technological progress and a growing body of clinical experience, indication criteria for cochlear implants (CI) are being extended to less severe hearing impairments. It is, therefore, worth reconsidering these indication criteria by introducing novel testing procedures. The diagnostic evidence collected will be evaluated. The investigation includes postlingually deafened adults seeking a CI. Prior to surgery, speech perception tests [Freiburg Speech Test and Oldenburg sentence (OLSA) test] were performed unaided and aided using the Oldenburg Master Hearing Aid (MHA) system. Linguistic skills were assessed with the visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, and general state of health, socio-economic status (SES) and subjective hearing were evaluated through questionnaires. After surgery, the speech tests were repeated aided with a CI. To date, 97 complete data sets are available for evaluation. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between postsurgical speech reception threshold (SRT) measured with the adaptive OLSA test and pre-surgical data such as the TRT test (r=−0.29), SES (r=−0.22) and (if available) aided SRT (r=0.53). The results suggest that new measures and setups such as the TRT test, SES and speech perception with the MHA provide valuable extra information regarding indication for CI. PMID:26557327

  9. Acquiescence as a Function of Test Type and Subject Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenz, Claudia; Sax, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    Either positive or negative test instructions and two item types (attitude or personality) were administered to undergraduates. Students were more likely to respond true when receiving positive instructions. Students receiving attitude test instructions were not more likely to respond true than students receiving personality test instructions.…

  10. Intelligibility, subjective ratings and completion time scores using the FAAF test with hearing-impaired subjects and noisy reverberant environments.

    PubMed

    Shields, P W; Campbell, D R

    2001-08-01

    A series of experiments have been performed with the primary aim of assessing the performance of a signal-processing algorithm for a possible future hearing aid application. As part of this work the four alternative auditory feature (FAAF) test was used to obtain a quantitative assessment of speech intelligibility and a subjective assessment of speech quality. This paper reports results of experiments using normal hearing (NH) subjects that provide partial verification of the FAAF test originators' prior work. Also reported are intelligibility score, mean opinion score (MOS) and completion time data obtained by use of the PMID:11694098

  11. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  12. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  13. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  14. Patch and prick test study of 593 healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Manzini, B M; Danese, P; Motolese, A

    1990-09-01

    593 recruits selected by the Military Health Service as being healthy and without a history of present or previous dermatitis, or ocular refraction defects, were patch tested with the GIRDCA (Italian Research Group on Contact and Environmental Dermatitis) standard series. Of these, 336 were also patch tested with substances used in the processing and dyeing of textiles and prick tested with 8 major allergens. 74 (12.5%) reacted to 1 or more substances. The most frequent sensitizers were: thimerosal (28 cases), ammoniated mercury (7 cases), phenol-formaldehyde resin (6 cases), parabens, nickel and Disperse Red 17 (4 cases each). 113 recruits reacted to 1 or more prick test allergens. We have demonstrated the importance of establishing such reference values in healthy groups for the correct evaluation of data collected from selected groups.

  15. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  16. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  17. Interactions of Task and Subject Variables among Continuous Performance Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Colin B.; Rapport, Mark D.; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2005-01-01

    Background: Contemporary models of working memory suggest that target paradigm (TP) and target density (TD) should interact as influences on error rates derived from continuous performance tests (CPTs). The present study evaluated this hypothesis empirically in a typically developing, ethnically diverse sample of children. The extent to which…

  18. Testing of laser components subjected to exposure in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2010-09-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials by studying the response of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment. MISSE 6 was transported to the international Space Station (ISS) via STS 123 on March 11. 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the passive experiment containers (PEC) to external handrails of the international space station (ISS) and opened up for long term exposure. After more than a year of exposure attached to the station's exterior, the PEC with several hundred material samples returned to the earth with the STS-128 space shuttle crew that was launched on shuttle Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Aug. 28. Meanwhile, MISSE 7 launch is scheduled to be launched on STS 129 mission. MISSE-7 was launched on Space Shuttle mission STS-129 on Atlantis was launched on November 16, 2009. This paper will briefly review recent efforts on MISSE 6 and MISSE 7 missions at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  19. Testing of Laser Components Subjected to Exposure in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2010-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials by studying the response of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment. MISSE 6 was transported to the international Space Station (ISS) via STS 123 on March 11. 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the passive experiment containers (PEC) to external handrails of the international space station (ISS) and opened up for long term exposure. After more than a year of exposure attached to the station's exterior, the PEC with several hundred material samples returned to the earth with the STS-128 space shuttle crew that was launched on shuttle Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Aug. 28. Meanwhile, MISSE 7 launch is scheduled to be launched on STS 129 mission. MISSE-7 was launched on Space Shuttle mission STS-129 on Atlantis was launched on November 16, 2009. This paper will briefly review recent efforts on MISSE 6 and MISSE 7 missions at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  20. Beginnings: Introducing Computer Technology to Students in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McErlain, Eileen; Squibb, Kevin

    In the areas of audiology and speech science, computer technology has moved to the forefront in both the clinical and laboratory settings. It is imperative that students in both speech-language pathology and audiology acquire fundamental skills with all aspects of computer technology in order to maintain professional marketability. A survey of 75…

  1. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, Phillip M.; Vesecky, Thompson B.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user.

  2. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, P.M.; Vesecky, T.B.

    1995-09-19

    An apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user. 8 figs.

  3. Post Test Evaluation of HSCT Nozzle Acoustic Liner Subcomponents Subjected to a Hot Acoustic Durability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Lee, Kuan

    2008-01-01

    The acoustic liner system designed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was tested in a thermal-acoustic environment. Five ceramic matrix composite (CMC) acoustic tile configurations, five bulk acoustic absorbers, and one thermal protection system design were tested. The CMC acoustic tiles were subjected to two 2 3/4 hr ambient temperature acoustic exposures to measure their dynamic response. One exposure was conducted on the tiles alone and the second exposure included the tiles and the T-foam bulk absorber. The measured tile RMS strains were small. With or without the T-foam absorber, the dynamic strains were below strain levels that would cause damage during fatigue loading. After the ambient exposure, a 75-hr durability test of the entire acoustic liner system was conducted using a thermal-acoustic cycle that approximated the anticipated service cycle. Acoustic loads up to 139 dB/Hz and temperatures up to 1670 F (910 C) were employed during this 60 cycle test. During the durability test, the CMC tiles were exposed to temperatures up to 1780 F and a transient through thickness gradient up to 490 F. The TPS peak temperatures on the hot side of the panels ranged from 750 to 1000 F during the 60 cycles. The through thickness delta T ranged from 450 to 650 F, varying with TPS location and cycle number. No damage, such as cracks or chipping, was observed in the CMC tiles after completion of the testing. However, on tile warped during the durability test and was replaced after 43 or 60 cycles. No externally observed damage was found in this tile. No failure of the CMC fasteners occurred, but damage was observed. Cracks and missing material occurred, only in the fastener head region. No indication of damage was observed in the T-foam acoustic absorbers. The SiC foam acoustic absorber experienced damage after about 43 cycles. Cracking in the TPS occurred around the attachment holes and under a vent. In spite of the development of damage, the TPS maintained

  4. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean ABG was 22.4 dB and postoperative mean ABG was 16.4 dB in abnormal middle ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between middle ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  5. How to Implement Itemization in an Audiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Sjoblad, Stephanie; Abel, Debbie

    2016-05-01

    The hearing aid delivery landscape has dramatically changed over the past several years, with a commercial payer, the Internet, and big box stores dispensing hearing aids directly to patients. The audiology community needs to modify the bundled billing model. This session will describe how to optimize the services you provide to current and new patients and change the hearing aid delivery and hearing aid pricing model to remain competitive with these new market trends. This activity will educate participants on itemized billing, sometimes referred to as unbundling, its pros and cons, and how it could aid audiologists in differentiating themselves in the hearing aid delivery landscape. PMID:27516720

  6. Group Testing as a Pedagogical Technique to Enhance Learning in Difficult Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group testing as a pedagogical technique to enhance learning in a difficult subject such as statistics. Individual test scores were compared to their group test scores for the same, identical test. A t test was used to compare the scores for 157 randomly selected MBA students enrolled…

  7. Antileishmania Immunological Tests for Asymptomatic Subjects Living in a Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

  8. Hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the users of an academic health center in the western region of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; de Andrade, Camila Quintiliano; Pereira, Marília Barbieri; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few population-based studies have quantified hearing levels in Brazil; additional studies on this subject are needed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the population served by the Clinical Audiology Service of an Academic Health Center in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2008. An additional aim was to check whether there is a positive association between the signs/symptoms and type of hearing loss. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of 2,145 patients. The health history, tonal and vocal audiometry, and imitanciometry findings were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.6 years. The majority of the subjects had normal hearing thresholds, and the prevalence of hearing loss was approximately 35%. As the patient's age increased, the frequency of conductive hearing loss decreased and that of sensorineural hearing loss increased. There was a tendency toward hearing loss worsening with age. Conclusion: Hearing complaints can predict the type of hearing loss; therefore, they should always be valued because they can be used as a form of screening and thus help to determine the diagnostic hypothesis. This could help to reduce the gap between the patient's perception of the complaints and the audiological assessment and thus improve the prognosis. PMID:25992004

  9. Outcomes of long-term audiological rehabilitation in charge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bovo, R; Martini, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the long-term audiological features and outcomes of hearing rehabilitation in a large group of individuals with CHARGE Syndrome. The study has been conducted retrospectively, on a paediatric patient database, at the Audiology Department of the University Hospitals of Ferrara and Padua. The study sample included 31 children presenting with different degrees of hearing impairment associated with CHARGE syndrome. Hearing was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or electrocochleography, or conditioned audiometry (visual reinforcement audiometry [VRA] or play audiometry). Auditory-perceptual outcomes in terms of communication skills and expressive language were also recorded. The effects of hearing rehabilitation (with hearing aids or cochlear implants) in this group of children and language outcomes after rehabilitation were monitored during long-term follow-up. The outcomes of rehabilitation measures differed in relation to the heterogeneous and often severe disabilities associated with CHARGE syndrome, e.g. developmental delay, intellectual delay, visual impairment, thin 8(th) nerve with retrocochlear auditory dysfunction (as described in cases of auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony). Oral expressive language was severely impaired in most cases, even after lengthy follow-up, suggesting the need for alternative augmentative communication modes. The early identification of sensorineural hearing loss, and carefully planned rehabilitation treatments, can be of some benefit in children with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:27214832

  10. Audiological Results and Quality of Life of Sophono Alpha 2 Transcutaneous Bone-Anchored Implant Users in Single-Sided Deafness.

    PubMed

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Nguyen, Yann; Vicault, Eric; Flament, Jonathan; Bernou, Deborah; Sterkers, Olivier; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Single-sided deafness (SSD) represents one of the most difficult audiological conditions to rehabilitate. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the audiological benefits and quality of life of patients affected by SSD who had previously been users of the Alpha 1® when upgrading them to the Sophono Alpha 2® external processor (Boulder, Colo., USA). Nine patients were included in the study. They underwent physical examination, free-field speech audiometry at 40 and 60 dB, a hearing-in-noise test (Hirsch's test and the squelch test), the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, and a specific questionnaire on patient satisfaction with Alpha 1. Afterwards, the Alpha 2 external processor was delivered to all patients, and the above-mentioned protocol was repeated after 1 month with the Alpha 2. A statistically significant improvement was found in the speech discrimination score at 40 dB and in the squelch test when using the Alpha 2 external processor compared to the Alpha 1. Alpha 2 had a good clinical tolerance and gave similar results in the specific questionnaire and the GBI to Alpha 1. In conclusion, the new Alpha 2 external processor represents a safe and effective device for the rehabilitation of SSD, and there is an audiological benefit to upgrading to the Alpha 2 external processor for patients who had previously been users of the Alpha 1. The improvement in quality of life is similar to that with other bone-anchored hearing devices. PMID:27159973

  11. Federal Rule Yields Hope for Science: Testing Mandate Is Expected to Increase Time for Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Some proponents of science education say they have faced no greater foe over the past few years than federally mandated tests in reading and mathematics, which have forced teachers to devote increasingly bigger chunks of class time to building students' skills in those two subjects. But if testing has squeezed science out, can testing also bring…

  12. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  13. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  14. Using Therapeutic Sound With Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound—broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech—resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics). PMID:18664499

  15. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 2: proof of concept in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.

  16. Trauma-Associated Tinnitus: Audiological, Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin; Staudinger, Susanne; Langguth, Berthold; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Kleinjung, Tobias; Lehner, Astrid; Poeppl, Timm B.; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Azevedo, Andréia; Binetti, Ana Carolina; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Rates, Marcelo; Coelho, Claudia; Vanneste, Sven; de Ridder, Dirk; van Heyning, Paul; Zeman, Florian; Mohr, Markus; Koller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. Objective By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI) Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. Materials A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL). Results Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. Conclusions Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and – at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and for developing more

  17. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  18. Correlations Between Cardiovascular Autonomic Control Indices During the Two-hour Immobilization Test in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, A.R.; Shvartz, V.A.; Karavaev, A.S.; Mironov, S.A.; Ponomarenko, V.I.; Gridnev, V.I.; Prokhorov, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the features of dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic indices and correlations between them during the two-hour immobilization test in healthy subjects. Methods: Photoplethysmogram (PPG) and electrocardiogram were recorded simultaneously during the two-hour immobilization test in 14 healthy subjects (5 men and 9 women) aged 29±5 years (mean±SD). Dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum in high-frequency and low-frequency ranges (in ms2 and percents of total spectral power), mean heart rate (HR), and index S of synchronization between 0.1-Hz rhythms in PPG and HR were analyzed. Results: Individual dynamics of all studied cardiovascular autonomic indices during the two-hour immobilization test was unique in each healthy subject. Two groups of healthy subjects were identified basing on individual features of autonomic control. The group with initial low level of index S maintained the low level of S during the two-hour immobilization test. The group with initial high index S maintained the high level of S only during the first 100 minutes of test. During the last 20 minutes of test, index S was similar in both groups. Many cardiovascular autonomic indices correlate between themselves for an individual subject, but they do not correlate between the subjects. Multiple regression analysis in each subject has shown a high correlation between mean HR and all other studied autonomic parameters in 57% of subjects (multiple R>0.9, P<0.05). For 204 records analyzed without taking into account the individual features of subjects, the above mentioned correlation was smaller (multiple R=0.45, P<0.001). Index S was found out to be the most independent one among the autonomic indices. Conclusion: Cardiovascular autonomic control is characterized by a pronounced variability among healthy subjects and stability in time in each subject. We have not found any regularity in variation of cardiovascular autonomic

  19. Recent Advances in Modeling Stress Distributions in Multilayers Subjected to Biaxial Flexure Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Luttrell, Claire Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Although biaxial flexure tests have been used extensively to measure the strength of brittle materials, the tests and analyses have been limited to materials of uniform properties. Despite the increasing applications of multilayered structures, characterization of their strengths using biaxial flexure tests has been difficult because the analytical description of the strength-fracture load relation for multilayers subjected to biaxial flexure tests is unavailable. The newly derived closed-form solutions for the elastic stress distributions in multilayered discs subjected to ring-on-ring tests are summarized here. These solutions are obtained by (i) finding the correlation between monolayered and multilayered discs subjected to biaxial bending moment and (ii) conversion from the existing solutions for monolayers. Using this methodology, the closed-form solutions for multilayers subjected to other biaxial flexure tests can also be obtained. Finite element results for ring-on-rings tests performed on (i) porcelain/zirconia bilayered discs and (ii) solid oxide fuel cells trilayered discs are also presented to validate the closed-form solutions. The closed-form solutions hence provide a basis for evaluating biaxial strength of multilayers using biaxial flexure tests.

  20. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  1. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968

  2. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  3. The Thai version of the German Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT): description of the test and performance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Pracharitpukdee, N; Phanthumchinda, K; Huber, W; Willmes, K

    1998-06-01

    The Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), originally developed as a test for aphasia language disorders in Germany, consists of six spontaneous speech rating scales and five subtests: Token Test, Repetition, Written Language, Confronting Naming and Comprehension. The study aimed to describe the linguistic properties of the AAT Thai version and to investigate the test performances of the normal subjects. In this study some problems of linguistic changes in the construction of the Thai version were discussed. The results revealed that the normal subjects' performances on the test were independent of age, sex and education level. Therefore, the Thai version of AAT is applicable to the differential diagnosis of the communicative abilities of Thai aphasic patients.

  4. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  5. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  6. Within-Subject Interlaboratory Variability of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Tests

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, William C.; Hamilton, Lanette R.; Goodwin, Donald J.; Barrera, Carlos; West, Kevin B.; Racster, Laura; Daniels, Laura J.; Chuke, Stella O.; Campbell, Brandon H.; Bohanon, Jamaria; Jaffar, Atheer T.; Drane, Wanzer; Maserang, David; Mazurek, Gerald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) is a viable alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, within-subject variability may limit test utility. To assess variability, we compared results from the same subjects when QFT-GIT enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed in different laboratories. Methods Subjects were recruited at two sites and blood was tested in three labs. Two labs used the same type of automated ELISA workstation, 8-point calibration curves, and electronic data transfer. The third lab used a different automated ELISA workstation, 4-point calibration curves, and manual data entry. Variability was assessed by interpretation agreement and comparison of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) measurements. Data for subjects with discordant interpretations or discrepancies in TB Response >0.05 IU/mL were verified or corrected, and variability was reassessed using a reconciled dataset. Results Ninety-seven subjects had results from three labs. Eleven (11.3%) had discordant interpretations and 72 (74.2%) had discrepancies >0.05 IU/mL using unreconciled results. After correction of manual data entry errors for 9 subjects, and exclusion of 6 subjects due to methodological errors, 7 (7.7%) subjects were discordant. Of these, 6 (85.7%) had all TB Responses within 0.25 IU/mL of the manufacturer's recommended cutoff. Non-uniform error of measurement was observed, with greater variation in higher IFN-γ measurements. Within-subject standard deviation for TB Response was as high as 0.16 IU/mL, and limits of agreement ranged from −0.46 to 0.43 IU/mL for subjects with mean TB Response within 0.25 IU/mL of the cutoff. Conclusion Greater interlaboratory variability was associated with manual data entry and higher IFN-γ measurements. Manual data entry should be avoided. Because variability in measuring TB Response may affect interpretation, especially near the cutoff, consideration

  7. The interlocking finger test in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina Pinto; Oliveira, Guiomar Nascimento; Foss, Maria Paula; Tumas, Vitor

    2016-07-01

    The interlocking finger test (ILFT) is a bedside screening test in which the subject must imitate four bimanual finger gestures without symbolic meaning. We assessed the utility of the test in the cognitive evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated 88 healthy subjects and 101 patients with PD using a simplified motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, Clinical Dementia Rating, Mini-Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, digit span, word list battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment, Frontal Assessment Battery, semantic verbal fluency test, and the ILFT. Diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment and dementia were made using the Movement Disorder Society diagnostic criteria. ILFT scores in healthy subjects correlated significantly with age (p=0.001) and only one healthy subject scored 2 in the test. ILFT scores were significantly lower in patients with PD and dementia (p=0.001) and significantly correlated with cognitive and functional tests, but not with depressive symptoms (p=0.607), Hoehn and Yahr scores (p=0.907), or Schwab and England scores (p=0.701). Twenty-five patients with dementia, three patients with mild cognitive impairment, and six patients with apparently normal cognition scored less than 3 in the ILFT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ILFT to discriminate patients with dementia from those without it was 0.76 (cut-off score of 3/2: sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 0.85). In conclusion, the ILFT seems to be a useful bedside test to assess cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  8. The interlocking finger test in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina Pinto; Oliveira, Guiomar Nascimento; Foss, Maria Paula; Tumas, Vitor

    2016-07-01

    The interlocking finger test (ILFT) is a bedside screening test in which the subject must imitate four bimanual finger gestures without symbolic meaning. We assessed the utility of the test in the cognitive evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated 88 healthy subjects and 101 patients with PD using a simplified motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, Clinical Dementia Rating, Mini-Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, digit span, word list battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment, Frontal Assessment Battery, semantic verbal fluency test, and the ILFT. Diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment and dementia were made using the Movement Disorder Society diagnostic criteria. ILFT scores in healthy subjects correlated significantly with age (p=0.001) and only one healthy subject scored 2 in the test. ILFT scores were significantly lower in patients with PD and dementia (p=0.001) and significantly correlated with cognitive and functional tests, but not with depressive symptoms (p=0.607), Hoehn and Yahr scores (p=0.907), or Schwab and England scores (p=0.701). Twenty-five patients with dementia, three patients with mild cognitive impairment, and six patients with apparently normal cognition scored less than 3 in the ILFT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ILFT to discriminate patients with dementia from those without it was 0.76 (cut-off score of 3/2: sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 0.85). In conclusion, the ILFT seems to be a useful bedside test to assess cognitive impairment in patients with PD. PMID:26960261

  9. Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. PMID:24150105

  10. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  11. Subtyping Somatic Tinnitus: A Cross-Sectional UK Cohort Study of Demographic, Clinical and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Vella, Claire; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus is the ability to modulate the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus by somatic manoeuvres. The condition is still not fully understood and further identification of this subtype is essential, particularly for the purpose of establishing protocols for both its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of somatic tinnitus within a large UK cohort using a largely unselected sample. We believe this to be relatively unique in comparison to current literature on the topic. This was investigated by using a total of 608 participant assessments from a set of recognised tinnitus and audiology measures. Results from a set of chi-square tests of association found that amongst the individuals with somatic tinnitus, a higher proportion had pulsatile tinnitus (different from heartbeat), were under the age of 40, reported variation in the loudness of their tinnitus and reported temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. The same pattern of results was confirmed using a multivariate analysis of the data based on logistic regression. These findings have strong implications towards the profiling of somatic tinnitus as a distinct subtype of general tinnitus. PMID:25996779

  12. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  13. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Romaniello, W T; Soscia, S M; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1994-08-01

    It is important to examine the functional relationships between commonly performed clinical tests and to resolve inconsistencies in previous investigative results. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between three commonly performed clinical tests: isokinetic isolated knee concentric muscular testing, the single-leg hop test, and the subjective knee score in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. To determine if a relationship exists would be beneficial to clinicians in determining patient progression, treatment modification, and return-to-sport objective parameters. Several investigators have analyzed two of these parameters, but no one has investigated three parameters to date. Additionally, this study explored the concept of limb acceleration and deceleration during high-speed isokinetics and its relationship to function. Fifty patients were randomly selected (29 males) with a mean age of 23.7 years (range 15-52). The subjects completed a subjective knee score questionnaire that rated symptoms (pain, swelling, giving way) and specific sport function and completed an overall knee score assessment. The patients were then evaluated performing three one-legged functional tests: 1) hop for distance, 2) timed hop, and 3) cross-over triple hop. Isokinetic testing was performed on a Biodex dynamometer at 180, 300, and 450 degrees/sec for knee extension/flexion. The patients' mean value of the self-assessed knee rating was 86 points. Sixty-four percent of the patients exhibited normal limb symmetry (within 85%) on all three single-leg hop tests. Sixteen percent exhibited quadriceps strength at least 90% of the contralateral limb isokinetically. A positive correlation was noted between isokinetic knee extension peak torque (180, 300 degrees/sec) and subjective knee scores, and the three hop tests (p < 0.001). A statistical trend was noted between knee extension acceleration and deceleration range at 180 and 300 degrees/sec for the

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

  15. Preparation for Testing a Multi-Bay Box Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.

  16. Diagnostic Role of Captopril Challenge Test in Korean Subjects with High Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Park, Kyeong Seon; Hong, A Ram; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) begins with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) measurement followed by confirmative tests. However, the ARR has high false positive rates which led to unnecessary confirmatory tests. Captopril challenge test (CCT) has been used as one of confirmatory tests, but the accuracy of it in the diagnosis of PA is still controversial. We aimed to examine the clinical efficacy of CCT as a post-screening test in PA. Methods In a prospective study, we enrolled subjects with suspected PA who had hypertension and ARR >20 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/hr). Sixty-four patients who underwent both the saline infusion test and the CCT were included. Results The diagnostic performance of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) post-CCT was greater than that of ARR post-CCT and ARR pre-CCT in PA (area under the curve=0.956, 0.797, and 0.748, respectively; P=0.001). A cut-off value of 13 ng/dL showed the highest diagnostic odds ratio considering PAC post-CCT at 60 and 90 minutes. A PAC post-CCT of 19 ng/dL had a specificity of 100%, which can be used as a cut-off value for the confirmative test. Determining the diagnostic performance of PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes was sufficient for PA diagnosis. Subjects with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes <13 ng/dL are less likely to have PA, and those with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes ≥13 but <19 ng/dL should undergo secondary confirmatory tests. Conclusion The CCT test may be a reliable post-screening test to avoid the hospitalization in the setting of falsely elevated ARR screening tests. PMID:27184013

  17. Establishing construct validity of the Biology I Subject Area Testing program in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis

    Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.

  18. Educational needs of speech and language therapists in the field of audiology.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    Speech and language therapists have rather diverse educational backgrounds globally. Their qualifications vary from a 1 to 2-year diploma or certificate programme in a non-university educational setting, to a 6-year university graduate education. Although speech and language therapy is generally considered an interdisciplinary profession, both in education and in clinical practice, in some countries the main emphasis may still be on special education, medicine (mainly medical audiology) or, because of a joint qualification, psychology. This article discusses the requirements for audiological education in proper assessment and (re)habilitation of hearing impairments. Future challenges of both the profession and the discipline of speech and language therapy are also highlighted.

  19. Estimation of ventilatory capacity in subjects with unacceptable lung function tests.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E A; Robins, J M

    1986-09-01

    Based on pulmonary function data collected annually for six years on 540 Vermont granite workers, FEV1 in survey 1 was estimated by extrapolating back from subsequent measurements. The extrapolation method was found to fit the observed data of subjects with reproducible initial values very well (R2 = 0.87). Extrapolated FEV1s for workers unable to perform an adequate pulmonary function test according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society were compared to extrapolated values in the rest of the cohort. After adjusting for confounding, subjects with test failure in survey 1 had a lower extrapolated FEV1 than the rest of the cohort (p = 0.07). The mean extrapolated FEV1 of the 71 workers with an initial test failure was only 95% of a predicted value derived from the group with reproducible data, and the per cent predicted decreased from 98% to 71% as the number of test failures in the follow-up surveys increased (p = 0.0004). The American Thoracic Society and the Epidemiology Standardization Project currently recommend that test failures be excluded from the analysis of epidemiological data. Our findings suggest that alternative strategies for handling non-reproducible lung function may need to be explored in order to avoid selection bias.

  20. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  1. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  2. HIV infection among people of foreign origin voluntarily tested in Spain. A comparison with national subjects

    PubMed Central

    The, E

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe exposure categories and HIV prevalence among subjects voluntarily tested in Spain by country of origin. Methods: HIV prevalence and exposure categories were compared between national and non-Spanish subjects voluntarily tested in 18 sexually transmitted disease/HIV testing clinics from 16 Spanish cities in 2000. Results: Of 8861 testers, 2810 (31.7%) came from foreign countries; 73.1% from Latin America, 9.1% from western Europe, 6.2% from central/eastern Europe, 4.4% from northern Africa, and 4.2% from sub-Sahara Africa. Among women from Latin America, 78% were sex workers compared to 5.5% Spanish women. HIV infection was diagnosed in 170 persons, 34.7% from foreign countries. HIV prevalence for Spanish subjects (23% for men and 1.0% for women) was significantly different from men and women from Latin America (11.3% and 0.3% respectively), Sub-Saharan Africa (9.1% and 7.5% respectively), and women from the north of Africa (11.8%). Compared with Spaniards, analyses of persons of the same exposure category showed higher HIV prevalence in men who had sex with men from Latin America (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–6.9), heterosexual men from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 19.3; 95% CI: 6.4–58.0), and Latin America (OR: 9.4; 95% CI: 3.4–25.9), heterosexual women from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 16.9; 95% CI: 3.5–82.4) and from northern Africa (OR: 15.3; 95% CI: 3.2–73.2). Conclusions: An important proportion of HIV testers from these clinics came from foreign countries and some groups showed a high prevalence of HIV infection. Specific prevention and testing programmes adapted to the needs of migrants in Spain should be developed. PMID:12181461

  3. [The comparative test of nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Monge, J M; Soda Merhy, A

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the changes produced in the nasal respiratory epithelium in individuals with an important smoking habit. The purpose of this study is to compare the nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers. The nasal mucociliary transport of aspartame particles was measured in 50 healthy non-smokers and in 50 healthy smokers under similar conditions. The average time taken for the displacement of the test substance from the middle third of the inferior turbinate to the oropharynx was found to be in the smokers 13.62 min., and in the non-smokers, 10.34 min. The results were compared using student's "t" test and a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between both groups. This result is taken as a simple clinical test that evaluates the smoking effects on the nasal mucociliary function.

  4. Epidemiologic Issues in Audiology: Impact on Professional Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    The benefits and disadvantages in conducting universal infant hearing screening and in the transition of audiology from a master's to a doctoral level profession are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Epidemiologic strategies which may inform decision making in these two important and controversial areas are presented. (Author/CR)

  5. Audiological Examinations of Hearing Impaired Students, United States: 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Office of Demographic Studies.

    Presented are data on audiological examinations collected by the Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth for over 35,000 students enrolled in special educational programs for the hearing impaired during the 1969-70 school year. Statistics reported include age, sex, and hearing threshold levels (better ear averages) of the students;…

  6. Auditory complaints and audiologic assessment in children with surgically repaired cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço Cerom, Jaqueline; Renata José, Maria; Azenha, Fabiana de Souza Pinto; Macedo, Camila de Cássia; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: At the initial consultation, the speech–language pathologist and audiologist may consider possible diagnostic hypotheses based on the child's history and the parents' complaint. Aim: To investigate the association of hearing complaints with the findings obtained in the conventional audiologic assessment in children with cleft lip and palate. Retrospective study. Methods: We analyzed medical charts of 1000 patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent surgical repair between 1988 and 1995 at a mean age of 6 years 8 months. We excluded charts with records of inconsistent audiological responses and charts with missing data for any of the audiologic evaluations considered. Thus, the sample consisted of 393 records. Results: Two hundred thirty-nine patients presented hearing loss in one or both ears, but only 3.8% reported hearing complaints. The most frequent were otorrhea followed by otalgia. There was no statistical significance between the complaint and gender (p = 0.26) nor between the complaint and hearing loss (p = 0.83). Conclusion: This study showed no association between the hearing complaint and the conventional audiologic assessment. PMID:25992011

  7. Analysis of Preferred Textbooks in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marilyn

    Directors of 100 undergraduate training programs in speech language pathology and audiology were surveyed about the readability level and faculty satisfaction with currently used textbooks. For each of seven fundamental courses, Ss were asked to indicate the academic level at which students typically completed the courses, the textbook currently…

  8. Working Papers in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.

    Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…

  9. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  10. Working Papers in Experimental Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume VII, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.

    Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…

  11. Epidemiology: An Essential Science for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    1997-01-01

    Introduces epidemiology as a health science that is essential as a complement to the basic laboratory and clinical sciences in speech-language pathology and audiology. A definition of epidemiology is presented. Principles of epidemiology, including causal criteria, and concepts such as incidence, prevalence, and risk are discussed. (Author/CR)

  12. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.

  13. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule. PMID:26107624

  14. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness. PMID:27630984

  17. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness. PMID:27630984

  18. Post-flight test results of seed laser module subjected to space exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  19. Post-flight test results of acousto-optic modulator devices subjected to space exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 modulewas brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  20. Post-Flight Test Results of Acousto-Optic Modulator Devices Subjected to Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in a space environment for more than one and a half years included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator (AOM) devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  1. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  2. Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.

  3. EquiTest modification with shank and hip angle measurements: differences with age among normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Speers, R A; Shepard, N T; Kuo, A D

    1999-01-01

    The Sensory Organization Test protocol of the EquiTest system (NeuroCom International, Clackamas Oregon) tests utilization of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensors by manipulating the accuracy of visual and/or somatosensory inputs during quiet stance. In the standard Sensory Organization Test, both manipulation of sensory input (sway-referencing) and assessment of postural sway are based on ground reaction forces measured from a forceplate. The purpose of our investigation was to examine the use of kinematic measurements to provide a more direct feedback signal for sway-referencing and for assessment of sway. We compared three methods of sway-referencing: the standard EquiTest method based on ground reaction torque, kinematic feedback based on servo-controlling to shank motion, and a more complex kinematic feedback based on servo-controlling to follow position of the center of mass (COM) as calculated from a two-link biomechanical model. Fifty-one normal subjects (ages 20-79) performed the randomized protocol. When using either shank or COM angle for sway-referencing feedback as compared to the standard EquiTest protocol, the Equilibrium Quotient and Strategy Score assessments were decreased for all age groups in the platform sway-referenced conditions (SOT 4, 5, 6). For all groups of subjects, there were significant differences in one or more of the kinematic sway measures of shank, hip, or COM angle when using either of the alternative sway-referencing parameters as compared to the standard EquiTest protocol. The increased sensitivities arising from use of kinematics had the effect of amplifying differences with age. For sway-referencing, the direct kinematic feedback may enhance ability to reduce proprioceptive information by servo-controlling more closely to actual ankle motion. For assessment, kinematics measurements can potentially increase sensitivity for detection of balance disorders, because it may be possible to discriminate between body sway

  4. New testing software for quantifying discrimination capacity in subjects with ocular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, José J.; Jiménez, José R.; Ortiz, Carolina; Alarcón, Aixa; Anera, Rosario G.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new visual test, designed as software for quantifying discrimination capacity under low-illumination conditions. This is an important task in the presence of visual disturbances, such as those perceived by subjects with some ocular pathologies. For this purpose, we propose a visual-disturbance index, checking the test with two groups of observers having different ocular pathologies: a group with unilateral keratitis and another group affected with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). To compare the test results to objective data, we use a double-pass device to measure the Strehl ratio, a parameter that quantifies the retinal-image quality, taking into account aberrations, retinal reflection, and intraocular scattering working jointly. Diseased eyes present higher disturbance indexes and a lower Strehl ratio compared to their healthy fellow eyes, registering a significant descending correlation between the disturbance index and the Strehl ratio. The lower the Strehl ratio is, the higher the disturbance index for the eyes studied. Therefore, in keratitis and ARMD eyes, our results demonstrate a deterioration in the retinal-image quality and a lower discrimination capacity to peripheral stimuli, reducing visual performance. The test presented here could be useful for the study and time course in different eye diseases, especially those involving an increase in scattered light or alterations in the ocular media, as shown in this work.

  5. Assessment of cognitive asymmetries in brain-damaged and normal subjects: validation of a test battery.

    PubMed Central

    Bentin, S; Gordon, H W

    1979-01-01

    A test battery designed to assess cognitive functions normally related to the left and right cerebral hemispheres was validated on 30 patients with unilateral (16 right, 14 left) lesions. The tests were preselected to reflect typical functioning of the hemispheres according to general agreement in the literature. A Cognitive Laterality Quotient (CLQ) was calculated from the difference in performance between the "right" and "left" test batteries and, therefore, reflected the relative functioning attributed to the right and left hemispheres. Using the CLQ measurement and a control group of 30 non-neurological patients matched for age and education, 28 out of 30 brain-damaged patients (93%) were categorised correctly according to side of lesion; the other two were considered to have either abnormal lateralisation (one was left handed) or asymmetrical premorbid cognitive profiles. Using only one (paired) test whose two subparts were designed to vary only slightly in task requirements to measure either right or left functioning, 29 out of 30 patients were correctly categorised. It is suggested that the concept of relative assessment of basic cognitive functions is more fruitful than general assessment of intellectual functions for use in diagnosis and rehabilitation of neurological patients or normal subjects with developmental or acquired behavioural cognitive abnormalities. Images PMID:490177

  6. Reading in Subjects with an Oral Cleft: Speech, Hearing and Neuropsychological Skills

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Amy L.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; DeVolder, Ian; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate speech, hearing, and neuropsychological correlates to reading among children, adolescents and young adults with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Method All testing was completed in one visit at a Midwestern university hospital. Subjects in both the NSCL/P (n = 80) and control group (n = 62) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (average age = 17.60 and 17.66, respectively). Subjects completed a battery of standardized tests evaluating intelligence, neuropsychological skills, and word reading. Subjects with NSCL/P also underwent speech assessment and past audiology records were evaluated. Results After controlling for age and SES, subjects with cleft performed significantly worse on a test of word reading. For subjects with cleft, word reading deficits were not associated with measures of speech or hearing, but were correlated with impairments in auditory memory. Conclusions These findings show poorer reading among subjects with NCL/P compared to those without. Further work needs to focus on correlates of reading among subjects with cleft to allow early identification and appropriate intervention/accommodation for those at risk. PMID:24188114

  7. Impact on physical therapy and audiology students of an interprofessional case-based learning experience in education of vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Trommelen, Rachel D; Hebert, Laurie; Nelson, T Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular disorders are quite common and can cause significant disability. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders is very complex, requiring multidisciplinary input including physical therapy (PT) and audiology (AUD). The purpose of this research was to determine if an interprofessional educational experience between the PT and AUD students will increases the students' confidence in their knowledge of the role of the other discipline, circumstances which would require referral to the other discipline, and communication with individuals from the other discipline. PT and AUD students were divided into small groups and worked through an unfolding case. A paper-and-pencil survey was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of the experience. Mann-Whitney U-tests demonstrated no significant difference between the confidence levels of PT and AUD students pre-test and post-test. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests demonstrated statistically significant gains in confidence levels on all items from pre-test to posttest. The authors attribute these gains to interprofessional collaboration, case-based learning, and discipline- specific facilitation. In the future, this exercise would benefit from additional disciplines. The outcomes strengthen the research that interprofessional education and case-based learning are effective methods of education. This should lead to increased communication in clinical settings and ultimately improved patient outcomes.

  8. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  9. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  10. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  11. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  12. Seton Hall university doctor of science degree program: clinical doctorate in audiology.

    PubMed

    Koehnke, Janet; Besing, Joan; Shea-Miller, Kelly; Martin, Brett

    2004-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical doctoral program in audiology at Seton Hall University. It is a full-time, 4-year program that includes academic course work, clinical practica, and research experience. In concert with the university mission, the program is designed to enable students to develop the skills they need to be leaders in the field of audiology, providing assessment and intervention to individuals with hearing problems and enhancing the knowledge base of the profession. As part of the School of Graduate Medical Education, students in the program have access to a wealth of resources in related health professions. The close proximity to New York City provides many opportunities for outstanding clinical education with a diverse population.

  13. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Han, Woojae

    2016-09-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086

  14. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea.

  15. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Han, Woojae

    2016-09-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea.

  16. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086

  17. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  18. Gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion examined by [(13) C] breath test.

    PubMed

    Koike, S; Sujino, T; Ohmori, H; Shimazaki, K; Fukuyama, E; Kanai, T; Hibi, T; Ono, T

    2013-08-01

    Masticatory function is significantly lower in individuals with malocclusion than in those with normal occlusion. Although several studies suggest that masticatory function influences gastrointestinal digestive function, the relationship between malocclusion and gastrointestinal symptoms has not been studied extensively. We hypothesised that insufficient masticatory function would increase the functional burden of the stomach and have some influence on the gastrointestinal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate masticatory function and gastric emptying rate in subjects with malocclusion. Eleven healthy dentate female volunteers and eleven female patients with maloc-clusion underwent a (13) C-acetate breath test with a liquid meal. Maximum (13) CO2 exhalation time (Tmax ) was compared statistically between both groups. Masticatory function was assessed by colour-changeable chewing gum. In addition, the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroeso-phageal reflux disease (FSSG) and questionnaires on food intake were given to both groups. The mean Tmax of the malocclusion group was significantly longer than that of the normal occlusion group (P = 0·007). Masticatory performance, measured by colour-changeable gum and questionnaires, was significantly lower in the malocclusion group than in the normal occlusion group (P = 0·023, P = 0·003). There was no significant difference in the FSSG results between the two groups (P = 0·262). This study suggested that there was a correlation between malocclusion and gastric emptying function in women.

  19. Hearing Aid-Related Standards and Test Systems.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-02-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  20. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  1. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  2. Walking ability after stroke in patients from Argentina: predictive values of two tests in subjects with subacute hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Marcelo Andrés; Portela, Manuel; Gianella, Matias; Freixes, Orestes; Fernández, Sergio Anibal; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Tanga, Cristobal Osvaldo; Olmos, Lisandro Emilio; Rubel, Ivan Federico

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the predictive values of the trunk control test (TCT) and functional ambulation category (FAC) for independent walking up to 6 months post stroke. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects with hemiplegia secondary to a unilateral hemisphere stroke were included. [Methods] The protocol was started at 45 days post stroke, with the TCT and FAC as walking predictors. At 90, 120, and 180 days post stroke, the subjects’ independent walking ability was assessed by using the Wald test. [Results] The TCT was identified as an independent predictor of ambulation at 90, 120, and 180 days. Subjects who scored ≥ 49 in the initial test had 93.8% probability of achieving independent gait at 6 months. The FAC proved that 100% of the subjects who scored 2 at 45 days post stroke walked independently at 90 days, 100% of the subjects who scored 1 walked independently at 120 days, and only 33.3% of the subjects who scored 0 walked independently at 180 days. [Conclusion] The TCT and FAC can predict independent walking at 45 days post stroke. In subjects with FAC 0, the TCT should be used to predict patients who will be able to walk independently. PMID:26504338

  3. Development and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language.

    PubMed

    Mukari, Siti Z; Keith, Robert W; Tharpe, Anne M; Johnson, Cheryl D

    2006-06-01

    Single and double dichotic digit tests in Malay language were developed and standardized as an initial attempt to incorporate tests of auditory processing within the scope of audiology practice in Malaysia. Normative data under free recall, directed right-ear first, and directed left-ear first listening conditions were determined using 120 Malay children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old with normal hearing and normal academic performance. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 15 of the study subjects. In general, the double dichotic digit test produced greater differences in scores between age groups, and a greater right-ear advantage than the single dichotic digit test. In addition, the double dichotic digit test also had higher test-retest reliability. These findings suggest the double dichotic digit test is more clinically applicable. PMID:16777781

  4. The influence of laboratory set-up in usability tests: effects on user performance, subjective ratings and physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the influences of situational factors on user behaviour in usability tests. Sixty participants carried out two tasks on a computer-simulated prototype of a mobile phone. Employing a 3 x 2 mixed experimental design, laboratory set-up was varied as a between-subjects variable (presence of facilitator and two non-interactive observers, presence of facilitator or no person present) while task difficulty was manipulated as a within-subjects variable (low vs. high). Performance data, subjective measures and physiological parameters (e.g. heart rate variability) were taken. The results showed that the presence of non-interactive observers during a usability test led to a physiological stress response, decreased performance on some measures and affected the emotional state of test participants. The presence of a facilitator (i.e. a participating observer) also influenced the emotional state of the test participant. Practitioners involved in usability testing need to be aware of undue influences of observers, in particular, if the observers are non-interactive. The findings presented in this paper have implications for the practice of usability testing. They indicated a considerable influence of observers on test participants (physiology and emotions) and on the outcomes of usability tests (performance measures). This should be considered when selecting the set-up of a usability testing procedure.

  5. Using Achievement Tests/SAT® II: Subject Tests to Demonstrate Achievement and Predict College Grades: Sex, Language, Ethnic, and Parental Education Groups. Research Report No. 2001-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramist, Leonard; Lewis, Charles; McCamley-Jenkins, Laura

    2001-01-01

    There has been increased interest in emphasizing Achievement Tests, as SAT II: Subject Tests, for use in admission and placement. In this report, data was obtained from a comprehensive database of categorized course grades for a large number and great variety of colleges, with student groups identified. For each student group, the percentage of…

  6. Substituting SAT® II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Test: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality. Research Report No. 2001-3. ETS RR-01-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests, the authors simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Specifically, they treated the students in each college as forming the applicant pool for a more select college,…

  7. Selecting Students with a General Reasoning Test (SAT I) or Tests in Academic Subjects (SAT II): Does It Matter for Non-Native Speakers of English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both the SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests researchers simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Students in each college were treated as forming the applicant pool for a more select college, and the top…

  8. Tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy in a UK National Health Service audiology department: Patients’ evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments

    PubMed Central

    Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C. J.; Lammaing, Karen; Cropley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ judgements of the effectiveness of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapies offered in a specialist UK National Health Service audiology department. Design: Cross-sectional service evaluation questionnaire survey. Patients were asked to rank the effectiveness of the treatment they received on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no effect, 5 = very effective). Study sample: The questionnaire was sent to all patients who received treatment between January and March 2014 (n = 200) and 92 questionnaires were returned. Results : The mean score was greatest for counselling (Mean = 4.7, SD = 0.6), followed by education (Mean = 4.5, SD = 0.8), cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.7), and hearing tests (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.9). Only 6% of responders rated counselling as 3 or below. In contrast, bedside sound generators, hearing aids, and wideband noise generators were rated as 3 or below by 25%, 36%, and 47% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective components of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy interventions were judged by the patients to be counselling, education, and CBT. PMID:27195947

  9. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  10. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  11. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  12. Substituting SAT II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Tests: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    Simulated the effects of making admission decisions using SAT II subject scores in place of SAT I reasoning scores. Found that success rates, in terms of first-year grade point averages, were virtually identical for students selected by the different models. The percentage of African American, Asian American, and White students selected varied…

  13. Reliability and Validity of Standing Back Extension Test for Detecting Motor Control Impairment in Subjects with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Eapen, Charu; Mahale, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a chronic health problem with high socioeconomic impact. Specific diagnosis or treatment approach has not yet effectively established to treat chronic low back pain. Standing Back Extension Test is one of the clinical measures to detect the passive extension subgroup of Motor Control Impairment (MCI); which could have an impact on spinal stability leading to recurrent chronic low back pain. Reliability and validity of this test is not fully established. Aim To determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Standing Back Extension Test for detecting MCI of the lumbar spine. Materials and Methods A total of 50 subjects were included in the study, 25 patients with Non Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP) (12 men, 13 women) and 25 healthy controls (12 men, 13 women) were recruited into the study. All subjects performed the test movement. Two raters blinded to the subjects rated the test performance as either ‘Positive’ or ‘Negative’ based on the predetermined rating protocol. The thickness of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) muscle was assessed using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI). Statistical test used For reliability, the kappa coefficient with percent agreement was calculated and for assessing the validity Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were constructed. Results The standing back extension test showed very good intra-rater (k=0.87 with an agreement of 96%) and good inter-rater (k=0.78 with an agreement of 94%) reliability and high AUC for TrA muscle. Conclusion The standing back extension test was found to be a reliable and a valid measure to detect passive extension subgroup for MCI in subjects with low back pain. PMID:26894091

  14. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those…

  15. Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

  16. Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. PMID:22848013

  17. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  18. Usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Test in Psychiatry by U.S. and Canadian Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Rosenthal, Renathe H.; Clegg, Kathleen A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors explored psychiatry clerkship usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Subject Test. METHODS: U.S. and Canadian psychiatry clerkship directors (N=150) were sent an 18-item questionnaire surveying evaluation and remediation practices. RESULTS: Of 111 questionnaires (74%) returned, 76 (69%) reported using the…

  19. Audiological Evaluation of Patients Taking Kanamycin for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhagat, Sanjeev; Verma, Bhimsain; Singh, Ravinder; Singh, Surinderpal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis is increasing in developing countries. Aminoglycosides are an integral part of second-line drugs, however ototoxicity is a major limitation for their use. This study aims to determine the extent of hearing loss in patients taking one of the commonly prescribed drugs for Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), Kanamycin, at a Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab, India, which is a 1200 bed tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients (68 males and 32 females) with confirmed diagnosis of MDR-TB were included in this study conducted between January 2012 and February 2014. Subjects were between 15 to 60 years of age, with a mean age of 37.46 ± 10.1. Pure tone audiometry (PTA) was performed before the start of the therapy, as a baseline, and was repeated after 1 week and 6 weeks of Kanamycin use to assess hearing loss as an effect of therapy. Results: Of the 100 patients examined, ototoxicity was found in 18 subjects post therapy. Incidence of high frequency hearing loss was 2% at week 1, and 12% after 6 weeks of follow up. However, 4% of the cases developed flat loss at week 6. The hearing loss was bilateral in 13 patients and unilateral in 5 patients. Ototoxicity was more common in males (66.67%) compared to females (33.3%). Maximum cases were found in the age group of 36 to 45 years (36.8%), the majority being from a rural background (83.3%). The association with socioeconomic status (P=0.024) and co-morbid conditions like diabetes and hypertension (P=0.001) reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Lack of specific guidelines to monitor patients taking aminoglycosides makes ototoxicity a major adverse effect of their use in MDR-TB. More studies are mandated to study the risk factors associated with the development of ototoxicity and for the development of alternate drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:27429949

  20. The audiological profile of adults with and without hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is any influence of systemic arterial hypertension on the peripheral auditory system. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 40 individuals between 30 and 50 years old, who were divided into groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension, using data from high-frequency audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The results were compared with those from groups of normal-hearing individuals, with and without systemic arterial hypertension, who underwent the pure-tone audiometry test. All individuals also underwent the following procedures: otoscopy, acoustic immittance measures, pure-tone audiometry at frequencies from 250 to 16000 Hz, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions test and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension in either conventional or high-frequency audiometry. Regarding transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, there was a trend toward statistical significance whereby the systemic arterial hypertension group showed lower results. Regarding distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, the systemic arterial hypertension group showed significantly lower results at the following frequencies: 1501, 2002, and 3003 Hz. A discriminant analysis indicated that the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions variables best distinguished individuals with and without systemic arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: Data from this study suggest cochlear dysfunction in individuals with systemic arterial hypertension because their otoacoustic emission results were lower than those in the systemic arterial hypertension group. PMID:27166767

  1. Correlation between tests of attention and performance on grooved and Purdue pegboards in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe; Seelhorst, Ulrike

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the relation between tests of manual dexterity and attentional functions with 49 normal, right-handed medical students (26 women, 23 men, ages 19-30 years) who were assessed with a Purdue Pegboard Test, Grooved Pegboard Test, and a Test for Attentional Performance, comprising measures of tonic and phasic alertness and divided attention. Weak to moderately high partial correlations controlling for finger size were obtained between pegboard test performance of the left hand and phasic alertness (r = .31-.50). Purdue Pegboard Assembly subtest scores were weakly correlated with divided attention (r = -.39). These findings suggest that attention is an important determinant of performance for manual dexterity tests of the nondominant hand. PMID:12434843

  2. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  3. A Subjective Test of Modulated Blade Spacing for Helicopter Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.

  4. From line to dots: an improved computerised rod and frame system for testing subjective visual vertical and horizontal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Perception of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and horizontal (SVH) has traditionally been measured by rotating a mechanical rod either with or without a frame present. The computerised rod and frame (CRAF) system has previously only been used to measure SVV. We have expanded the use of this system by testing its feasibility to measure SVH. This was done by comparing two groups of subjects (n = 103) randomly assigned to be tested for SVV or SVH. Findings Preliminary results showed a higher than expected percentage of individuals with SVH errors < 0.5°. This was attributed to additional visual cues provided by the changing appearance of the rod as it approached the horizontal. A solution to this problem was sought by replacing the rod by two dots to mark its ends. In a second investigation 30 subjects were tested using both the "rod as line" and "rod as dots" presentation. Bland and Altman analysis showed no difference between the rod and dots presentations in the measurement of SVV, but confirmed a fixed error of -0.93° between rods and dots for SVH. Changing the rod from a line to dots in the computer system resulted in errors for both SVV and SVH that were comparable to previous studies using manual systems. Conclusions The computerized rod and frame system may be improved by replacement of the line with two dots. This reduces clues provided to the subject by the appearance of the rod on the screen. PMID:20205858

  5. AUDIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN OTOSPONDYLOMEGAEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA (OSMED) ASSOCIATED WITH A NOVEL MUTATION IN COL11A2

    PubMed Central

    Tokgöz-Yilmaz, Suna; Şahli, Sanem; Fitoz, Suat; Sennaroğlu, Gonca; Tekin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to assess the audiological findings of a 4-year-old child with a homozygous COL11A2 mutation and to point out the role of continuous follow-ups in children with craniofacial syndromes after the newborn hearing screening. Methods A 4-year-old boy with otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) was followed up after birth for hearing loss. Transient Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE’s), Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE’s), Automated and Clinical Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR and ABR) measurements, Visual Reinforcement Audiometry, immitansmetric measurements and hearing threshold measurements were performed for audiological evaluation. Results The patient developed sensorineural hearing loss at 11 months of age while his hearing was normal at birth. Because of auditory-verbal training with hearing aids started at 20 months of age, he now has normal verbal communication with his peers. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates that hearing loss developes in infancy in patients with OSMED and underscrores the importance of contunied hearing screening beyond newborn period for early intervention of hearing impairment and communication problems. PMID:21208667

  6. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Kendall, Caroline J; Turbin, Mitchel B

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to loud sounds is a common cause and exacerbater of tinnitus - a troubling auditory symptom that affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical research at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research has resulted in a clinical model of tinnitus management referred to as Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM). The model involves five hierarchical levels of management: Triage, Audiologic Evaluation, Group Education, Tinnitus Evaluation, and Individualized Management. Counseling by audiologists and, as needed, mental health providers, is a key component of PATM. This style of counseling focuses less on didactic informational counseling; instead, counseling is used for facilitating patients' learning to adjust to the disturbing auditory symptom by successfully employing tools from two powerful skillsets for self-management of chronic tinnitus - the therapeutic uses of sound and techniques from cognitive-behavioral psychology. This article provides an overview of the methods of counseling used with PATM and provides details concerning the overarching principles of collaborative adult learning that are believed to be most important in facilitating self-management by patients who complain of tinnitus. PMID:19265252

  7. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  8. Numerical and experimental study of cruciform specimens subjected to biaxial tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Steigmann, R.

    2016-08-01

    Multiaxial stress states are very common in engineering applications. To obtain a plane stress state in a material are used different experimental procedures. Biaxial tensile tests of cruciform specimens represent one of the most versatile techniques with accurate results for a wide range of materials. Specimen geometry and size must be adapted to biaxial experiments that use devices attached to universal testing machine. Biaxial tensile tests are performed using cruciform specimens optimized by a numerical study through finite element analysis and a custom built attachable device developed. The results obtained show that the method proposed in this paper can be used with good results to characterize the behaviour of ductile materials.

  9. An Investigation of Test Variables Potentially Useful to the Washington Pre-College Testing Program for Community College Subject Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenmun, Renny; And Others

    This study was to identify variables potentially useful in predicting a larger proportion of variance in community college study fields than accounted for by the current Washington Pre-College (WPC) battery. Selected tests from the Comparative Guidance and Placement (CGP) Core and Research Batteries, and the Tool and Form Matching subtests from…

  10. The Development of Audiologic Criteria to Differentiate Between Auditory Thresholds and Cutile Thresholds of Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nober, E. Harris

    Researchers investigated a variety of audiologic procedures to determine whether they could differentiate between auditory thresholds and cutile (cutaneous-tactile) thresholds of 32 deaf adolescents. Ss were classified into one of the following three groups: a cutile group with no pure tone thresholds beyond 750 Hertz (Hz); a group of questionable…

  11. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Vane Subelements Subjected to Rig Testing in a Gas Turbine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael; Calomino, Anthony; Thomas, David J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2004-01-01

    Vane subelements were fabricated from a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. A cross-sectional slice of an aircraft engine metal vane was the basis of the vane subelement geometry. To fabricate the small radius of the vane's trailing edge using stiff Sylramic SiC fibers, a unique SiC fiber architecture was developed. A test configuration for the vanes in a high pressure gas turbine environment was designed and fabricated. Testing was conducted using a pressure of 6 atm and combustion flow rate of 0.5 kg/sec, and consisted of fifty hours of steady state operation followed by 102 2-minute thermal cycles. A surface temperature of 1320 C was obtained for the EBC-coated SiC/SiC vane subelement. This paper will briefly discuss the vane fabrication, test configuration, and results of the vane testing. The emphasis of the paper is on characterization of the post-test condition of the vanes.

  12. A Vehicle for Use as an Audiology Unit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. R.; John, J. E. J.; Fowweather, F.

    1963-01-01

    Reliable measurement of hearing by audiometry requires quiet surroundings for which suggested criteria exist. When field studies of hearing are carried out it is frequently most practicable to use a vehicle in which these desired sound levels are obtained. It was decided to incorporate in the design of this vehicle a consulting room and a waiting room so that the patient could adjust to the surroundings for what is essentially a psychological test. Ventilation is effected by input and extractor fans. As a basis for the acoustic design the sound levels in typical situations where the van was to be used were determined. From these it is possible to estimate the attenuation required. The walls and roof of the vehicle are of solid construction with a surface density of 5 lb./sq. ft., and the floor has a surface density of 6 lb./sq. ft. A commercially made booth is suspended on resilient mountings inside the consulting room. The total weight of all the equipment and the sound proofing is in the region of 2 to 3 tons. After construction the sound attenuation of the vehicle was measured in nearly uniform sound fields, provided by a power station and jet engines. Measurements were made simultaneously outside the vehicle, in the consulting room, and inside the booth. The readings were taken in ⅓ octave bands with a calibrated condenser microphone and audio-frequency spectrometer. The results show that the attenuation of the vehicle shell closely follows the predicted value for 5 lb./sq. ft. Subtraction of the overall attenuation from the octave band sound levels in typical factory yards gave a measure of the sound levels to be expected within the booth under field conditions. These showed that the vehicle should be suitable for audiometric measurements of frequencies above 100 cycles per second. To get an accurate value of the attenuation of the booth, which is not symmetrically placed in the consulting room, a source giving a uniform field in the horizontal plane was

  13. Putting the Squeeze on Social Studies: Managing Teaching Dilemmas in Subject Areas Excluded from State Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent research indicates that social studies is being "squeezed" from the elementary curriculum as instructional time is shifted to language arts and mathematics in response to state testing and the federal No Child Left Behind Act, especially in schools serving poor students and students of color. However, less is known about…

  14. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150

  15. Effects of general fatigue induced by incremental maximal exercise test on gait stability and variability of healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; Andrade, Adriano O

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether general fatigue induced by incremental maximal exercise test (IMET) affects gait stability and variability in healthy subjects. Twenty-two young healthy male subjects walked in a treadmill at preferred walking speed for 4min prior (PreT) the test, which was followed by three series of 4min of walking with 4min of rest among them. Gait variability was assessed using walk ratio (WR), calculated as step length normalized by step frequency, root mean square (RMSratio) of trunk acceleration, standard deviation of medial-lateral trunk acceleration between strides (VARML), coefficient of variation of step frequency (SFCV), length (SLCV) and width (SWCV). Gait stability was assessed using margin of stability (MoS) and local dynamic stability (λs). VARML, SFCV, SLCV and SWCV increased after the test indicating an increase in gait variability. MoS decreased and λs increased after the test, indicating a decrease in gait stability. All variables showed a trend to return to PreT values, but the 20-min post-test interval appears not to be enough for a complete recovery. The results showed that general fatigue induced by IMET alters negatively the gait, and an interval of at least 20min should be considered for injury prevention in tasks with similar demands.

  16. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 2; Temperature Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.

  17. Novel insights into the behavioral analysis of mice subjected to the forced-swim test.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Faas, G C; Ferando, I; Mody, I

    2015-04-14

    The forced-swim test (FST) is one of the most widely used rodent behavioral assays, in which the immobility of animals is used to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. However, the existing, and mostly arbitrary, criteria used for quantification could lead to biased results. Here we believe we uncovered new confounding factors, revealed new indices to interpret the behavior of mice and propose an unbiased means for quantification of the FST.

  18. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  19. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  20. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them.

  1. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2(+) and GJB2(-), respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNA(Leu) (() (UUR) ()) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2(-) group compared to that in the GJB2(+) group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2(+)) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2(-)). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  2. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2+ and GJB2−, respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNALeu(UUR) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2− group compared to that in the GJB2+ group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2+) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2−). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  3. Analyses of layer-thickness effects in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Thompson, G. A.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Becher, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.

  4. Effect of traditional Arabic coffee consumption on the glycemic index of Khalas dates tested in healthy and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Alkaabi, Juma; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Saadi, Hussein; Gariballa, Salah; Yasin, Javed

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of dates with coffee is common among Arabs and may affect postprandial hyperglycemia ex-cursion. The study aimed to determine the effect of coffee on the glycemic index of a common variety of dates (Khalas) tested in healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals. Study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 40.2±6.7 years) and ten diabetic participants with a mean HbA1c of 6.6±(0.7%) and a mean age of 40.8±5.7 years. Each subject participated in five days of tests with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the dates (with/without coffee). Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the interventions. Statistical analyses were performed using the independent samples and paired t-tests. Mean±SE glycemic indices of the Khalas dates for the healthy individuals were 55.1±7.7 and 52.7±6.2 without and with coffee consumption, respectively. Similar values were observed for those with diabetes (53.0±6.0 and 41.5±5.4). Differences between glycemic indices of Khalas with or without coffee were not significant (p=0.124). There were no significant differences in glycemic index between the diabetic and healthy subjects (p=0.834 and p=0.202 without and with coffee respectively). In conclusion, at least in the short term, coffee does not adversely affect capillary glucose levels following Khalas dates consumption in healthy and diabetic volunteers.

  5. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  6. [The use of the lectin test for detecting antineuraminidase antibodies in the sera of vaccinated subjects].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, V T; Slepushkin, A N; Burtseva, E I; Balandin, D I; Varecková, E; Rudenko, L G; Obrosova-Serova, N P

    1991-01-01

    The lectin test (a microvariant) was used to study the immunogenicity of live attenuated and inactivated virion divaccines of influenza A (H1N1 + H3N2) and influenza B vaccines in children 3 to 15 years of age. A good correlation was found between the general level of seroconversion of antineuraminidase and antihemagglutinin antibodies in the sera examined. This method is simple and may be useful for titration of large numbers of sera in studies on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines or peculiarities of anti-influenza humoral immunity.

  7. Experimental Tests on the Composite Foam Sandwich Pipes Subjected to Axial Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, QiLin; Xu, Kang; Zhang, DongDong

    2015-12-01

    Compared to the composite thin-walled tube, the composite foam sandwich pipe has better local flexural rigidity, which can take full advantage of the high strength of composite materials. In this paper, a series of composite foam sandwich pipes with different parameters were designed and manufactured using the prefabricated polyurethane foam core-skin co-curing molding technique with E-glass fabric prepreg. The corresponding axial-load compressive tests were conducted to investigate the influence factors that experimentally determine the axial compressive performances of the tubes. In the tests, the detailed failure process and the corresponding load-displacement characteristics were obtained; the influence rules of the foam core density, surface layer thickness, fiber ply combination and end restraint on the failure modes and ultimate bearing capacity were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the fiber ply combination, surface layer thickness and end restraint have a great influence on the ultimate load bearing capacity; (2) a reasonable fiber ply combination and reliable interfacial adhesion not only optimize the strength but also transform the failure mode from brittle failure to ductile failure, which is vital to the fully utilization of the composite strength of these composite foam sandwich pipes.

  8. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  9. Healthy centenarian subjects: the effect of red wine consumption on liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Pinzani, P; Petruzzi, E; Orlando, C; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Pazzagli, M; Masotti, G

    2005-01-01

    Liver function is well maintained with increasing age. The aim of our study was to investigate if long-term moderate (tests of liver function in healthy centenarians. Wine consumption habits were classified as moderate red wine drinkers (D) (tests revealed low levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). AST was higher in A (Mean+/-SE=8.40+/-0.32 U/l) in comparison to D (Mean+/-SE=6.25+/-0.72 U/l), but this difference was not statistically significant. Total-bilirubin (Tbil), alkaline phosphatase (AlkP), gamma- glutamyltransferase (GGT) and pseudocholinesterase (CHE) were in the normal range, and there was no difference between D and A. We conclude that red wine consumption in centenarians had no negative effect on circulating liver enzyme activities.

  10. A SUMMARY OF TEST OBSERVATIONS WHEN IBUTTONS ARE SUBJECTED TO RF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R J; Baluyot, E V

    2011-10-26

    The iButton is a 'one-wire', temperature sensor and data logger in a short metal cylinder package 17 mm in diameter and 6 mm tall. The device is designed to be attached to a surface and acquire temperature samples over time periods as short as 1 second to as long as 300 minutes. Both 8-bit and 16-bit samples are available with 8kB of memory available. Lifetime is limited to an internal battery that cannot be replaced or recharged. The RF test interest originated with the concern that the data logger could inadvertently record electrical emanations from other nearby equipment. The normal operation of the data logger does not support high speed sampling but the control interface will operate at either 15.4 kbps or 125 kbps. There were no observable effects in the operation of the module or in the data that could be attributed to the use of RF energy. They made the assumption that these devices would potentially show RF sensitivity in any of the registers and in the data memory equally, therefore gross changes in the data might show RF susceptibility. No such sensitivity was observed. Because significant power levels were used for these tests they can extrapolate downward in power to state that no RF susceptibility would occur at lower power levels given the same configurations.

  11. An approach to analyzing a single subject's scores obtained in a standardized test with application to the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT).

    PubMed

    Willmes, K

    1985-08-01

    Methods for the analysis of a single subject's test profile(s) proposed by Huber (1973) are applied to the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The procedures are based on the classical test theory model (Lord & Novick, 1968) and are suited for any (achievement) test with standard norms from a large standardization sample and satisfactory reliability estimates. Two test profiles of a Wernicke's aphasic, obtained before and after a 3-month period of speech therapy, are analyzed using inferential comparisons between (groups of) subtest scores on one test application and between two test administrations for single (groups of) subtests. For each of these comparisons, the two aspects of (i) significant (reliable) differences in performance beyond measurement error and (ii) the diagnostic validity of that difference in the reference population of aphasic patients are assessed. Significant differences between standardized subtest scores and a remarkably better preserved reading and writing ability could be found for both test administrations using the multiple test procedure of Holm (1979). Comparison of both profiles revealed an overall increase in performance for each subtest as well as changes in level of performance relations between pairs of subtests.

  12. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  13. High Order Statistics and Time-Frequency Domain to Classify Heart Sounds for Subjects under Cardiac Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named αopt, β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features. PMID:26089957

  14. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Kavita R; Pote, Sonali; Pujari, Sudeep; Deka, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT) of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1). Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS) and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P) value using Chi-square test of <0.005 was taken as significant. RESULTS Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire), Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20), 75.86% had a low TBUT (<10s), 58.62% had a low Schirmer's I test (≤10 mm), 86.20% had Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, 79.31% had Lissamine green staining score of ≥1. We found statistically significant associations between positive Schirmer test and arthritis (P<0.002), dryness elsewhere (P<0.001), contact lens use (P<0.002), systemic medication (P<0.0001), sleeping with eyes partly open (P<0.002), history of dry eyes treatment (P<0.0001), environmental factors (P<0.001), swimming (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation

  15. Elastic response and wrinkling onset of curved elastic membranes subjected to indentation test.

    PubMed

    Bernal, R; Tassius, Ch; Melo, F; Géminard, J-Ch

    2011-02-01

    Starting from a polymeric-fluid droplet, by vulcanization of the fluid free surface, curved elastic membranes, several nanometers thick and a few millimeters in diameter, which enclose a constant fluid volume, are produced. In an indentation-type test, carried out by pushing the membrane along its normal by means of a micro-needle, under some conditions, wrinkles are likely to appear around the contact region. Interestingly, we observe that the instability does not significantly alter the force-displacement relation: the relation between the force and the displacement remains linear and the associated stiffness is simply proportional to the tension of the membrane. In addition, we determine that the wrinkles develop when the stretching modulus of the membrane compares with its tension, which provides a useful method to estimate the elastic constant. PMID:21337016

  16. A Screening Approach for Classroom Acoustics Using Web-Based Listening Tests and Subjective Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils’ comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman’s sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. Conclusions/Significance In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils’ comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (p<0.001) and distance to the loudspeakers (p<0.001). Of the physical classroom features, presence of suspended acoustic panels (p<0.05) and length of the classroom (p<0.01) predicted speech comprehension. Of the pupils’ descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (p<0.05) predicted speech comprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil’s descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom. PMID:25615692

  17. Patient Complexity Charge Matrix for Audiology Services: A New Perspective on Unbundling.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Ian M; Bishop, Charles; Elkins, Alex; Johnson, Mary Frances; Sturdivant, Grace

    2016-05-01

    Traditional approaches to unbundling hearing aid services often take existing bundled charges and then separate the charges across all potential services associated with dispensing the devices. However, this method results in every patient being charged the same amount even though the complexity of the service varies across patients. We describe a model of charging for hearing aid services that takes into account three elements associated with patient services (i.e., assessing hearing status, audiologic decision making and interpretation, and counseling and treatment options) and two levels of complexity (straightforward and complex). Using this approach, there is negligible long-term financial impact on a practice however patients will perceive a lower overall cost for amplification. Additionally, this approach provides a payment structure more representative of the professional value of each visit. PMID:27516721

  18. Patient Complexity Charge Matrix for Audiology Services: A New Perspective on Unbundling.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Ian M; Bishop, Charles; Elkins, Alex; Johnson, Mary Frances; Sturdivant, Grace

    2016-05-01

    Traditional approaches to unbundling hearing aid services often take existing bundled charges and then separate the charges across all potential services associated with dispensing the devices. However, this method results in every patient being charged the same amount even though the complexity of the service varies across patients. We describe a model of charging for hearing aid services that takes into account three elements associated with patient services (i.e., assessing hearing status, audiologic decision making and interpretation, and counseling and treatment options) and two levels of complexity (straightforward and complex). Using this approach, there is negligible long-term financial impact on a practice however patients will perceive a lower overall cost for amplification. Additionally, this approach provides a payment structure more representative of the professional value of each visit.

  19. [Curriculum development in speech-language therapy and audiology: basis and principles].

    PubMed

    Hugo, S R; Uys, I C

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some of the important issues that form the basis of curriculum development for education in speech-language therapy and audiology. The demands of the profession are such that a horizontal occupational structure is no longer adequate in the multicultural, multilingual RSA context. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative educational options to accommodate current needs. These may include diploma training for technicians, certificate programmes for community rehabilitation workers and professionally directed masters courses. It is also apparent that the professional functions of the speech-language therapist and audiologist have extended to the point where aspects such as computer literacy, management functions, community work and consultation should play a greater role in the curriculum than is the case at present.

  20. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  1. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain. PMID:25790450

  2. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.

  3. Evaluation of the BRAHMS KRYPTOR thyroglobulin "mini-recovery" test in thyroid healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Verburg, F A; Grelle, I; Giovanella, L; Reiners, C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the work was to compare the automated thyroglobulin (Tg) assay on the automated BRAHMS KRYPTOR platform (hTG KRYPTOR) to the established BRAHMS Tg Plus immunoradiometric assay for the measurement of Tg levels and regular Tg recovery rates and to assess a recovery test using a low Tg concentration of 10 μg/l ("mini-recovery") in samples with a native Tg level of <10 μg/l. Tg levels and recovery rates, as well as the mini-recovery, were determined in 208 serum samples from thyroid-healthy patients using both assays. The reference ranges for the Tg-Plus assay are 2.0-51.0 μg/l for Tg levels and 81.5-108% for recovery rates at 100 μg/l. The reference ranges for hTG KRYPTOR are 2.4-47.8 μg/l for Tg, 83.3-110.4% for a conventional recovery with 80 μg/l in Tg levels ≥ 10.0 μg/l (n=121) and 94.4-122.9% for the mini-recovery with Tg <10.0 μg/l (n=87). The correlation between the Tg-Plus and hTG KRYPTOR is excellent for Tg (r2=0.95; p<0.001), but not significant for recovery rates. Tg levels determined using the KRYPTOR Tg assay are clinically comparable to the conventional Tg-Plus assay. New features of the KRYPTOR assay such as the ability to perform a "mini-recovery" still require further study before clinical use.

  4. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-11-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds. Here, we report the results of CITs collected by JOHNSON & JOHNSON Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ), part of an extensive tiered program to evaluate product safety. In the CIT, test formulations were applied to the skin of adults (18-70 years) with no known skin disease or allergies, 3 times per week for 2 weeks using semi-occlusive clinical patches. Preservatives were 1 of up to 16 components of test formulas, and included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, diazolidinyl urea, 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, parabens, isothiazolinone, phenoxyethanol, sorbates, or benzoates. Skin sites were scored after each patch removal using a 5-point scale, with 0 = no visible reaction and 4 = erythema, marked edema, or substantial vesiculation. Scores were reported as percentage of maximal irritation score. Data were analyzed from 1363 CIT studies (over 45 000 subjects). There were no significant differences in percentage of maximal scores between formulas grouped by preservative types (p > .1). Median score across the entire dataset was 0.44, with most formulas showing none or mild irritation. Although seasonal variations were observed, no correlation was noted between score and preservative concentration. In conclusion, in a large, normal subject dataset, preservatives at typical in-use concentrations did not appear to contribute to skin irritation.

  5. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Student Proficiency in Low-Stakes Subjects: Evidence from Florida's Elementary Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.; Trivitt, Julie R.; Greene, Jay P.

    2010-01-01

    An important criticism of high-stakes testing policies--policies that reward or sanction schools based on their students' performance on standardized tests--is that they provide schools with an incentive to focus on those subjects that play a role in the accountability system while decreasing attention to those subjects that are not part of the…

  6. Anti-buckling fatigue test assembly. [for subjecting metal specimen to tensile and compressive loads at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenbrenner, F. F.; Imig, L. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An antibuckling fatigue test assembly is described for holding a metal specimen which is subjected to compression and to rapid cyclical heating and cooling while permitting visual observation. In an illustrative embodiment of this invention, the anti-buckling fatigue test apparatus includes first and second guide members between which the metal specimen is disposed and held, a heating assembly comprising a suitable heating source such as a quartz lamp and a reflecting assembly directing the heat onto the specimen, and a cooling assembly for directing a suitable cooling fluid such as air onto the specimen. The guide members each have a passage to permit the heat to be directed onto the specimen. An opening is provided in the reflecting assembly to permit visual inspection of that region of the specimen adjacent to the opening onto which the heat is directed.

  7. Voxelwise gene-wide association study (vGeneWAS): multivariate gene-based association testing in 731 elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Kohannim, Omid; Jahanshad, Neda; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Kim, Sungeun; Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Potkin, Steven G.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging traits provide a powerful and biologically relevant substrate to examine the influence of genetics on the brain. Interest in genome-wide, brain-wide search for influential genetic variants is growing, but has mainly focused on univariate, SNP-based association tests. Moving to gene-based multivariate statistics, we can test the combined effect of multiple genetic variants in a single test statistic. Multivariate models can reduce the number of statistical tests in gene-wide or genome-wide scans and may discover gene effects undetectable with SNP-based methods. Here we present a gene-based method for associating the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18,044 genes across 31,662 voxels of the whole brain in 731 elderly subjects (mean age: 75.56 ± 6.82SD years; 430 males) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Structural MRI scans were analyzed using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to compute 3D maps of regional brain volume differences compared to an average template image based on healthy elderly subjects. Using the voxel-level volume difference values as the phenotype, we selected the most significantly associated gene (out of 18,044) at each voxel across the brain. No genes identified were significant after correction for multiple comparisons, but several known candidates were re-identified, as were other genes highly relevant to brain function. GAB2, which has been previously associated with late-onset AD, was identified as the top gene in this study, suggesting the validity of the approach. This multivariate, gene-based voxelwise association study offers a novel framework to detect genetic influences on the brain. PMID:21497199

  8. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  9. Post-Flight Test Results of Seed Laser Module Subjected to Space Exposure. Paper No. 8876-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  10. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

  11. What Is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Why Is It Relevant to Audiology?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carly; Grenness, Caitlin; Scarinci, Nerina; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is widely used in disability and health sectors as a framework to describe the far-reaching effects of a range of health conditions on individuals. This biopsychosocial framework can be used to describe the experience of an individual in the components of body functions, body structures, and activities and participation, and it considers the influence of contextual factors (environmental and personal) on these components. Application of the ICF in audiology allows the use of a common language between health care professionals in both clinical and research settings. Furthermore, the ICF is promoted as a means of facilitating patient-centered care. In this article, the relevance and application of the ICF to audiology is described, along with clinical examples of its application in the assessment and management of children and adults with hearing loss. Importantly, the skills necessary for clinicians to apply the ICF effectively are discussed. PMID:27489397

  12. Hemodynamic effects of eating and prolonged supine position in healthy subjects studied under clinical-pharmacological test conditions.

    PubMed

    Sziegoleit, W; Lautenschläger, C; Walther, C; Presek, P

    2010-10-01

    The influences of both being in a supine position for a prolonged period and food intake on cardiovascular variables were studied under clinical-pharmacological test conditions. In a randomized crossover design study without drug or placebo administration, 6 healthy male volunteers received a light standard meal before and during test A and fasted in test B. In both tests, while they were continuously supine for more than 8 h, a synchronous recording of cardiovascular variables was done at 24, 26 and 28 min after starting the supine position (first recordings) and 25 times from 2 to 480 min after the first recordings. Using a multifactorial statistical analysis, each parameter was evaluated regarding the factors eating and time of supine recording. Eating led to a significant decrease in diastolic and mean blood pressure, PQ time and QS₂ time, a downward trend in systemic vascular resistance and an upward trend in systolic blood pressure and cardiac output. When the subjects remained in a supine position for prolonged periods, significant increases in systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance were noted as well as significant decreases in cardiac output and QS₂ time. Thus, eating and remaining in a supine position for prolonged periods should be considered as sources of bias in clinical-pharmacological studies on cardiovascular drug effects and accompanying placebo controls.

  13. Genotypic tropism testing in proviral DNA to guide maraviroc initiation in aviremic subjects: 48-week analysis of the PROTEST study

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Federico; Poveda, Eva; Jesús Pérez-Elías, Maria; Hernández Quero, José; Àngels Ribas, Maria; Martínez-Madrid, Onofre J; Flores, Juan; Crespo, Manel; Gutiérrez, Félix; García-Deltoro, Miguel; Imaz, Arkaitz; Ocampo, Antonio; Artero, Arturo; Blanco, Francisco; Bernal, Enrique; Pasquau, Juan; Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Pérez, Núria; Aiestarán, Aintzane; Paredes, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study [1], initiation of Maraviroc (MVC) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. Methods PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910) carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL) <50 c/mL on stable ART during the previous 6 months, requiring an ART change due to toxicity, with no antiretroviral resistance to the ART started, and R5 HIV by proviral DNA genotypic tropism testing (defined as a G2P FPR >10% in a singleton), initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week)*100. Results Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6%) subjects screened: 87/141 (60%) were R5 and 74/87 (85%) were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm3 at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm3. Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62%) subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36%) and integrase inhibitors (INIs) in 1 (2%). The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%), gastrointestinal symptoms (22%), and liver toxicity (15%). MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54%) subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%), AZT/3TC in 2 (3%) and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%). Sixty-two (84%) subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16%) discontinued treatment: two (3%) withdrew informed consent, one (1%) had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one

  14. Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Geluk, Christiane A; Dikkers, Riksta; Kors, Jan A; Tio, René A; Slart, Riemer HJA; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Hillege, Hans L; Willems, Tineke P; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as initial diagnostic test. We evaluated the prevalence of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) according to calcium scores and exercise test results. Methods Asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on a rest ECG were selected from the population based PREVEND cohort study and underwent measurement of calcium scores by electron beam tomography and exercise testing. With calcium scores ≥10 or a positive exercise test, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPS) or coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. The primary endpoint was documented obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). Results Of 153 subjects included, 149 subjects completed the study protocol. Calcium scores ≥400, 100–399, 10–99 and <10 were found in 16, 29, 18 and 86 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 11 (69%), 12 (41%), 0 (0%) and 1 (1%) subjects, respectively. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test was present in 33, 27 and 89 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 13 (39%), 5 (19%) and 6 (7%) subjects, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve, as measure of diagnostic yield, of 0.91 (95% CI 0.84–0.97) for calcium scores was superior to 0.74 (95% CI 0.64–0.83) for exercise testing (p = 0.004). Conclusion Measurement of coronary calcium scores is an appropriate initial non-invasive test in asymptomatic subjects at increased coronary risk. PMID:17629903

  15. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli.

  16. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24412285

  17. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls.

  18. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017

  19. Ira as a pioneer in audiology: His contributions to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formby, C.; Gagne, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh's contributions to clinical science and research are diverse and significant. In fact, approximately one-third of the 100+ publications that Ira lists in his curriculum vitae (CV) are clinical in nature, dealing with various aspects of audiology, deafness, hearing aids, aural rehabilitation, and speech and language pathology. The majority of these citations, fully one-quarter of his publication list, addresses problems specific to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment. Undoubtedly, the most influential of these published works appears in his CV under the citation ``The Measurement of Hearing.'' The forward for this publication, his only textbook, was penned in June, 1952 (now precisely half a century past at the time of this session). The aims of this presentation are to (1) provide perspective on the fundamental importance of his virtually timeless text in shaping the fledgling discipline of audiology, and (2) celebrate Ira's many contributions to the profession and practice of audiology. [Preparation for this presentation was supported, in part, by a K24 career development award from NIDCD.

  20. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  1. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  2. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  3. From dilatancy to contraction: Stress-dependent failure mode progression in two porous sandstones subjected to true triaxial testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Haimson, Bezalel

    2013-04-01

    Porous sedimentary rocks such as sandstones are typical oil-bearing formations in which failure due to high stress concentration is likely to occur during wellbore drilling and subsequent operations. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of ?2 on strength, failure-plane angle, and failure mode under realistically simulated field conditions (?1 ×?2 ×?3). A series of true triaxial compression tests were conducted on two representative porous sandstones: Coconino (17.5% porosity, 99% quartz, with rounded and well-sorted 0.1 mm grains that are bonded by suturing and some quartz overgrowth), and Bentheim (24% porosity, 95% quartz, with sub-rounded 0.3 mm grains that are bonded exclusively by suturing). Square cuboidal specimens (19 x 19 x 38mm) were subjected to independent loads in three principal directions, using the University of Wisconsin testing apparatus, creating a true triaxial state of stress (?1 ×?2 ×?3). In all tests, ?3 and ?2 were maintained constant at predetermined levels, while ?1 was raised monotonically until failure occurred. The magnitude of ?3 varied between 0 and 150 MPa, covering the range of brittle behavior, brittle-ductile transition, and the threshold to the ductile zone in the weaker Bentheim sandstone. It was found that in both rocks the compressive strength (?1,peak) for a given ?3 increases as the preset ?2 is raised between tests, and reaches a peak (15% over ?1,peak when ?2 = ?3 in the Coconino, and less than 10% in the Bentheim), beyond which it gradually drops, such that when ?2 ? ?1,peak, the strength is approximately the same as when ?2 = ?3. This strengthening effect is considerably lower than that in previously tested crystalline rocks, such as Westerly granite and KTB amphibolite (more than 50%, Haimson, 2006). Plotting the test data in the ?oct vs. ?oct domain, where the two stress invariants ?oct, the octahedral shear stress, and ?oct,the mean normal stress, are both taken at failure), Coconino shows

  4. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects: Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using unsmoothed, single-subject analyses we show sVx can be reliably found in all 16 investigated participants. Beside the ventral premotor (BA6/44) and inferior parietal cortex (area PF) where mirror neurons (MNs) have been found in monkeys, sVx were reliably observed in dorsal premotor, supplementary motor, middle cingulate, somatosensory (BA3, BA2, and OP1), superior parietal, middle temporal cortex and cerebellum. For the premotor, somatosensory and parietal areas, sVx were more numerous in the left hemisphere. The hand representation of the primary motor cortex showed a reduced BOLD during hand action observation, possibly preventing undesired overt imitation. This study provides a more detailed description of the location and reliability of sVx and proposes a model that extends the original idea of the MNS to include forward and inverse internal models and motor and sensory simulation, distinguishing the MNS from a more general concept of sVx. PMID:19020203

  5. A comparison of hand grasp breakaway strengths and bare-handed grip strengths of the astronauts, SML 3 test subjects, and the subjects from the general population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts have the task of retrieving and deploying satellites and handling massive objects in a around the payload bay. Concerns were raised that manual handling of such massive objects might induce loads to the shuttle suits exceeding the design-certified loads. The Crew and Thermal Division of NASA JSC simulated the satellite handling tasks (Satellite Manload Tests 1 and 3) and determined the maximum possible load that a suited member could impart onto the suit. In addition, the tests revealed that the load to the suit by an astronaut could be calculated from the astronaut's maximum hand grasp breakaway strength. Thus, this study was conducted to document that hand grasp breakaway strengths of the astronauts who were scheduled to perform EVA during the upcoming missions. In addition, this study verified whether the SML 3 test results were sufficient for documenting the maximum possible load. An attempt was made to predict grasp strength from grip strength and hand anthropometry. Based on the results from this study, the SML 3 test results were deemed sufficient to document the maximum possible load on the suit. Finally, prediction of grasp strength from grip strength was not as accurate as expected. Hence, it was recommended that grasp strength be collected from the astronauts in order to obtain accurate load estimation.

  6. Audiologic Patterns of Otic Capsule Preserving Temporal Bone Fracture: Effects of the Affected Subsites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Yoon Joong; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Min-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between the type of temporal bone area involved and conductive hearing loss. Methods. We enrolled 97 patients who visited the otolaryngology clinics of Seoul National University Hospital or Boramae Medical Center, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University with temporal bone fracture between January 2004 and January 2014. Audiometric parameters, including initial and improved air-bone (AB) conduction gap values, were reviewed in accordance with the temporal bone computed tomography (external auditory canal [EAC], middle ear [ME], mastoid [M], and ossicle [O]). Results. Patients with ossicular chain involvement exhibited a larger AB gap compared to those with no ossicular chain involvement at 250, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz. Among the groups without ossicular chain involvement, the initial AB gap was largest in patients with EAC+ME+M involvement, followed by the ME+M and M-only involvement groups. The greatest improvement in the AB gap was observed in the EAC+ME+M group followed by the ME+M and M-only groups, irrespective of ossicular chain involvement. Improvements in AB gap values were smallest at 2,000 Hz. Conclusion. Conductive hearing loss pattern differed according to the temporal bone area involved. Therefore, areas such as the hematoma and hemotympanum, as well as the fracture line of the temporal bone area, must be evaluated to predict audiologic patterns with otic capsule preserving temporal bone fracture. PMID:27337953

  7. Neurobehavioral testing of subjects exposed residentially to groundwater contaminated from an aluminum die-casting plant and local referents

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1993-08-01

    Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs.

  8. Neurobehavioral testing of subjects exposed residentially to groundwater contaminated from an aluminum die-casting plant and local referents.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1993-08-01

    Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs.

  9. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  10. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  11. Stimulation from Cochlear Implant Electrodes Assists with Recovery from Asymmetric Perceptual Tilt: Evidence from the Subjective Visual Vertical Test.

    PubMed

    Gnanasegaram, Joshua J; Parkes, William J; Cushing, Sharon L; McKnight, Carmen L; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2 ± 4.0 years of age) with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of nine young adults with normal hearing (28.8 ± 7.7 years). Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]). The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards center (i.e., normal; p = 0.007). Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function. PMID:27679562

  12. Stimulation from Cochlear Implant Electrodes Assists with Recovery from Asymmetric Perceptual Tilt: Evidence from the Subjective Visual Vertical Test

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasegaram, Joshua J.; Parkes, William J.; Cushing, Sharon L.; McKnight, Carmen L.; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2 ± 4.0 years of age) with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of nine young adults with normal hearing (28.8 ± 7.7 years). Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]). The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards center (i.e., normal; p = 0.007). Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function. PMID:27679562

  13. Stimulation from Cochlear Implant Electrodes Assists with Recovery from Asymmetric Perceptual Tilt: Evidence from the Subjective Visual Vertical Test

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasegaram, Joshua J.; Parkes, William J.; Cushing, Sharon L.; McKnight, Carmen L.; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2 ± 4.0 years of age) with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of nine young adults with normal hearing (28.8 ± 7.7 years). Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]). The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards center (i.e., normal; p = 0.007). Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function.

  14. Protein A/G-based immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of pythiosis in human and animal subjects from Asia and Americas.

    PubMed

    Intaramat, Akarin; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chantrathonkul, Bunkuea; Chaisuriya, Papada; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Jongruja, Nujarin; Kumsang, Yothin; Sandee, Alisa; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Banyong, Ramrada; Santurio, Janio M; Grooters, Amy M; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2016-08-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease of both humans and animals living in Asia, Americas, Africa, and parts of Australia and New Zealand. The etiologic pathogen is the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum The disease has high mortality and morbidity rates. Use of antifungal drugs are ineffective against P. insidiosum, leaving radical surgery the main treatment option. Prompt treatment leads to better prognosis of affected individuals, and could be achieved by early and accurate diagnosis. Since pythiosis has been increasingly reported worldwide, there is a need for a rapid, user-friendly, and efficient test that facilitates the diagnosis of the disease. This study aims to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT), using the bacterial protein A/G, to detect anti-P. insidiosum IgGs in humans and animals, and compare its diagnostic performance with the established ELISA. Eighty-five serum samples from 28 patients, 24 dogs, 12 horses, 12 rabbits, and 9 cattle with pythiosis, and 143 serum samples from 80 human and 63 animal subjects in a healthy condition, with thalassemia, or with other fungal infections, were recruited for assay evaluation. Detection specificities of ELISA and ICT were 100.0%. While the detection sensitivity of ELISA was 98.8%, that of ICT was 90.6%. Most pythiosis sera, that were falsely read negative by ICT, were weakly positive by ELISA. In conclusion, a protein A/G-based ICT is a rapid, user-friendly, and efficient assay for serodiagnosis of pythiosis in humans and animals. Compared to ELISA, ICT has an equivalent detection specificity and a slightly lower detection sensitivity. PMID:27118800

  15. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation.

  16. Twelve-Month Prospective Randomized Study of Pharmacists Utilizing Point-Of-Care Testing for Metabolic Syndrome and Related Conditions in Subjects Prescribed Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sara M.; Davey, Cynthia S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Determine the percentage of subjects taking antipsychotics who meet criteria for metabolic syndrome based on point-of-care testing analyses. Evaluate pharmacist comprehensive medication management services using point-of-care tests to reduce the mean difference in number of metabolic syndrome risk parameters at 6 and 12 months. Method: This 12-month, prospective, multisite, randomized, controlled study included 120 subjects taking antipsychotics (mean [SD] age of 42.9 [11.3] years) recruited from 3 community mental health clinics in Minnesota. Subjects consented to receive either pharmacist (PCS; n = 60) or no pharmacist (NCS; n = 60) comprehensive medication management services. Data were collected from February 2010 to January 2012. Results: No statistical differences in metabolic syndrome based on point-of-care tests were observed between the 2 groups at baseline (PCS: 85.2%, n = 46 versus NCS: 71.2%, n = 42, P = .073) or at 12 months (PCS: 84.4%, n = 38 versus NCS: 70.2%, n = 33, P = .104). Subjects, overall, screened positive at baseline for dyslipidemia (85.8%, n = 106), hypertension (52.5%, n = 63), and diabetes (22.5%, n = 27) based on point-of-care testing for metabolic risk criteria. After 12 months, a nonsignificant (P = .099) higher adjusted mean number of metabolic syndrome parameters in PCS subjects compared to NCS subjects (mean difference [95% CI] = 0.41 [−0.08 to 0.90]) were found. Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of subjects met criteria for metabolic syndrome, although no significant improvement was observed between the groups after 12 months. Point-of-care test analyses identified a high proportion of subjects meeting criteria for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Utilizing point-of-care tests in mental health settings and fostering interprofessional partnerships with comprehensive medication management pharmacists may improve identification and long-term management of metabolic risks among patients prescribed

  17. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin with the oral glucose tolerance test. A study in subjects with normoglycemia, glucose intolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Ronquist, G; Wibell, L

    1984-10-01

    At a health survey of 819 subjects, 47-54 years old, the rate of glucose intolerance (GI) was 6.2% (51 subjects) according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and WHO criteria. In GI-subjects, the mean HbA1 was 7.3% (10th-90th percentile range 6.2-8.3%), and significantly higher than the mean HbA1 in 150 subjects with normal OGTT, which was 6.5% (10th-90th percentile range 5.7-7.4%). With an upper normal limit of 7.8% (mean + 2 SD) only 20% of all GI-subjects had a raised HbA1. The differences between 31 GI-subjects, with low HbA1 (mean 6.9%), and 20 GI-subjects, with relatively high HbA1 (mean 7.9%), were not significant with respect to fasting and 2-hour blood glucose, area under glucose curve, body mass index, index of physical activity, rate of hypertension or rate of first degree relatives with diabetes. In an unselected group of 157 subjects, sampled consecutively during the first part of the survey, the mean HbA1 was 6.6% (10th-90th percentile range 5.8-7.5 %) 150 subjects were those with normal OGTT, 6 subjects had GI and only one subject had previously unknown diabetes. No distinct correlations between HbA1 and OGTT fasting or 2 hour values were found in this sample. No correlation was found within the separate groups of 51 GI-subjects and 150 normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. An Evaluation of Kernel Equating: Parallel Equating with Classical Methods in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] Program. Research Report. ETS RR-09-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary C.; Zhang, Lilly; Damiano, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated kernel equating methods by comparing these methods to operational equatings for two tests in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] program. GENASYS (ETS, 2007) was used for all equating methods and scaled score kernel equating results were compared to Tucker, Levine observed score, chained linear, and chained equipercentile equating…

  19. Preventive Audiology: Screening for Hearing Impairment in Children Having Recurrent URTI.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pannu, M S; Arora, A; Sharma, V

    2016-06-01

    A late detection of hearing impairment in children can affect speech and language development. Otitis media with effusion (OME) associated with risk factors like recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) is considered the most common cause of silent hearing impairment among children. So this study was carried out to screen such at risk children for hearing impairment. The study was conducted on 1000 children in the age group of 2-12 years who presented to the OPD of ENT and Pediatrics Department, Govt Medical College with the complaint of recurrent URTI. The children were screened by history taking, general physical examination and local ENT examination. This was followed by impedance audiometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA, wherever indicated). Children with discharging ears and perforated tympanic membrane (TM) were excluded from the study. The most common presenting complaint was nasal discharge (67.9 %), followed by mouth breathing (66.3 %) and snoring (65 %). Only 16.2 % cases actually complained of some hearing impairment on exploratory history indicating the silent nature of OME. On examination 52.65 % cases had a normal looking TM whereas 41.2 % had a dull retracted TM. Results of impedance audiometry showed Type A graph in 56.75 %, Type B in 33.4 % indicating OME and Type C in 9.85 % indicating Eustachian tube dysfunction. PTA showed a mild conductive hearing loss in 26.7 % cases. OME is quite prevalent in high risk children and incidence of OME resulting in silent hearing impairment is quite high especially in young children having recurrent URTI. Impedance audiometry has been proved to be an objective screening tool for the same with a diagnostic accuracy of 87 % and thus under preventive audiology, it has a definite role in young children having recurrent URTI. PMID:27340630

  20. Influence of Hormonal Changes on Audiologic Examination in Normal Ovarian Cycle Females: An Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Adriztina, Indri; Adnan, Adlin; Adenin, Ichwanul; Haryuna, Siti Hajar; Sarumpaet, Sorimuda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is only limited information from previous studies that suggest that auditory function may be influenced by hormones. Recent advances in the field have exposed the potential role of hormones in modulating the auditory system. Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between menstrual cycle and outer hair cell function with audiological examination. Methods This is an analytic study with a cross-sectional design. The sampling was a systematic random sampling. We found 49 women with normal menstrual cycle and collected their data through interviews, physical examination, and examination of the ear, with otoscopic and other routine otorhinolaryngology examinations. We evaluated Tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), and pure tone audiometry. Results We found the audiometric threshold worse in the follicular phase than other phases at 4000 Hz of the right ear, and in the ovulation was found best than any other phases at 1000 Hz of the left ear with significant difference. We found significant difference of DPOAE between ovulation time and follicular phase at 3000 Hz and 1000 Hz in the left ear and between ovulation and luteal phased at 2000 Hz, 3000 Hz and 5000 Hz in the right ear and at 1000 Hz in the left ear with p < 0.05. Conclusion The result of this study showed that only a small part of audiometry threshold had a significant difference between each menstrual phase. In other words, we found no correlation between menstrual and audiometry threshold. Nonetheless, there is a correlation between menstrual cycle phase and DPOAE amplitude.

  1. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  2. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, P<0.05). There were higher fullness responses for the Lupin Bread (P<0.01), and the Bürgen Bread (P<0.05) compared with the White Bread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Differences in insulin responses were also observed (6145 ± 1048, 6471 ± 976, 9674 ± 1431 pmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Equal-energy portions of three different commercially available breads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management.

  3. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  4. [Effect of air-electric fields on driving and reaction patterns. Test subjects in the car driving simulator (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W

    1977-06-10

    In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.

  5. Central auditory processes and test measures: ASHA 1996 revisited.

    PubMed

    Schow, R L; Seikel, J A; Chermak, G D; Berent, M

    2000-12-01

    The theoretical issues surrounding central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) are reviewed here, especially with reference to the central auditory behavioral processes and the auditory test measures as prescribed in the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) statement on CAPD. A simplified nomenclature is recommended that directly relates process and test measure to facilitate the diagnostic process in CAPD. This new terminology closely follows the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) document, but provides some refinement based on recent research in CAPD. To support this recommendation, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to the findings of Domitz and Schow (2000, American Journal of Audiology), who proposed use of a battery of CAPD tests, the Multiple Auditory Processing Assessment (MAPA) for testing school children. The CFA was found to reinforce the four-factor model, which clearly emerged in the exploratory factor analysis of Domitz and Schow. The model was found to be reasonably consistent even when subtests from the SCAN were included in the analysis. Refinement and revision of ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) is recommended to facilitate diagnosis, subclassification, and intervention for CAPD. PMID:11200193

  6. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Audiology and Speech Pathology for the Years 1982-83 and 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; Carlton, J. Beth

    Average salary increases for 824 faculty in the field of audiology and speech pathology are reported for 1982-1983 and 1985-1986, as part of the College and University Personnel Association's annual faculty salary studies. Included are comparative data for 108,074 faculty at 174 public colleges and 193 private colleges, representing 41 academic…

  8. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Audiology and Speech Pathology for the Years 1983-84 and 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; Vong, Laurie

    Average salary increases for 805 faculty in the field of audiology and speech pathology are reported for 1983-1984 and 1986-1987, as part of the College and University Personnel Association's annual faculty salary studies. Included are comparative data for 120,580 faculty at 167 public colleges and 235 private colleges, representing 44 academic…

  9. The influence of prototype fidelity and aesthetics of design in usability tests: effects on user behaviour, subjective evaluation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Sonderegger, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    An empirical study examined the impact of prototype fidelity on user behaviour, subjective user evaluation and emotion. The independent factors of prototype fidelity (paper prototype, computer prototype, fully operational appliance) and aesthetics of design (high vs. moderate) were varied in a between-subjects design. The 60 participants of the experiment were asked to complete two typical tasks of mobile phone usage: sending a text message and suppressing a phone number. Both performance data and a number of subjective measures were recorded. The results suggested that task completion time may be overestimated when a computer prototype is being used. Furthermore, users appeared to compensate for deficiencies in aesthetic design by overrating the aesthetic qualities of reduced fidelity prototypes. Finally, user emotions were more positively affected by the operation of the more attractive mobile phone than by the less appealing one.

  10. A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft[R] Office Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Konrad, Moira

    2007-01-01

    Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested…

  11. The Performance Assessment Study in Writing: Analysis of the SAT® II--Writing Subject Test. Report No. 99-4. ETS RR No. 99-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; Kubota, Melvin Y.; Bonner, Marilyn W.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the SAT® II: Writing Subject Test as a predictor of writing performance in college English courses. Writing performance was based on eight writing samples submitted as part of regular course work by students in eight colleges. The samples consisted of drafts and final papers submitted in response to four take-home writing…

  12. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in `like-new` conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the `like-new` condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed.

  13. Placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio are increased in diet- and exercise-treated gestational diabetes mellitus subjects but not in subjects with one abnormal value on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Mert; Doymaz, Fadime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio (PW/BW) increased in pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and diet- and exercise-treated, non-insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects. The 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) was administered to 324 pregnant women. Women with abnormal 50-g test received a 100-g, 3-h OGTT using National Diabetes Data Group criteria. Women with GDM and OAV were treated with diet and exercise. Twenty subjects who required insulin or met exclusion criteria were excluded from the study. After the exclusion of 20 subjects, the GDM group consisted of 30 (9.7%) pregnant women and the OAV group consisted of 32 (9.9%) pregnant women. The control group consisted of 242 pregnant women. Birth weight (GDM: 3288.3+/-364.2 g; OAV: 3278.1+/-409.9 g; control group: 3270.6+/-346.5 g) did not differ significantly between groups (P>.05). Significantly higher placental weights (GDM: 694.8+/-152.1 g; OAV: 622.2+/-105.3 g; control group: 610.2+/-116.6 g; P<.01) and PW/BW (GDM: 0.21+/-0.03; OAV: 0.193+/-0.04; control group: 0.188+/-0.04; P<.01) were observed in GDM group compared to OAV and control group. No significant difference was found for OAV group in terms of placental weight and PW/BW compared to the control group. Our data indicated that women with OAV delivered infants and placenta of similar weight to those of normal pregnancies.

  14. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests.

  15. The Bender Gestalt Test: A Review of Reported Research with School-Age Subjects, 1966-1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Pepper D.

    1978-01-01

    The past 11 years of published research investigating the use of the Bender Gestalt Test with school-age children are reviewed. Seen as a psychometric instrument, scored according to standardized procedures, this recent work does not conclusively support use of the test for prediction of school achievement or emotional disturbance. (Author)

  16. Maximal and functional aerobic capacity as assessed by two graduated field methods in comparison to laboratory exercise testing in moderately trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmaidi, S; Collomp, K; Caillaud, C; Préfaut, C

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which of the two commonly used field tests, the 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST) or the University of Montreal track test (UM-TT), provides the most accurate assessment of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes. Eleven male subjects aged from 18 to 30 years were studied in triple incremental and continuous running tests carried out until exhaustion both in laboratory and field conditions. They underwent a laboratory treadmill test and completed the outdoor 20-MST and UM-TT. During the three randomly assigned tests, maximal velocity (Vmax), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), and post-exercise peak blood lactate (P[La]) measurements were made. The results indicate a significant difference in the mean Vmax (F = 9.26, p less than 0.001). Vmax determined by the 20-MST revealed a lower value than by treadmill (16.3%) and the UM-TT (19.3%). In contrast, there was no difference with regard to VO2max (F = 2.95, p = 0.06), HRmax (F = 2.72, p = 0.08), and P[La] (F = 2.79, p = 0.07). These results confirm that the UM-TT is a valid field test of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained subjects and suggest that it can be additionally used for exercise prescription.

  17. Quality of life and audiologic performance through the ability to phone of cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Rumeau, Cécile; Frère, Julien; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cochlear implantation on quality of life (QoL), using general and cochlear implant (CI) specific questionnaires and to determine the relationship of phone ability with QoL, speech recognition abilities and tinnitus. Twenty-six adult volunteers with a post-lingual profound deafness, unilaterally implanted with a CI, were included in this study. All subjects had used a CI for at least 1 year. The Glasgow benefit inventory (GBI) and Nijmegen cochlear implant questionnaire (NCIQ) were administered to assess QoL. Speech recognition was tested using phonemic Lafon's lists. The subjective tinnitus severity scale (STSS) questionnaire was used to determine the effects of tinnitus. CI users were split into four groups according to their phone ability. There was an improvement in QoL after cochlear implantation. The NCIQ showed significant (p < 0.001) improvements in the total score and in all subdomains after CI. A significant relationship between phone ability, QoL and speech recognition was found. Improving phone ability led to higher QoL (p < 0.05) and speech recognition (p < 0.01) scores. The CI use decreased significantly the occurrence of tinnitus, but its severity was not correlated with QoL. Post-surgery assessment should include speech recognition measures and QoL evaluation. The NCIQ appeared more effective than the GBI in its ability to detect improvements in QoL. Assessing phone ability represents an easy and fast approach to evaluate hearing performances and QoL, and may reflect global outcomes of CI.

  18. Intense focused ultrasound can reliably induce sensations in human test subjects in a manner correlated with the density of their mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Trevor C; Tych, Rowen; Kliot, Michel; Loeser, John D; Pederson, Kristin; Mourad, Pierre D

    2012-01-01

    Sensations generated by intense focused ultrasound (iFU) can occur cutaneously and/or at depth, in contrast to other forms of stimulation (e.g., heat, electricity), whose action usually occurs only at the skin surface, or mechanical stimulation (e.g., von Frey hairs, calibrated forceps, tourniquets) that compress and thus stimulate all tissue. Previous work on iFU stimulation has led to the hypothesis that the tactile basis of iFU stimulation should correlate with the density of mechanoreceptors at the site of iFU stimulation. Here we tested that hypothesis, correlating a "two-point" neurological examination-a standard measure of superficial mechanoreceptor density-with the intensity of superficially applied iFU necessary to generate sensations with high sensitivity and specificity. We applied iFU at 1.1 MHz for 0.1 s to the fingertip pads of 17 test subjects in a blinded fashion and escalated intensities until they consistently observed iFU-induced sensations. Most test subjects achieved high values of sensitivity and specificity, doing so at values of spatially and temporally averaged intensity measuring <100 W/cm(2). Moreover, the test subjects' sensitivity to iFU stimulation correlated with the density of mechanoreceptors as determined by a standard two-point discrimination neurological examination, consistent with earlier hypotheses.

  19. [The Russian and international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Tavartkiladze, G A; Markova, T G; Chibisova, S S; Al'shardzhabi, I; Tsygankova, E R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diagnostics of congenital hearing impairment has acquired special importance in the light of new possibilities for the early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with this condition. The implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening into the clinical practice of Russia and many other countries made it possible to significantly reducethe time necessary to confirm congenital impairment of hearing and begin the rehabilitative treatment. The present paper was designed to analyze the international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants as exemplified by such countries as Great Britain, USA, Germany, and Poland. The main indicators of the quality and the efficiency of such programs are considered taking into account the results of the epidemiological studies on the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment. A total of 1.8 mln newborn infants were examined in Russia during 2013. The first stage of screening involved 96.7% of the children, and only 2.9% of them remained uncovered by the examination. As many as 5,659 children were found to present with the congenital loss of hearing,with the prevalence of this condition being 3 per 1.000 newborn infants and the prevalence of deafness 0.6 per 1.000. The principal problem to be resolved for the organization of the management of these patients, both in Russia and other countries, remains the enhancement of the availability of comprehensive diagnostic examination and the timelyreferral of the patients to such examination (if appropriate based on the results of the screening). The successful solution of this problem requires personalized recording of the screening data with the use of the commonly accepted medical information systems. PMID:27213647

  20. [The Russian and international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Tavartkiladze, G A; Markova, T G; Chibisova, S S; Al'shardzhabi, I; Tsygankova, E R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diagnostics of congenital hearing impairment has acquired special importance in the light of new possibilities for the early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with this condition. The implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening into the clinical practice of Russia and many other countries made it possible to significantly reducethe time necessary to confirm congenital impairment of hearing and begin the rehabilitative treatment. The present paper was designed to analyze the international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants as exemplified by such countries as Great Britain, USA, Germany, and Poland. The main indicators of the quality and the efficiency of such programs are considered taking into account the results of the epidemiological studies on the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment. A total of 1.8 mln newborn infants were examined in Russia during 2013. The first stage of screening involved 96.7% of the children, and only 2.9% of them remained uncovered by the examination. As many as 5,659 children were found to present with the congenital loss of hearing,with the prevalence of this condition being 3 per 1.000 newborn infants and the prevalence of deafness 0.6 per 1.000. The principal problem to be resolved for the organization of the management of these patients, both in Russia and other countries, remains the enhancement of the availability of comprehensive diagnostic examination and the timelyreferral of the patients to such examination (if appropriate based on the results of the screening). The successful solution of this problem requires personalized recording of the screening data with the use of the commonly accepted medical information systems.

  1. Six-minute walk test in children and adolescents with renal diseases: tolerance, reproducibility and comparison with healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Flávia Tieme; Koch, Vera Herminia Kalika; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Cunha, Maristela Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exercise tolerance and the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test in Brazilian children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease and to compare their functional exercise capacities with reference values for healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the use of the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents aged 6-16 with stage V chronic kidney disease. For statistical analysis of exercise tolerance, including examinations of correlations and comparisons with reference values, the longest walked distances were considered. The reproducibility of the six-minute walk test was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (14 females and 24 males) were evaluated, including 5 on peritoneal dialysis, 12 on hemodialysis and 21 who had undergone renal transplantation, with a median age of 11.2 years (6.5-16). The median walked distance was 538.5 meters (413-685) and the six-minute walk test was found to be reproducible. The walked distance was significantly correlated with age (r=0.66), weight (r=0.76), height (r=0.82), the height Z score (r=0.41), hemoglobin (r=0.46), hematocrit (r=0.47) and post-test systolic blood pressure (r=0.39). The chronic kidney disease patients predicted walked distance was 84.1% of the reference value according to age, 90.6% according to age-corrected height and 87.4% according to a predictive equation. CONCLUSIONS: The stage V chronic kidney disease patients had a significantly decreased functional exercise capacity, as measured by the six-minute walk test, compared with the healthy pediatric reference values. In addition, the six-minute walk test was shown to be well tolerated, reliable and applicable as a low-cost tool to monitor functional exercise capacity in patients with renal disease. PMID:26872080

  2. BNL PREDICTION OF NUPECS FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SMALL TO MODERATE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis codes for NPP structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to ensure the adequacy of methodologies employed for seismic analyses of NPP structures. A collaborative program between the United States and Japan was developed to study seismic issues related to NPP applications. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its contractor, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this program to apply common analysis procedures to predict both free field and soil-structure interaction (SSI) responses to recorded earthquake events, including embedment and dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effects. This paper describes the BNL effort to predict seismic responses of the large-scale realistic model structures for reactor and turbine buildings at the NUPEC test facility in northern Japan. The NUPEC test program has collected a large amount of recorded earthquake response data (both free-field and in-structure) from these test model structures. The BNL free-field analyses were performed with the CARES program while the SSI analyses were preformed using the SASS12000 computer code. The BNL analysis includes both embedded and excavated conditions, as well as the DCI effect, The BNL analysis results and their comparisons to the NUPEC recorded responses are presented in the paper.

  3. Back and hip extensor muscles fatigue in healthy subjects: task-dependency effect of two variants of the Sorensen test

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Annick; Descarreaux, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Paraspinal muscle fatigability during various trunk extension tests has been widely investigated by electromyography (EMG), and its task-dependency is established recently. Hip extensor muscle fatigability during the Sorensen test has been reported. The aim of the present experiments was to evaluate the task-dependency of back and hip extensor muscle fatigue during two variants of the Sorensen test. We hypothesized that the rate of muscular fatigue of the hip and back extensor muscles varies according to the test position. Twenty healthy young males with no history of low back pain volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to perform two body weight-dependent isometric back extension tests (S1 = Sorensen test; S2 = modified Sorensen on a 45° Roman chair). Surface EMG activity of the paraspinal muscles (T10 and L5 levels) and hip extensor muscles (gluteus maximus; biceps femoris) was recorded, and muscular fatigue was assessed through power spectral analysis of the EMG data by calculating the rate of median power frequency change. We observed hip extensor muscle fatigue simultaneously with paraspinal muscle fatigue during both Sorensen variants. However, only L5 level EMG fatigue indices showed a task-dependency effect between S1 and S2. Hip extensor muscles appear to contribute to load sharing of the upper body mass during both Sorensen variants, but to a different extent because L5 level fatigue differs between the Sorensen variants. Our findings suggest that task-dependency has to be considered when EMG variables are compared between two types of lumbar muscle-fatiguing tasks. PMID:18813961

  4. The Researcher Gave the Subject a Test about Himself: Problems of Ambiguity and Preference in the Investigation of Reflexive Binding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studies on second-language acquisition of reflexives have experienced difficulties assessing learners' knowledge of the binding principles because of problems associated with ambiguous sentences where there is more than one antecedent for a reflexive. In this study, English-as-a-Second-Language students were tested using a variety of sentence…

  5. ICRA noises: artificial noise signals with speech-like spectral and temporal properties for hearing instrument assessment. International Collegium for Rehabilitative Audiology.

    PubMed

    Dreschler, W A; Verschuure, H; Ludvigsen, C; Westermann, S

    2001-01-01

    Current standards involving technical specification of hearing aids provide limited possibilities for assessing the influence of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the input signal, and these characteristics have a significant effect on the output signal of many recent types of hearing aids. This is particularly true of digital hearing instruments, which typically include non-linear amplification in multiple channels. Furthermore, these instruments often incorporate additional non-linear functions such as "noise reduction" and "feedback cancellation". The output signal produced by a non-linear hearing instrument relates to the characteristics of the input signal in a complex manner. Therefore, the choice of input signal significantly influences the outcome of any acoustic or psychophysical assessment of a non-linear hearing instrument. For this reason, the International Collegium for Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) has introduced a collection of noise signals that can be used for hearing aid testing (including real-ear measurements) and psychophysical evaluation. This paper describes the design criteria, the realisation process, and the final selection of nine test signals on a CD. Also, the spectral and temporal characteristics of these signals are documented. The ICRA noises provide a well-specified set of speech-like noises with spectra shaped according to gender and vocal effort, and with different amounts of speech modulation simulating one or more speakers. These noises can be applied as well-specified background noise in psychophysical experiments. They can also serve as test signals for the evaluation of digital hearing aids with noise reduction. It is demonstrated that the ICRA noises show the effectiveness of the noise reduction schemes. Based on these initial measurements, some initial steps are proposed to develop a standard method of technical specification of noise reduction based on the modulation characteristics. For this purpose, the

  6. Vigilance of kit foxes at water sources: a test of competing hypotheses for a solitary carnivore subject to predation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lucas K; Day, Casey C; Westover, Matthew D; Edgel, Robert J; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; McMillan, Brock R

    2013-03-01

    Animals that are potential prey do not respond equally to direct and indirect cues related to risk of predation. Based on differential responses to cues, three hypotheses have been proposed to explain spatial variation in vigilance behavior. The predator-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey increase vigilance where there is evidence of predators. The visibility-vigilance hypothesis suggests that prey increase vigilance where visibility is obstructed. Alternatively, the refuge-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey may perceive areas with low visibility (greater cover) as refuges and decrease vigilance. We evaluated support for these hypotheses using the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), a solitary carnivore subject to intraguild predation, as a model. From 2010 to 2012, we used infrared-triggered cameras to record video of kit fox behavior at water sources in Utah, USA. The refuge-vigilance hypothesis explained more variation in vigilance behavior of kit foxes than the other two hypotheses (AICc model weight=0.37). Kit foxes were less vigilant at water sources with low overhead cover (refuge) obstructing visibility. Based on our results, the predator-vigilance and visibility-vigilance hypotheses may not be applicable to all species of prey. Solitary prey, unlike gregarious prey, may use areas with concealing cover to maximize resource acquisition and minimize vigilance.

  7. The measurement of open apices of teeth to test chronological age of over 14-year olds in living subjects.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Brkic, Hervoje; Ermenc, Branko; Ferrante, Luigi; Ovsenik, Maja; Cingolani, Mariano

    2008-01-30

    Age determination in living subjects is a problem of increasing interest in our community, due to the increasing numbers of individuals without identification papers, who have immigrated illegally or committed crimes, and for whom it is necessary to verify whether they have reached the age of 14 years in order to be charged legally. Although the most widespread methods for age estimation refer to skeletal or dental analysis, these methods do present some drawbacks for identification of the age of 14. The aim of the present study is to discriminate between children who are or are not 14 years of age or older by measuring the open apices of teeth. We evaluated the OPGs of 447 persons aged between 12 and 16 years, of Italian, Croatian and Slovenian nationality. For each individual, dental maturity was estimated using the number of the seven left permanent mandibular teeth with root development complete, and normalized measurement of the open apices of the third molar. The results revealed that an individual is considered to be 14 years of age or older if all seven left permanent mandibular teeth have closed apices and the normalized measurement of open apices of the third molar is lower than 1.1.

  8. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds.

  9. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. PMID:17258132

  10. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  11. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  12. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology for the Years 1995-96 and 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report, covering 1,433 speech-language pathology and audiology faculty, is part of an annual national survey of faculty salaries. The survey is in two parts one covering public and one covering private four-year colleges and universities. Data for the l995-96 baseline year and 1998-99 trend year were collected for full-time teaching faculty…

  13. Epidemiological study on healthy subjects affected by agriculture crop-residue burning episodes and its relation with their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Mittal, Susheel K; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Impact of agriculture crop-residue burning (ACRB) was studied on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 50 healthy subjects (13-53 years). Human subjects with no previous history of lung disease were residents of five sampling sites. Investigations were carried out from February 2007 to January 2010 using spirometry. Simultaneously, concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) and fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored using high volume sampler and Anderson Cascade Impactor, respectively. The PFTs show a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, while PM shows momentous increase during exhaustive burning of wheat and rice crop residues. Effect of ACRB on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) is more than that on force expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). The PEF and FEF25-75% recovered to some extent on completion of burning period, while PFTs like force vital capacity and force expiratory volume did not show a significant improvement. Due to greater concentration of fine particulates during rice crop-residue burning (CRB) than wheat CRB, there was a greater effect on pulmonary functions. The ACRB, in general, poses more effect on the lower and upper age groups in comparison to the middle age group subjects. All the analyses are well supported with large significant levels (p < 0.05) obtained by using the paired t-test.

  14. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  15. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Brian Jarvis

    As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations

  16. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  17. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  18. Effect of flunixin meglumine on selected physiologic and performance parameters of athletically conditioned thoroughbred horses subjected to an incremental exercise stress test.

    PubMed

    Colahan, Patrick T; Bailey, James E; Chou, Chi-Chung; Johnson, Martha; Rice, Brett L; Jones, Galin L; Cheeks, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Twelve clinically sound, healthy, athletically conditioned Thoroughbred horses were subjected to an incremental exercise stress test to determine the effects and period of detection of a single dose of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg by intravenous injection) in serum and urine by ELISA. Flunixin concentrations, performance, and hematologic and clinical chemical parameters were measured. All horses were rotated through four treatment groups of a Latin-square design providing for each horse to serve as its own control. Flunixin meglumine reduced prostaglandin F(1alpha) and thromboxane concentrations that had been increased by intense exercise. Performance parameters did not improve and prostaglandin concentrations did not significantly correlate with total run time. Exercise did not change the flunixin elimination profile in either serum or urine, and concentrations were found to be below the detection limit of the ELISA test within 36 hours in serum and 120 hours in urine. PMID:12050827

  19. H₁ but not H₂ histamine antagonist receptors mediate anxiety-related behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice subjected to elevated plus-maze testing.

    PubMed

    Serafim, K R; Kishi, M S; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the role of H₁ and H₂ receptors in anxiety and the retrieval of emotional memory using a Trial 1/Trial 2 (T1/T2) protocol in an elevated plus-maze (EPM). Tests were performed on 2 consecutive days, designated T1 and T2. Before T1, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (SAL), 20 mg/kg zolantidine (ZOL, an H2 receptor antagonist), or 8.0 or 16 mg/kg chlorpheniramine (CPA, an H1 receptor antagonist). After 40 min, they were subjected to the EPM test. In T2 (24 h later), each group was subdivided into two additional groups, and the animals from each group were re-injected with SAL or one of the drugs. In T1, the Student t-test showed no difference between the SAL and ZOL or 8 mg/kg CPA groups with respect to the percentages of open arm entries (%OAE) and open arm time (%OAT). However, administration of CPA at the highest dose of 16 mg/kg decreased %OAE and %OAT, but not locomotor activity, indicating anxiogenic-like behavior. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between the two trials, was observed in all experimental groups, indicating that ZOL and 8 mg/kg CPA did not affect emotional memory, whereas CPA at the highest dose affected acquisition and consolidation, but not retrieval of memory. Taken together, these results suggest that H₁ receptor, but not H₂, is implicated in anxiety-like behavior and in emotional memory acquisition and consolidation deficits in mice subjected to EPM testing.

  20. H1 but not H2 histamine antagonist receptors mediate anxiety-related behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice subjected to elevated plus-maze testing

    PubMed Central

    Serafim, K.R.; Kishi, M.S.; Canto-de-Souza, A.; Mattioli, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of H1 and H2 receptors in anxiety and the retrieval of emotional memory using a Trial 1/Trial 2 (T1/T2) protocol in an elevated plus-maze (EPM). Tests were performed on 2 consecutive days, designated T1 and T2. Before T1, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (SAL), 20 mg/kg zolantidine (ZOL, an H2 receptor antagonist), or 8.0 or 16 mg/kg chlorpheniramine (CPA, an H1 receptor antagonist). After 40 min, they were subjected to the EPM test. In T2 (24 h later), each group was subdivided into two additional groups, and the animals from each group were re-injected with SAL or one of the drugs. In T1, the Student t-test showed no difference between the SAL and ZOL or 8 mg/kg CPA groups with respect to the percentages of open arm entries (%OAE) and open arm time (%OAT). However, administration of CPA at the highest dose of 16 mg/kg decreased %OAE and %OAT, but not locomotor activity, indicating anxiogenic-like behavior. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between the two trials, was observed in all experimental groups, indicating that ZOL and 8 mg/kg CPA did not affect emotional memory, whereas CPA at the highest dose affected acquisition and consolidation, but not retrieval of memory. Taken together, these results suggest that H1 receptor, but not H2, is implicated in anxiety-like behavior and in emotional memory acquisition and consolidation deficits in mice subjected to EPM testing. PMID:23598647

  1. Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 studies with 5000 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Horita, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ota, Erika; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic dissection (AAD) has not been evaluated by meta-analysis with the bivariate model methodology. Four databases were electrically searched. We included both case-control and cohort studies that could provide sufficient data concerning both sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for AAD. Non-English language articles and conference abstract were allowed. Intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer were regarded as AAD. Based on 22 eligible articles consisting of 1140 AAD subjects and 3860 non-AAD subjects, the diagnostic odds ratio was 28.5 (95% CI 17.6–46.3, I2 = 17.4%) and the area under curve was 0.946 (95% CI 0.903–0.994). Based on 833 AAD subjects and 1994 non-AAD subjects constituting 12 studies that used the cutoff value of 500 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 0.952 (95% CI 0.901–0.978), the specificity was 0.604 (95% CI 0.485–0.712), positive likelihood ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.8–3.3), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.079 (95% CI 0.036–0.172). Sensitivity analysis using data of three high-quality studies almost replicated these results. In conclusion, D-dimer has very good overall accuracy. D-dimer <500 ng/ml largely decreases the possibility of AAD. D-dimer >500 ng/ml moderately increases the possibility of AAD. PMID:27230962

  2. A Double-Blind, Rct Testing Beneficial Modulation of Bdnf in Middle-Aged, Life Style-Stressed Subjects: A Clue to Brain Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Marcellino, M; Marotta, F; Sweed, H; Solimene, U; Vignali, AI; Xiao, W; Ayala, A; Cagnuolo, U; Zerbinati, N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this prospective study was to see whether LD-1227, a quality-controlled marine nutraceuticals shown to protect experimental stress-induced hyppocampal degeneration, could beneficially modulate BDNF, as measured in the serum, in otherwise healthy but work-stressed individuals. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight men and women between the ages of 38 and 62 reporting high-demanding work activity but with an overall positive attitude towards their personal life were recruited. Subjects were divided in two group (24 patients each) and blindly supplemented for 2 month with: a) LD-1227 400mg or b) placebo. A third group of healthy non-stressed subjects was used as well. Blood samples were taken before and after the supplementation period. Unstimulated saliva was collected and tested for amylase while serum levels were used to measure BDNF. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and psychological well-being assessment (PSWB) were measured too. Patients with Val66Met functional polymorphism of BDNF excluded those given their reported association with an impaired release of BDNF. Results: Results showed that, as compared to healthy, non-stressed individuals, stressed ones has a trend decrease of BDNF and this was significantly increased by LD 12-1227 supplementation and the same inverse phenomenon occurred to salivary amylase (p<0.05). No change was noted in the PSQI score but, either STAI or PSWB tests scored better in LD-1227 supplemented subjects. Conclusion: The present data suggest that LD-1227 is beneficially affecting neuromodulation and related symptoms during common stressful life conditions and may have the potential as tools in a neuroprotective clinical strategy. PMID:25584253

  3. Ondansetron attenuates depression co-morbid with obesity in obese mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress; an approach using behavioral battery tests.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Gupta, Deepali

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of ondansetron on the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice for behavioral and biochemical alterations using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Animals were fed with high fat diet for 14 weeks and subjected to different stress procedures for 4 weeks. Treatment with ondansetron was started on day 15. After day 28 behavioral assays and biochemical estimations were performed. Behavioral paradigms viz. sucrose preference test, locomotor score, forced swim test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM), whereas biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were estimated. Results examines that in behavioral assays, ondansetron significantly (P < 0.05) increased sucrose consumption, reduced immobility time in FST, increased the percent entries and time in open arm in EPM. In biochemical assessments elevated plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by ondansetron treatment in HFD obese animals subjected to CUMS. The study indicates that the obese mice subjected to CUMS exhibited severe depressive-like symptoms and ondansetron significantly reversed the behavioral and biochemical alterations. In the present study the plasma glucose level indicates that, it could be "altered glucose level" playing an important role in depression co-morbid with obesity. Ondansetron through allosteric modulation of serotonergic system elevates the serotonin level and thereby regulates the insulin secretion and hence, reversing the "altered glucose level", could be the possible antidepressive-like mechanism against depression co-morbid with obesity.

  4. Evaluating spatial memory function in mice: a within-subjects comparison between the water maze test and its adaptation to dry land.

    PubMed

    Llano Lopez, L; Hauser, J; Feldon, J; Gargiulo, P A; Yee, B K

    2010-05-01

    The Morris water maze (WM) is a common spatial memory test in rats. It has been adapted for evaluating genetic manipulations in mice. One major acknowledged problem of this cross-species translation is floating. We investigated here in mice the feasibility and practicality of an alternative paradigm-the cheeseboard (CB), which is a dry version of the WM, in a within-subject design allowing direct comparison with the conventional WM. Under identical task demands (reference or working memory), mice learned in the CB as efficiently as in the WM. Furthermore, individual differences in learning rate correlated between the two reference memory tests conducted separately in the two mazes. However, no such correlation was found with respect to reference memory retention or working memory performance. This study demonstrated that the CB is an effective alternative to the WM as spatial cognition test. Additional tests in the CB confirmed that the mice relied on extra maze cues in their spatial search. We would recommend the CB as a valuable addition to, rather than a replacement of the WM in phenotyping transgenic mice, because the two apparatus might diverge in the ability to detect individual differences in various domains of mnemonic functions.

  5. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  6. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588

  7. Effects of cervical mobilization and exercise on pain, movement and function in subjects with temporomandibular disorders: a single group pre-post test

    PubMed Central

    CALIXTRE, Letícia Bojikian; GRÜNINGER, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; HAIK, Melina Nevoeiro; ALBURQUERQUE-SENDÍN, Francisco; OLIVEIRA, Ana Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program based on cervical mobilization and exercise on clinical signs and mandibular function in subjects with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Material and Methods: Single-group pre-post test, with baseline comparison. Subjects Twelve women (22.08±2.23 years) with myofascial pain and mixed TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Outcome measures Subjects were evaluated three times: twice before (baseline phase) and once after intervention. Self-reported pain, jaw function [according to the Mandibular Functional Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ)], pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of both masseter and temporalis muscles were obtained. Baseline and post-intervention differences were investigated, and effect size was estimated through Cohen’s d coefficient. Results Jaw function improved 7 points on the scale after the intervention (P=0.019), and self-reported pain was significantly reduced (P=0.009). Pain-free MMO varied from 32.3±8.8 mm to 38±8.8 mm and showed significant improvement (P=0.017) with moderate effect size when compared to the baseline phase. PPT also increased with moderate effect size, and subjects had the baseline values changed from 1.23±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left masseter (P=0.03), from 1.31±0.28 kg/cm2 to 1.51±0.2 kg/cm2 in the right masseter (P>0.05), from 1.32±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.46±0.2 kg/cm2 in the left temporalis (P=0.047), and from 1.4±0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.67±0.3 kg/cm2 in the right temporalis (P=0.06). Conclusions The protocol caused significant changes in pain-free MMO, self-reported pain, and functionality of the stomatognathic system in subjects with myofascial TMD, regardless of joint involvement. Even though these differences are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is still questionable. PMID:27383698

  8. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p < 0.01). Despite similar BSPs in all age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  9. Characterization of Regional Left Ventricular Function in Nonhuman Primates Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers: A Test-Retest Repeatability and Inter-Subject Variability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Smita; Klimas, Michael; Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Manigbas, Elaine; Liang, Ai-Leng; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Chin, Chih-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF). Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs), that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV) systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC) imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR) ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR) ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain-rate, diastolic E

  10. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2008-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.

  11. AXS and SOM: A new statistical approach for treating within-subject, time-varying, multivariate data collected using the AXS Test Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith L.; Ninness, Chris

    2003-10-01

    The Auditory Cross-Section (AXS) Test Battery [J. L. Lauter, Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 32, 180-190 (2000)], described in presentations to ASA in 2002 and 2003, is designed to document dynamic relations linking the cortex, brainstem, and body periphery (whether physics, physiology, or behavior) on an individually-specific basis. Data collections using the battery typically employ a within-subject, time-varying, multivariate design, yet conventional group statistics do not provide satisfactory means of treating such data. We have recently developed an approach based on Kohonens (2001) Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) algorithm, which categorizes time-varying profiles across variables, either within- or between-subjects. The treatment entails three steps: (1) z-score transformation of all raw data; (2) employing the SOM to sort the time-varying profiles into groups; and (3) deriving an estimate of the bounds for the Bayes error rate. Our three-step procedure will be briefly described and illustrated with data from a recent study combining otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, and cortical qEEG.

  12. Audiologic and psychological profile of Greek patients with tinnitus--preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Vallianatou, N G; Christodoulou, P; Nestoros, J N; Helidonis, E

    2001-01-01

    Tinnitus is a common complaint among people who suffer from auditory disorders. Altering the patients' response to tinnitus and the development of coping techniques are the most important goals of the therapeutic or suppression methods. This is the first study in the Greek population to investigate the personality characteristics and coping techniques of tinnitus patients. We have studied the relation between the subjective assessment of tinnitus intensity with factors such as sex, age, duration of symptom, and degree of hearing loss. We have also studied the possible relation between the patients' personality characteristics on their attitude towards tinnitus. The participants were 80 tinnitus sufferers, men and women, between 18 and 65 years of age. The personality characteristics were assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The mean MMPI scores in both men and women were within the normal range. The duration of symptoms did not prove to be an important factor for the patients' subjective assessment of the tinnitus intensity. Most patients showed "effective" coping style, were well adjusted to tinnitus, and had no significant interference in their everyday functioning. The above are discussed in the context of the influence of geographical, climatological, economic, social, and cultural factors that influence psychological functioning.

  13. Is the audiologic status of professional musicians a reflection of the noise exposure in classical orchestral music?

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank

    2008-07-01

    The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.

  14. Is the audiologic status of professional musicians a reflection of the noise exposure in classical orchestral music?

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank

    2008-07-01

    The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease. PMID:18034257

  15. Results of a humanitarian otologic and audiologic project performed outside of the United States: lessons learned from the "Oye, Amigos!" project.

    PubMed

    Barrs, D M; Muller, S P; Worrndell, D B; Weidmann, E W

    2000-12-01

    From 1989 to 1993, "Oye, Amigos!" a combined group of hearing health and other medical professionals performed 18 humanitarian medical and audiologic trips to Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico. The group saw 1500 patients, issued over 800 hearing aids, and performed 150 surgeries on 123 patients. Our tympanoplasty success rate, defined as an intact tympanic membrane, was 41% during the first 2 years of the project but increased to 74% during the last 3 years. Two hundred eighteen patients who were candidates for surgery did not return for care. We present the lessons learned from the surgical care and overall management of this project, and present suggestions to improve future projects.

  16. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  17. Audiological assessment, rehabilitation, and spatial hearing considerations associated with visual impairment in adults: an overview.

    PubMed

    Blumsack, Judith T

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness and interest among audiologists regarding the needs of adults who have both hearing loss and visual impairment, particularly people who are blind and travel independently. Case history, audiometric testing, and rehabilitation issues are considered, and extensive discussion of spatial hearing research as it relates to orientation and mobility is provided.

  18. How private is your consultation? Acoustic and audiological measures of speech privacy in the otolaryngology clinic.

    PubMed

    Clamp, Philip J; Grant, David G; Zapala, David A; Hawkins, David B

    2011-01-01

    The right to confidentiality is a central tenet of the doctor-patient relationship. In the United Kingdom this right to confidentiality is recognised in published GMC guidance. In USA the Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) strengthened the legal requirement to protect patient information in all forms and failure to do so now constitutes a federal offence. The aims of this study are to assess the acoustic privacy of an otolaryngology outpatient consultation room. Acoustic privacy was measured using the articulation index (AI) and Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB) speech discrimination tests. BKB speech tests were calibrated to normal conversational volume (50 dB SPL). Both AI and BKB were calculated in four positions around the ENT clinic: within the consultation room, outside the consulting room door, in the nearest waiting area chair and in the farthest waiting area chair. Tests were undertaken with the clinic room door closed and open to assess the effect on privacy. With the clinic room door closed, mean BKB scores in nearest and farthest waiting area chairs were 51 and 41% respectively. AI scores in the waiting area chairs were 0.03 and 0.02. With the clinic room door open, privacy was lost in both AI and BKB testing, with almost 100% of word discernable at normal talking levels. The results of this study highlight the poor level of speech privacy within a standard ENT outpatient department. AI is a poor predictor or privacy.

  19. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    PubMed

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p < 0.05) and dynamic changes of HRV after glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p < 0.05). Changes in vegetative nervous system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p < 0.05), which at that moment were higher than in patients with high normal BP (p < 0.05). Fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations and glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p < 0.05). In both groups positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR were observed (r1 = 0.70 & r2 = 0.78). Subjects with optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP. PMID:26320287

  20. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  1. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted. PMID:26797175

  2. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted.

  3. Normative data for the "Sniffin' Sticks" including tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds: an upgrade based on a group of more than 3,000 subjects.

    PubMed

    Hummel, T; Kobal, G; Gudziol, H; Mackay-Sim, A

    2007-03-01

    "Sniffin' Sticks" is a test of nasal chemosensory function that is based on pen-like odor dispensing devices, introduced some 10 years ago by Kobal and co-workers. It consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. Previous work established its test-retest reliability and validity. Results of the test are presented as "TDI score", the sum of results obtained for threshold, discrimination, and identification measures. While normative data have been established they are based on a relatively small number of subjects, especially with regard to subjects older than 55 years where data from only 30 healthy subjects have been used. The present study aimed to remedy this situation. Now data are available from 3,282 subjects as compared to data from 738 subjects published previously. Disregarding sex-related differences, the TDI score at the tenth percentile was 24.9 in subjects younger than 15 years, 30.3 for ages from 16 to 35 years, 27.3 for ages from 36 to 55 years, and 19.6 for subjects older than 55 years. Because the tenth percentile has been defined to separate hyposmia from normosmia, these data can be used as a guide to estimate individual olfactory ability in relation to subject's age. Absolute hyposmia was defined as the tenth percentile score of 16-35 year old subjects. Other than previous reports the present norms are also sex-differentiated with women outperforming men in the three olfactory tests. Further, the present data suggest specific changes of individual olfactory functions in relation to age, with odor thresholds declining most dramatically compared to odor discrimination and odor identification. PMID:17021776

  4. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT.

  5. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT. PMID:26154819

  6. Habituation and short-term repeatability of thermal testing in healthy human subjects and patients with chronic non-neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Claudia Maria Santos; Scherens, Andrea; Richter, Helmut; Schaub, Claudia; Rolke, Roman; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Maier, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    We investigated habituation effects during thermal quantitative sensory testing (tQST) using 8 repetitive measurements for thermal detection and pain thresholds. The same measurements were repeated two days later. 39 healthy subjects and 36 patients with chronic non-neuropathic pain syndromes (migraine, tension-type headache, non-radicular back pain) were enrolled. The pain intensity was assessed using an 11-point (0-10) numerical rating scale. Measurements correlated significantly over the two days in both groups (r=0.41...0.62). Warm detection (WDT) and heat pain threshold (HPT) revealed no significant differences over these days. Cold detection (CDT) and pain thresholds (CPT) showed significant differences but these were small compared to the range of normal variability (CDTDelta -0.28 degrees C; CPTDelta 1.51 degrees C). On both days, WDT showed no habituation during measurements. Although there was a small difference in CDT and CPT between first and second measurement, there was no habituation beyond the second stimuli. In contrast, HPT significantly increased between first and sixth stimuli, indicating pronounced habituation. Average HPT of first to third measurement was significantly lower than HPT of the fourth to sixth assessment (45.9 degrees C; 47.7 degrees C) with a good day-to-day repeatability. Repeatability and habituation was identical in both groups. Ongoing pain intensity in the patient groups correlated significantly with CDT/WDT but not with CPT, HPT, indicating that ongoing pain might suppress the sensitivity to non-painful stimuli. In summary, tQST proved a reliable diagnostic tool for clinical practice. Day-to-day differences were small but without clinical relevance. Habituation was most pronounced for HPT, probably due to peripheral fatigue of the receptors.

  7. American Academy of Audiology

    MedlinePlus

    Cheap Ray Bans Sunglasses Skip to main content Facebook Twitter In You Tube Toggle navigation Menu Home About Us New Professionals Students News Contact Us For Members My Profile Renewals Benefits Member ...

  8. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  9. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Framework for Providing Patient- and Family-Centered Audiological Care for Older Adults and Their Significant Others.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families. PMID:27489398

  10. The use of robotics to eliminate testing variability in the evaluation of polymeric matrix composites subjected to three-point flexure

    SciTech Connect

    Croman, R.B.; Jefferis, D.W. . Composites Div.)

    1993-11-01

    A set of 54 flexural specimens of unidirectional AS-4 graphite reinforced J-2 Polymer, an amorphous thermoplastic polymeric matrix, was tested via a robotic testing setup. Because the testing was robot performed, it is here claimed that the variation of the test results is produced by the variability of the material and not be variation in testing method. An analysis of the test results has been correlated to the various aspects of the failure history observed for these specimens. In addition, an analysis of the scatter in failure strengths has been used to predict the scatter previously observed in flexural fatigue lifetimes.

  11. A Rank-Sum Test for Clustered Data when the Number of Subjects in a Group within a Cluster is Informative

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The Wilcoxon rank-sum test is a popular nonparametric test for comparing two independent populations (groups). In recent years, there have been renewed attempts in extending the Wilcoxon rank sum test for clustered data, one of which (Datta and Satten, 2005, Journal of the American Statistical Association 100, 908–915) addresses the issue of informative cluster size, i.e., when the outcomes and the cluster size are correlated. We are faced with a situation where the group specific marginal distribution in a cluster depends on the number of observations in that group (i.e., the intra-cluster group size). We develop a novel extension of the rank-sum test for handling this situation. We compare the performance of our test with the Datta-Satten test, as well as the naive Wilcoxon rank sum test. Using a naturally occurring simulation model of informative intra-cluster group size, we show that only our test maintains the correct size. We also compare our test with a classical signed rank test based on averages of the outcome values in each group paired by the cluster membership. While this test maintains the size, it has lower power than our test. Extensions to multiple group comparisons and the case of clusters not having samples from all groups are also discussed. We apply our test to determine whether there are differences in the attachment loss between the upper and lower teeth and between mesial and buccal sites of periodontal patients. PMID:26575695

  12. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards for Sulfur Oxides 32 Table 32 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt....

  13. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  14. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  15. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Statistical power and parameter stability when subjects are few and tests are many: comment on Peterson, Smith, Martorana, and Owens (2003).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, John R; DeRue, D Scott; Mannor, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the original article "The impact of chief executive officer personality on top management team dynamics: One mechanism by which leadership affects organizational performance", by R. S. Peterson et al.. This comment illustrates how small sample sizes, when combined with many statistical tests, can generate unstable parameter estimates and invalid inferences. Although statistical power for 1 test in a small-sample context is too low, the experimentwise power is often high when many tests are conducted, thus leading to Type I errors that will not replicate when retested. This comment's results show how radically the specific conclusions and inferences in R. S. Peterson, D. B. Smith, P. V. Martorana, and P. D. Owens's (2003) study changed with the inclusion or exclusion of 1 data point. When a more appropriate experimentwise statistical test was applied, the instability in the inferences was eliminated, but all the inferences become nonsignificant, thus changing the positive conclusions.

  17. Effects of the Simultaneous Application of Nonlinear Frequency Compression and Dichotic Hearing on the Speech Recognition of Severely Hearing-Impaired Subjects: Simulation Test

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jong Ho; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jinryoul; Yook, Sunhyun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The clinical effects of the simultaneous application of nonlinear frequency compression and dichotic hearing on people with hearing impairments have not been evaluated previously. In this study, the clinical effects of the simultaneous application of these two techniques on the recognition of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words with fricatives were evaluated using normal-hearing subjects and a hearing loss simulator operated in the severe hearing loss setting. Methods A total of 21 normal-hearing volunteers whose native language was English were recruited for this study, and two different hearing loss simulators, which were configured for severe hearing loss in the high-frequency range, were utilized. The subjects heard 82 English CVC words, and the word recognition score and response time were measured. Results The experimental results demonstrated that the simultaneous application of these two techniques showed almost even performance compared to the sole application of nonlinear frequency compression in a severe hearing loss setting. Conclusion Though it is generally accepted that dichotic hearing can decrease the spectral masking thresholds of an hearing-impaired person, simultaneous application of the nonlinear frequency compression and dichotic hearing techniques did not significantly improve the recognition of words with fricatives compared to the sole application of nonlinear frequency compression in a severe hearing loss setting. PMID:26045907

  18. Real-time testing of titanium sheet and extrusion coupon specimens subjected to Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing stresses and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, T.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  19. Electromyographic latency of postural evoked responses from the leg muscles during EquiTest Computerised Dynamic Posturography: Reference data on healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Laura; Caronni, Antonio; Vidmar, Gaj; Tesio, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    No normative data are available for the latencies of the EMG signals from the ankle muscles in response to sudden sagittal tilt (toes-UP or toes-DOWN) or shift (shift-FOR or shift-BACK) of the support surface during standing. In this study the postural evoked response (PER) paradigm on the EquiTest™ force platform was applied to 31 healthy adults (18 women and 13 men; mean age 29 years). The EMG latencies (PEREMG) were computed both through the standard manual procedure and through a specially designed automated algorithm. The manually computed PEREMG onset yielded a 95% tolerance interval between 82ms and 148ms after toes-UP perturbation, between 93ms and 182ms after toes-DOWN perturbation, between 67ms and 107ms after shift-BACK perturbation, and between 73ms and 113ms after shift-FOR perturbation. When comparing the two methods, paired t-tests showed no significant mean difference (Bonferroni-adjusted p-values ranged from 0.440 to 1.000) and all Bland-Altman plots included zero difference within the limits of agreement. Therefore, the manual and the automated methods appear to be sufficiently consistent. These results foster the clinical application of PEREMG testing on the EquiTest platform. PMID:24231039

  20. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  1. Testing the applicability of artificial intelligence techniques to the subject of erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation part one: the applicability of a fuzzy rule based approach.

    PubMed

    Riad, A M; Elminir, Hamdy K; Own, Hala S; Azzam, Yosry A

    2008-02-27

    This work presents the applicability of applying a fuzzy logic approach to the calculation of noontime erythemal UV irradiance for the plain areas of Egypt. When different combinations of data sets were examined from the test performance point of view, it was found that 91% of the whole series was estimated within a deviation of less than +/-10 mW/m(2), and 9% of these deviations lay within the range of +/-15 mW/m(2) to +/-25 mW/m(2).

  2. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  3. The comparison between measurement of open apices of third molars and Demirjian stages to test chronological age of over 18 year olds in living subjects.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Ferrante, L; De Angelis, D; Scarpino, F; Galli, F

    2008-11-01

    This paper concerns a method for assessing adult age based on the relationship between age and the third molar maturity index (I(3M)), which is related to the measurement of the open apices of the third molar. Furthermore, this method was compared to those based on Demirjian's stages G and H. The sample consisted of 906 Caucasian individuals aged between 14 and 23 years (53.6% females and 46.4% males). Orthopantomographs were analyzed by two observers and calibrated by means of the concordance correlation coefficient for the reproducibility of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)) and kappa statistics for reproducibility of the Demirjian stages. Probabilities for an individual to be older than 18 years of age (adult age) were derived using the measurements of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)). These results were exploited to set out a threshold value to assign an individual to juvenile or adult age. A cutoff value of I(3M) = 0.08 was taken. The sensitivity of this test was 70% and specificity was 98%. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals with a correct classification was 83%. The results of the test showed a better specificity when compared to the choice of stage G and a better sensitivity when compared to the choice of stage H for adult age.

  4. Dental Age Estimation: A Test of the Reliability of Correctly Identifying a Subject Over 18 Years of Age Using the Gold Standard of Chronological Age as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Andiappan, Manoharan; McDonald, Fraser; Roberts, Graham

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability of using the third molars to demarcate between child and adult status. A total of 2000 dental panoramic tomographs were used for assessment of the calculated age using the 8-stage system of tooth development and applied to all four third molars. The LL8 was also assessed using this 8-stage system. For each tooth development stage, the Normal distribution and percentile summary data were estimated. The calculated dental age compared with the chronological age was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) for both females and males giving underestimates of the true age. Comparison of single tooth dental age and chronological age was only slightly different. The most important finding is that the assignment to above or below the 18-year threshold, in the age range 17 years to 19 years, could be wrong on up to 50% of occasions.

  5. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO₂ leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites.

    PubMed

    Payán, M Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R

    2012-12-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO(2) acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied.

  6. Automated Training in Auditory Perception and Phonetic Transcription for Beginning Students in Speech Pathology and Audiology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutenegger, Ralph R.

    The phonetic transcription ability of 78 college students whose transcription instruction was administered by means of pre-programed Language Master cards was compared with that of 81 students whose instruction was non-automated. Ability was measured by seven weekly tests. There was no significant relationship on any of 29 variables with type of…

  7. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Guasco, G; Gamalero, P C; Cuniolo, A

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: T.A.T., Rogers, Rosenzweig. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to the illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  8. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  9. Audiometry for the Retarded: With Implications for the Difficult-to-Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T., Ed.; And Others

    Directed to professionals with a basic knowledge of audiological principles, the text presents a review of audiological assessment procedures and their applicability to the retarded. Pure-tone, speech, and Bekesy audiometry are described. Also discussed are differential diagnosis of auditory impairments, conditioning and audiological assessment,…

  10. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  11. Contextually relevant resources in speech-language therapy and audiology in South Africa--are there any?

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michelle; Norman, Vivienne

    2011-10-01

    In this editorial introduction we aim to explore the notion of contextually relevant resources. We argue that it is the responsibility of speech-language therapists (SLTs) and audiologists (As) working in South Africa to develop contextually relevant resources, and not to rely on the countries or cultures where the professions originated to do so. Language is often cited as the main barrier to contextually relevant resources: most SLTs and As are aware of the need for more resources in the local languages. However, the issue is not as straightforward as translating resources from English into other languages. The challenges related to culture, e.g. formal education and familiarity with the test situation, have to be considered, as well as the population on which norms were obtained and the nature of vocabulary or picture items. This paper introduces four original research papers that follow in this edition of the journal, and showcases them as examples of innovative development in our field. At the same time we call for the further development of assessment materials, intervention resources, and contributions to the evidence base in our context. We emphasise the importance of local knowledge to drive the development of these resources in innovative and perhaps unexpected ways, and suggest that all clinicians have an important role to play in this process.

  12. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1985-86 and 1988-89 in the Following Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting; Agricultural Production; Anthropology; Architecture and Environmental Design; Area and Ethnic Studies; Audiology and Speech Pathology; Business Administration and Management; Business and Management; Business Economics; Chemistry; Communication Technologies; Communications; Computer and Information Sciences; Curriculum and Instruction; and Dramatic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. Data cover the following 15 disciplines: accounting, agribusiness and agricultural production, anthropology, architecture and environmental design, area and ethnic studies, audiology and speech…

  13. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  14. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  15. Animal Models of Subjective Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients. PMID:24829805

  16. Animal models of subjective tinnitus.

    PubMed

    von der Behrens, Wolfger

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients.

  17. Computer Applications in Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how computer technologies can be used by educational audiologists. Computer technologies are classified into three categories: (1) information systems applications; (2) screening and diagnostic applications; and (3) intervention applications. (Author/DB)

  18. Audiology Services in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannen, Susan J.; Huffman, Nancy P.; Marttila, Joan; Williams, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is the professional, scientific, and credentialing association for more than 109,000 audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists. ASHA's mission is to ensure that all people with speech, language, and hearing disorders have access to quality…

  19. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  20. Individualised headband simulation test for predicting outcome after percutaneous bone conductive implantation.

    PubMed

    Monini, S; Filippi, C; Atturo, F; Biagini, M; Lazzarino, A I; Barbara, M

    2015-10-01

    Trans-cutaneous bone conduction (BC) stimulators, when coupled to the HB (BC-HB), are generally used to predict the results that could be achieved after bone conductive implant (BCI) surgery, and their performance is generally considered inferior to that provided by the definitive percutaneous system. The aim of the present study was to compare the performances between BC-HB and BCI of the same typology, when the former's sound processor is fitted in accordance to the individual auditory situation. Twenty-two patients selected for surgical application of a BCI were evaluated and the same audiological protocol was used to select the candidate and assess the final outcome. The BC-HB was properly fitted based on individual hearing loss and personal auditory targets, and tested as primary step of the protocol to obtain the most reliable predictive value. The BAHA Divino and BP100 sound processors were applied in 12 patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss (CMHL) and in 10 subjects with single sided deafness (SSD). Audiometric evaluation included the pure tone average (PTA3) threshold between 250-1000 Hz; the PTA thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz; intelligibility scores as percentage of word recognition (WRS) in quiet and in noise; and subjective evaluation of perceived sound quality by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation with a student's t test was used for assessment of efficacy of BC-HB and BCI compared with the unaided condition. Spearman's Rho coefficient was used to confirm the reliability of the BC-HB simulation test as a predictor of definitive outcome. The results showed that the mean PTA difference between BCI and BC-HB ranged from 2.54 to 8.27 decibels in the CMHL group and from 1.27 to 3.9 decibels in the SSD group. Compared with the BC-HB, BCI showed a better WRS both in CMHL (16% in quiet and 12% in noise) and in SSD (5% in quiet and a 1% in noise) groups. Spearman's Rho coefficient, calculated for PTA, WRS in quiet and in noise and VAS

  1. [The correlation between subjective and objective voice evaluation in organic and functional larynx disorders].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and introduce into phoniatric diagnostic procedures the complex methodology of vocal function assessment, on the basis of comparison of subjective and objective voice estimation. The set of complex voice evaluation ought to include perceptual examination of the voice quality with quantitative GRBAS scale as a subjective method, vocal folds vibrations in videostroboscopy as a quasi-objective method and acoustic voice estimation in Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) as an objective method. The basic assumption of this report is to prove correlation existence for vocal folds vibration quality in videostroboscopy, parameters describing acoustic wave generating by vibration system in larynx (MDVP) and perceptual subjective voice assessment (GRBAS scale) in organic and functional voice disorders. Research was conducted on 100 subjects (65 with organic and 35 with functional voice disorder), aged 7-74 years randomly chosen from population of patients treated at the Department of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences in Poznań in 1996-2001 and 60 subjects as a control group without any voice disorders according to phoniatric examination. The research methodology include perceptual voice evaluation based on Japanese (Hirano) GRBAS scale adapted to Polish language, in scale 0 to 3 as well as the vibrations of vocal folds in videostroboscopy with attempt at quantification (scale 1 to 3) of selected measure and for acoustic analysis of Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) for 17 estimated parameters. Due to results and statistic analysis the own, new scale of dysphonia severity was introduced.

  2. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  3. Predicting the effects of muscle activation on knee, thigh, and hip injuries in frontal crashes using a finite-element model with muscle forces from subject testing and musculoskeletal modeling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Rupp, Jonathan D; Reed, Matthew P; Hughes, Richard E; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2009-11-01

    In a previous study, the authors reported on the development of a finite-element model of the midsize male pelvis and lower extremities with lower-extremity musculature that was validated using PMHS knee-impact response data. Knee-impact simulations with this model were performed using forces from four muscles in the lower extremities associated with two-foot bracing reported in the literature to provide preliminary estimates of the effects of lower-extremity muscle activation on knee-thigh-hip injury potential in frontal impacts. The current study addresses a major limitation of these preliminary simulations by using the AnyBody three-dimensional musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle forces produced in 35 muscles in each lower extremity during emergency one-foot braking. To check the predictions of the AnyBody Model, activation levels of twelve major muscles in the hip and lower extremities were measured using surface EMG electrodes on 12 midsize-male subjects performing simulated maximum and 50% of maximum braking in a laboratory seating buck. Comparisons between test results and the predictions of the AnyBody Model when it was used to simulate these same braking tests suggest that the AnyBody model appropriately predicts agonistic muscle activations but under predicts antagonistic muscle activations. Simulations of knee-to-knee-bolster impacts were performed by impacting the knees of the lower-extremity finite element model with and without the muscle forces predicted by the validated AnyBody Model. Results of these simulations confirm previous findings that muscle tension increases knee-impact force by increasing the effective mass of the KTH complex due to tighter coupling of muscle mass to bone. They also indicate that muscle activation preferentially couples mass distal to the hip, thereby accentuating the decrease in femur force from the knee to the hip. However, the reduction in force transmitted from the knee to the hip is offset by the increased force

  4. The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Akın, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.

  5. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  6. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  7. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  8. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  9. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... physical risk but may pose psychological or informational risks. Some have argued that, particularly given... to protect research subjects from psychological or informational risks.\\22\\ Over-regulating social... educational tests, surveys, interviews, and similar procedures so long as the subjects are competent...

  10. Saccadic eye movements of dyslexic adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B; Biscaldi, M; Otto, P

    1993-09-01

    The characteristics of visually guided saccadic eye movements were compared in 12 normal adult subjects and 12 test subjects of normal intelligence, but with problems in reading and writing. All subjects were examined psychometrically for different cognitive abilities, and for their reading and writing capabilities. The anamnestic reports about their reading and writing problems earlier in their lives were analysed. Based on scores of the writing and reading tests, the test group was subdivided into two subgroups: A and B (group A reached medium, group B very low scores in both tests). Five different non-cognitive eye movement tasks were applied: two single tasks (gap and overlap) requiring single saccades from a fixation point to a peripherally appearing target and three sequential tasks (overlap, synchronous, and simultaneous) requiring sequences of saccades to four equally spaced targets presented sequentially to the right side from an initial fixation point. Many parameters of the subjects' eye movement performance were determined and their mean values were calculated for each subject. The Student t-test revealed that the eye movement data of the two test groups deviated differently from the data of the control group. Group B had the largest deviation of the eye movement parameter from the control group. The differentiating parameters were the consistency of target acquisition, the saccadic reaction time, and the number of anticipatory responses in the single target tasks. In the sequential tasks these differences were in the amplitude, the number of saccades, and the fixation durations. The incidence of regressive saccades did not discriminate between test subjects and controls. The possible underlying deficits in the attentional control over the saccadic system and their implications for reading are discussed.

  11. Water: A Sticky Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Robbie V.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity for fifth grade elementary students on water, cohesion, and adhesion. Provides a list of necessary materials and includes a checklist for performance based assessment. Recommends follow up experiments for testing cohesive property with different liquids. (YDS)

  12. An integrated knowledge translation experience: use of the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada to facilitate the development of the University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP v1.0).

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sheila T; Bagatto, Marlene P; Miller, Linda T; Kothari, Anita; Seewald, Richard; Scollie, Susan D

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric audiologists lack evidence-based, age-appropriate outcome evaluation tools with well-developed normative data that could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Bagatto and colleagues recommend a battery of outcome tools that may be used with this population. This article provides results of an evaluation of the individual components of the University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP) version 1.0 by the audiologists associated with the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada. It also provides information regarding barriers and facilitators to implementing outcome measures in clinical practice. Results indicate that when compared to the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Diary, audiologists found the PEACH Rating Scale to be a more clinically feasible evaluation tool to implement in practice from a time, task, and consistency of use perspective. Results also indicate that the LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI). The most cited barrier to implementation is time. The result of this social collaboration was the creation of a knowledge product, the UWO PedAMP v1.0, which has the potential to be useful to audiologists and the children and families they serve. PMID:22194315

  13. Mississippi Public High School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of the Subject Area Testing Program (SATP2) and Its Impact on Counselors' Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Aretha Hargrove

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Mississippi Delta area public high school counselors' and principals' perception of the impact of SATP2 testing on counselors' services to students in order to determine whether or not testing responsibilities have an adverse effect on counselors' delivery of services to students. This…

  14. The status of diagnostic testing following referral from universal newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Sue; Windmill, Ian M

    2006-05-01

    The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 2000 position statement includes guidelines for the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs. These guidelines provide specific recommendations for the audiologic test battery for infants who fail a newborn infant hearing screening. The recommended test battery includes electrophysiologic measures such as the ABR, frequency specific electrophysiologic tests, bone-conducted ABR, OAEs, tympanometry using high frequency probe stimuli, and acoustic reflexes. In the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 42 centers are listed as providing follow-up diagnostic testing services for infants failing the newborn hearing screening. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how many of these centers were abiding by the Joint Committee guidelines. Results show that only three of 42 centers listed are providing services that meet the guidelines. Less than 50% of infants identified with hearing loss are referred for genetic evaluations by the audiologist. Only 19 of the 42 sites listed provide amplification services for infants identified with hearing loss.

  15. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  16. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  17. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  1. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis. PMID:26348203

  2. Thematic Role Properties of Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kako, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests two claims about the thematic roles Agent and Patient: first, that they can be decomposed into more primitive features, as laid out in Dowty's (1991) Proto-Roles Hypothesis; and second, that these properties can be inferred directly from the grammatical roles subject and object. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the…

  3. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  4. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  5. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  6. Subjective organization of U.S. presidents.

    PubMed

    Brown, N R; Siegler, R S

    1991-01-01

    College students appear to subjectively organize U.S. presidents into three groups and to use this organization to help them learn new information. Results of a paired comparison task in Experiment 1 suggested that subjects organized the presidents into Founding Fathers (Washington through John Quincy Adams), post-World War II presidents (Truman through Reagan), and noncontemporary presidents (Jackson through Franklin Roosevelt). This hypothesized organization was tested in Experiment 2 by presenting subjects with several lists with alternative organizations of the presidents. Difficulty of learning classifications of particular presidents within each list was predicted on the basis of the relation between that president's classification in the list and in the hypothesized preexisting organization. Instances where the preexisting and new classifications were consistent both for the particular president and for all other members of the group were easiest to learn. Instances where the particular president's classification was consistent but where some other presidents in the group were classified differently were of intermediate difficulty. Instances where neither the individual president's classification nor that of the entire group were consistent were most difficult. The results provided converging evidence for the hypothesized subjective organization of the presidents and also demonstrated the usefulness of a method that may be applicable to testing subjective organizations in a wide variety of other areas. PMID:2058756

  7. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  8. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (Tavr), maximum temperature (Tmax), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, Tavr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for Tavr, Tmax, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for Tavr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for Tavr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  9. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present.

  10. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  11. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  12. Experimental characterization of materials subjected to combined loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    In real life experience, machine and structure elements are subjected to complex loading history. Combined loading testes facilitate the understanding of materials behavior subjected to multiaxial stress state. In this paper are presented experimental investigations used to evaluate the influence of an initial type of loading on material properties which will be subsequently tested through another load type. Initial tests are tension tests, by different elongations, and subsequent tests are torsion tests, until break. Circular cross section specimens will be used in these tests. Tension tests have been performed on a universal testing machine. Subsequently torsion tests have been conducted through an attachable device. It was found that the energy associated with plastic deformation obtained by subsequent torsional tests has the dominant influence on the material total plastic energy, although initial test was tension.

  13. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  14. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    PubMed

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  15. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  16. Language in Education: Testing the Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Perkins, Kyle

    This book addresses the question of what tests are measures of. Intelligence, achievement, and personality tests not based on empirical investigation have questionable validity. Some researchers now suspect that almost all tests given to students in all subjects, as well as general tests of intelligence and personality, are essentially language…

  17. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  18. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648

  19. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kottow, Andrea R; Kottow, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease. PMID:17603873

  20. SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUANG, SHUAN FAN

    TWO OF THE MAJOR GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS MUCH STUDIED BY MANDARIN GRAMMARIANS IN THE PAST DECADE ARE THE EXISTENCE OF PARTS OF SPEECH AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN SENTENCES. THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO DEAL WITH A VARIETY OF PROBLEMS IN CONNECTION WITH THE NOTIONS OF SUBJECT AND OBJECT IN MANDARIN CHINESE…

  1. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  2. Subject Specialization in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadiran, D. O.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a subject specialization approach in university libraries. Also described are some of the difficulties which have arisen with the introduction of subject specialization in some of the newer or provincial universities. Four references are listed. (LLS)

  3. Re-Energising Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, John

    2012-01-01

    The value of knowledge and the role of subjects in the school curriculum have been widely questioned in recent years, often portrayed as old-fashioned and irrelevant, especially in the face of a fast-changing global economy. This article argues that this is both limited in its view of the potential of knowledge and subjects, and limiting for those…

  4. Sensory Information and Subjective Contour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brussell, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)

  5. About subjective evaluation of adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso

    2015-03-01

    The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.

  6. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  7. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  8. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Material and methods Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Results Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p < 0.05) experimental subjects; overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Conclusions Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:23515361

  9. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  10. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  11. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  12. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  13. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  14. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  15. Coupled volume/double slope subjective listening test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Stuecker, Rebecca

    2003-10-01

    Can experienced listeners of music discern a double-sloped decay from a Sabine decay? Do they prefer the double slope? Concert hall designers use coupled-volumes and their signature double-slope sound decay in an effort to reconcile the inversely related qualities of reverberance and clarity. A simulated space, based on an actual built coupled-volume hall, was conceived in the room acoustics software CATT-Acoustic. Variations in the aperture sizes that sonically expose the main hall to the coupled volume generated both classic Sabine decays and double-sloped decays. The impulse responses generated were convolved with the same anechoic musical recording, grouped in pairs, and played for an opportunity-sample of 21 volunteers from the Architectural Acoustics section of the 145th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in Nashville. Participants listened to the 11 recorded pairs over headphones and were asked to determine (1) if the two recordings sounded different, (2) which recording was more likely to have a double slope or had a more dramatic double slope, and (3) which of the two recordings they prefer.

  16. Optomechanical tests of hydrated biological tissues subjected to laser shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N

    2008-03-31

    The mechanical properties of a matrix are studied upon changing the size and shape of biological tissues during dehydration caused by weak laser-induced heating. The cartilage deformation, dehydration dynamics, and hydraulic conductivity are measured upon laser heating. The hydrated state and the shape of samples of separated fascias and cartilaginous tissues were controlled by using computer-aided processing of tissue images in polarised light. (laser biology)

  17. Between-subjects differences of within-subject variability in repeated balance measures: consequences on the minimum detectable change.

    PubMed

    Pagnacco, Guido; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    When repeating tests on a subject it is important to know if changes of the results are significant. Researchers have used measures of reliability, e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimum detectable change (MDC), to assess reliability and validity of balance measures and equipment, and to determine what constitutes a significant change (SC). Using ICC and MDC assumes measurement differences are random in nature, i.e., that within-subject variability is similar between subjects. We investigated if this assumption holds true for center of pressure based balance measures. 20 repetitions of the tests comprising the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration in Balance (mCTSIB) protocol were performed by two 17-subject groups simulating laboratory and clinical conditions. Force platform based computerized dynamic posturography Vestibular Technologies CAPS(®) systems exceeding ISPGR recommended accuracy, precision and resolution were used to perform the testing and collect the data. The MDC was compared with the SC computed from individual subjects' within-subject standard deviation, with and without averaging 3 repetitions. We found within-subjects variability was not similar between subjects, rendering the applicability of ICC and MDC questionable. The MDC greatly underestimated the SC for some subjects and overestimated it for others, therefore it should be used with extreme caution, if at all. It seems that for balance measures the SC is more a subject's rather than an instrument's or test's characteristic and should be evaluated on an individual basis. We suggest doing so might provide useful additional clinical information about a subject.

  18. Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.

  19. Transducer senses displacements of panels subjected to vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pea, R. O.

    1965-01-01

    Inductive vibration sensor measures the surface displacement of nonferrous metal panels subjected to vibration or flutter. This transducer does not make any physical contact with the test panel when measuring.

  20. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    PubMed

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  1. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  2. Coefficient of variation as a measure of subject effort.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, J C

    1995-06-01

    This study describes average coefficients of variation (CVs) for various isometric strength tests in an impaired population, determines if differences exist in CVs between the various tests or between persons with different diagnoses, and determines the correlations between the CVs of differing tests. Survey data were collected from a consecutive sample of 270 functional capacity evaluations conducted on previously injured patients at an outpatient rehabilitation center. Patients were grouped by diagnosis. Three trials on each of up to eight isometric strength tests (two pushing, two pulling, and four lifting) were performed. CVs were calculated for each test for each subject. Mean CVs were then calculated for each subject for all tests completed. Mean CVs were also calculated for each test for all subjects who performed the test. Mean CVs on the various tests ranged from 6.1% to 12.0%. There was a significant difference in means between tests (p < .0001). Mean CVs between diagnostic groups were not different. No evidence was found to indicate that the CV can be used independently to determine sincerity of subject effort. CVs will vary depending on the specific test. CVs do not necessarily vary because of differing diagnoses. Judgments of sincerity of effort should not be made when based solely on the CV.

  3. Possibilities of spatial hearing testing in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Przewoźny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the organ of hearing are a significant limitation in the performance of occupations that require its full efficiency (vehicle driving, army, police, fire brigades, mining). Hearing impairment is associated with poorer understanding of speech and disturbed sound localization that directly affects the worker's orientation in space and his/her assessment of distance and location of other workers or, even most importantly, of dangerous machines. Testing sound location abilities is not a standard procedure, even in highly specialized audiological examining rooms. It should be pointed out that the ability to localize sounds which are particularly loud, is not directly associated with the condition of the hearing organ, but is rather considered an auditory function of a higher level. Disturbances in sound localization are mainly associated with structural and functional disturbances of the central nervous system and occur also in patients with normal hearing when tested with standard methods. The article presents different theories explaining the phenomenon of sound localization, such as interaural differences in time, interaural differences in sound intensity, monaural spectrum shape and the anatomical and physiological basis of these processes. It also describes methods of measurement of disturbances in sound localization which are used in Poland and around the world, also by the author of this work. The author analyzed accessible reports on sound localization testing in occupational medicine and the possibilities of using such tests in various occupations requiring full fitness of the organ of hearing. PMID:27443751

  4. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  5. Performance tests.

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatigue, toxic chemicals, are mentioned where appropriate. Diazepam is used as an example. There is no particular performance emphasis since the tests are intended to have wide applicability. However, vehicle-driving performance is discussed because it has been the subject of a great deal of research and is probably one of the most important areas of application. Performance tests are discussed in terms of the four main underlying models--factor analysis, general information processing, multiple resource and strategy models, and processing-stage models--and in terms of their psychometric properties--sensitivity, reliability, and content, criterion, construct, and face validity. Some test taxonomies are presented. Standardization is also discussed with reference to the reaction time, mathematical processing, memory search, spatial processing, unstable tracking, verbal processing, and dual task tests used in the AGARD STRES battery. Some comments on measurement strengths and appropriate study designs and methods are included. PMID:9182033

  6. Electrogastrograms during motion sickness in fasted and fed subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John J.; Wood, Mary J.; Wood, Charles D.

    1989-01-01

    Seven human volunteers were subjected to stressful Coriolis stimulation (rotating chair) either during the fasted state or following the ingestion of yogurt (6 oz). Subjects tested after yogurt reached a malaise-III (M-III) endpoint of motion sickness after significantly (p smaller than 0.01) fewer head movements than subjects tested in the fasted state. Surface electrogastrogram (EGG) recordings at M-III were similar for both dietary stats and consisted of a brief period of tachygastria, followed by a period of low-amplitude EGG waves. Ingestion of yogurt enhanced susceptibility to motion sickness but did not affect the associated pattern of EGG.

  7. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  8. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  9. Pre-Test Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  10. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools.

  11. Audiological Management of Patients Receiving Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Wilmington, Debra J.; Gordon, Jane S.; Reavis, Kelly M.; Fausti, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, commonly prescribed for adults and children to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, are potentially ototoxic, often causing irreversible damage to the auditory and vestibular systems. Ototoxic hearing loss usually begins at the higher frequencies and can progress to lower frequencies necessary for understanding…

  12. On the Subject of Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbrook, David, Ed.

    This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…

  13. Reestablishing clinical psychology's subjective core.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients.

  14. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  15. On the Subjectivity of Intensifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiadou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    Intensification is a means of indexing the speakers' perspective. This paper attempts to show the semantic development of particular intensifiers following Langacker's framework of subjectivity. In this framework, the focus lies on the way the conceptualizer construes an event or a situation as an observer or as an experiencer with degrees of…

  16. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  17. Subjectivity, Lifeworld, and Work Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithaeuser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…

  18. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  19. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  20. Why Are School Subjects Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…

  1. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  2. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed. PMID:14750465

  3. Rotational testing.

    PubMed

    Furman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings. PMID:27638070

  4. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  5. Experimental subjects are not different.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  6. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.

  7. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  8. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  9. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  10. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  11. Diseases of Anatomical Subjects (Bacteriomycosis and Entomobacteriomycosis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoli, Rene M., And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes problems with the preservation of anatomy subjects (cadavers) for subsequent studies. Occasionally, the subjects are diseased, and the process of bacteriomycosis and entomobacteriomycosis makes them worthless as anatomy subjects. (Author/ABB)

  12. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  13. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  14. Osteocalcin levels in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, M; Ciotti, G; Pioli, G; Girasole, G; Davoli, L; Palummeri, E; Passeri, M

    1989-12-01

    Because a series of reports suggests the existence of altered bone and mineral metabolism in diabetes mellitus, we studied 106 diabetic subjects (42 insulin-dependent (IDD) and 64 noninsulin dependent (NIDD] to determine whether a difference in bone turnover (evaluated by serum osteocalcin (OC] could be found in comparison with normal controls. OC levels in diabetic subjects were lower than the age- and sex-specific predicted values. The reduction was especially evident in male and female NIDD (Z-score: - 1.12 +/- 0.92, t = 8.4, P less than 0.001 and -0.84 +/- 0.86, t = 4.0, P less than 0.01, respectively) and male IDD (Z-score: - 0.90 +/- 0.86, t = 4.5, P less than 0.01). The mean Z-score for female IDD, albeit negative (-0.31 +/- 0.79; t = 1.6; 0.2 greater than P greater than 0.1), was not significantly different from normal. Total serum calcium (Ca) and calcitonin (CT) showed an opposite pattern, being higher in all the diabetic subgroups (with the exception of Ca in female IDD), whereas parathyroid hormone (PTH) was lower than expected in each diabetic subset. By multiple regression analysis, the reduction of OC was related to PTH and CT levels and to the type of treatment. Subjects controlled with diet showed differences of greater magnitude from the expected normal values than those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin (Z-score: -1.28 +/- 1.05 vs. -0.85 +/- 0.90 and -0.63 +/- 0.97, respectively; P = 0.05). However, the variance explained by these three factors was small, suggesting that other variables (possibly 1 alpha,25(OH)2D) exerted important influences on OC levels.

  15. Incorporation of Inter-Subject Information to Improve the Accuracy of Subject-Specific P300 Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minpeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Long; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Although the inter-subject information has been demonstrated to be effective for a rapid calibration of the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it has never been comprehensively tested to find if the incorporation of heterogeneous data could enhance the accuracy. This study aims to improve the subject-specific P300 classifier by adding other subject's data. A classifier calibration strategy, weighted ensemble learning generic information (WELGI), was developed, in which elementary classifiers were constructed by using both the intra- and inter-subject information and then integrated into a strong classifier with a weight assessment. 55 subjects were recruited to spell 20 characters offline using the conventional P300-based BCI, i.e. the P300-speller. Four different metrics, the P300 accuracy and precision, the round accuracy, and the character accuracy, were performed for a comprehensive investigation. The results revealed that the classifier constructed on the training dataset in combination with adding other subject's data was significantly superior to that without the inter-subject information. Therefore, the WELGI is an effective classifier calibration strategy which uses the inter-subject information to improve the accuracy of subject-specific P300 classifiers, and could also be applied to other BCI paradigms.

  16. Objective and subjective assessment of hangover during subacute administration of temazepam and nitrazepam to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mattila, M J; Aranko, K; Mattila, M E; Strömberg, C

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen, healthy students volunteered for a double-blind, cross-over trial of temazepam 20 mg (soft gelatine capsule), nitrazepam 10 mg (uncoated tablet) and placebo in matched formulations, single doses of each being given for 10 nights with a three-week wash-out period between each treatment. Residual drug effects were measured objectively (psychomotor skills) and subjectively (visual analogue scales) in the morning and afternoon of Days 0 (before the first tablet), 1 and 10. The subjects also recorded various events during each treatment period. Serum benzodiazepine concentrations were bioassayed in blood samples taken after the last assessment. Both benzodiazepines shortened sleep latency during the first few nights, and nitrazepam prolonged the duration of sleep. The residual effect of drowsiness was noted during the nitrazepam period, whilst temazepam proved less sedating. The 'morning after' effect was a subjective observation and not an objective measurement. The learning effect interfered with the complex objective assessments, and simple measurement of exophoria with the Maddox wing test provided the clearest objective evidence of drug effects. On Day 10 residual concentrations of nitrazepam were detectable in the serum whereas the level of temazepam was found to be low or negligible. It is concluded, that temazepam 20 mg in a soft gelatine capsule is a suitable hypnotic for subjects whose daily work requires constant alertness.

  17. Effects of the number of subjects on the dark/light preference of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Mansur, Bruno de Matos; Dos Santos, Bruno Rodrigues; Dias, Cláudio Alberto Gellis de Mattos; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Sena; Gouveia, Amauri

    2014-12-01

    This research aims to describe the effects of a variable number of Danio rerio fish subjects, ranging from one to eight, in the light/dark box preference test. Four hundred eighty adult male short-finned phenotype zebrafish were tested in the light/dark box. There were four groups in this experiment and a different number of subjects was used in each group: the control group had only one subject, whereas the experimental groups had either two, four, or eight subjects simultaneously inside the apparatus in every session. The average occurrence (AO) of subjects in the white side of the aquarium and the first choice average (FC) were recorded. The AO revealed no difference between the control group and test groups with two and four subjects. The results for the test group with eight subjects showed significant difference when compared to the control group and from the test group with two subjects. The FC also showed no difference between the control group and test groups with two and four subjects. There was significant variation between the control and the test group with eight subjects. The results reflect a conflict between the animal's preference for dark places and the innate drive to explore new environments. Zebrafish are highly social animals, exhibiting preference for swimming in groups and other patterns of social cohesion. The reduced white avoidance behavior in the test group of eight subjects may possibly reflect the role of shoaling, which is a defensive behavior, in reducing anxiety and stress. On the other hand, the absence of difference between the control group and test groups with two and four subjects suggest that it is feasible to run the light/dark test with up to four subjects, becoming an alternative to streamline and simplify data collection and test analysis.

  18. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, C; Efrati, M; Nemeth, E; Malin, M; Hildesheimer, M

    1991-01-01

    Three different central auditory skills were compared and evaluated in 56 blind and 40 sighted subjects. The study consisted of three experiments conducted in three subgroups. Experiment A was performed in order to evaluate the localization function; experiment B for the temporal auditory resolution ability of the blind adult, and experiment C to test the ability of the blind person to discriminate speech material in noise. In all three experiments the blind subjects obtained significantly better results than the sighted subjects. From these results it was concluded that there is supporting evidence of a certain superiority of the blind individual with regard to central auditory function. PMID:1842264

  19. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  20. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them.

  1. Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview of the use of subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Unconscious knowledge is knowledge we have, and could very well be using, but we are not aware of. Hence appropriate methods for indicating unconscious knowledge must show that the person (a) has knowledge but (b) does not know that she has it. One way of determining awareness of knowing is by taking confidence ratings after making judgments. If the judgments are above baseline but the person believes they are guessing (guessing criterion) or confidence does not relate to accuracy (zero-correlation criterion) there is evidence of unconscious knowledge. The way these methods can deal with the problem of bias is discussed, as is the use of different types of confidence scales. The guessing and zero-correlation criteria show whether or not the person is aware of knowing the content of the judgment, but not whether the person is aware of what any knowledge was that enabled the judgment. Thus, a distinction is made between judgment and structural knowledge, and it is shown how the conscious status of the latter can also be assessed. Finally, the use of control over the use of knowledge as a subjective measure of judgment knowledge is illustrated. Experiments using artificial grammar learning and a serial reaction time task explore these issues.

  2. Subjective video quality assessment methods for recognition tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Carolyn G.; McFarland, Mark A.; Stange, Irena W.

    2009-02-01

    To develop accurate objective measurements (models) for video quality assessment, subjective data is traditionally collected via human subject testing. The ITU has a series of Recommendations that address methodology for performing subjective tests in a rigorous manner. These methods are targeted at the entertainment application of video. However, video is often used for many applications outside of the entertainment sector, and generally this class of video is used to perform a specific task. Examples of these applications include security, public safety, remote command and control, and sign language. For these applications, video is used to recognize objects, people or events. The existing methods, developed to assess a person's perceptual opinion of quality, are not appropriate for task-based video. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, under a program from the Department of Homeland Security and the National Institute for Standards and Technology's Office of Law Enforcement, has developed a subjective test method to determine a person's ability to perform recognition tasks using video, thereby rating the quality according to the usefulness of the video quality within its application. This new method is presented, along with a discussion of two examples of subjective tests using this method.

  3. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  4. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS. PMID:22316208

  5. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS.

  6. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson. PMID:739097

  7. Subjectivity NOT Statement and NOT APA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihelkova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    I inspect in a brief theoretical-philosophical essay the roots of subjectivity and suggest many possible directions for examining the phenomenon of subjectivity so that multiple different meanings can be revealed. For instance, a researcher can explore her or his own subjectivity or he/she can attempt to define subjectivity per se or the…

  8. Using rewards and penalties to obtain desired subject performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.; Jex, H. R.; Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Operant conditioning procedures, specifically the use of negative reinforcement, in achieving stable learning behavior is described. The critical tracking test (CTT) a method of detecting human operator impairment was tested. A pass level is set for each subject, based on that subject's asymptotic skill level while sober. It is critical that complete training take place before the individualized pass level is set in order that the impairment can be detected. The results provide a more general basis for the application of reward/penalty structures in manual control research.

  9. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  10. Mechanical Characteristics of Reflex Durign Upright Posture in Paralyzed Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki

    The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was

  11. Payment expectations for research participation among subjects who tell the truth, subjects who conceal information, and subjects who fabricate information.

    PubMed

    Devine, Eric G; Knapp, Clifford M; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; O'Keefe, Sean M; Wardell, Cale; Baskett, Morgan; Pecchia, Ashley; Ferrell, Katie; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2015-03-01

    Multiple models guide researchers' payment practices but few studies have assessed subjects' expectations for payment. Payments in excess of subjects' expectations may result in undue inducement, while payments below these expectations may be associated with exploitation. Data on subjects' payment expectations will help inform practices to avoid undue inducement and exploitation. This study examined subjects' expectations for payment for common research procedures and explored the relationship between subjects' honesty and payment expectations. One-hundred subjects who participated in two or more studies in the last year reported the minimum payment they expect for completing study procedures. They were also asked about their use of deception while screening for studies. Subjects expected $20 on average to complete the least risky and least burdensome procedure. Subjects' expectations for payment consistently increased with greater procedure risks. Subjects who denied using deception to enroll in studies refused more procedures than subjects who reported using deception. Among subjects who used deception, the rate of procedure refusal increased with procedure risks, suggesting that these subjects have some risk aversion and may act to protect themselves from undue inducement. Although subjects expect greater payments for more risky procedures, ethical considerations for limiting undue inducement may prevent researchers from meeting subjects' expectations. Subjects who use deceptive practices appear to be more risk-tolerant than subjects who deny using deception; nonetheless, these deceptive subjects also exercise some risk aversion when they refuse higher-risk procedures. These subjects may be able to protect themselves from undue inducement by refusing procedures that exceed their risk tolerance.

  12. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  13. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  14. Soft tissue facial anthropometry in Down syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dellavia, Claudia; Zanotti, Gianfranco; Sforza, Chiarella

    2004-05-01

    The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 selected soft tissue facial landmarks were digitized on 28 white Italian subjects with Down syndrome (17 male and 11 female subjects aged 12 to 45 years) and 429 healthy controls of comparable ages by an electromechanical instrument. From the landmarks, 16 facial dimensions were calculated. Data were compared with those collected in healthy individuals by computing z-scores. Overall, most variables were smaller in subjects with Down syndrome than in their normal controls selected for sex, age, and ethnicity (negative z-scores), even if not all of them reached statistical significance. Independently of sex, subjects with Down syndrome had faces that were significantly (P <0.05, paired Student t test) narrower (skull base and mandible), less deep (upper, middle, and lower face), and shorter (face and nose height) than the faces of normal subjects. Additionally, ear width and length were significantly reduced on both sides of the face. Only facial height was significantly different between sexes (P = 0.023, unpaired Student t test), with a female z-score that was more than two times the relevant male value. The present investigation represents the first detailed quantitative analysis of the facial soft tissue characteristics of Italian white subjects with Down syndrome.

  15. Writing errors by normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; Bava, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    Writing is a complex process requiring visual memory, attention, phonological and semantic operations, and motor performance. For that reason, it can easily be disturbed by interfering with attention, memory, by interfering subvocalization, and so on. With 16 female third-year students (23.4 +/- 0.8 yr.) from the University of Trieste, we investigated the production of errors in three experimental conditions (control, articulatory suppression, and tapping). In the articulatory suppression condition, the participants produced significantly more linguistic impairments (such as agrammatism, unrelated substitutions, sentence omissions, and semantically deviant sentences), which are similar to linguistic impairments found in aphasia. On the tapping condition there were more perseverations, deletions, and substitutions of both letters and words. These data suggest that writing is not an automatic skill. Only after many years of experience and practice of processing information (through cortical to subcortical channels) can writing be considered an automatic skill. Limited experimental conditions can disrupt the writing system of normal subjects, probably interfering with the cortical to subcortical loops, and link normality to pathology. PMID:14604043

  16. The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

  17. Effects of Test Anxiety, Tests, and Sleep on Children's Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jennifer L.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    Sixth and seventh graders (N=239) responded to questionnaires examining sleep behavior and test anxiety on day of major examination in school and day with no major examination. Subjects also completed vigilance task on both days. Partial sleep loss did not adversely influence subjects' performance on task or examination; test anxiety was…

  18. The dissociation of subjective measures of mental workload and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. H.; Wickens, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Dissociation between performance and subjective workload measures was investigated in the theoretical framework of the multiple resources model. Subjective measures do not preserve the vector characteristics in the multidimensional space described by the model. A theory of dissociation was proposed to locate the sources that may produce dissociation between the two workload measures. According to the theory, performance is affected by every aspect of processing whereas subjective workload is sensitive to the amount of aggregate resource investment and is dominated by the demands on the perceptual/central resources. The proposed theory was tested in three experiments. Results showed that performance improved but subjective workload was elevated with an increasing amount of resource investment. Furthermore, subjective workload was not as sensitive as was performance to differences in the amount of resource competition between two tasks. The demand on perceptual/central resources was found to be the most salient component of subjective workload. Dissociation occurred when the demand on this component was increased by the number of concurrent tasks or by the number of display elements. However, demands on response resources were weighted in subjective introspection as much as demands on perceptual/central resources. The implications of these results for workload practitioners are described.

  19. Objective and subjective measures for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2007-07-01

    Subjective and objective measures of sleep structure or quality could help to characterize the chronic sleep disturbances, with relation to patients' risk factor profiles and co-morbidities. Studies have shown that discrepancies can occur between subjective data regarding sleep disturbances and the impact of insomnia and objective assays, and surrogate markers of sleep and sleep disturbances. Both objective and subjective measures should be incorporated into clinic studies. It seems likely that sleep quality is represented by a combination of more than one subjective sleep parameter. Objective and subjective assessments of sleep quality may relate to different parameters. Future studies incorporated both subjective and objective measures could help to address the sleep disorders.

  20. Scene reduction for subjective image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska (Tomaszewska), Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of image quality is important for many image processing systems, such as those used for acquisition, compression, restoration, enhancement, or reproduction. Its measurement is often accompanied by user studies, in which a group of observers rank or rate results of several algorithms. Such user studies, known as subjective image quality assessment experiments, can be very time consuming and do not guarantee conclusive results. This paper is intended to help design an efficient and rigorous quality assessment experiment. We propose a method of limiting the number of scenes that need to be tested, which can significantly reduce the experimental effort and still capture relevant scene-dependent effects. To achieve it, we employ a clustering technique and evaluate it on the basis of compactness and separation criteria. The correlation between the results obtained from a set of images in an initial database and the results received from reduced experiment are analyzed. Finally, we propose a procedure for reducing the initial scenes number. Four different assessment techniques were tested: single stimulus, double stimulus, forced choice, and similarity judgments. We conclude that in most cases, 9 to 12 judgments per evaluated algorithm for a large scene collection is sufficient to reduce the initial set of images.

  1. MOPEDS: Motorized Objects Propelling Ethanol Drinking Subjects.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A Britton; Brintzenhoff, Rita A; Schmelzer, Thomas M; Head, Karen E; Sing, Ronald F

    2011-03-01

    Mopeds are not subject to the same laws and jurisdiction as cars or motorcycles, including the requirement of a driver's license. We undertook this study to examine the influence of alcohol (ETOH) on moped crashes. We retrospectively reviewed adult moped injuries compared with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and motorcycle crashes (MCCs) from 1995 through 2006. Demographics, severity of injury, mortality, and serum ETOH levels were recorded. Data were analyzed using the Student t test for continuous data and the χ² test for proportional data. Motor vehicle crashes accounted for 7186 admissions. MCC and moped crashes numbered 973 and 113, respectively. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.064), moped crashes yielded the highest mortality (9.7%) compared with MCCs (8.5%) and MVCs (6.7%). An increased association of blood ETOH levels with moped crashes, however, was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Serum ETOH levels above 0.05 g/dL were observed in 1681 MVCs (23.4%), 241 MCCs (24.8%), and 44 moped crashes (39%). In this study, we discovered that moped crashes demonstrate a significantly higher ETOH involvement than either MVCs or MCCs representing a previously unrecognized public safety risk.

  2. Harnessing the power of personality assessment: subjective assessment predicts behaviour in horses.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Carrie; Collins, Lisa M; Creighton, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Objective assessment of animal personality is typically time consuming, requiring the repeated measure of behavioural responses. By contrast, subjective assessment of personality allows information to be collected quickly by experienced caregivers. However, subjective assessment must predict behaviour to be valid. Comparisons of subjective assessments and behaviour have been made but often with methodological weaknesses and thus, limited success. Here we test the validity of a subjective assessment against a battery of behaviour tests in 146 horses (Equus caballus). Our first aim was to determine if subjective personality assessment could predict behaviour during behaviour testing. We made specific a priori predictions for how subjectively measured personality should relate to behaviour testing. We found that Extroversion predicted time to complete a handling test and refusal behaviour during this test. It also predicted minimum distance to a novel object. Neuroticism predicted how reactive an individual was to a sudden visual stimulus but not how quickly it recovered from this. Agreeableness did not predict any behaviour during testing. There were several unpredicted correlations between subjective measures and behaviour tests which we explore further. Our second aim was to combine data from the subjective assessment and behaviour tests to gain a more comprehensive understanding of personality. We found that the combination of methods provides new insights into horse behaviour. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the idea of horses showing different coping styles, a novel finding for this species.

  3. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  4. Subjective comparison and evaluation of speech enhancement algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2007-01-01

    Making meaningful comparisons between the performance of the various speech enhancement algorithms proposed over the years, has been elusive due to lack of a common speech database, differences in the types of noise used and differences in the testing methodology. To facilitate such comparisons, we report on the development of a noisy speech corpus suitable for evaluation of speech enhancement algorithms. This corpus is subsequently used for the subjective evaluation of 13 speech enhancement methods encompassing four classes of algorithms: spectral subtractive, subspace, statistical-model based and Wiener-type algorithms. The subjective evaluation was performed by Dynastat, Inc. using the ITU-T P.835 methodology designed to evaluate the speech quality along three dimensions: signal distortion, noise distortion and overall quality. This paper reports the results of the subjective tests. PMID:18046463

  5. Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

  6. Direct Field and Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Test Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reverberant and direct acoustic test comparisons were analyzed in this viewgraph presentation. The acoustic test data set includes: 1) CloudSat antenna subjected to PF reverberant chamber acoustic test; 2) CloudSat subjected to a PF direct speaker acoustic test; and 3) DAWN flight spacecraft subjected to PF direct speaker and a workmanship reverberant chamber acoustic test.

  7. The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others

    To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…

  8. Rating Speech Behavior Change of Students: Objectivizing Subjective Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applbaum, Ronald L.

    To assess behavioral change in the speech of students, a test was developed which used the prior subjective experiences of teachers as a foundation for comparing student behaviors, and objectivized these experiences by developing a rating system upon which teacher observations could be scaled. Twenty raters--10 experienced and 10…

  9. Subjective Perceptual Distortions and Visual Dysfunction in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rebecca A. O.; Bockbrader, Marcia A.; Murphy, Robin R.; Hetrick, William P.; O'Donnell, Brian F.

    2006-01-01

    Case reports and sensory inventories suggest that autism involves sensory processing anomalies. Behavioral tests indicate impaired motion and normal form perception in autism. The present study used first-person accounts to investigate perceptual anomalies and related subjective to psychophysical measures. Nine high-functioning children with…

  10. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  11. "Feeling" Hierarchy: The Pathway from Subjective Social Status to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…

  12. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  13. Invariance between subjects of brain wave representations of language

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing; Epelboim, Julie; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    In three experiments, electric brain waves of 19 subjects were recorded under several different experimental conditions for two purposes. One was to test how well we could recognize which sentence, from a set of 24 or 48 sentences, was being processed in the cortex. The other was to study the invariance of brain waves between subjects. As in our earlier work, the analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. A least-squares criterion of fit between prototypes and test samples was used for classification. In all three experiments, averaging over subjects improved the recognition rates. The most significant finding was the following. When brain waves were averaged separately for two nonoverlapping groups of subjects, one for prototypes and the other for test samples, we were able to recognize correctly 90% of the brain waves generated by 48 different sentences about European geography. PMID:10536029

  14. Subjective Well-Being as an Indicator for Clinical Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, R.; Stokes, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The Theory of Homeostasis posits that Subjective Well-being (SWB) is regulated by a dynamic biological mechanism, assisting to maintain a positive view of life. Further, the theory suggests that clinical depression is the loss of SWB due to the defeat of this homeostatic defence system. To test this hypothesis it was predicted that people who were…

  15. Subjective evaluations of recent productions of television with stereophonic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A series of subjective tests were conducted to assess the improvement given by stereophonic sound with television in comparison to the conventional monophonic equivalent. The test material consisted of extracts from eight, recently produced, television stereo programs. They represented the wide range of BBC television program output and, since some types of program were new to television stereo, their production by this means was obviously experimental. Both technically and nontechnically qualified people took part in the tests but, with a few exceptions, they returned similar subjective responses. The tests showed a marked preference for the stereo presentation. Of the eight program extracts, five gained an average of two subjective grades of improvement. These items fell into the categories of music, sport and science fiction. The remaining program only benefitted marginally from stereo. The subjects' criticisms have suggested some modification of production techniques and it can be expected that as these are refined, viewers' enjoyment of television programs will be further enhanced by the television stereo presentation.

  16. Metaphors & Analogies: Power Tools for Teaching Any Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Metaphors and analogies are more than figurative language suitable only for English classes and standardized test questions. They are "power tools" that can electrify learning in every subject and at all grade levels. Metaphors show students how to make connections between the concrete and the abstract, prior knowledge and unfamiliar concepts, and…

  17. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  18. Pulmonary performance of elderly normal subjects and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to 0. 3 ppm nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Utell, M.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Smeglin, A.M.; Frampton, M.W.; Cox, C.; Speers, D.M.; Gibb, F.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Symptoms and changes in pulmonary function of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and elderly normal subjects, induced by a 4-h exposure to 0.3 ppm NO2, were investigated using a double-blind, crossover design with purified air. The 5-day experimental protocol required approximately 2 wk with at least a 5-day separation between randomized 4-h exposures to either NO2 or air which included several periods of exercise. Over a 2-yr period, COPD subjects, all with a history of smoking, consisting of 13 men and 7 women (mean age of 60.0 yr) and 20 elderly normal subjects of comparable age and sex were evaluated. During intermittent light exercise, COPD subjects demonstrated progressive decrements in FVC and FEV1 compared with baseline with 0.3 ppm NO2, but not with air. Differences in percent changes from baseline data (air-NO2) showed an equivocal reduction in FVC by repeated measures of analysis of variance and cross-over t tests (p less than 0.10). Subgroup analyses suggested that responsiveness to NO2 decreased with severity of COPD; in elderly normal subjects, NO2-induced reduction in FEV1 was greater among smokers than never-smokers. A comparison of COPD and elderly normal subjects also revealed distinctions in NO2-induced responsiveness.

  19. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  20. Inter-subject neural code converter for visual image representation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Miyawaki, Yoichi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Brain activity patterns differ from person to person, even for an identical stimulus. In functional brain mapping studies, it is important to align brain activity patterns between subjects for group statistical analyses. While anatomical templates are widely used for inter-subject alignment in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, they are not sufficient to identify the mapping between voxel-level functional responses representing specific mental contents. Recent work has suggested that statistical learning methods could be used to transform individual brain activity patterns into a common space while preserving representational contents. Here, we propose a flexible method for functional alignment, "neural code converter," which converts one subject's brain activity pattern into another's representing the same content. The neural code converter was designed to learn statistical relationships between fMRI activity patterns of paired subjects obtained while they saw an identical series of stimuli. It predicts the signal intensity of individual voxels of one subject from a pattern of multiple voxels of the other subject. To test this method, we used fMRI activity patterns measured while subjects observed visual images consisting of random and structured patches. We show that fMRI activity patterns for visual images not used for training the converter could be predicted from those of another subject where brain activity was recorded for the same stimuli. This confirms that visual images can be accurately reconstructed from the predicted activity patterns alone. Furthermore, we show that a classifier trained only on predicted fMRI activity patterns could accurately classify measured fMRI activity patterns. These results demonstrate that the neural code converter can translate neural codes between subjects while preserving contents related to visual images. While this method is useful for functional alignment and decoding, it may also provide a basis for