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Sample records for subjective audiological tests

  1. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Cognitive Screening Tests in Audiology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    The population of the United States is aging. Those older adults are living longer than ever and have an increased desire for social participation. As a result, audiologists are likely to see an increased demand for service by older clients whose communication difficulty is caused by a combination of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. For these individuals, early detection of mild cognitive impairment is critical for providing timely medical intervention and social support. This tutorial provides information about cognition of older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive screening tests, with the purpose of assisting audiologists in identifying and appropriately referring potential cases of cognitive impairment. Topics addressed also include how to administer cognitive screening tests on individuals with hearing loss, how to use test results in audiology practice, and the potential of using cognitive screening tests for evaluating the benefit of clinical interventions. As health care professionals who serve the aging population, audiologists are likely to encounter cases of undiagnosed cognitive impairment. In order to provide timely referral for medical assistance as well as an optimized individual outcome of audiologic interventions, audiologists should be trained to recognize an abnormality in older clients' cognitive status.

  3. Audiology.

    PubMed

    Rose, Elizabeth

    2011-05-01

    An audiogram is a hearing test conducted under ideal listening conditions in a soundproof booth. The test includes different pitches and intensities and the results are conveyed in graphical form. If there is hearing loss an audiogram helps distinguish conductive loss (outer/middle ear) from sensorineural loss (cochlea/cochlear nerve).

  4. Audiological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Darrell E., Ed.

    The text, designed for students and others interested in clinical audiology, is intended to provide comprehensive coverage of not only important concepts in audiology but particularly of the methods and procedures used in audiological assessment. The functions of tests, the administration of specific tests, and the analysis of test results are…

  5. Audiologic and subjective evaluation of Baha(®) Attract device.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carbonell, Tomàs; Pla-Gil, Ignacio; Redondo-Martínez, Jaume; Morant-Ventura, Antonio; García-Callejo, Francisco Javier; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2017-01-20

    We included 9 patients implanted with Baha(®) Attract. All our patients were evaluated by free field tonal audiometry, free field verbal audiometry and free field verbal audiometry with background noise, all the tests were performed with and without the device. To evaluate the subjective component of the implantation, we used the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB). The auditive assessment with the device showed average auditive thresholds of 35.8dB with improvements of 25.8dB over the previous situation. Speech reception thresholds were 37dB with Baha(®) Attract, showing improvements of 23dB. Maximum discrimination thresholds showed an average gain of 60dB with the device. Baha(®) Attract achieves auditive improvements in patients for whom it is correctly indicated, with a consequent positive subjective evaluation. This study shows the attenuation effect in transcutaneous transmission, that prevents the device achieving greater improvements.

  6. Cochlear Implants in Subjects Over Age 65: Quality of Life and Audiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aimoni, Claudia; Ciorba, Andrea; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Mazzoli, Manuela; Bianchini, Chiara; Rosignoli, Monica; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CIs) have been recognized as a safe and effective means for profound hearing loss rehabilitation in children and adults and recently their use has been extended to subjects over 65 years of age. The aim of this paper was to assess indices related to changes in the quality of life (QoL) in elderly CI recipients. Material/Methods A case-control paradigm was used to assess the effects of CIs on the QoL. Forty-two subjects were assigned to the Case group and 15 subjects to the Control group. All 57 subjects were affected by profound hearing loss and had received a CI. Audiological data were collected from both groups at: (i) 1 month pre-implantation [T1]; (ii) 1 day pre- implantation [T2]; (iii) 30 days post-implantation, with CI used in free field [T3]; and (iv) 12 months post-implantation, with CI used in a free field [T4]. The QoL was assessed via a Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, adapted to otolaryngology. To compare subjects across different ages with varying degrees of speech development, a perception parameter was used from the Speech Perception Categories test developed by Geers and Moog. Results Hearing performance was considerably improved after CI. In relation to the hearing performance at time T1, statistically significant threshold gains were observed in both groups in the T3 and T4 observation windows. At time T4, a threshold gain of 70 dB HL in the Case group and a gain of 84 dB HL in the Control group were observed. With speech therapy rehabilitation, a perception level of 6 was reached by 80.0% of patients in the Case group and by 100% of patients in the Control group. In terms of QoL, both groups showed improved post-CI scores. Statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups, with the Control group outperforming the Case group in all but the social section. Conclusions Despite age-related changes in auditory system and prolonged hearing deprivation, CIs offer audiological and QoL benefits in the

  7. Audiology telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Various real-time telemedicine applications have been investigated in audiology, including pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emission testing, auditory brainstem response recordings, hearing aid fitting and video-otoscopy. Store-and-forward applications have usually been used to transmit basic patient data including case history information and hearing screening results, although both video-nystagmography and video-otoscopy have been piloted. Remote access to computerized equipment is relevant to audiology telemedicine, although there have been few reports of the use of application sharing using computerized audiology equipment. In a pilot trial of real-time telemedicine, both pure tone and speech audiometry measures were provided remotely through application sharing. Audiology telemedicine appears promising, but it is at an early stage of development and many areas such as its cost effectiveness, patient acceptance and test efficacy require systematic investigation.

  8. Audiological and electrophysiological alterations in HIV-infected individuals subjected or not to antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio

    2017-08-02

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and infections related to it can affect multiple sites in the hearing system. The use of High-Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) can cause side effects such as ototoxicity. Thus, no consistent patterns of hearing impairment in adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome have been established, and the problems that affect the hearing system of this population warrant further research. This study aimed to compare the audiological and electrophysiological data of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients with and without Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, who were receiving High-Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy, to healthy individuals. It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 71 subjects (30-48 years old), divided into groups: Research Group I: 16 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals without Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (not receiving antiretroviral treatment); Research Group II: 25 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (receiving antiretroviral treatment); Control Group: 30 healthy subjects. All individuals were tested by pure-tone air conduction thresholds at 0.25-8kHz, extended high frequencies at 9-20kHz, electrophysiological tests (Auditory Brainstem Response - ABR, Middle Latency Responses - MLR, Cognitive Potential - P300). Research Group I and Research Group II had higher hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the control group, prolonged latency of waves I, III, V and interpeak I-V in Auditory Brainstem Response and prolonged latency of P300 Cognitive Potential. Regarding Middle Latency Responses, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the Pa wave of Research Group II compared to the Research Group I. Both groups with Human Immunodeficiency Virus had higher hearing thresholds when compared to healthy individuals (group exposed to antiretroviral

  9. A Browser-Server-Based Tele-audiology System That Supports Multiple Hearing Test Modalities.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianchu Jason; Yao, Daoyuan; Givens, Gregg

    2015-09-01

    Millions of global citizens suffering from hearing disorders have limited or no access to much needed hearing healthcare. Although tele-audiology presents a solution to alleviate this problem, existing remote hearing diagnosis systems support only pure-tone tests, leaving speech and other test procedures unsolved, due to the lack of software and hardware to enable communication required between audiologists and their remote patients. This article presents a comprehensive remote hearing test system that integrates the two most needed hearing test procedures: a pure-tone audiogram and a speech test. This enhanced system is composed of a Web application server, an embedded smart Internet-Bluetooth(®) (Bluetooth SIG, Kirkland, WA) gateway (or console device), and a Bluetooth-enabled audiometer. Several graphical user interfaces and a relational database are hosted on the application server. The console device has been designed to support the tests and auxiliary communication between the local site and the remote site. The study was conducted at an audiology laboratory. Pure-tone audiogram and speech test results from volunteers tested with this tele-audiology system are comparable with results from the traditional face-to-face approach. This browser-server-based comprehensive tele-audiology offers a flexible platform to expand hearing services to traditionally underserved groups.

  10. A Browser-Server-Based Tele-audiology System That Supports Multiple Hearing Test Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Daoyuan; Givens, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Millions of global citizens suffering from hearing disorders have limited or no access to much needed hearing healthcare. Although tele-audiology presents a solution to alleviate this problem, existing remote hearing diagnosis systems support only pure-tone tests, leaving speech and other test procedures unsolved, due to the lack of software and hardware to enable communication required between audiologists and their remote patients. This article presents a comprehensive remote hearing test system that integrates the two most needed hearing test procedures: a pure-tone audiogram and a speech test. Materials and Methods: This enhanced system is composed of a Web application server, an embedded smart Internet-Bluetooth® (Bluetooth SIG, Kirkland, WA) gateway (or console device), and a Bluetooth-enabled audiometer. Several graphical user interfaces and a relational database are hosted on the application server. The console device has been designed to support the tests and auxiliary communication between the local site and the remote site. Results: The study was conducted at an audiology laboratory. Pure-tone audiogram and speech test results from volunteers tested with this tele-audiology system are comparable with results from the traditional face-to-face approach. Conclusions: This browser-server–based comprehensive tele-audiology offers a flexible platform to expand hearing services to traditionally underserved groups. PMID:25919376

  11. Towards an ecological audiology: stereophonic listening chamber and acoustic environmental tests.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Wilson, M; Samuelsson, E

    1998-01-01

    An acoustic laboratory for reproduction of speech and acoustic environments is presented along with two sound field tests. Its design has been inspired by the LEDE (Living End Dead End) principle for construction of radio and music control rooms. The equipment and the 12 loudspeakers can simultaneously reproduce several stereophonic and monophonic recordings. The interesting feature is that the delayed first reflex in the LEDE room allows for a realistic perception of the recording room. A preliminary presentation of two newly developed tests for sound field listening is given. In DSIN. Directional Speech In Noise, the JFC (just follow conversation) threshold for continuous discourse is determined in 12 directions in quiet and in noise from +/- 60 degrees azimuth. In SEIT (Sound Environmental Identification Test), stereophonic acoustic environments are presented and the subject is asked to identify specific components and to characterize each environment as closely as possible. Results from tests with normal hearing subjects and examples of results with hearing impaired subjects are presented. The potential of the technique for use in aural rehabilitation, functional definition of auditory communication and quality assessment of hearing aids is discussed. It is pointed out that the term ecological audiology is suitable for describing the interaction between the communicating individual and the environment in a broad sense.

  12. Investigation of potential cognitive tests for use with older adults in audiology clinics.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nancy; Storzbach, Daniel; Furukawa, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive declines in working memory and processing speed are hallmarks of aging. Deficits in speech understanding also are seen in aging individuals. A clinical test to determine whether the cognitive aging changes contribute to aging speech understanding difficulties would be helpful for determining rehabilitation strategies in audiology clinics. To identify a clinical neurocognitive test or battery of tests that could be used in audiology clinics to help explain deficits in speech recognition in some older listeners. A correlational study examining the association between certain cognitive test scores and speech recognition performance. Speeded (time-compressed) speech was used to increase the cognitive processing load. Two hundred twenty-five adults aged 50 through 75 years were participants in this study. Both batteries of tests were administered to all participants in two separate sessions. A selected battery of neurocognitive tests and a time-compressed speech recognition test battery using various rates of speech were administered. Principal component analysis was used to extract the important component factors from each set of tests, and regression models were constructed to examine the association between tests and to identify the neurocognitive test most strongly associated with speech recognition performance. A sequencing working memory test (Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]) was most strongly associated with rapid speech understanding. The association between the LNS test results and the compressed sentence recognition scores (CSRS) was strong even when age and hearing loss were controlled. The LNS is a sequencing test that provides information about temporal processing at the cognitive level and may prove useful in diagnosis of speech understanding problems, and in the development of aural rehabilitation and training strategies.

  13. Bilateral vibrant soundbridge implantation: audiologic and subjective benefits in quiet and noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Garin, Pierre; Schmerber, Sébastien; Magnan, Jacques; Truy, Eric; Uziel, Alain; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Bebear, Jean-Pierre; Labassi, Samia; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The results support bilateral sequential implantation for patients who are not completely satisfied after implantation of one side. To evaluate the benefit of bilateral Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implantation as compared with unilateral implantation in quiet and noisy environments. This was a multicentric and retrospective study of 15 patients with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who were implanted sequentially in both ears. The performance of each subject was compared under three conditions: with the right implant activated, with the left implant activated, and with both implants activated. Audiometric tests were compared with self-assessment subjective evaluation by questionnaire. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments demonstrated improvement in speech intelligibility, especially in background noise, but also for low voice intensity in quiet.

  14. Dutch audiology.

    PubMed

    Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.

  15. Audiology Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Pre-College Programs.

    The manual describes audiology services offered at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD). Components are listed for diagnostic services, instructional services, program development, training, and publications. Testing and reporting procedures for MSSD students are outlined. Testing includes pure-tone air conduction testing, tympanometry,…

  16. [Current Audiological Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Hoth, Sebastian; Baljić, Izet

    2017-04-01

    Today's audiological functional diagnostics is based on a stock of hearing tests, whose large number takes account of the variety of malfunctions of a complex sensory organ system and the necessity to examine it in a differentiated manner and at any age of life. The objective is to identify nature and origin of the hearing loss and to quantify its extent as far as necessary to dispose of the information needed to initiate the adequate medical (conservative or operational) treatment or the provision with technical hearing aids or prostheses. Moreover, audiometry provides the basis for the assessment of impairment and handicap and for the calculation of the degree of disability. In the present overview, the current state of the method inventory available for practical use is described, starting from basic diagnostics over to complex special techniques. The presentation is systematically grouped in subjective procedures, based on psychoacoustic exploration, and objective methods, based on physical measurements: preliminary hearing tests, pure tone threshold, suprathreshold processing of sound intensity, directional hearing, speech understanding in quiet and in noise, dichotic hearing, tympanogram, acoustic reflex, otoacoustic emissions and auditory evoked potentials. Apart from a few still existing gaps, this method inventory covers the whole spectrum of all clinically relevant functional deficits of the auditory system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  18. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  19. Audiologic findings in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Urmen; Rosen, Heather; Mulliken, John B; Gopen, Quinton; Meara, John G; Rogers, Gary F

    2010-09-01

    Hearing loss has been described in patients with certain craniosynostotic syndromes but is poorly defined in Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). Our objective was to characterize the otologic and audiologic findings in PS. The records of PS patients evaluated at our craniofacial center over a 30-year period were culled. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis and formal audiologic examination were included. Diagnostic criteria were characteristic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 or 2 (FGFR1, FGFR2) or, in the absence of genetic testing, typical clinical findings of PS as determined by a clinical geneticist or the most senior author. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had hearing loss. Twenty patients had traditional audiologic testing: 14 (70%) had pure conductive loss (minor to severe), and 3 (15%) had a mixed conductive/sensorineural loss (minor to severe). Two additional patients had hearing loss by Behavioral Observational Audiometry (sound fields method). One patient with early conductive hearing loss was subsequently determined to have a pure sensorineural deficit. Nine patients (45%) had permanent hearing loss significant enough to require audiologic amplification. All patients with PS demonstrated hearing loss, although the severity and the anatomic basis (ie., neural vs conductive) were variable. Conductive hearing loss, possibly caused by structural abnormalities, was most common. Sensorineural hearing loss was less common and may be related to the effect of FGFR mutations on cranial nerve and/or inner-ear development.

  20. International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) recommendations for the construction of multilingual speech tests. ICRA Working Group on Multilingual Speech Tests.

    PubMed

    Akeroyd, Michael A; Arlinger, Stig; Bentler, Ruth A; Boothroyd, Arthur; Dillier, Norbert; Dreschler, Wouter A; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lutman, Mark; Wouters, Jan; Wong, Lena; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    To provide guidelines for the development of two types of closed-set speech-perception tests that can be applied and interpreted in the same way across languages. The guidelines cover the digit triplet and the matrix sentence tests that are most commonly used to test speech recognition in noise. They were developed by a working group on Multilingual Speech Tests of the International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA). The recommendations are based on reviews of existing evaluations of the digit triplet and matrix tests as well as on the research experience of members of the ICRA Working Group. They represent the results of a consensus process. The resulting recommendations deal with: Test design and word selection; Talker characteristics; Audio recording and stimulus preparation; Masking noise; Test administration; and Test validation. By following these guidelines for the development of any new test of this kind, clinicians and researchers working in any language will be able to perform tests whose results can be compared and combined in cross-language studies.

  1. Audiology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, De Wet

    2006-05-01

    Audiology in South Africa is an established profession facing the challenge of serving a diverse population in predominantly developing contexts. The profession has developed over the last half century from an adjunct to speech-language pathology into a profession in its own right. Several tertiary institutions offer undergraduate training in audiology with optional postgraduate qualifications. Institutions are continually adapting to a profession characterised by rapid change--evidenced even in the very composition of the profession itself. This article aims to provide an overview of the development and current status of audiology as a profession in South Africa.

  2. Audiological Profile of Adult Persons with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The auditory profile of a large number of persons with late onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is recently described in the Indian context. The purpose of study was 1) to profile data on routine audiological parameters, cortical evoked potentials, and temporal processing, 2) to analyze the benefit from hearing aids for persons with ANSD, and 3) to understand the association between benefit from hearing aids and auditory profile. Subjects and Methods Thirty-eight adults with late onset ANSD and a matched group of 40 normally hearing adults participated in the study. Basic audiological tests, recording of cortical evoked potentials, and temporal processing tests were carried out on both groups of participant while only persons with ANSD were fitted with hearing aid. Results Subjects in the two groups were significantly different on all the audiological parameters. ANSD group seemed to benefit from hearing aids variably. The mean amplitude of N2 was significantly different between normally-hearing participants and patients with ANSD. Conclusions Residual temporal processing, particularly amplitude modulation detection seems to be associated with benefit from hearing aids in patients with ANSD. PMID:27942602

  3. American Academy of Audiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... CEU Manager by April 21. Audiology News 27 Mar Suppressors: Hearing Protection or Safety Threat? 22 Mar Is There a Genetic Component to Tinnitus? 03 Mar Celebrate World Hearing Day with the Academy! 23 ...

  4. A Survey of the Deaf Community Concerning Their Opinions, Needs and Knowledge of Audiology and Audiology Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Charles E.; Martin, Frederick N.

    1987-01-01

    A survey questionnaire of 32 adult deaf subjects evaluated their knowledge of and interest in audiology and services of audiologists. Issues examined included communication, practices in audiology, deafness, hearing, the auditory system, delivery of specific services to the deaf community and general interrelationships in the deaf community.…

  5. Audiology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Novaes, Beatriz Caiuby; Morata, Thais C

    2008-02-01

    The profession of audiology took root in Brazil nearly a half a century ago and has since blossomed into a flourishing, well-developed field. Currently, audiologists in Brazil work at private institutions, including private medical practices and dedicated speech and hearing clinics. They are also employed in a wide array of public institutions, including community clinics, elementary schools, colleges, and universities. In both the private sector and health clinics, audiologists perform diagnostic evaluations of auditory and vestibular disorders, select and fit hearing aids, and provide aural rehabilitation. At the public level, they assist with workers' health programs, dispense hearing aids, and aural rehabilitation. There is always room to grow, however, and the future of audiology in Brazil holds both challenges and opportunity. The following article will sketch the development of audiology training and practice in Brazil, provide a picture of how the field stands today, and summarize the unique challenges which the profession faces in this large and diverse nation.

  6. [The history of audiology].

    PubMed

    Sente, Marko

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents historical data on development of audiology as a medical speciality. It gives the chronological overview of the most significant discoveries which have contributed to the progress and constant development of the science of hearing. The insights and discoveries encompass the ancient, medieval and contemporary medical science. THE TERM "AUDIOLOGY" AND FIRST ASSOCIATIONS OF AUDIOLOGISTS: The paper reviews the origin of the term "audiology" and the time of its occurrence. The First World Congress of Audiologists was held in 1948, and the Conference of Audiologists and Phoniatrists of Yugoslavia was established in 1974. The ancient scientists and philosophers mentioned in the paper are as follows: Democritus, Hippocrates, Empedocles, Plato, Aristotle, and Galenus. Discoveries of Vesalius, Fallopio, Eustachio, Duverney, Schelhammer, Catugno and Helmholtz marked their epochs and made a great contribution to the development of the entire medical science, including audiology. A significant contribution to audiology was made by Schwartz in 1920 and Fletcher in 1926, constructors of audiometers. Fowler, Weigel and Fletcher promoted an audiogram in 1922. Wever and Bray first introduced the cochlear microphonic potentials. The first modern audiometer with a flat zero line for all pitches was constructed in 1937. In 1947, Bekesy constructed the automatic audiometer, and the theory of mobile waves was introduced in 1928. Fletcher and Steinberg promoted speech audiometries in 1929. Mendel and Goldstein described medium latency responses in 1969. The first hearing aids worn within the ear appeared in the same year. William House pioneered the cochlear implantation in adults in 1969, and the program of infant cochlear implants. Jewett described the evoked auditory potentials in 1970. James Jerger classified tympanometric curves into three tympanogram types (A, B, C). Portmann and Arran introduced transtympanic electrocochleography in 1971. Kemp introduced

  7. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  8. Correlation of Tinnitus Loudness and Onset Duration with Audiological Profile Indicating Variation in Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sanjay K.; Panda, Naresh K.; Verma, Roshan K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Subjective tinnitus has different forms and degrees of severity. Many studies in the literature have assessed psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus but hardly any of them had focused on the association of audiological profile with onset duration and loudness perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus loudness/onset duration and audiological profile to explain differences in prognosis. Method. Study design was prospective. The sample consisted of 26 subjects having tinnitus, which was divided into tinnitus and nontinnitus ears. Audiological profile included pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex test, and auditory evoked potentials (early and middle latency). Unpaired t-test was applied to compare two subgroups. Correlation and association between tinnitus onset duration/loudness perception and audiological profile were also assessed by calculating Spearman's coefficient and Fischer exact value. Results. The two subgroups had significant differences for pure-tone and speech audiometry hearing thresholds. A significant association was observed between the high frequency/extended high frequency and tinnitus loudness/onset duration. Conclusion. The changes in hearing thresholds and auditory pathway are associated with an increase in tinnitus loudness and its onset duration. This knowledge would be helpful to differentiate between severity and chronicity of the patients for planning therapeutic management and predicting prognosis. PMID:24078882

  9. AMU worn by test subject

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33163 (May 1966) --- Rear view of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU), worn by test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division. The Gemini spacesuit, backpack and chest pack comprise the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the astronaut and suit from the hot exhaust thrust of the AMU backpack. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemin-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  10. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  11. Audiology in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, Laura

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 37 individuals in Nicaragua were the basis of this review of the audiology field in that nation. The review covers the prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment, training for audiologists, government services for individuals with hearing impairment, private agencies concerned with hearing impairment, and fitting and use of…

  12. High dynamic range subjective testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  13. Audiological Assessment of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.

    The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…

  14. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  15. Comparing audiological test results obtained from a sound processor attached to a Softband with direct and magnetic passive bone conduction hearing implant systems.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ahmet; Iseri, Mete; Durgut, Merve; Topdag, Murat; Ozturk, Murat

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare audiological test results obtained from a sound processor (SP) attached to a Softband with those obtained from direct (abutment connection) bone conduction implant systems and magnetic passive bone conduction implant systems with different magnet strengths on patients implanted at our clinic. Twenty-four patients who were implanted with either an abutment or magnetic bone conduction implant system between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed for hearing results, such as free-field hearing thresholds, direct bone conduction hearing thresholds, and speech discrimination scores with aided and unaided conditions Both magnetic and direct osseointegrated bone conduction implant systems, as well as the Softband system, provide good hearing outcomes when compared with unaided performance; however, the abutment connection system gives better hearing thresholds in the higher frequencies. No significant difference in hearing gain was found between the Softband system, magnet 5, and magnet used by the patient. Magnetic and direct bone conduction hearing implant systems are both effective for rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss when conventional hearing aids cannot be used. However, patients with high-frequency hearing loss may be better suited to an abutment connection system if they are not satisfied with high-frequency hearing gains provided via the trial Softband system preoperatively and should be counseled accordingly.

  16. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  17. Falls in the audiology clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Criter, Robin E; Honaker, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common and often preventable cause of injury and death among older adults. Hearing loss, vestibular disorders, dizziness, and imbalance are common risk factors for falls; however, the rate of falls among older audiology patients has never been assessed. To examine the fall history and risk factors of older adults seen in a university audiology clinic. A descriptive and correlational retrospective chart review of fall history and characteristics of patients seen in a university audiology clinic. 88 (51 women, 37 men) patients aged 60 yr and older seen in a university audiology clinic. At the time of hearing evaluation, clinic patients filled out the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, as well as a history form containing fall-related questions. These measures, as well as demographic information (gender and age) were retrieved during a retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed with independent-samples t-tests, Pearson correlations, and descriptive statistics. Fifty percent of the study sample reported falling within the preceding 12 mo, while 70% reported having fallen at some point in the past. ABC Scale score was negatively correlated with age and number of recent falls. There appears to be a higher prevalence of falls within a university audiology clinic relative to previously published fall rates in the general population. American Academy of Audiology.

  18. Audiology Assistants in Private Practice.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Teri A; Andrews, Julia P

    2016-11-01

    Using audiology assistants allows a practice to meet the expected increase in patient demand in a cost-effective manner, without compromise to quality of patient care. Assistants are particularly valuable in private practice settings that have an emphasis in amplification, as many of the tasks involved do not require the unique skills of the doctor of audiology. Regulatory considerations, methods of training, and scope of practice of the assistant are discussed.

  19. Macular dazzling test on normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M

    1986-01-01

    The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979

  20. Subjective testing methodology in MPEG video verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenimore, Charles; Baroncini, Vittorio; Oelbaum, Tobias; Tan, Thiow K.

    2004-11-01

    The development of new video processing, new displays, and new modes of dissemination and usage enables a variety of moving picture applications intended for mobile and desktop devices as well as the more conventional platforms. These applications include multimedia as well as traditional video and require novel lighting environments and bit rates previously unplumbed in Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) video compression. The migration to new environments poses a methodological challenge to testers of video quality. Both the viewing environment and the display characteristics differ dramatically from those used in well-established subjective testing methods for television. The MPEG Test Committee has adaptated the television-centric methodology to the new testing environments. The adaptations that are examined here include: " The display of progressive scan pictures in the Common Intermediate Format (CIF at 352x288 pixel/frame) and Quarter CIF (QCIF at176x144 pixel/frame) as well as other, larger moving pictures requires new ways of testing the subjects including different viewing distances and altered ambient lighting. " The advent of new varieties of display technologies suggests there is a need for methods of characterizing them to assure the results of the testing do not depend strongly on the display. " The use of non-parametric statistical tests in test data analysis. In MPEG testing these appear to provide rigorous confidence statements more in line with testing experience than those provided by classical parametric tests. These issues have been addressed in a recent MPEG subjective test. Some of the test results are reviewed; they suggest that these adaptations of long-established subjective testing methodology for TV are capable of providing practical and reliable measures of subjective video quality for a new generation of technology.

  1. The Effect of Outpatient Interventional Audiology on Inpatient Audiology Services.

    PubMed

    Zitelli, Lori; Palmer, Catherine V

    2017-05-01

    Although older adults are likely to experience some degree of hearing loss that if untreated will interfere with treatment for other disorders and result in less-than-optimal health care outcomes, health care providers do not have a reliable and cost-effective way to identify these individuals when admitted to a hospital for inpatient care. This article addresses the impact of untreated hearing loss on health care in a hospital setting and shares how the implementation of interventional audiology in an outpatient clinic has impacted the inpatient audiology services provided at a large tertiary care hospital. A discussion of how these services can be further expanded is provided.

  2. Overview of audiology in Brazil: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Russo, I C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the field of clinical and rehabilitative audiology for children and adults in Brazil, while simultaneously offering some data and results from several different research studies within the country. The theme will address seven main topics: (1) the status of services and assistance for the hearing impaired; (2) the results of five different institutional research studies showing the main causes of hearing impairment in children in the city of Săo Paulo; (3) a review of subjective and objective methods for early diagnosis and audiological habilitation of children, including parent counseling, hearing aids, and cochlear implants; (4) a discussion of hearing conservation in different settings; (5) a brief consideration of audiological rehabilitation for hearing-impaired elderly adults in the country; (6) the main results of the First and Second Brazilian National Campaigns of Deafness Prevention; and (7) conclusions.

  3. Bridging the Gap between Audiology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razack, Zaim Riza

    1995-01-01

    This article examines issues related to the provision of educational audiological services that are sensitive to the needs of a diverse population. The focus is on paradigm shifts from traditional clinical audiology to classroom-based educational audiology and use of a cyclical reflective process. Critical components of courses offered at York…

  4. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau.

  5. Best Practices in Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris

    1991-01-01

    Members (n=182) of the Educational Audiology Association were surveyed to determine emerging levels of best practices in the field. Demographic data, uses of amplification, the role of the educational audiologist as case manager/consultant, and both clinical and professional concerns are discussed. Areas for further research are suggested.…

  6. A Support Program: Audiological Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunblatt, Henna; Daar, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    A program was developed by a school audiologist and school counselor to provide information to children (ages 3-15) about their deafness. The program consists of informational classes addressing basic audiology, hearing aids, frequency modulation (FM) systems, audiograms, and student concerns; and individualized counseling sessions. (Author/JDD)

  7. Audiological evaluation and self-assessed hearing problems in subjects with single-sided congenital external ear malformations and associated conductive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Priwin, Claudia; Jönsson, Radi; Magnusson, Lennart; Hultcrantz, Malou; Granström, Gösta

    2007-04-01

    Previously, unilateral hearing impairment (UHI) has been considered of little consequence. However, a recent meta-analysis of children with UHI displayed educational and behavioural problems and possible delays of speech and language development. Further, patients with UHI consequently report hearing difficulties. Our study investigated hearing function, possible inner ear protection, and self-assessed hearing problems in 57 subjects aged between 3-80 years with single-sided congenital ear malformations and conductive UHI. Pure-tone thresholds and speech recognition (quiet, noise) were measured, and all patients completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Pure-tone thresholds corresponding to sensorineural function did not significantly differ between the normal (air conduction) and affected ear (bone conduction). However, speech recognition in both quiet and in noise was normal on the non-affected side but significantly worse on the malformed side. A moderate to high degree of self-assessed hearing problems were reported. In conclusion, hearing function in the affected ear was found to be subnormal in terms of supra threshold signal processing. Furthermore, a high degree of hearing difficulty was reported. Therefore, active treatment, surgery, or hearing amplification, might be considered.

  8. [Audiological characteristics of young children with otitis media with effusion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-ju; Shi, Wei; Lan, Lan; Wang, Da-yong; Zhang, Ya-mei

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the audiological features in the infants with otitis media with effusion (OME) and to investigate the utility of variety of objective audiometry methods in diagnosis and intervention on OME. Fifty six infants (40 males and 16 females) were investigated, who were referred to our clinic at the General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army by the other hospitals from December 2004 to June 2007 when the infants were diagnosed or highly suspected of OME. The ages at the initial diagnosis ranged from 42 days to three years, with an average of five months. The infants, after receiving the conventional otolaryngological exams, were subjected to the tests of auditory brainstem response (ABR), otoacoustic emission (OAE), tympanometry (226 Hz and 1000 Hz) and behaviors audiometry. Among 56 affected infants, 87 ears were diagnosed with OME, of which 31 infants were affected bilateral and 25 with monaural. For the 49 infants who received hearing screening at birth, 36 infants were referred at the initial screening. For the 52 infants who received repeated screening, all subjects were referred. Six infants without receiving hearing screening came to clinic when their parents observed their kids' hearing impairment. Among the 52 cases (104 ears) who received tympanometry test, 20 subjects (28 ears) showed B or C type tympanometry curve. Thirty-nine cases (78 ears) were given tympanometry test at 1000 Hz, of which 38 cases (55 ears) showed abnormal hearing. Among 56 infants (112 ears) with ABR test, 49 subjects (74 ears) exhibited prolonged ABR type I curve. All 56 infants (112 ears) received OAE test, of which 55 subjects (81 ears) were referred. Four infants (8 ears) accepted the behavior test and all of them showed A-B Gap. The combined tympanometry test at both 226 Hz and 1000 Hz, ABR latency or threshold test, infant's behavior test and OAE, used jointly, enable characterizing better OME in infants, thus helping early diagnosis of this hearing disorder.

  9. [Amplitude modulation following responses in audiological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Pethe, J; Mühler, R; von Specht, H

    2002-12-01

    The registration of brainstem potentials currently represents one of the most common methods in objective audiological diagnostics. However, regardless of their use, they are still known to possess important disadvantages, such as low specificity and validity in the lower frequency range due to broadband stimuli, or uncertainties due to the need for subjective evaluation. One potential solution to these problems could involve the registration of amplitude modulation following responses (AMFR). These potentials are being discussed much more regularly within the anglo-american literature due to their known frequency specificity within the high frequency range (resulting from a very narrow frequency band of stimulation), and also their ability to permit assessment of the hearing threshold at lower frequencies. Another additional advantage of AMFR results from the simple statistical verification of its presence.Extensive studies on the influence of both stimulating and recording parameters have also shown that the registration of AMFR could prove to be a very promising audiological tool, with past interest being focussed primarily on the optimal modulation frequency, the influence of vigilance of the generation of potentials, and the precise assessment of an objective threshold.

  10. Preserved Hearing Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Audiological Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Christopher D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Audiologic test results were reviewed for 30 patients whose hearing was preserved following eighth nerve tumor surgery. Improved auditory brainstem response tracings were seen as probably indicating increased neural synchrony due to reduced pressure on the cochlear nerve following surgery, whereas reduced hearing sensitivity probably reflects…

  11. Learning Disability Assessed through Audiologic and Physiologic Measures: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Edward R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The report describes a child with central auditory dysfunction, the first reported case where brain-stem dysfunction on audiologic tests were associated with specific electrophysiologic changes in the brain-stem auditory-evoked responses. (Author/CL)

  12. The Virtual Man Project's CD-ROM "Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine", Vol.1.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Millena Maria Ramalho Matta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2009-01-01

    The CD-ROM "Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine" was developed as a teaching tool for people interested in the production of the spoken or sung human voice. Its content comprises several subjects concerning the anatomy and physiology of spoken and sung voice. A careful assessment becomes necessary in order to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning educational materials, whether related to education or health, within the proposal of education mediated by technology. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Virtual Man Project's CD-ROM "Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine", as a self-learning material, in two different populations: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students and Lyrical Singing students. The participants were instructed to study the CD-ROM during 1 month and answer two questionnaires: one before and another one after studying the CD-ROM. The quantitative results were compared statistically by the Student's t-test at a significance level of 5%. Seventeen out of the 28 students who completed the study, were Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students, while 11 were Lyrical Singing students (dropout rate of 44%). Comparison of the answers to the questionnaires before and after studying the CD-ROM showed a statistically significant increase of the scores for the questionnaire applied after studying the CD-ROM for both Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students, with p<0.001 and p<0.004, respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference in all topics of this questionnaire for both groups of students. The results concerning the evaluation of the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students' knowledge before and after learning from the CD-ROM allowed concluding that the participants made significant improvement in their knowledge of the proposed contents after studying the CD-ROM. Based on this

  13. [Objective hearing tests in pediatric audiology: AGERA recommendations for follow-up diagnosis in infants that fail newborn hearing screening tests].

    PubMed

    Hoth, S; Janssen, T; Mühler, R; Walger, M; Wiesner, T

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the recommendations compiled by the German Electric Response Audiometry Working Group (Arbeitsgruppe Elektrische Reaktions-Audiometrie, AGERA) and the Association of German Audiologists and Neuro-otologists (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Audiologen und Neurootologen, ADANO) for infants that fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) tests. Outlined are procedures for follow-up diagnosis using objective hearing tests to rule out or confirm a therapeutically relevant auditory defect and assessment of the severity thereof.

  14. Audiologic Assessment of Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Judith S.

    This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…

  15. Audiologic findings in children with biotinidase deficiency in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Genc, G A; Sivri-Kalkanoğlu, H S; Dursun, A; Aydin, H I; Tokatli, A; Sennaroglu, L; Belgin, E; Wolf, B; Coşkun, T

    2007-02-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous features, including sensorineural hearing loss. Although many features of the disorder are reversible following treatment with biotin, the hearing loss appears to be irreversible. In the present study, hearing status of patients with biotinidase deficiency is characterized in a Turkish population. Subjective and objective audiologic tests were performed on 20 children with profound biotinidase deficiency. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs in approximately 55% of the children with biotinidase deficiency. The hearing loss varies in severity from mild to profound hearing loss. In children diagnosed immediately after birth because they had an older sibling with the disorder, statistically significant differences were found between ABR results and age of diagnosis (p<0.05). Greater prolongation in ABR latencies were observed in the late-diagnosed children compared to that in the early-diagnosed children (p<0.05). Early diagnosis is important to prevent peripheral and central hearing loss. Children with biotinidase deficiency who have hearing loss are likely at increased risk for having speech and language problems. If hearing aids do not provide sufficient amplification, cochlear implantation may be indicated in these children. Therefore, it is important to test the hearing thresholds of these children with hearing aids and evaluate their language development.

  16. Audiologic disturbances in long-term mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Panda, Naresh K; Jain, Rishabh; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Munjal, Sanjay

    2010-02-01

    There is general concern regarding the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobile phones on auditory functions. A retrospective, cross-sectional, randomized, case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. One hundred twelve subjects who were long-term mobile phone users (more than 1 year) and 50 controls who had never used a mobile phone underwent a battery of audiologic investigations including pure-tone audiometry (both speech and high frequency), tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brain responses, and middle latency responses. Changes in the various parameters were studied in the mobile phone- and non-mobile phone-using ears of subjects and corresponding ears of the controls to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic exposure. There was no significant difference between users and controls for any of the audiologic parameters. However, trends for audiologic abnormalities were seen within the users. High-frequency loss and absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions were observed with an increase in the duration of mobile phone use, excessive use of mobile phones, and age more than 30 years. Additionally, users with some complaints during mobile phone use demonstrated absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions and abnormalities in auditory brainstem response. Long-term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage. A large sample size would be required to reach definitive conclusions.

  17. Subject variability of shoulder abduction strength testing.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Gleim, G W; Nicholas, J A

    1990-01-01

    To quantify normal biological variability of shoulder abduction strength testing with an isokinetic and a hand-held dynamometer, we tested nine healthy subjects over a clinically relevant period. One side was tested with a Cybex at 60 deg/sec and the other with a hand-held dynamometer. Six maximal trials, following warmup, were conducted on each of 5 days, separated by 1 to 2 weeks. Intraday correlations of individual trials ranged from 0.82 to 0.995 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.996 for Cybex. Interday correlations ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.97 for Cybex. The best values to use for Cybex interday variability were the average of the first three repetitions, and yielded standard errors of 8.6% to 19.2% of the sample mean. The average of the last three repetitions were the best for hand-held dynamometers, and yielded standard errors of 5.5% to 10.8%. There was a significant decline (P less than 0.05) in strength of the mean of the last three versus the mean of the first three daily repetitions on Day 1 and 4 for hand-held dynamometers, and a trend toward this on the other days, that was not seen with Cybex. Regression of average Day 1 values for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer yielded r = 0.86 (P less than 0.01) with a slope of 1.07 indicating good agreement between modalities. In conclusion, intraday/interday correlations were high for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer. Interday variability was minimized by using the mean score of the first three and last three repetitions for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer, respectively. Changes in Cybex and hand-held dynamometer strength of less than 19% and 11%, respectively, are within the area of "measurement error" and should therefore not be considered clinically significant.

  18. Fitting audiology within the population health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Johnston, J Cyne Topshee; Angus, Doug; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2006-01-01

    The population health perspective has become increasingly apparent in the medical, public health, and policy literature. This article emphasizes the value of applying the population health perspective and associated frameworks to the rehabilitative sciences and particularly to the field of audiology. Key components of the population health perspective--including the determinants of health, the importance of evidence-based practice, and the value of transdisciplinarity--are used to illustrate the relevance of population health to the field of audiology. Using these key concepts from a population health framework and examples from audiology, the adoption of a population health perspective is proposed.

  19. Audiology patient fall statistics and risk factors compared to non-audiology patients.

    PubMed

    Criter, Robin E; Honaker, Julie A

    2016-10-01

    To compare fall statistics (e.g. incidence, prevalence), fall risks, and characteristics of patients who seek hearing healthcare from an audiologist to individuals who have not sought such services. Case-control study. Two groups of community-dwelling older adult patients: 25 audiology patients aged 60 years or older (M age: 69.2 years, SD: 4.5, range: 61-77) and a control group (gender- and age-matched ±2 years) of 25 non-audiology patients (M age: 69.6, SD: 4.7, range: 60-77). Annual incidence of falls (most recent 12 months) was higher in audiology patients (68.0%) than non-audiology patients (28.0%; p = .005). Audiology patients reported a higher incidence of multiple recent falls (p =.025) and more chronic health conditions (p = .028) than non-audiology patients. Significantly more audiology patients fall on an annual basis than non-audiology patients, suggesting that falls are a pervasive issue in general hearing clinics. Further action on the part of healthcare professionals providing audiologic services may be necessary to identify individuals at risk for falling.

  20. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.

  1. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels.

  2. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  3. [Objective diagnostic methods in pediatric audiology].

    PubMed

    Mühler, R; Hoth, S

    2014-10-01

    Objective methods based on the measurement of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are indispensable in pediatric audiology especially for the early detection and therapy of congenital hearing impairment. The correct and efficient use requires knowledge and skills which are beyond the basic equipment of many users and require continuous updating. In the present review many aspects relevant for the safe handling of the methods and interpretation of the results are addressed. The presentation does not focus on the methods themselves but on the core problem of the practical daily routine, namely the qualitative and quantitative description of hearing loss in terms of its extent, the frequency range affected and the identity with respect to the type and site of the lesion. The certainty of the diagnosis can be optimized by observing few and simple rules. Central importance is attached to the thorough discussion of the interrelated parameters residual noise, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility in order to promote their correct use. Further subjects of this article are the recognition of pitfalls, the description of new developments, such as chirp and auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and finally the consideration of the extraordinarily important aspect of maturation.

  4. HIV Testing, Subjective Beliefs and Economic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of learning HIV status on economic behavior among rural Malawians. According to economic life-cycle models, if learning HIV results is informative about additional years of life, being diagnosed HIV-positive or negative should predict changes in consumption, investment and savings behavior with important micro and macro-economic implications. Using an experiment that randomly assigned incentives to learn HIV results, I find that while learning HIV results had short term effects on subjective belief of HIV infection, these differences did not persist after two years. Consistent with this, there were relatively few differences two years later in savings, income, expenditures, and employment between those who learned and did not learn their status. PMID:24369439

  5. [Audiologic and molecular screening for hearing loss by 35delG mutation in connexin 26 gene and congenital cytomegalovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Streitenberger, Edgardo Raúl; Suárez, Ariel Ignacio; Masciovecchio, María Verónica; Laurnagaray, Diana; Alda, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Hearing loss may be attributed to genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in the gene of the CX26 protein (connexin 26), are responsible for 30-80% of all cases of non-syndromic profound hearing loss. The 35delG is the most frequent variant in the caucasian population. As to environmental factors, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the main cause of congenital infection. To determine the prevalence of congenital CMV infection and the frequency of the 35delG mutation in newborns. To identify those at risk of suffering hearing loss in order to do an audiologic follow-up of detected cases. One thousand and twenty samples of dry blood spots corresponding to newborns were tested using conventional and real time PCR. Audiologic screening was performed to all newborns before hospital discharge. Fifteen out of 1020 subjects were heterozygous for the mutation. No homozygous patients were found. Six out of the samples tested positive for CMV (confirmed by a urine sample), out of which only one newborn was symptomatic. The auditory brainstem response was recorded in all these children. Hearing loss was found in three children with congenital CMV infection and two with 35delG mutation. The frecuency of 35delG mutation carriers in our population was 1.3% and the CMV congenital infection prevalence was 0.6%. Audiologic monitoring of these two populations allowed detection of hearing loss of late onset.

  6. The Virtual Man Project’s CD-ROM “Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine”, Vol.1

    PubMed Central

    VIEIRA, Millena Maria Ramalho Matta; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre; BRASOLOTTO, Alcione Ghedini

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CD-ROM “Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine” was developed as a teaching tool for people interested in the production of the spoken or sung human voice. Its content comprises several subjects concerning the anatomy and physiology of spoken and sung voice. A careful assessment becomes necessary in order to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning educational materials, whether related to education or health, within the proposal of education mediated by technology. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Virtual Man Project’s CD-ROM “Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine”, as a self-learning material, in two different populations: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students and Lyrical Singing students. The participants were instructed to study the CD-ROM during 1 month and answer two questionnaires: one before and another one after studying the CD-ROM. The quantitative results were compared statistically by the Student’s t-test at a significance level of 5%. Results: Seventeen out of the 28 students who completed the study, were Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students, while 11 were Lyrical Singing students (dropout rate of 44%). Comparison of the answers to the questionnaires before and after studying the CD-ROM showed a statistically significant increase of the scores for the questionnaire applied after studying the CD-ROM for both Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students, with p<0.001 and p<0.004, respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference in all topics of this questionnaire for both groups of students. Conclusion: The results concerning the evaluation of the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students’ knowledge before and after learning from the CD-ROM allowed concluding that the participants made significant improvement in their knowledge of the

  7. Audiological findings in elderly patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, A R; Bonfioli, F; Garrubba, V; Ghisellini, M; Lamoretti, M P; Nicolai, P; Camerini, C; Maiorca, R

    1990-01-01

    The audiological results of 46 patients (m/f 27/19, mean age; 57.4 +/- 11.1) with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing dialysis were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 25). Mean pure tone average from 0.5 to 8 kHz was about 15 dB higher in CRF patients than in control subjects. The ABR parameters of the test group were then contrasted with those recorded in a second control group (n = 47, m/f 26/21, mean age: 56.1 +/- 11.4) matched by age, gender and degree of hearing loss (HL). After assessing the normality of the groups by the usual criteria, using the data of a sample of normal young adults, the ABR were found to be abnormal in 23.9% of the controls and in the 39.13% of the CRF patients. Wave V, I-III, III-V and I-V delays were significantly shorter in the females of the control group; in the CRF group, only the V and the I-V delays were shorter in females. The only age-dependent effect was found in the CRF sample, in which older patients had significantly longer I-III IPLD. The degree of HL influenced the latency of the waves in both groups but only the I-V IPLD was longer in CRF patients with pronounced high tone loss. The most distinguishing feature between the effects of CRF plus ageing and those of normal ageing was the lengthening of the I-III IPLD in the test group. This finding is likely to reflect a subclinical disorder of the VIII nerve function that is a part of the axonal uremic neuropathy.

  8. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed Central

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-01-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology. PMID:9431426

  9. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  10. Survey of Educational Preparation in Pediatric Audiology: A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, Robert F.; Gross, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed audiology program directors (N=46) and audiologists (N=70) concerning preparation in pediatric audiology, specifically general program characteristics, education and training in pediatric audiology, affiliation with a pediatric medical facility, affiliation with school systems, and perceived adequacy of preparation. Comparison…

  11. Should significant others be encouraged to join adult group audiologic rehabilitation classes?

    PubMed

    Preminger, Jill E

    2003-12-01

    The benefit of participation in group audiologic rehabilitation classes was examined for adults with hearing loss (subjects) and their significant others (SOs). Thirteen subjects attended the classes with their SOs, and 12 subjects attended the classes on their own. All subjects attended six 90-minute classes consisting of informational lectures, and training in communication strategies, auditory perception, and auditory and visual perception. Self-assessment scales measuring hearing aid benefit and use of communication strategies were completed prior to class participation and following the completion of all classes. The results indicated that the majority of subjects reported increased use of communication strategies following class participation. In addition, a significant reduction in hearing handicap following class participation was measured across all subjects and SOs, and the greatest reduction in handicap was measured for subjects who attended the classes with their SOs. SO participation in group AR (audiologic rehabilitation) classes should be encouraged.

  12. Simulated patients in audiology education: student reports.

    PubMed

    Naeve-Velguth, Susan; Christensen, Sara A; Woods, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    Despite increased attention in recent years to audiology counseling education, students remain concerned about their abilities to interact with patients in challenging situations, such as when breaking difficult news. Simulated patients, or actors trained to portray patients in clinical scenarios, have been used for many years in medical schools to teach and assess students' interpersonal skills, and are just beginning to be used in audiology programs. Although research suggests that medical students value simulated patient experiences, little is known about whether the same is true for audiology students. The purpose of this study was to survey audiology students who had completed a simulated patient counseling experience as part of their graduate coursework at Central Michigan University, to learn about their experiences and views of this instructional format. This study used descriptive and comparative statistics to report student observations and to determine if student responses to evaluative questions differed from chance. Study participants included 29 audiology students who had completed a "breaking difficult news" simulated patient experience as part of their required graduate coursework in patient counseling. Participants completed an online survey that included seven evaluative five-point Likert-scale questions about their simulated patient counseling experience. Participants also completed one multiple-choice question on suggestions for future simulated-patient sessions. For each of the seven evaluative questions, a majority of participants (76-100%) responded positively, agreeing or strongly agreeing that the experience was helpful to their learning. For each of these evaluative questions, a χ² analysis revealed that the distribution of positive (i.e., strongly agree and agree) to nonpositive (i.e., neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree) responses differed significantly from chance (p < .0001, df = 1). The results also indicated that when asked

  13. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  14. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  15. Audiological and radiological characteristics of a family with T961G mitochondrial mutation.

    PubMed

    Turchetta, Rosaria; Mazzei, Filippo; Celani, Tiziana; Cammeresi, Maria Gloria; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Altissimi, Giancarlo; de Vincentiis, Chiara; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Messineo, Daniela; Ferraris, Alessandro; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe audiological and radiological characteristics, and other secondary aspects, in a family carrying a T961G mutation in the 12S rRNA mitochondrial gene. Case report. Six members of a family participated in an audiological evaluation that included pure-tone audiometry, immittance tests, auditory brainstem responses (ABR), and otoacoustic emissions (OAE). The radiological evaluation was conducted through temporal bone CT scans using a Toshiba 16 channels Aquilon Spirale. Neuropsychiatric evaluation was also administered. Three participants were diagnosed with severe sensorineural hearing loss of cochlear origin and cochlear malformations visible in CT scans. One participant had a mild mixed-hearing loss and no cochlear malformations. Two participants had normal audiological and radiological findings. We believe our study can provide helpful insight on the clinical findings of a rare mutation, of which few data have been presented in literature.

  16. APPLIED AUDIOLOGY FOR CHILDREN. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALE, D.M.C.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK IS TO HELP TEACHERS, PARENTS, DOCTORS, AND WORKERS IN AUDIOLOGY CLINICS MAKE THE MOST OF SOUND IN THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TREATMENT OF DEAFNESS. ASPECTS OF SOUND AMPLIFICATION CONSIDERED ARE THE NATURE OF SOUND, ELECTRICAL AMPLIFICATION, AND VARIOUS TYPES OF HEARING AIDS (INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, INDUCTION LOOP, SPEECH…

  17. The Future of Private Practice in Audiology.

    PubMed

    Fabry, David A

    2016-11-01

    Although private practice in audiology has evolved during the past 40 years, hearing aids have remained as a central component to success. This article will discuss present and future trends for the next 40 years, including parallels to other professions and the need to innovate beyond technology.

  18. Dimensions of Multiskilling: Considerations for Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiskilling and use of support personnel in educational audiology in reference to the following principles: guidelines, models of multiskilling, components of successful multiskilling, and do's and don'ts for multiskilling. These principles are illustrated through the use of multiskilling in the establishment of a hearing-aid…

  19. Educational Audiology Hard of Hearing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frederick S.

    The audiology curriculum of the Department of Communicative Disorders at Utah State University which has been developed to prepare specialists in clinical and/or educational management of aurally handicapped children is described. Focused upon are prevalence of children's unilateral and bilateral hearing loss, areas affected by hearing impairment…

  20. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services EHDI-PALS: Building a National Facility Database

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Winnie; Beauchaine, Kathryn L.; Hoffman, Jeff; Coverstone, Kirsten R.; Oyler, Anne; Mason, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To create a searchable web-based national audiology facility directory using a standardized survey, so parents and providers could identify which facilities had capacity to provide appropriate services based on child’s age. Design An Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services expert panel was convened to create a survey to collect audiology facility information. Professional practice documents were reviewed, a survey was designed to collect pertinent test protocols of each audiology facility, and a standard of care template was created to cross-check survey answers. Audiology facility information across the United States was collected and compiled into a directory structured and displayed in an interactive website, ehdipals.org. Results Since November 7, 2012, to May 21, 2016, over 1000 facilities have completed the survey and become listed in the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services directory. The site has registered 10,759 unique visitors, 151,981 page views, and 9134 unique searches from consumers. User feedback has been positive overall. Conclusion A searchable, web-based facility directory has proven useful to consumers as a tool to help them differentiate whether a facility was set up to test newborns versus young children. Use of a preprogrammed standard of practice template to cross-check survey answers was also shown to be a practical aid. PMID:28353523

  1. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services EHDI-PALS: Building a National Facility Database.

    PubMed

    Chung, Winnie; Beauchaine, Kathryn L; Hoffman, Jeff; Coverstone, Kirsten R; Oyler, Anne; Mason, Craig

    To create a searchable web-based national audiology facility directory using a standardized survey, so parents and providers could identify which facilities had capacity to provide appropriate services based on child's age. An Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services expert panel was convened to create a survey to collect audiology facility information. Professional practice documents were reviewed, a survey was designed to collect pertinent test protocols of each audiology facility, and a standard of care template was created to cross-check survey answers. Audiology facility information across the United States was collected and compiled into a directory structured and displayed in an interactive website, ehdipals.org. Since November 7, 2012, to May 21, 2016, over 1000 facilities have completed the survey and become listed in the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services directory. The site has registered 10,759 unique visitors, 151,981 page views, and 9134 unique searches from consumers. User feedback has been positive overall. A searchable, web-based facility directory has proven useful to consumers as a tool to help them differentiate whether a facility was set up to test newborns versus young children. Use of a preprogrammed standard of practice template to cross-check survey answers was also shown to be a practical aid.

  2. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  3. Randomization Regression Tests for Single-Subject Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Bruce C.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    In a Monte Carlo analysis of single-subject data, Type I and Type II error rates were compared for various statistical tests of the significance of treatment effects. Data for 5,000 subjects in each of 6 treatment effect size groups were computer simulated, and 2 types of treatment effects were simulated in the dependent variable during…

  4. The promise of service learning in a pediatric audiology course on clinical training with the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Strong, Elizabeth C

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of service learning (SL) and its impact on students' clinical competency, interest in pediatric audiology as a career, and levels of community engagement, as well as its impact on the community. Forty-eight students enrolled in an SL pediatric audiology course providing hearing and middle ear testing to 292 children, ages 6 months to 5 years. Another 10 non-SL students served as a control group. SL surveys were administered to students before and after the SL experience and post hoc to the non-SL group to assess their perceived readiness for evaluating children and their interest in pediatric audiology. Parents and community partner staff members completed another survey to provide feedback about their experience with the SL activity. The students' ratings were higher post-SL than pre-SL, and their learning gain was positively ranked post-SL compared with the non-SL group. Also, 71% of the SL students expressed positive interest in pediatric audiology post-SL compared with 37% of the non-SL group. Responses from community partners were also positive. Embedding SL into a pediatric audiology course increased student interest in pediatric audiology as a career and enhanced readiness to evaluate young children.

  5. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hall, James W

    2016-09-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses.

  6. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  7. Present Audiological Issues in the Education of Hearing-Impaired Children in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuma, Nakoi

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of hearing aid fitting procedures and auditory rehabilitation for hearing-impaired children in Japan. Reviews issues of audiological management in Japanese schools and discusses two kinds of simplified auditory tests. Finally, highlights several controversial issues surrounding different perspectives and methods of education…

  8. The stability of marker characteristics across tests of the same subject and across subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the stability of marker characteristics within a very short period of time for both tests on the same subject as well as tests on different subjects. It reports on the scoring of the scripts of the whole cohort of students that took three high stakes tests in 2003 in a European country: a Language test consisting of a Literacy and a Literature paper and a History test. The many-facets Rasch model was used to study marker severity and marking consistency and it was found that some markers had more stable characteristics than others. Although the stability of marker characteristics was generally weak, it was non-negligible (correlation indices as indicators of stability ranged up to 0.707). This study, however, is not absolutely accurate due to the small sample sizes employed and it can be added that more research is needed to reach definite results.

  9. Auditory evoked potentials from the cortex: audiology applications.

    PubMed

    Cone-Wesson, Barbara; Wunderlich, Julia

    2003-10-01

    The audiological applications of cortical auditory evoked potentials are reviewed. Cortical auditory evoked potentials have some advantages compared with more commonly used techniques such as the auditory brainstem response, because they are more closely tied to perception and can be evoked by complex sounds such as speech. These response characteristics suggest that these potentials could be used clinically in the estimation of threshold and also to assess speech discrimination and perception. Clinical uses of auditory evoked potentials include threshold estimation and their use as an electrophysiological index of auditory system development, auditory discrimination and speech perception, and the benefits from cochlear implantation, auditory training, or amplification. Cortical auditory evoked potentials obtained in passively alert adults have a remarkably high correspondence with perceptual threshold. Acoustic features of complex sounds may be reflected in the waveform and latency of these potentials and so might be used to determine the integrity of neural encoding for such features and thus contribute to speech perception assessment. MMN and P3 have been used to discern discrimination abilities among groups of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired individuals; however, their sensitivity and specificity for testing an individual's abilities has not yet been established. Cortical auditory potentials are affected by listening experience and attention and so could be used to gauge the effects of aural habilitation. The presence of cortical potentials in children with auditory neuropathy appears to indicate residual hearing abilities. Parametric and developmental research is needed to further establish these applications in audiology.

  10. Pesticide testing on human subjects: weighing benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Portier, Christopher

    2005-07-01

    In the debate surrounding testing pesticides on human subjects, two distinct positions have emerged. The first position holds that pesticide experiments on human subjects should be allowed, but only under stringent scientific and ethical standards. The second position asserts that these experiments should never be allowed. In this article, we evaluate what we consider to be the strongest argument for the second position--namely, that the benefits of the experiments are not significant enough to justify the risks posed to healthy subjects. We challenge this argument by examining the benefits and risks of testing pesticides on human subjects. We argue that a study that intentionally exposes humans subjects to pesticides should be permitted if a) the knowledge gained from the study is expected to promote human health; b) the knowledge cannot be reasonably obtained by other means; c) the study is not expected to cause serious or irreversible harm to the subjects; and d) appropriate safeguards are in place to minimize harm to the subjects.

  11. Pesticide Testing on Human Subjects: Weighing Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Portier, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In the debate surrounding testing pesticides on human subjects, two distinct positions have emerged. The first position holds that pesticide experiments on human subjects should be allowed, but only under stringent scientific and ethical standards. The second position asserts that these experiments should never be allowed. In this article, we evaluate what we consider to be the strongest argument for the second position—namely, that the benefits of the experiments are not significant enough to justify the risks posed to healthy subjects. We challenge this argument by examining the benefits and risks of testing pesticides on human subjects. We argue that a study that intentionally exposes humans subjects to pesticides should be permitted if a) the knowledge gained from the study is expected to promote human health; b) the knowledge cannot be reasonably obtained by other means; c) the study is not expected to cause serious or irreversible harm to the subjects; and d) appropriate safeguards are in place to minimize harm to the subjects. PMID:16002367

  12. Service Learning in Undergraduate Audiology Education.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lata A; Richards, K Andrew R; Bajek, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate a service learning project in an undergraduate audiology course and evaluate how it affected student learning in the class. The study involved partnering with a group of students enrolled in a band learning community. Students in the audiology course learned about hearing assessment procedures in class and practiced the procedures on each other in labs. Toward the end of the semester, they assessed the hearing of the band students and provided counseling regarding the importance of hearing protection. Qualitative data were obtained in the form of preflections and final reflection papers completed by the students in the audiology course at the start and conclusion of the semester. Quantitative data included completion of the Community Service Attitudes Scale (CSAS; Shiarella, McCarthy, & Tucker, 2000) prior to and at the conclusion of the course. Results revealed overwhelmingly positive comments from the students in their final reflections, although there were no significant changes in the pre- and post-administration of the CSAS. Incorporating service learning projects into undergraduate curricula in speech and hearing has the potential to enhance academic and civic learning while also benefitting the community.

  13. Safety of audiology direct access for medicare patients complaining of impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Zapala, David A; Stamper, Greta C; Shelfer, Janet S; Walker, David A; Karatayli-Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Ozan B; Hawkins, David B

    2010-06-01

    Allowing Medicare beneficiaries to self-refer to audiologists for evaluation of hearing loss has been advocated as a cost-effective service delivery model. Resistance to audiology direct access is based, in part, on the concern that audiologists might miss significant otologic conditions. To evaluate the relative safety of audiology direct access by comparing the treatment plans of audiologists and otolaryngologists in a large group of Medicare-eligible patients seeking hearing evaluation. Retrospective chart review study comparing assessment and treatment plans developed by audiologists and otolaryngologists. 1550 records comprising all Medicare eligible patients referred to the Audiology Section of the Mayo Clinic Florida in 2007 with a primary complaint of hearing impairment. Assessment and treatment plans were compiled from the electronic medical record and placed in a secured database. Records of patients seen jointly by audiology and otolaryngology practitioners (Group 1: 352 cases) were reviewed by four blinded reviewers, two otolaryngologists and two audiologists, who judged whether the audiologist treatment plan, if followed, would have missed conditions identified and addressed in the otolaryngologist's treatment plan. Records of patients seen by audiology but not otolaryngology (Group 2: 1198 cases) were evaluated by a neurotologist who judged whether the patient should have seen an otolaryngologist based on the audiologist's documentation and test results. Additionally, the audiologist and reviewing neurotologist judgments about hearing asymmetry were compared to two mathematical measures of hearing asymmetry (Charing Cross and AAO-HNS [American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery] calculations). In the analysis of Group 1 records, the jury of four judges found no audiology discrepant treatment plans in over 95% of cases. In no case where a judge identified a discrepancy in treatment plans did the audiologist plan risk missing conditions

  14. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Leonard, Keith J.

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  15. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  16. Community-Based Intervention Determines Tele-Audiology Site Candidacy.

    PubMed

    Coco, Laura; Champlin, Craig A; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Sections of the community face barriers to accessing audiology services. The aim of this study was to assess the barriers faced by people in typically underserved community settings and to provide audiology services in their natural environment. Information gathered by questionnaire was used to determine each site's candidacy as a potential tele-audiology site. Sixty-three participants were recruited across 3 community sites that were identified as gathering places for individuals who experience barriers to accessing traditional clinical audiology services. Information about demographics and participant experience with barriers to access was gathered by a locally generated, self-administered questionnaire. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometric exams were performed on participants with an automated portable diagnostic audiometer. Afterward, the investigator provided counseling regarding hearing loss rehabilitation or hearing protection. Referrals were made when appropriate. Pure-tone averages were similar within sites but varied across sites. At least 30% of individuals at each site reported they wanted to visit the audiologist more often. Each site reported different principal barriers to access, among them transportation, motivation, and money. Eleven individuals were referred to the next level of care. Questionnaire results revealed special accommodations should be considered at each potential tele-audiology site. The present study provided audiology services to individuals in their natural environment, identified many of the obstacles preventing individuals from pursuing traditional audiology services and provided information for the foundation of a tele-audiology practice.

  17. [Evaluation of the audiological characteristics of 3251 cases who failed the newborn hearing screening in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Luo, Renzhong; Wen, Ruijin; Gao, Shengli; Zou, Bin; Zhou, Jialin

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the audiological characteristics of the cases who failed the newborn hearing screening under the two hearing screening programs (OAE and AABR) in two different screening population(with or without high-risk of hearing loss). Three thousand two hundred and fifty-one babies (6502 ears) who failed the hearing screening twice or more and then failed in the audiological evaluation are included in the research. The cases were divided into two groups by the time accepting the screening, < 6 (2683 cases) months or > or = 6 months (568 cases), and then analyze the effect of age on the audiological characteristics. Compare the sensitivity and specificity of different hearing screening programs, OAE or AABR. Evaluate the audiological characteristics between the groups with or without the high-risk factors of hearing loss. Total of them were performed detailed audiological evaluation including in ABR, DPOAE, acoustic immittance, and some of them accepted ASSR test and computer tomography. 85.30% to 86.54% infants accepted initial screening in Guangzhou city, and less than 64. 10% infants underwent rescreening. 0.0282% or 0.0220% infants needed immediately early intervention. The group without high-risk factors was less likely to suffer from mild to profound hearing loss than those with high-risk factors. According to different hearing screening programs, more cases passed the OAE hearing screening and more cases were diagnosed profound hearing loss under AABR screening. AABR screening technology is better than OAE screening. The target population is the infants with risk factors, so perinatal history record is very important. The percentage of population who need immediately early intervention is more than 0.0282%-0.0220%.

  18. Acceptability of VTOL aircraft noise determined by absolute subjective testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1972-01-01

    A program was conducted during which test subjects evaluated the simulated sounds of a helicopter, a tilt wing aircraft, and a 15 second, 90 PNdB (indoors) turbojet aircraft used as reference. Over 20,000 evaluations were made while the test subjects were engaged in work and leisure activities. The effects of level, exposure time, distance and aircraft design on subjective acceptability were evaluated. Some of the important conclusions are: (1) To be judged equal in annoyance to the reference jet sound, the helicopter and tilt wing sounds must be 4 to 5 PNdB lower when lasting 15 seconds in duration. (2) To be judged significantly more acceptable than the reference jet sound, the helicopter sound must be 10 PNdB lower when lasting 15 seconds in duration. (3) To be judged significantly more acceptable than the reference jet sound, the tilt wing sound must be 12 PNdB lower when lasting 15 seconds in duration. (4) The relative effect of changing the duration of a sound upon its subjectively rated annoyance diminishes with increasing duration. It varies from 2 PNdB per doubling of duration for intervals of 15 to 30 seconds, to 0.75 PNdB per doubling of duration for intervals of 120 to 240 seconds.

  19. Applying experiential learning to audiology curricula.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Derek J

    2013-05-01

    In my quest to become a better professor, I have been searching for the instructional paradigms that best facilitate the educational process between me and my students. To support this endeavor, I opted to study learning diversity. The results of my investigation led me to reflect upon whether my teaching strategies inadvertently engaged only a subset of my students. I believe that was the case. In this article, I will describe the experiential learning model, how I used it to measure my students' learning styles, and how I used the model to make my teaching more holistic. American Academy of Audiology.

  20. Clients' perspective on quality of audiology care: Development of the Consumer Quality Index (CQI) 'Audiology Care' for measuring client experiences.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Michelle; Dahlhaus-Booij, Judith; Plass, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Clients' perspective on the quality of audiology care has not been investigated thoroughly. Research has focused primarily on satisfaction with, and limitations of hearing aids. We developed a Consumer Quality Index (CQI) questionnaire 'Audiology Care' to systematically assess client experiences with audiology care. The CQI Audiology Care was developed in three steps: (1) posing open-ended questions through e-mail (n = 14), (2) two small-scale surveys assessing psychometric properties of the questionnaire (n = 188) and importance of quality aspects (n = 118), and (3) a large-scale survey (n = 1793) assessing psychometric properties and discriminatory power of the questionnaire. People with complex hearing impairments and/or balance and communicative disorders who visited an audiology care centre during the past year. Important quality aspects were translated into seven reliable scales: accommodation and facilities, employees' conduct and expertise, arrangement of appointments, waiting times, client participation and effectiveness of treatment. Client experiences differed among the participating centres concerning accommodation and facilities, arrangement of appointments, waiting times and client participation. The CQI Audiology Care is a valid and reliable instrument to assess clients' experiences with audiology care. Future implementation will reveal whether results can be used to monitor and improve the quality of audiology care.

  1. Comparison of Audiological Results Between a Transcutaneous and a Percutaneous Bone Conduction Instrument in Conductive Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Timo; Salcher, Rolf Benedikt; Schwab, Burkard; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-07-01

    In conductive, mixed hearing losses and single-sided-deafness bone-anchored hearing aids are a well-established treatment. The transcutaneous transmission across the intact skin avoids the percutaneous abutment of a bone-anchored device with the usual risk of infections and requires less care.In this study, the audiological results of the Bonebridge transcutaneous bone conduction implant (MED-EL) are compared to the generally used percutaneous device BP100 (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney, Australia). Ten patients implanted with the transcutaneous hearing implant were compared to 10 matched patients implanted with a percutaneous device. Tests included pure-tone AC and BC thresholds and unaided and aided sound field thresholds. Speech intelligibility was determined in quiet using the Freiburg monosyllable test and in noise with the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in sound field with speech from the front (S0). The subjective benefit was assessed with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. In comparison with the unaided condition there was a significant improvement in aided thresholds, word recognition scores (WRS), and speech reception thresholds (SRT) in noise, measured in sound field, for both devices. The comparison of the two devices revealed a minor but not significant difference in functional gain (Bonebridge: PTA = 27.5 dB [mean]; BAHA: PTA = 26.3 dB [mean]). No significant difference between the two devices was found when comparing the improvement in WRSs and SRTs (Bonebridge: improvement WRS = 80% [median], improvement SRT = 6.5 dB SNR [median]; BAHA: improvement WRS = 77.5% [median], BAHA: improvement SRT = 6.9 dB SNR [median]). Our data show that the transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant is an audiologically equivalent alternative to percutaneous bone-anchored devices in conductive hearing loss with a minor sensorineural hearing loss component.

  2. Norms of the Rorschach Test for Indian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Augustine, M; Saldanha, D; Srivastava, K; Kundeyawala, S M; Pawar, A A; Ryali, Vssr

    2006-04-01

    The clinical utility of the Rorschach test in Indians is hampered by the absence of reliable normative data. Method : The Rorschach by Dlopfer's method was administrated to 1256 subjects consisting of 300 normal army personnel, 300 normal civilians, 250 schizophrenics, 300 neurotics and 106 patients with organic disorders. The Rorschach protocols of normal Indian army personnel and normal civilians showed significant differences from one another and also from the western norms. These differences are culturally determined and are not indicative of low intelligence or psychopathology. Patients with schizophrenia, neurosis, head injury and epilepsy show significant differences from the records of normal subjects. The protocols of army schizophrenics show significant deviations from those of normal army personnel and these changes revert to normal with clinical recovery. The Rorschach test is not a culture fee test as claimed earlier. In view of the differences from Western norms, Rorschach protocols of Indians should be interpreted using the norms for Indians. In the case of army personnel the norms for army personnel should be used. While the use of the Rorschach to study the personality patterns of normal individuals and as an aid to clinical diagnosis was strongly supported, the findings of the study indicate that the test can also be employed to assess therapeutic response of patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Educational Audiology: A Comparison of Service Delivery Systems Utilized by Missouri Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, J. Brad; Golden, Diane Cordry

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of three audiology service delivery systems--(1) school-based audiology within the district, (2) non-school-based audiology in the community, and (3) school-based audiology in a remote community--found the local school-based delivery system superior on various quality indicators. (Author/DB)

  4. Online subjective testing for consumer-photo quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Michele A.; McKnight, Patrick; Quartuccio, Jacob; Nicholas, David; Jaladi, Ramesh; Corriveau, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We take a look at crowdsourcing for subjective image quality evaluation using real image stimuli with nonsimulated distortions. Our aim is to scale the task of subjectively rating images while ensuring maximal data validity and accuracy. While previous work has begun to explore crowdsourcing for quality assessment, it has either used images that are not representative of popular consumer scenarios or used crowdsourcing to collect data without comparison to experiments in a controlled environment. Here, we address the challenges imposed by the highly variable online environment, using stimuli that are subtle and more complex than has traditionally been used in quality assessment experiments. In a series of experiments, we vary different design parameters and demonstrate how they impact the subjective responses obtained. Of the parameters examined are stimulus display mode, study length, stimulus habituation, and content homogeneity/heterogeneity. Our method was tested on a database that was rated in a laboratory test previously. Once our design parameters were chosen, we rated a database of consumer photographs and are making this data available to the research community.

  5. Correlation between subjective visual horizontal test and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuei-You; Young, Yi-Ho

    2011-02-01

    The static subjective visual horizontal (SVH) test correlates with the dynamic ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) test in healthy and pathological ears, and further confirms that both tests may, at least in part, share the same utricular reflex pathway. This study correlated the SVH test results with those of the oVEMP and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests to investigate their relationships. Twenty healthy subjects underwent the SVH test at a view pattern angle of 30° or 70° horizontal tilt under various background distractions to establish the optimal stimulation mode for SVH test. Thereafter, 20 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease underwent the SVH test using the optimal mode. In addition, oVEMP and cVEMP tests were performed in all subjects. The preliminary study in 20 healthy subjects at a view pattern angle of 70° under counterclockwise square background distraction revealed that the mean deviation degree of the SVH test was -0.61 ± 1.17°. Based on the criteria, abnormal percentages of SVH in 20 Meniere's patients were 40%. All healthy subjects had normal oVEMPs and cVEMPs. In contrast, eight patients (40%) showed abnormal oVEMPs and nine (45%) revealed abnormal cVEMPs. The SVH test results correlated significantly with oVEMP results, but not with cVEMP results.

  6. Approach to testing growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Vera

    2013-05-01

    Identification of adults with GH deficiency (GHD) is challenging because clinical features of adult GHD are not distinctive and because clinical suspicion must be confirmed by biochemical tests. Adults are selected for testing for adult GHD if they have a high pretest probability of GHD, ie, if they have hypothalamic-pituitary disease, if they have received cranial irradiation or central nervous system tumor treatment, or if they survived traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Testing should only be carried out if a decision has already been made that if deficiency is found it will be treated. There are many pharmacological GH stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GHD; however, none fulfill the requirements for an ideal test having high discriminatory power; being reproducible, safe, convenient, and economical; and not being dependent on confounding factors such as age, gender, nutritional status, and in particular obesity. In obesity, GH secretion is reduced, GH clearance is enhanced, and stimulated GH secretion is reduced, causing a false-positive result. This functional hyposomatotropism in obesity is fully reversed by weight loss. In conclusion, GH stimulation tests should be avoided in obese subjects with very low pretest probability.

  7. Study of the Reliability and Validity of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Assessment of Clinical Skills of Audiology Students

    PubMed Central

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Methods: Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university’s Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student’s performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. Results: The correlation between each examiner’s scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner’s scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). Conclusion: The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study. PMID:23618476

  8. Study of the reliability and validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of clinical skills of audiology students.

    PubMed

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-31

    Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university's Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student's performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. The correlation between each examiner's scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner's scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study.

  9. Astronaut Owen Garriott - Test Subject - Human Vestibular Function Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-09

    S73-34171 (9 Aug. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Skylab ?Human Vestibular Function? M131 Experiment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The objectives of the Skylab M131 experiment are to obtain data pertinent to establishing the validity of measurements of specific behavioral/physiological responses influenced by vestibular activity under one-g and zero-g conditions; to determine man?s adaptability to unusual vestibular conditions and predict habitability of future spacecraft conditions involving reduced gravity and Coriollis forces; and to measure the accuracy and variability in man?s judgment of spatial coordinates based on atypical gravity receptor cues and inadequate visual cures. Dr. Garriott is seated in the experiment?s litter chair which can rotate the test subject at predetermined rotational velocity or programmed acceleration/decelerational profile. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Audiology on the way into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, J

    2000-01-01

    The article gives an overview of current developments in audiology. Present challenges and questions are discussed and possible solutions are suggested. The scope includes diagnostic and rehabilitative features of audiology and focuses on basic assessment of hearing functions, localization of the site of lesion, objective assessment of auditory functions, and hearing instruments, both traditional and implantable ones. Finally, new attempts at tinnitus treatment and possible approaches to the future prevention of hearing loss and protection of hearing by medication are briefly described. Due to the vast diversity of modern audiology only the major trends are covered. Thus this article does not claim to provide a complete survey of all that is going on in audiology today.

  11. Internet and Audiology: A Review of the First International Meeting.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Preminger, Jill E

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to describe the impetus for holding the First International Meeting on Internet and Audiology (October 2014) and to introduce the special research forum that arose from the meeting. The rationale for the First International Meeting on Internet and Audiology is described. This is followed by a short description of the research sections and articles appearing in the special issue. Six articles consider the process of health care delivery over the Internet; this includes health care specific to hearing, tinnitus, and balance. Four articles discuss the development of effective Internet-based treatment programs. Six articles describe and evaluate Internet-based interventions specific to adult hearing aid users. The fledgling field of Internet and audiology is remarkably broad. The Second International Meeting on Internet and Audiology ocurred in September 2015.

  12. Internet and Audiology: A Review of the Second International Meeting.

    PubMed

    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard; Preminger, Jill E

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the Second International Meeting on Internet and Audiology, which took place at the Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark September 24 to 25, 2015, and introduces the research forum arising from the meeting. The potential gains of the Internet within audiology are framed within the central role of quality connections among people, ideas, and objects. First, the meeting is summarized. Second, the 11 articles arising from the meeting and collected in this research forum are grouped into 2 themes: design and evaluation. Last, the benefits of interoperability and standardization are discussed. We look forward to the day when the Internet is an integral part of audiology, and we invite readers to attend future editions of the International Meeting on Internet and Audiology.

  13. Trends in Audiologic Services to Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Jaclyn B.

    1981-01-01

    The responses to a questionnaire received from 80 speech and hearing centers revealed changes in the number of children seen and in audiologic services in two age groups, birth to 3 years old and 3 to 6 years old. (Author)

  14. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin test subject Lower Body Negative Pressure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Lower Body Negative Pressure Experiment. Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, assists Kerwin with the blood pressure cuff. They are in the experiment and work area of the Orbital Workshop crew quarters of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Kerwin is lying in the lower body negative pressure device. The purpose of the M092 experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The data collected in support of M092 are blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, LBNPD pressure, leg volume changes, and body weight.

  15. Effects of Age on Auditory and Cognitive Processing: Implications for Hearing Aid Fitting and Audiologic Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Singh, Gurjit

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in research and clinical practice concerning aging and auditory communication have been driven by questions about age-related differences in peripheral hearing, central auditory processing, and cognitive processing. A “site-of-lesion” view based on anatomic levels inspired research to test competing hypotheses about the contributions of changes at these three levels of the nervous system. A “processing” view based on psychologic functions inspired research to test alternative hypotheses about how lower-level sensory processes and higher-level cognitive processes interact. In the present paper, we suggest that these two views can begin to be unified following the example set by the cognitive neuroscience of aging. The early pioneers of audiology anticipated such a unified view, but today, advances in science and technology make it both possible and necessary. Specifically, we argue that a synthesis of new knowledge concerning the functional neuroscience of auditory cognition is necessary to inform the design and fitting of digital signal processing in “intelligent” hearing devices, as well as to inform best practices for resituating hearing aid fitting in a broader context of audiologic rehabilitation. Long-standing approaches to rehabilitative audiology should be revitalized to emphasize the important role that training and therapy play in promoting compensatory brain reorganization as older adults acclimatize to new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an integrated framework for understanding how auditory and cognitive processing interact when older adults listen, comprehend, and communicate in realistic situations, to review relevant models and findings, and to suggest how new knowledge about age-related changes in audition and cognition may influence future developments in hearing aid fitting and audiologic rehabilitation. PMID:16528429

  16. Hypothesis-testing from a limited set: an example of mentally retarded subjects outperforming college subjects.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H H; Carroll, J G; Johnson, S J

    1975-05-01

    By making a discrimination problem's solution equivalent to an hypothesis (response alternation) known to be more dominant in retarded subjects than college students, superior performance by retarded subjects can be accurately predicted.

  17. Ultrasound applicability in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology.

    PubMed

    Barberena, Luciana da Silva; Brasil, Brunah de Castro; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The keywords "ultrasound," "ultrasonography," "swallow," "orofacial myofunctional therapy," and "orofacial myology" were also used in the search. Studies in humans from the past 5 years were selected. In the preselection, duplicated studies, articles not fully available, and those that did not present direct relation between ultrasound and Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were discarded. The data were analyzed descriptively and classified subareas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The following items were considered: purposes, participants, procedures, and results. We selected 12 articles for ultrasound versus speech/phonetics subarea, 5 for ultrasound versus voice, 1 for ultrasound versus muscles of mastication, and 10 for ultrasound versus swallow. Studies relating "ultrasound" and "Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences" in the past 5 years were not found. Different studies on the use of ultrasound in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were found. Each of them, according to its purpose, confirms new possibilities of the use of this instrument in the several subareas, aiming at a more accurate diagnosis and new evaluative and therapeutic possibilities.

  18. Academic programs, class sizes, and obstacles to growth in audiology.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Ian M

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 25 yr, the number of academic programs in audiology has been cut by half, yet there continue to be calls for further reductions in the number of programs. Reducing the number of programs potentially affects the number of graduates and therefore could impact the availability of audiologists in the future. There is a question as to whether academic programs in audiology could accommodate more students. To examine the impact of closure of programs on the number of graduates and to identify obstacles to programs growing class sizes. An analysis of audiology class sizes over time based on data available from the Council of Academic Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders, and a comparison of audiology class sizes with other health professions, to identify trends that affect growth in program size. The key obstacles to growth of academic programs are (1) the availability of sufficient clinical experiences to meet the licensure and certification requirements and (2) financial resources to expand didactic and clinical teaching needs associated with larger class sizes. (1) Certification regulations and licensure laws should be revised to eliminate requirements that directly impact on academic programs or students prior to graduation. (2) The profession should undertake the effort designed to change Medicare regulations to allow alternative supervision models. (3) Academic programs need freedom to be creative in their approaches to teaching and financing programs. (4) A concerted and coordinated effort needs to be undertaken to increase the number of persons interested in audiology as a career. American Academy of Audiology.

  19. Construct Validity of the Ecological Momentary Assessment in Audiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. Purpose This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. Research Design This is an observational study. Study Sample Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Data Collection and Analysis In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta: the audiological phenotype lacks correlation with the genotype

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a heritable connective tissue disorder mainly caused by mutations in the genes COL1A1 and COL1A2 and is associated with hearing loss in approximately half of the cases. The hearing impairment usually starts between the second and fourth decade of life as a conductive hearing loss, frequently evolving to mixed hearing loss thereafter. A minority of patients develop pure sensorineural hearing loss. The interindividual variability in the audiological characteristics of the hearing loss is unexplained. Methods With the purpose of evaluating inter- and intrafamilial variability, hearing was thorougly examined in 184 OI patients (type I: 154; type III: 4; type IV: 26), aged 3-89 years, with a mutation in either COL1A1 or COL1A2 and originating from 89 different families. Due to the adult onset of hearing loss in OI, correlations between the presence and/or characteristics of the hearing loss and the underlying mutation were investigated in a subsample of 114 OI patients from 64 different families who were older than 40 years of age or had developed hearing loss before the age of 40. Results Hearing loss was diagnosed in 48.4% of the total sample of OI ears with increasing prevalence in the older age groups. The predominant type was a mixed hearing loss (27.5%). A minority presented a pure conductive (8.4%) or pure sensorineural (12.5%) loss. In the subsample of 114 OI subjects, no association was found between the nature of the mutation in COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes and the occurrence, type or severity of hearing loss. Relatives originating from the same family differed in audiological features, which may partially be attributed to their dissimilar age. Conclusions Our study confirms that hearing loss in OI shows a strong intrafamilial variability. Additional modifications in other genes are assumed to be responsible for the expression of hearing loss in OI. PMID:22206639

  1. Audiology practice management in South Africa: What audiologists know and what they should know.

    PubMed

    Breytenbach, Deidré; Kritzinger, Alta; Soer, Maggi

    2015-01-01

    In future, the South African Department of Health aims to purchase services from accredited private service providers. Successful private audiology practices can assist to address issues of access, equity and quality of health services. It is not sufficient to be an excellent clinician, since audiology practices are businesses that must also be managed effectively. The objective was to determine the existing and required levels of practice management knowledge as perceived by South African audiologists. An electronic descriptive survey was used to investigate audiology practice management amongst South African audiologists. A total of 147 respondents completed the survey. Results were analysed by calculating descriptive statistics. The Z-proportional test was used to identify significant differences between existing and required levels of practice management knowledge. Significant differences were found between existing and required levels of knowledge regarding all eight practice management tasks, particularly legal and ethical issues and marketing and accounting. There were small differences in the knowledge required for practice management tasks amongst respondents working in public and private settings. Irrespective of their work context, respondents showed that they need significant expansion of practice management knowledge in order to be successful, to compete effectively and to make sense of a complex marketplace.

  2. The awareness of the profession of audiology among entering college students.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Diana C; Donai, Jeremy J; Araj, Chris F

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot test a survey of entering college students' awareness of the profession of audiology and to report the preliminary results of the survey. A survey was developed and administered in 2003 at the California University of Pennsylvania. A modified survey was administered in 2009. Survey questions asked students to identify what audiologists do and the education requirements to become an audiologist. Seventeen percent of the students self-reported that they knew what an audiologist did and were able to accurately describe the profession. Approximately 30% of the students learned about audiology from family/friends. Students reported selecting their major based on interest in a specific field and not on market-driven forces such as job opportunities and salary. Future surveys should be conducted to confirm the extent of the lack of visibility of audiology as a profession and to serve as a metric for the efficacy of future marketing efforts in the profession.

  3. Active middle-ear implant fixation in an unusual place: clinical and audiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Polanski, J F; Soares, A D; Dos Santos, Z M; Mendonça Cruz, O L

    2016-04-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is an active middle-ear implant for hearing rehabilitation that is usually placed in the long process of the incus or round window. This study reports on the unusual implant attachment to the short process of the incus in a patient with ear malformation, and describes their audiological and clinical outcomes. Case report and literature review. Audiological evaluation with the Vibrant Soundbridge implant showed a pure tone average of 31 dB. The speech test, at 65 dB HL, revealed correct recognition of 92 per cent of disyllabic words. The Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile showed high levels of satisfaction, hearing aid use and benefit. Fixation of the Vibrant Soundbridge implant on the short process of the incus is a feasible option, with good clinical and audiological outcomes. Coupling the floating mass transducer to the short process of the incus is a good surgical option, especially when the long process and the oval or round window are inaccessible.

  4. Development of a progressive audiologic tinnitus management program for Veterans with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Myers, Paula J; Griest, Susan; Kaelin, Christine; Legro, Marcia W; Schmidt, Caroline J; Zaugg, Tara L; Henry, James A

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is the most prevalent service-connected disability awarded to Veterans. However, clinical protocols for management of tinnitus have been inconsistent across Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. A study was funded to develop and pilot test a protocol to provide tinnitus services consistently across VA audiology clinics. Drawing on a series of prior VA and external research projects, a clinical model was formulated, supporting materials in multimedia were developed, and a pilot study was conducted. Five hierarchical levels of care were defined and labeled the Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM) model. The model facilitates access to medical services for tinnitus and includes detailed protocols for evaluation, education, and counseling of patients. Patients at each level of care have the option to "progress" to the next level of PATM if further services are required. Clinical procedures were defined for each level and materials were produced for audiologists and patients. The PATM model was then piloted with clinical patients at the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital (JAHVH) in Tampa, Florida. Throughout the pilot study, feedback from patients and clinicians was carefully noted. Training materials for audiologists, incorporation of the protocol into clinic activities, and patient outcomes were evaluated. The model was implemented within the JAHVH Audiology Clinic and to assist Veterans with tinnitus management. The most notable finding was how little tinnitus-specific intervention was required for the majority of patients. This finding supports a clinical model that offers stepped-care ("progressive") levels of care until tinnitus management is achieved by the patient.

  5. SAT® II: Subject Tests in Foreign Languages--Using the Tests for Admission and Placement. Research Summary RS-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, 2002

    2002-01-01

    As an admissions test, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages allow students to demonstrate academic competence in the selected language area. As a placement tool, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages serve the same function as the SAT II: Subject Tests do in other academic areas such as world history, chemistry, or math. SAT II:…

  6. Gender Differences in Audiological Findings and Hearing Aid Benefit in 255 Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Prabhu, Prashanth; Chandan, Hunsur S; Deepthi, Mahadeva

    There are many studies reported in the literature that have summarized audiological findings and possible rehabilitation in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). However, there are very few studies that have attempted to delineate the gender differences in audiological characteristics and hearing aid benefit in individuals with ANSD. The study aimed to explore the differences between males and females in terms of demographic details, audiogram, speech identification scores, otoacoustic emissions, acoustic reflexes, long latency responses, and hearing aid benefit. A retrospective study. A total of 255 individuals diagnosed with ANSD were selected for the study. The study included 137 females and 88 males. The demographic details, results of diagnostic audiological testing, and hearing aid benefit were analyzed retrospectively. The differences in findings across gender were compared. The study shows that females have a relatively higher degree of hearing loss and that the majority of females show a rising type of audiometric configuration. The study shows that females have poorer speech perception abilities and experience limited benefits from hearing aids compared to males. The results of the study show that there are gender differences in audiological findings and hearing aid benefits in individuals with ANSD. However, well-controlled prospective studies are essential to confirm the results obtained and to identify the possible mechanisms underlying the gender differences.

  7. Testing a New Design for Subject Searching in Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Karen M.; Weller, Marjorie S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project that demonstrates subject searching in an experimental online catalog based on academic library databases that were enhanced with search trees; compares the retrieval effectiveness of search trees with random subject searching approaches; evaluates system and retrieval effectiveness; and discusses proposed research. (Contains…

  8. Optimizing otoscopy competency in audiology students through supplementary otoscopy training.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Masterson, Caleb G; Dion, Nancy; Berg, Susan L; Abdelhakiem, Mohamed K

    2013-10-01

    Scope of practice in audiology encompasses proficiency in visual inspection of ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM) as well as otoscopy interpretation skills to determine normal versus abnormal conditions of outer and middle ear. Audiology students can develop skills in otoscopy through education and supervised training. Studies have shown that additional otoscopy training increased skills in medical students and general practitioners. However, educational and supervised practices targeting otoscopy competency during audiology graduate coursework are lacking. Also, no studies have attempted to determine otoscopy skills among audiology students. To determine the effectiveness of the otoscopy training model on clinical competency and confidence level of audiology students in performing and interpreting otoscopy. A combination of experimental treatment design with random assignment of treatment and control groups and delayed treatment for control group. Thirty-two first- and second-year audiology graduate students who were enrolled in a pediatric audiology class participated in this study. Students were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16, 14 females) or experimental (n = 16, 14 females) group. Participants in the experimental group received supplementary otoscopy training including didactic otoscopy lectures as well as clinical training using manikin ears. The control group received the same pretest and posttest and then completed a third assessment (posttest 2) after receiving the same training. An evaluation of knowledge and skills regarding otoscopy between groups and time was conducted at three times: (a) pretraining, (b) upon completion of training for the experimental group, (c) upon completion of training by the control group. The evaluation consisted of a written exam, a clinical exam, and a self-perception rating of confidence. Both written exam scores and clinical exam scores (otoscopy manikin) were analyzed via two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs

  9. Audiological findings in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations.

  10. Audiological Findings in Patients with Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gorsky, Natalya de Souza; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. PMID:25992144

  11. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice. PMID:27516719

  12. Audiological Certainty in Deaf Children with Learning Disabilities: An Imperative for Inter-Agency Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Ravichandran, Aarthy; Laoide-Kemp, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the audiological management needs of deaf children with learning disabilities is demanding. The study specifically focused on the age at which audiological certainty, the degree, configuration and type of hearing loss, was established in 20 individuals with severe learning disability. Audiological records relating to each individual were…

  13. Effects of Grade Level and Subject on Student Test Score Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.; Hixon, Jon E.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with elementary students before and after tests in three subjects investigated how grade level and subject affected students' ability to predict test scores. Results found a significant grade-subject area interaction for predictions prior to testing. Posttest predictions differed only slightly from pretest. Prediction accuracy was…

  14. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has passed. 799.18 Section 799.18 Protection of... Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has passed....

  15. Colour vision in normal subjects tested by the colour arrangement test 'Roth 28-hue desaturated'.

    PubMed

    Erb, C; Adler, M; Stübiger, N; Wohlrab, M; Zrenner, E; Thiel, H J

    1998-11-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain normal values for the colour-arrangement test, Roth 28-hue desaturated. In 146 healthy non-smokers colour vision was tested monocularly. The subjects were divided into four age groups: 0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years. The overall error score for all groups was 54 +/- 24 (median +/- mean absolute deviation). The values for the 20-39 year group were significantly lower than those for the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis: P < 0.0001 with subsequent multiple Mann-Whitney test). An increasing predominance of errors along the blue-yellow-axis was observed with increasing age. The error scores of normal subjects tested by the Roth 28-hue desaturated were comparable with those on the well-known Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM-100). Because the Roth 28-hue desaturated is shorter and simpler to administer, it is an alternative to the FM-100 in situations that need to assess colour discrimination and error axis quantitatively and quickly.

  16. Testing device subjects elastic materials to biaxial deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. W.

    1965-01-01

    Testing device stretches elastic materials biaxially over large deformation ranges and varies strain ratios in two perpendicular directions. The device is used in conjunction with a tensile testing machine, which holds the specimen and permits control over the direction and magnitude of the stresses applied.

  17. A Critical Review of Audiological Outcome Measures for Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, Sheila T.; Seewald, Richard C.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Outcome evaluation is an important stage in the pediatric hearing aid fitting process, however a systematic way of evaluating outcome in the pediatric audiology population is lacking. This is in part due to the need for an evidence-based outcome evaluation guideline for infants and children with hearing loss who wear hearing aids. As part of the development of a guideline, a critical review of the existing pediatric audiology outcome evaluation tools was conducted. Subjective outcome evaluation tools that measure auditory-related behaviors in children from birth to 6 years of age were critically appraised using a published grading system (Andresen, 2000). Of the tools that exist, 12 were appraised because they met initial criteria outlined by the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada as being appropriate for children birth to 6 years of age who wear hearing aids. Tools that were considered for the guideline scored high in both statistical and feasibility criteria. The subjective outcome evaluation tools that were ultimately chosen to be included in the guideline were the LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire (Tsiakpini et al., 2004) and the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Rating Scale (Ching & Hill, 2005b) due to the high grades they received in the critical review and their target age ranges. Following this critical review of pediatric outcome evaluation tools, the next step was for the Network Clinicians to evaluate the guideline (Moodie et al., 2011b). PMID:21873343

  18. Influence of smoking on audiological characteristics of hearing function.

    PubMed

    Gegenava, Kh A; Japaridze, Sh V; Kevanishvile, Z Sh; Lomidze, L S; Khechenashvili, T R

    2015-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and related diseases are global problem of health. Discussion regarding influence of smoking on hearing function has been continued about 20 years. The aim of our study was estimation of relation between smoking and development of cochlear neuritis. Research was conducted at Ltd. National Centre of ENT - Japaridze-Kevanishvili clinic and Ltd.Audiology National Center. The data were collected from September 2011 to December 2013. Cross- sectional observational study was carried out. 600 persons (mean age - 45.4±10.4) were enrolled in the research. After filling the informed consent persons were divided into two groups: smokers (300 smokers, apparently healthy persons, mean age 44.3±10.6 years) and control group (300 healthy non-smoker persons, mean age 46.5±10.2 years). All persons completed a questionnaire, which includes questions about smoking status too. The inclusion criterion in smokers group was a smoking habit during 5 years at least 10 cigarettes per day. Otoscopy and Acoustic impedance test (timpanometry, reflexometry, testing for Eustachian tube conductivity) were used for verification of outer and middle-ear normality. Pure Tone Audiometry was performed for hearing measure and identifies hearing nerve condition. Obtained results were statistically treated by the student's t-distribution. For minimal level of significance was taken p<0,05. In smokers group hearing loss was proved in 31.33% (94 persons) and in control group - in 17.34% (52 persons). Hearing-loss vs. normal-hearing ratio amounted hence to 0.46 (P<0.01) in the smokers group and to 0.21 (P<0.01) in the nonsmokers'. Hearing loss in smokers may be provided by different pathological mechanisms.

  19. A Systematic Analysis of Audiological Services in EHDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.; Nelson, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For audiological evaluation and services, 299 items were listed by 49 coordinators, and themes were identified within each SWOT category.…

  20. Educational Audiology: A Proposal for Training and Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenich, Jennifer Komnick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of educational audiology, its legislative basis, and services offered to hearing-impaired children, such as a high-risk register/referral system, comprehensive screening program, and classroom acoustics management. A plan for in-service education and a proposal for an accreditation program in Educational Audiology…

  1. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  2. Audiological and Medical Considerations for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Richard M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Candidate selection, postoperative management, and support factors involved in the use of cochlear implants for deaf children are outlined. The paper discusses audiological, medical, and educational factors in selecting a candidate for implantation; the surgical process itself; interaction with educational agencies; and initial stimulation and…

  3. From Colorado to Guam: Infant Diagnostic Audiological Evaluations by Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…

  4. From Colorado to Guam: Infant Diagnostic Audiological Evaluations by Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…

  5. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  6. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  7. Magnitude Estimation: A New Method for Measuring Subjective Test Variables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT), which 31 k 1CkiD1LG PA4ii BLAW - OT F12 , j the US Army Tropic Test Center carried out in 1976-1977.8 In this...Seventeenth Street, NW Fort Knox , KY 40121 Washington, DC 20036 Commander Institute for Applied Technology 1 US Army Natick Research and Development

  8. Promoting HIV testing proves to be a challenging subject.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    BGM, a Los Angeles-based advertising agency, has created a campaign for the Pediatrics AIDS Foundation to promote awareness of the importance of HIV testing of all pregnant women. The agency is taking a personal stake in the campaign by offering its services pro bono.

  9. An evidence-based guide to clinical instruction in audiology.

    PubMed

    Mormer, Elaine; Palmer, Catherine; Messick, Cheryl; Jorgensen, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    A significant portion of the AuD curriculum occurs in clinical settings outside the classroom. Expert clinicians, employed within and outside of the university, are called upon to provide this clinical education. Most have had little or no formal training in clinical teaching yet face pedagogical and logistical challenges when simultaneously providing clinical service and teaching. Training to provide optimal methods and approaches to clinical instruction should be based on research evidence; however, there is a paucity of research in this area within the audiology discipline. This article provides a review of literature supplying evidence for important concepts, elements, and approaches to the clinical instruction process. Additionally, we provide readers with some practical tools with which to facilitate application of optimal clinical teaching principles. We conducted a systematic review of literature on clinical education in audiology and across a wide array of health professions. Through the use of content analysis we identified four elements of the clinical teaching process most critical in examining optimal practices. The elements identified as critical to positive clinical learning outcomes include the establishment of mutual expectations and goals; structured content and delivery of feedback; establishment of a positive instructor/student relationship; and questioning strategies that lead to the development of critical thinking skills. Many disciplines outside of audiology demonstrate robust research activity related to understanding and optimizing the clinical education process. The application of a number of evidence-based clinical teaching principles should allow us to improve student outcomes in audiology. Researchers in our field might consider if and how we should develop our own research literature in clinical education. American Academy of Audiology.

  10. The application of computer-based testing to allow testing out in retraining subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Portwood, G.; Johnson, K.; Webster, C.

    1991-01-01

    ORNL's computer-generated test our program, developed using computer-based training (CBT) technology, allows employees the option of testing out'' instead of attending the General Employee Retraining (GER) class. The program contains a bank'' of questions; 20 different questions randomly selected by the computer for each exam. The exam is administered by computer; minimum input is required of the individual taking the exam. The training organization inputs the bank of exam questions, the type of questions to be used, and categorizes questions according to subject, such as Quality Assurance, Hazard Communication, Radiation Safety, and so forth. The exam is graded by the computer and a hard-copy record may be generated. Exam results may be stored on a floppy disk. Compliance training, as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in many areas, has become an activity which requires individuals to spend more and more of their time in training. Compliance training could be defined as, training that is required for individuals who perform certain activities.'' In other words, it is training that is not optional. Compliance training exists for subjects that are general in nature such as General Employee Training (GET), and for subjects of a more technical nature such as Rad Worker, SARA/OSHA, and so forth. The computer-generated program, developed by ORNL using computer-based training technology, meets the criteria for compliance training, but training time'' or man training hours'' in the pilot program was reduced from two hours per person to about 20 minutes per person. Overall training time for the pilot program was reduced by almost sixty percent.

  11. Testing of Laser Components Subjected to Exposure in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2010-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials by studying the response of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment. MISSE 6 was transported to the international Space Station (ISS) via STS 123 on March 11. 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the passive experiment containers (PEC) to external handrails of the international space station (ISS) and opened up for long term exposure. After more than a year of exposure attached to the station's exterior, the PEC with several hundred material samples returned to the earth with the STS-128 space shuttle crew that was launched on shuttle Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Aug. 28. Meanwhile, MISSE 7 launch is scheduled to be launched on STS 129 mission. MISSE-7 was launched on Space Shuttle mission STS-129 on Atlantis was launched on November 16, 2009. This paper will briefly review recent efforts on MISSE 6 and MISSE 7 missions at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  12. Legislation impacting audiology and the provision of audiological services: a review of legislation across the United States.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Jessica J; Lockie, Jill; Jorgensen, Lindsey; Vaith, Shana Bauer; Falk, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to investigate the legislation about the provision of audiology services. Specifically, the goal of the review was to investigate the similarities and differences in legislation regarding the identification of, and audiology services provided to, children with hearing loss. A systematic review was conducted to collect state-specific legislation regarding the audiology licensure requirements, requirements about the identification and management of children with hearing loss, and insurance coverage regulations. Compiled data were analyzed for similarities and differences between state regulations and legislature. All states require audiologists to hold licensure; however, many differences exist between the requirements of acquiring and maintaining the license. Some states regulate the identification and management of children with hearing loss, whereas others do not. Additionally, states differ in their regulation of services provided to children with hearing loss, who can provide these services, and what is covered by insurance. It is critical for audiologists to understand the requirements of their state in the provision of audiology services. Specifically, it is important for audiologists to understand how the laws may impact the services they provide to children with hearing loss.

  13. Pediatric Audiology Report: Assessment and Revision of an Audiology Report Written to Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…

  14. Pediatric Audiology Report: Assessment and Revision of an Audiology Report Written to Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…

  15. Ice Adhesion Tests on Coatings Subjected to Rain Erosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    1/4 52 Dow Corning R-4-3117 1 80* Dow Corning 09-6500MST 1.5 54 1/8 57 Du Pont Vydax AR 68 Du Pont Vydax 550 75 Easton STST 40 GE G661 1 44 GE G666 3...0>.012 APPENDIX B: MANUFACTURERS OF COATINGS TESTED Allied Chemical Co. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. P.O. Box 1057R Organic Chemical...R.S. Corp. Stoughton, MA 02072 4907 Farragut Road 617-828-448o Brooklyn , NY 212-629-0920 Armstrong Products Company P.O. Box 657 Essex Chemical

  16. Audiological findings in children with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Pretty O; Elsanadiky, Hanaa Hussein

    2017-01-01

    To assess peripheral and central hearing in children with A-T. 3 children diagnosed with A-T according to the diagnostic criteria for A-T of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. Involuntary movements were seen in the form of chorea-athetosis together with tremors. They were examined to assess both peripheral and central hearing was assessed (hearing thresholds). Sound-field testing, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) and Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) were done for all of them. Basic Audiological evaluation is of a limited value as the children are not co-operative. Sound field testing could not be done. Bilateral normal middle ear functions as reflected by Tympanometry and Acoustic Reflexes. Advanced Audiological evaluation including OAEs and ABR are more valuable in assessing hearing in children with A-T. Bilateral pass response at all test frequencies in DPOAEs. Abnormal ABR findings were obtained in the form of a delay in wave V latency more than 2 SD with subsequent increased in I-V interpeak latency with no significant interaural latency difference. Consistent with bilateral normal peripheral hearing sensitivity with central hearing affection. The rarity of the disease, make it difficult to be applied on many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal quantitative sensory testing: a study of 101 control subjects.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jessica; Lee, Geoffrey; Joester, Jenna; Lynch, Mary; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Wrigley, Paul J; Ng, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is useful for the diagnosis, confirmation and monitoring of small fibre neuropathies. Normative data have been reported but differences in methodology, lack of age-specific values and graphical presentation of data make much of these data difficult to apply in a clinical setting. We have collected normative age-specific thermal threshold data for use in a clinical setting and clarified other factors influencing reference values, including the individual machine or operator. Thermal threshold studies were performed on 101 healthy volunteers (21-70 years old) using one of two Medoc Thermal Sensory Analyser II machines (Medoc, Ramat Yishai, Israel) with a number of operators. A further study was performed on 10 healthy volunteers using both machines and one operator at least 3 weeks apart. Thermal threshold detection increases with age and is different for different body regions. There is no significant difference seen in results between machines of the same make and model; however, different operators may influence results. Normative data for thermal thresholds should be applied using only age- and region-specific values and all operators should be trained and strictly adhere to standard protocols. To our knowledge, this is the largest published collection of normal controls for thermal threshold testing presented with regression data which can easily be used in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The sensitivity and specificity of tests for carpal tunnel syndrome vary with the comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Letz, R

    1998-04-01

    The performance of a variety of common office-based clinical tests for detection of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was assessed in 119 subjects with and without electrophysiological evidence of CTS. Symptoms compatible with CTS and electrophysiological tests positive for median mononeuropathy at the wrist were observed in 57 hands, symptoms compatible with CTS and normal electrophysiological test results were observed in 58 hands, and no symptoms compatible with CTS and normal electrophysiological test results were observed in 123 hands. For all the diagnostic tests studied, the proportion of subjects who had a false positive clinical test result was much higher in the electrophysiologically normal subjects who had CTS compatible hand symptoms than in the electrophysiologically normal subjects who were asymptomatic. These results suggest that many studies that have evaluated diagnostic tests for CTS have produced falsely optimistic estimates of the test's performance because of their use of asymptomatic comparison subjects.

  19. Audiological Outcome of Classical Adenoidectomy versus Endoscopically-Assisted Adenoidectomy using a Microdebrider

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Vanita; Anand, Vanika; Bhardwaj, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate audiological outcomes following adenoidectomy by the classical method and by endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a powered instrument (microdebrider). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center. It included 40 patients divided into two equal groups of 20 each. Group-A patients underwent classical adenoidectomy, while Group-B patients were subjected to endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider. Hearing outcome was measured by post-operative pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry. Results: The post-operative average air-bone gap (ABG) was reduced from 19.6 dB to 11.8 dB in Group A and from 17.6 dB to 8.7 dB in Group B (P=0.010). There was reversal of tympanometric curves from type-B and type-C to type-A in 55% of the patients in Group A, while type-A curve was seen in 90% cases in Group B in the post-operative period. Conclusion: Audiological outcomes of endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider were superior compared with classical adenoidectomy. PMID:26878001

  20. Examination of Insert Ear Interaural Attenuation (IA)Values in Audiological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Nebi M; Gumus, Merve; Unsal, Selim; Yuksel, Mustafa; Gunduz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Interaural Attenuation (IA) in frequency base in the insert earphones that are used in audiological assessments. Thirty healthy subjects between 18-65 years of age (14 female and 16 male) participated in our study. Otoscopic examination was performed on all participants. Audiological evaluations were performed using the Interacoustics AC40 clinical audiometer and ER-3A insert earphones. IA value was calculated by subtracting good ear bone conduction hearing thresholds of the worst airway hearing threshold. In our measuring for 0.125-8.0 kHz frequency were performed in our audiometry device separately for each frequency. IA amount in the results we found in 1000 Hz and below frequencies about 75-110 dB range avarage is 89±5dB, in above 1000 Hz frequencies in 50-95 dB range and avarage it is changed to 69±5dB. According to the obtained findings the quantity of melting in the transition between the ears are increasing with the insert earphones. The insert earphone should be beside supraaural earphone that is routinely used in clinics. Difficult masking applications due to the increase in the value of IA can be easily done with insert earphones.

  1. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  2. Post Test Evaluation of HSCT Nozzle Acoustic Liner Subcomponents Subjected to a Hot Acoustic Durability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Lee, Kuan

    2008-01-01

    The acoustic liner system designed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was tested in a thermal-acoustic environment. Five ceramic matrix composite (CMC) acoustic tile configurations, five bulk acoustic absorbers, and one thermal protection system design were tested. The CMC acoustic tiles were subjected to two 2 3/4 hr ambient temperature acoustic exposures to measure their dynamic response. One exposure was conducted on the tiles alone and the second exposure included the tiles and the T-foam bulk absorber. The measured tile RMS strains were small. With or without the T-foam absorber, the dynamic strains were below strain levels that would cause damage during fatigue loading. After the ambient exposure, a 75-hr durability test of the entire acoustic liner system was conducted using a thermal-acoustic cycle that approximated the anticipated service cycle. Acoustic loads up to 139 dB/Hz and temperatures up to 1670 F (910 C) were employed during this 60 cycle test. During the durability test, the CMC tiles were exposed to temperatures up to 1780 F and a transient through thickness gradient up to 490 F. The TPS peak temperatures on the hot side of the panels ranged from 750 to 1000 F during the 60 cycles. The through thickness delta T ranged from 450 to 650 F, varying with TPS location and cycle number. No damage, such as cracks or chipping, was observed in the CMC tiles after completion of the testing. However, on tile warped during the durability test and was replaced after 43 or 60 cycles. No externally observed damage was found in this tile. No failure of the CMC fasteners occurred, but damage was observed. Cracks and missing material occurred, only in the fastener head region. No indication of damage was observed in the T-foam acoustic absorbers. The SiC foam acoustic absorber experienced damage after about 43 cycles. Cracking in the TPS occurred around the attachment holes and under a vent. In spite of the development of damage, the TPS maintained

  3. Indication criteria for cochlear implants and hearing aids: impact of audiological and non-audiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Haumann, Sabine; Hohmann, Volker; Meis, Markus; Herzke, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Owing to technological progress and a growing body of clinical experience, indication criteria for cochlear implants (CI) are being extended to less severe hearing impairments. It is, therefore, worth reconsidering these indication criteria by introducing novel testing procedures. The diagnostic evidence collected will be evaluated. The investigation includes postlingually deafened adults seeking a CI. Prior to surgery, speech perception tests [Freiburg Speech Test and Oldenburg sentence (OLSA) test] were performed unaided and aided using the Oldenburg Master Hearing Aid (MHA) system. Linguistic skills were assessed with the visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, and general state of health, socio-economic status (SES) and subjective hearing were evaluated through questionnaires. After surgery, the speech tests were repeated aided with a CI. To date, 97 complete data sets are available for evaluation. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between postsurgical speech reception threshold (SRT) measured with the adaptive OLSA test and pre-surgical data such as the TRT test (r=−0.29), SES (r=−0.22) and (if available) aided SRT (r=0.53). The results suggest that new measures and setups such as the TRT test, SES and speech perception with the MHA provide valuable extra information regarding indication for CI. PMID:26557327

  4. Adaptive psychological structure in childhood hearing impairment: audiological correlations.

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Spinato, G; Cocuzza, S; Licciardello, L; Pavone, P; Maiolino, L

    2017-06-01

    The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients. The experiment was performed on a group composed of 10 children (5 males and 5 females) aged 4 to 9 years and 54 to 108 months, affected by bilateral congenital hearing loss (severe to total), or hearing loss that developed in preverbal children the year before entering elementary school, or during the fourth year of elementary school. The selection criteria were based on: audiologic evaluation, neuro-psychological tests administered to assess general, cognitive as well as praxis and perceptive abilities, and clinical observations performed to assess psychopathology using tests that assess development of both visual perceptive (Coloured Progressive Matrices) and graphic representational abilities (Test of Human Figure Drawings and the Family Drawing Test). The instrument "cognitive" was the "Deaf Children Series", arranged by us, that consists of a mental status examination (MSE) that evaluates: level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. Deaf children show a reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness on the perceptive side. Through the test, we observed a psychodynamic defense mechanism considering perceptive understanding performance

  5. Supplemental subjective testing to evaluate the performance of image and video quality estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Reibman, Amy R.

    2011-03-01

    The subjective tests used to evaluate image and video quality estimators (QEs) are expensive and time consuming. More problematic, the majority of subjective testing is not designed to find systematic weaknesses in the evaluated QEs. As a result, a motivated attacker can take advantage of these systematic weaknesses to gain unfair monetary advantage. In this paper, we draw on some lessons of software testing to propose additional testing procedures that target a specific QE under test. These procedures supplement, but do not replace, the traditional subjective testing procedures that are currently used. The goal is to motivate the design of objective QEs which are better able to accurately characterize human quality assessment.

  6. Results of three dichotic speech tests on subjects with intracranial lesions.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E

    1983-01-01

    Thirty adult subjects with intracranial lesions (12 brain stem and 18 hemispheric) were tested using Competing Sentences, Staggered Spondaic Words, and Dichotic Digits. In comparing these dichotic tests for their ability to detect abnormal performance for individual subjects, the Digit test appeared most sensitive, followed by the Staggered Spondaic Word test and Competing Sentences. This trend seemed to prevail for subjects with hemispheric and brain stem lesions. All three tests demonstrated greater ipsilateral ear deficits for subjects with brain stem lesions. However, for subjects with hemispheric lesions all tests showed generally poorer scores for the ear contralateral to the lesion. These results, as well as other types of analyses for comparing the three dichotic tests in this study, are discussed.

  7. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, Phillip M.; Vesecky, Thompson B.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user.

  8. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, P.M.; Vesecky, T.B.

    1995-09-19

    An apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user. 8 figs.

  9. Is there a need for audiologic evaluation in patients with Behçet disease?

    PubMed

    Cinar, Saniye; Cinar, Fikret; Kiran, Sibel

    2012-03-01

    Behçet disease is known to be a multisystem condition. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in patients with Behçet disease and to identify any associations between audiologic findings and other clinical manifestations and treatment. Our study group was made up of 41 adults with Behçet disease and 41 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. All patients and controls underwent a complete clinical otolaryngologic examination, which included pure-tone audiometry, acoustic impedance testing, and otoacoustic emissions testing. Audiology revealed that the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was significantly higher in the Behçet patients than in the controls-68.3 vs. 22.0% (p < 0.002). The duration of Behçet disease had no significant impact on whether patients did or did not experience hearing loss. Hearing loss was the fourth most common clinical finding in the Behçet group, after oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and skin lesions. We conclude that SNHL is present in a significant number of Behçet patients, and we suggest the need for an adequate investigation of hearing in the routine follow-up of these patients.

  10. Prevalence and audiological profiles of GJB2 mutations in a large collective of hearing impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Burke, W F; Warnecke, A; Schöner-Heinisch, A; Lesinski-Schiedat, A; Maier, H; Lenarz, T

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene are known to represent the commonest cause of hereditary and congenital hearing loss. In this study, a complete sequencing of the GJB2 gene in a cohort of 506 patients from a single, large cochlear implant program in Europe was performed. Audiological testing for those patients who could actively participate was performed using pure tone audiometry (PTA). Those unable to undergo PTA were measured using click-auditory brainstem response (ABR). Data analysis was performed to determine genotype-phenotype correlations of the mutational status vs. audiological profiles and vs. age at the time of presentation. An overall prevalence of biallelic mutations of 13.4% was found for the total collective. When subsets of younger patients were examined, the prevalence increased to 27% of those up to age 18 and 35% of those up to age 5 at the time of testing, respectively. This increase was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Analysis of the mean PTA thresholds revealed a strong correlation between allele combination status and mean PTA (p = 0.021). The prevalence of simple heterozygotes was found to be approximately 10.1%, which is around 3.3 times the value expected in the general population. As GJB2 follows a recessive pattern of inheritance, the question arises as to why such a large fraction of simple heterozygotes was observed among the hearing impaired patients included in this study.

  11. A comparison of the CNS effects of enprofylline and theophylline in healthy subjects assessed by performance testing and subjective measures.

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, B; Fagan, D; Lamont, M; Brockway, M; Scott, D B

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of intravenous infusions of enprofylline, theophylline, and placebo on subjective ratings and on psychological test performance were studied in a double-blind crossover experiment in 12 healthy subjects who abstained from caffeine throughout the experimental procedures. 2. Mean plasma concentrations of enprofylline were: mean 2.9 mg l-1 (range 1.9-3.4). Those for theophylline were: mean 12.1 mg l-1 (range 9.0-14.4). 3. Performance on the auditory vigilance task showed a significant improvement with theophylline compared with both enprofylline and placebo. The correct detection rates (out of 90) were 50.3, 43.4 and 39.1 respectively. A similar effect was seen with finger tapping rates: 404, 394 and 390 taps min-1 respectively. Other measures showed no significant effects, although choice reaction time showed a trend towards faster responses with theophylline. 4. Subjective ratings showed that subjects were significantly more alert with theophylline than with enprofylline. Subjects reported themselves as significantly more dizzy and ill with both active drugs compared with placebo. 5. These results suggest that emprofylline largely lacks the CNS stimulant effects of theophylline, but that the incidence of other unwanted effects of the drugs may be similar. PMID:1975198

  12. Group Testing as a Pedagogical Technique to Enhance Learning in Difficult Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group testing as a pedagogical technique to enhance learning in a difficult subject such as statistics. Individual test scores were compared to their group test scores for the same, identical test. A t test was used to compare the scores for 157 randomly selected MBA students enrolled…

  13. Antileishmania Immunological Tests for Asymptomatic Subjects Living in a Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

  14. Audiology education and practice from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Goulios, H; Patuzzi, R B

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the international education and practice of audiology with the broader aim of proposing possible cost-effective and sustainable education models to address the current situation. Major audiology organizations worldwide were surveyed from February 2005 to May 2007, and organizations from 62 countries (78% of the world population) returned a completed survey. Overall, the results suggested a wide range of professionals providing hearing health care, and 86% of the respondents reported a need for more audiologists. There was also considerable variation in the scope of practice among the different hearing health care professionals, and the minimum education levels of audiologists with similar scopes of practice. The countries surveyed fell into four broad categories in terms of professional resources, and the results highlighted the urgent need for forward planning at both national and international levels. The study highlights options for addressing some of the challenges in educating audiologists and the provision of hearing health care services globally.

  15. Audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Shivaswamy, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Reported here are audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that he had a thinner cochlear nerve in the left ear than in the right ear. He had a higher degree of hearing loss in the left ear and poor speech recognition scores for both ears. He had normal middle ear and cochlear functioning. The auditory brainstem response and acoustic reflexes were absent, indicating a retrocochlear pathology. Long latency responses (LLR) revealed normal cortical functioning. Hence, implantation of an auditory brainstem implant might be an option, but the patient would need to be aware of its limitations. This case highlights the importance of MRI in evaluating congenital malformations of the cochlear nerve when audiological findings indicate a retrocochlear pathology. PMID:28357188

  16. Impact of an audiology clinic in one general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Khunti, K; Carr, M

    1997-01-01

    There is a large demand for the provision of hearing aids. However, there are lengthy delays involved between referral and fitment of National Health Service (NHS) hearing aids. This report shows that a general practice based audiology clinic can lead to an increase in the number of patients referred and fitted with a hearing aid. The introduction of the clinic also led to reduced waiting times for patients to be fitted with hearing aids. PMID:9474829

  17. Audiological manifestations in children and adults with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins dos; Juan, Kleber Ramos de; Pinto, Fernanda Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Isabela Crivellaro

    2010-01-01

    according to the literature, the incidence of hearing impairment in patients with HIV / AIDS might be caused by alterations in external, middle and / or internal ear. to characterize and to compare the results of audiological assessment and Auditory Brainstem Response in children and adults with AIDS. audiological and electrophysiological (Auditory Brainstem Response) assessment of hearing was carried out in 51 children and 22 adults with HIV/AIDS (research groups I and II, respectively) and in 50 healthy children and 25 healthy adults (control groups I and II, respectively). Participants ranged in age between 3 and 10 years (children) and between 18 and 50 years (adults). the most frequent observed alteration for children with AIDS was related to the middle ear whereas for adults with AIDS it was related to the internal ear. Higher occurrence of abnormal results was observed for adults with AIDS as compared to children with AIDS. children and adults with AIDS present alterations in audiological assessment and Auditory Brainstem Response. This suggests the involvement of peripheral and central auditory pathways. Findings of the present study emphasize the effectiveness of using electrophysiological hearing measures in order to better identify the brain injury level in patients with AIDS, besides allowing the monitoring of the development rate of the disease.

  18. Audiology: student perception of preceptor and fellow student ethics.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Clifford; Vesely, Brian; White, Letitia; Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Franklin, Clay

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to uphold high ethical standards. Recently, ethical practices in health care have received increased scrutiny and study in an effort to ensure that clinicians meet such high ethical standards in serving their patients and clients. The American Academy of Audiology's Code of Ethics establishes professional standards that allow for the proper discharge of an audiologist's responsibilities while maintaining the integrity of the profession. Under this code, student academy members are included and required to abide by the code, the same as practicing members. The code is composed of a preamble and eight principles. The present study provides an overview of students' perceptions across a broad spectrum of ethical topics governing our profession. Specifically, this study examined audiology students' perceptions of preceptor ethics relating to these eight principles using an online survey. Responses were collected from 143 of 600 audiology students contacted and indicated that they believed that their preceptors consistently followed each of the eight principles. Results also indicated that students believe fellow students also behave ethically and that it is the primary responsibility of academic faculty, not preceptors, to teach ethics. It can be concluded that preceptors are perceived by their students to be acting with high ethical standards. However, more research and discussion may be needed to determine who should teach these ethics to students.

  19. Comparisons of Three Indicators for Frey's Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minor's Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. Methods This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects were divided into seven groups according to the temperature differences between operated and unoperated sites. The thermal differences were correlated with the results from Minor's starch iodine test and the subjective symptoms questionnaire. Results Of the 59 patients, 20 patients (33.9%) reported subjective symptoms after eating; 30 patients (50.8%) tested positive for Minor's starch iodine test, 19 patients (63.3%) of which reported subjective symptoms. Of the 29 patients who were negative for the iodine test, 2 patients (6.9%) reported subjective symptoms. Thus, subjective symptoms were well correlated with Minor's starch iodine test (r=0.589, P<0.001). As the thermal differences with infrared thermography increased, the number of patients with subjective symptoms increased (χ2=22.5, P<0.001). Using infrared thermography, the mean temperature difference in the positive group for the iodine test was 0.82℃±0.26℃, and that in the negative group was 0.10℃±0.47℃. With increased thermal differences, more patients showed positivity in the iodine test (χ2=29.9, P<0.001). Conclusion Subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test, and infrared thermography are well correlated with one another. Quantitative thermography provides clues for the wide variation in the incidence of Frey's syndrome, and could be a useful method for diagnosing and studying Frey's syndrome. PMID:24353866

  20. Towards developing high-fidelity simulated learning environment training modules in audiology.

    PubMed

    Dzulkarnain, A A; Rahmat, S; Mohd Puzi, N A F; Badzis, M

    2017-02-01

    This discussion paper reviews and synthesises the literature on simulated learning environment (SLE) from allied health sciences, medical and nursing in general and audiology specifically. The focus of the paper is on discussing the use of high-fidelity (HF) SLE and describing the challenges for developing a HF SLE for clinical audiology training. Through the review of the literature, this paper discusses seven questions, (i) What is SLE? (ii) What are the types of SLEs? (iii) How is SLE classified? (iv) What is HF SLE? (v) What types of SLEs are available in audiology and their level of fidelity? (vi) What are the components needed for developing HF SLE? (vii) What are the possible types of HF SLEs that are suitable for audiology training? Publications were identified by structured searches from three major databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo and from the reference lists of relevant articles. The authors discussed and mapped the levels of fidelity of SLE audiology training modules from the literature and the learning domains involved in the clinical audiology courses. The discussion paper has highlighted that most of the existing SLE audiology training modules consist of either low- or medium-fidelity types of simulators. Those components needed to achieve a HF SLE for audiology training are also highlighted. Overall, this review recommends that the combined approach of different levels and types of SLE could be used to obtain a HF SLE training module in audiology training.

  1. Reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in subjects with myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Tollbäck, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to describe test-retest reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in adult subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Twelve subjects (28-68 years, mean 44) performed three six minute walk tests on two occasions, one week apart. Relative reliability was high (ICC(2.1)=0.99) and absolute reliability values were low (standard error of measurement 12 m, repeatability 33 m). Feasibility was investigated in a sample of 64 subjects (19-70 years, mean 43). Fifty-two subjects were able to perform two tests on the same day. Subjects with severe proximal weakness had difficulties performing repeated tests. A practice trial followed by a second test on the same day can be recommended for most subjects, and the best test should be used for evaluations. In conclusion, even though the study sample was small, the present study indicates that the six minute walk test is reliable and feasible in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  2. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit.

  3. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dille, Marilyn F; McMillan, Garnett P; Helt, Wendy J; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. A repeated measures design was used in this study. Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. Extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz). Usefulness in audiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Valiente, Antonio; Roldán Fidalgo, Amaya; Villarreal, Ithzel M; García Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment of hearing loss are essential to minimise the consequences of hearing loss. In addition to conventional audiometry (125-8,000 Hz), extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz) is available. This type of audiometry may be useful in early diagnosis of hearing loss in certain conditions, such as the ototoxic effect of cisplatin-based treatment, noise exposure or oral misunderstanding, especially in noisy environments. Eleven examples are shown in which extended high-frequency audiometry has been useful in early detection of hearing loss, despite the subject having a normal conventional audiometry. The goal of the present paper was to highlight the importance of the extended high-frequency audiometry examination for it to become a standard tool in routine audiological examinations.

  5. Common cavity and custom-made electrodes: speech perception and audiological performance of children with common cavity implanted with a custom-made MED-EL electrode.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Millo Achille; Birman, Catherine S; Cervera Escario, Javier; Kassouma, Jamal; Manolidis, Spiros; Pringle, Michael Blair; Robinson, Philip; Sainz Quevedo, Manuel; Shanks, Mary; Suckfüll, Markus; Tomás Barberán, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Few studies exist on children with common cavity, fewer still on their long-term audiological development after having received a cochlear implant. Our goal was to observe and report the long-term audiological progress of children with common cavity who were implanted with a custom-made electrode. In this longitudinal, multi-center study, 19 children were implanted with a MED-EL custom-made electrode via either single slit cochleostomy or double posterior labyrinthotomy. We observed their audiological development with a test battery consisting of Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR), and Ling 6-Sounds tests. We tested the children 1 month prior to the surgery; at first fitting; at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post first-fitting; at 2 years after first-fitting; and, whenever possible, at 3, 4, and 5 years after first-fitting. Children with common cavity tend to steadily and significantly improve their audiological skills over time. This development may, however, be highly individual; probably in part due to relatively high levels of additional needs. Parents should be counseled to establish realistic post-implantation expectations. Surgically, contrary to our expectations, we cannot confirm that double posterior labyrinthotomy reduces intracochlear electrode movement or that the MED-EL custom electrode leads to fewer incidences of intra- or post-implantation complications. Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective treatment option in children with common cavity. The majority of children with CC derive significant audiological benefit from implantation. Intra- and post-surgical complications, while serious, and be dealt with effectively in most cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Provocative use tests in CAPB-allergic subjects with CAPB-containing product.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L; Kuhn, M; Basketter, D A

    1999-07-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been identified as a cause of contact allergy in personal care products. Furthermore, it has been suggested that chemicals responsible are impurities, especially dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). However, skin contact concentrations with these impurities, especially DMAPA, are very low. The aim of the study was to analyse whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB would react in provocative use tests of a product containing CAPB. 10 individuals with a clinical history of contact allergy to CAPB (by positive patch test and history) took part in a ROAT which used a CAPB-based shower gel at 25% (DMAPA concentration < 1 ppm). None of the subjects showed positive allergic reactions. 1 of the test subjects did experience a flare of atopic dermatitis at the treatment site. Later, all 10 subjects were patch tested to 3 different concentrations of CAPB and DMAPA (0.1%, 0.3%, 1%) to verify the threshold that was capable of inducing a positive test reaction. 5/10 showed clear + reactions to 1% CAPB (typically at D3), whilst a further 3 gave marginal and/or irritant reactions. Only 1 of the subjects showed an allergic reaction to DMAPA. Finally, in uncontrolled use testing with the shower gel, none of the test subjects reported any adverse skin reactions. Thus, the study confirmed that CAPB-sensitive individuals can use a CAPB-based rinse-off product without the risk of experiencing an allergic reaction to CAPB.

  7. Test-retest reliability of a functional MRI working memory paradigm in normal and schizophrenic subjects.

    PubMed

    Manoach, D S; Halpern, E F; Kramer, T S; Chang, Y; Goff, D C; Rauch, S L; Kennedy, D N; Gollub, R L

    2001-06-01

    Repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of schizophrenic subjects may identify brain activity changes in response to interventions. To interpret the findings, however, it is crucial to know the test-retest reliability of the measures used. The authors scanned seven normal subjects and seven schizophrenic subjects on two occasions during performance of a working memory task. They quantified the reliability of task performance and brain activation. In both groups, task performance was reliable, and all a priori regions were activated in group-averaged test and retest data. In individual schizophrenic subjects, however, indices of cognitive activation were not reliable across sessions. Normal subjects showed reasonable reliability of activation. Even given reliable task performance, stable clinical status, and a stable pattern of group-averaged activation, individual subjects showed unreliable brain activation. This suggests that repeated fMRI studies of schizophrenia should control for sources of variation, both artifactual and intrinsic.

  8. A Bayesian-Maximum Entropy Approach to Subjective Voice Quality Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ali E.; Markopoulou, Athina P.

    2004-04-01

    In order to assess the performance of Internet telephony, it is often necessary to translate network impairments (such as packet loss, delay and jitter) into human perceived quality (which is quantified in terms of subjective voice quality ratings). Subjective quality testing is expensive and typically involves a large number of questions and humans. It is therefore important to design simple and reliable subjective testing experiments. This paper presents a method to assess the subjective quality of a number of speech samples that have incurred various degrees of the same network impairment. Questions are asked according to an adaptive algorithm until all voice ratings are elicited within a desired accuracy. Our algorithm (i) uses information theory to minimize the expected number of questions needed and (ii) uses binary questions, which are simpler than the types of questions used by standard subjective testing procedures.

  9. 40 CFR 790.42 - Persons subject to a test rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annually during the period from the effective date of the test rule to the end of the reimbursement period... or analysis for development of a product) from the effective date of the test rule to the end of the... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons subject to a test rule....

  10. Pain, disability, and diagnostic accuracy of clinical instability and endurance tests in subjects with lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvano; Vanti, Carla; Piccarreta, Raffaella; Monticone, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between the main clinical tests to detect spinal instability, the perceived pain and disability, and symptomatic spondylolisthesis (SPL) characteristics, (2) to investigate the relationship between endurance and instability tests, and (3) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in unstable SPL diagnosed against dynamic radiographs. Four instability tests were evaluated on 119 subjects: aberrant movements, active straight leg raising (ASLR), prone instability test, and passive lumbar extension test (PLE); and 2 endurance tests, prone bridge test and supine bridge test (SBT). The results were compared with the numeric rating scale for pain and the Oswestry Disability Index for disability. These tests were used as index tests and compared with dynamic radiographs as reference standard on 64 subjects. A significant relationship between disability and all the clinical tests but ASLR was observed. The relation between tests and pain was weaker, not significant for prone instability test and aberrant movement and critical for ASLR (P = .05). There was a low relationship between endurance tests and instability tests. Only PLE showed a significant association with dynamic radiographs (P = .017). Endurance and instability tests appear to be weakly related to the amount of pain but significantly related to the disability in symptomatic SPL. Of the tests evaluated, PLE exhibited the best ability to predict positive dynamic radiographs. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 2: proof of concept in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.

  12. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...

  13. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...

  14. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...

  15. 40 CFR 799.18 - Chemicals subject of test rules or consent orders for which the testing reimbursement period has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... No. Chemical Name FR cite Sunset dates C-9 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fraction 1 50 FR 20662, 5/17/85 Aug... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemicals subject of test rules or...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions §...

  16. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  17. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean ABG was 22.4 dB and postoperative mean ABG was 16.4 dB in abnormal middle ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between middle ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  18. How to Implement Itemization in an Audiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sjoblad, Stephanie; Abel, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The hearing aid delivery landscape has dramatically changed over the past several years, with a commercial payer, the Internet, and big box stores dispensing hearing aids directly to patients. The audiology community needs to modify the bundled billing model. This session will describe how to optimize the services you provide to current and new patients and change the hearing aid delivery and hearing aid pricing model to remain competitive with these new market trends. This activity will educate participants on itemized billing, sometimes referred to as unbundling, its pros and cons, and how it could aid audiologists in differentiating themselves in the hearing aid delivery landscape. PMID:27516720

  19. Initial assessment of hearing loss using a mobile application for audiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Derin, S; Cam, O H; Beydilli, H; Acar, E; Elicora, S S; Sahan, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare an Apple iOS mobile operating system application for audiological evaluation with conventional audiometry, and to determine its accuracy and reliability in the initial evaluation of hearing loss. The study comprised 32 patients (16 females) diagnosed with hearing loss. The patients were first evaluated with conventional audiometry and the degree of hearing loss was recorded. Then they underwent a smartphone-based hearing test and the data were compared using Cohen's kappa analysis. Patients' mean age was 53.59 ± 18.01 years (range, 19-85 years). The mobile phone audiometry results for 39 of the 64 ears were fully compatible with the conventional audiometry results. There was a statistically significant concordant relationship between the two sets of audiometry results (p < 0.05). Ear Trumpet version 1.0.2 is a compact and simple mobile application on the Apple iPhone 5 that can measure hearing loss with reliable results.

  20. An Investigation of Relationships between Perceived Subject Matter Difficulty and Physiological Arousal During Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

    A physiological measure, which does not possess the limitations of traditional self-report measures of test anxiety, was used to measure arousal during a simulated achievement testing situation. A sample of 119 fifth and sixth grade students ranked four academic subjects (arithmetic, language arts, social studies, and science) from "most…

  1. Analyzing Student Performance in Specific Subject Area Indicators on the ETS Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settlage, Daniel Murray; Wollscheid, Jim R.

    2015-01-01

    The Major Field Test is a commonly used assessment instrument, but little emphasis has been put on analyzing student-level subject area indicator scores. The Educational Testing Service recently made these data available to institutions, and it is analyzed here. This analysis builds on previous work by incorporating demographic and programmatic…

  2. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  3. Recent Advances in Modeling Stress Distributions in Multilayers Subjected to Biaxial Flexure Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Luttrell, Claire Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Although biaxial flexure tests have been used extensively to measure the strength of brittle materials, the tests and analyses have been limited to materials of uniform properties. Despite the increasing applications of multilayered structures, characterization of their strengths using biaxial flexure tests has been difficult because the analytical description of the strength-fracture load relation for multilayers subjected to biaxial flexure tests is unavailable. The newly derived closed-form solutions for the elastic stress distributions in multilayered discs subjected to ring-on-ring tests are summarized here. These solutions are obtained by (i) finding the correlation between monolayered and multilayered discs subjected to biaxial bending moment and (ii) conversion from the existing solutions for monolayers. Using this methodology, the closed-form solutions for multilayers subjected to other biaxial flexure tests can also be obtained. Finite element results for ring-on-rings tests performed on (i) porcelain/zirconia bilayered discs and (ii) solid oxide fuel cells trilayered discs are also presented to validate the closed-form solutions. The closed-form solutions hence provide a basis for evaluating biaxial strength of multilayers using biaxial flexure tests.

  4. Regulation of cardiac function during a cold pressor test in athletes and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Hirotoshi; Moriyama, Kayo; Arai, Kuniko; Shiraishi-Hichiwa, Yumiko

    2007-09-01

    By using (dP/dt)/P of carotid artery pulse, a non-invasive index of cardiac contractility, we examined the regulatory mechanism of cardiac function during a cold pressor test in athletes and untrained subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects (9 athletes, 8 untrained subjects, and 7 hyperreactors of 4 athletes and 3 untrained subjects with a rise of 15 mmHg or greater in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure) underwent the cold pressor test according to Hines and Brown (Am Heart J 11:1-9, 1936): immersion of the right hand in 4 degrees C water for 1 min. Although mean blood pressure increased during the cold stress in all the groups, cardiac function differed. In athletes, heart rate and cardiac contractility caused cardiac output to increase while total peripheral resistance (TPR) did not change. In untrained subjects, however, heart rate and cardiac contractility tended to decrease cardiac output and thus TPR increased. In hyperreactors, heart rate and cardiac contractility increased during cold stress, and also TPR increased. After the end of the test, heart rate and cardiac contractility decreased only in untrained group. The findings that during a cold pressor test heart rate and cardiac contractility are enhanced in athletes but depressed in untrained subjects indicate that the state of physical training influences cardiac sympathetic neural reactivity to cold stress, except for hyperreactors.

  5. The Thai version of the German Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT): description of the test and performance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Pracharitpukdee, N; Phanthumchinda, K; Huber, W; Willmes, K

    1998-06-01

    The Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), originally developed as a test for aphasia language disorders in Germany, consists of six spontaneous speech rating scales and five subtests: Token Test, Repetition, Written Language, Confronting Naming and Comprehension. The study aimed to describe the linguistic properties of the AAT Thai version and to investigate the test performances of the normal subjects. In this study some problems of linguistic changes in the construction of the Thai version were discussed. The results revealed that the normal subjects' performances on the test were independent of age, sex and education level. Therefore, the Thai version of AAT is applicable to the differential diagnosis of the communicative abilities of Thai aphasic patients.

  6. [Comparative norms of RAPID neuropsychological battery tests for subjects aged between 50 and 89 years].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Vanholsbeeck, G; Chopard, G; Pitard, A; Tio, G; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Rumbach, L

    2010-01-01

    RAPID, a battery of rapid neuropsychological tests, includes neuropsychological tests calibrated for different populations according to diverse methodologies. This makes the comparison and interpretation of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to build comparative norms for the RAPID battery using a single methodology in a unique population. The RAPID Battery includes nine different tests: the Memory Impairment Screen, the Isaacs Set Test, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Free and Cued Recall Test, the Trail Making Test, a test for copying geometric figures as part of the BEC 96, a test for verbally naming images and a test for matching categories. A cohort of 476 subjects aged 50 to 89 were randomly selected from the medical records of 11 practitioners. The norms were stratified according to age (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-89 years) and education level of the subjects. The first level includes subjects with the French Primary Education Certificate or lower. The second level includes subjects with the Certificate of Professional Aptitude or the Brevet (equivalent to the GCSE). The third level includes subjects with the Baccalaureate or higher. Given that most of the tests did not satisfy the normal distribution, percentiles (tenth, twenty-fifth, seventy-fifth, ninetieth percentile and median) were used to define age and education norms. The results show a high participation rate (75 %) and are similar to those obtained in the literature: The results decreased with age and improved in grade level. Nevertheless, the results exhibited great variability for the tenth percentile in comparison with results reported in the literature. The development of comparative norms for the RAPID battery from a same sample facilitates the interpretation of individual results in terms of cognitive profile.

  7. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  8. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  9. The influence of subject and test design on dynamometric measurements of extremity muscles.

    PubMed

    Keating, J L; Matyas, T A

    1996-08-01

    In the context of broader discussions of clinical dynamometry, earlier reviews have raised concerns about the potential effects of variations in subject factors and test procedures on measurements. None, however, have dealt exclusively with these effects. We therefore reviewed more than 200 articles to evaluate in detail the effects of variations in subject factors and test procedures on measurements. Factors relating to subjects that affected measurements were age, gender, weight, athletic background, disability, and limb dominance. Test conditions that led to variations in measurements were range of movement in which values were obtained, type of contraction or movement (concentric, eccentric, isokinetic, isometric, isotonic), pretest procedures (warm-up and gravity-correction procedures, starting position, stabilization, axes alignment, lever arm length, preload, damp/ramp settings), test conditions (speed, test sequence, rest intervals, feedback), and type of data analysis (the data selected and how they are manipulated). In the majority of the publications, the authors failed to provide sufficient detail for accurate replication of test procedures or for comparison with other studies. We advocate that the factors identified in this review be included whenever measurements obtained with a dynamometer are reported. Effective development of normative data, formation of ratios, comparison of measurements across studies, and relating measurements with other performance criteria (eg, measurements of functional performance) all require descriptions of variables relating to subjects and testing. Similarly, meaningful use of these measurements in clinical practice requires consideration and documentation of these variables.

  10. Clinical guide for audiologic tinnitus management I: Assessment.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Schechter, Martin A

    2005-06-01

    This article is the first of 2 that present basic guidelines for audiologists to provide clinical management of tinnitus. The method, termed audiologic tinnitus management (ATM), was developed to incorporate management strategies that can be implemented most efficiently by audiologists. Development of ATM has been drawn from the clinical and research experience of the authors and numerous audiologists. Certain elements of ATM are adapted from the methods of tinnitus masking and tinnitus retraining therapy. Procedures are described in the present article for performing the intake assessment, while the companion article (J. A. Henry, T. L. Zaugg, & M. A. Schechter, 2005) describes treatment methodology. Development of ATM has resulted in defined procedures to conduct a basic tinnitus assessment that includes written questionnaires, an intake interview, audiologic evaluation, and a psychoacoustic assessment of tinnitus perceptual characteristics. If patients report a sound tolerance problem (hyperacusis), loudness discomfort levels are measured at audiometric frequencies. There are special procedures for selecting hearing aids, ear-level noise generators, combination devices (noise generator and hearing aid combined), and personal listening devices (i.e., portable radios and tape, CD, and MP3 players). This article explains each of these assessment components in detail. Adoption of the ATM assessment protocol by audiologists can contribute to the establishment of uniform procedures for the clinical management of tinnitus patients.

  11. Audiology telepractice in a clinical environment: a communication perspective.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Ellen S; Givens, Gregg D; Jones, Gloria L; Brechtelsbauer, P Bradley; Yao, Jianchu

    2011-07-01

    Access to adequate hearing health care is an obstacle that many individuals face worldwide. The prospect of providing audiology services via the Internet is an attractive and viable alternative to traditional face-to-face interaction between patients and audiologists, thus affording improved access to hearing health care for traditionally underserved populations. This article details our experience of using a web-based system with wireless audiometers and videoconferencing software to administer remote audiological assessments in an active medical practice. It discusses the technological infrastructure used and the pragmatic issues that arise when the Internet, Bluetooth wireless audiometers, and videoconferencing devices are converged into a clinical setting. Patients at a local office of otolaryngologists were recruited to participate in a study in which remote assessment results were compared to those collected from a traditional face-to-face assessment. Preliminary data demonstrated that the assessment results from the two sources were comparable. We conclude that remote hearing assessment over the Internet can be achieved through a distributed system synthesized with Internet, wireless communication, and videoconferencing technologies, supported by appropriate staff.

  12. [Imaging and audiology analysis of the congenital inner ear malformations].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bao; Lin, Shaolian; Lin, Youhui; Fang, Zheming; Ye, Shengnan; Zhang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate imaging and audiology features of temporal bone and analyze the classification and prevalence of inner ear abnormalities in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Children who were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss were examined by high resolution CT and the inner ear fluid of MRI. And each chart was retrospectively reviewed to determine the imaging and audiology features. There were 125 patients(232 ears) found with inner ear malformation in 590 children with SNHL. About 21.71% of the inner ear malformation occurred in severe and profound hearing loss ears, and 12.85% occurred in r moderate hearing loss ears. The inner ear malformation rate in normal hearing ears were 13.59%. CT and MRI examinations of temporal bone are important diagnostic tools to indentify inner ear malformations. Inner ear malformations are almost bilateral and hearing loss are profoud. Cochleo-vestibular malformations and large vestibular aqueduct are the 2 most frequent deformities. Among the children with SNHL, deformity rate in the severe and profound hearing loss ears is higher than that in moderate hearing loss ear. Inner ear malformations can exist in people with normal hearing.

  13. Outcomes of long-term audiological rehabilitation in charge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bovo, R; Martini, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the long-term audiological features and outcomes of hearing rehabilitation in a large group of individuals with CHARGE Syndrome. The study has been conducted retrospectively, on a paediatric patient database, at the Audiology Department of the University Hospitals of Ferrara and Padua. The study sample included 31 children presenting with different degrees of hearing impairment associated with CHARGE syndrome. Hearing was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or electrocochleography, or conditioned audiometry (visual reinforcement audiometry [VRA] or play audiometry). Auditory-perceptual outcomes in terms of communication skills and expressive language were also recorded. The effects of hearing rehabilitation (with hearing aids or cochlear implants) in this group of children and language outcomes after rehabilitation were monitored during long-term follow-up. The outcomes of rehabilitation measures differed in relation to the heterogeneous and often severe disabilities associated with CHARGE syndrome, e.g. developmental delay, intellectual delay, visual impairment, thin 8(th) nerve with retrocochlear auditory dysfunction (as described in cases of auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony). Oral expressive language was severely impaired in most cases, even after lengthy follow-up, suggesting the need for alternative augmentative communication modes. The early identification of sensorineural hearing loss, and carefully planned rehabilitation treatments, can be of some benefit in children with CHARGE syndrome.

  14. A warning to the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology community about the importance of scientific and clinical activities in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Brandão, Lenisa; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to warn the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology scientific community about the importance and necessity of scientific and clinical activities regarding Primary Progressive Aphasia. This warning is based on a systematic literature review of the scientific production on Primary Progressive Aphasia, from which nine Brazilian articles were selected. It was observed that there is an obvious lack of studies on the subject, as all the retrieved articles were published in medical journals and much of it consisted of small samples; only two articles described the effectiveness of speech-language therapy in patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia. A perspective for the future in the area and characteristics of Speech-Language Therapy for Primary Progressive Aphasia are discussed. As a conclusion, it is evident the need for greater action by Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology on Primary Progressive Aphasia.

  15. [Exercise testing to estimate dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in subjects with carbohydrate disorders].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jan; Brylik, Anna; Barylski, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Edward; Pawlicki, Lucjan; Mejer, Anna; Irzmański, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) 2 minutes after exercise testing is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality and index of decreased parasympathetic activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heart rate recovery in subjects with carbohydrate disorders. The study comprised 112 subjects with carbohydrate disorders (54 females and 58 males), aged 30-78 (57.4 +/- 9.6) years. Carbohydrate disorders were diagnosed according to the Polish Diabetes Association criteria from 2007 (group I). 56 subjects had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 36 - impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 20 - type 2 diabetes. Comparative group comprised 30 subjects without cardiovascular diseases and carbohydrate disorders (15 females and 15 males), aged 29-64 (52.70 +/- 8.8) years (group II). The fasting serum glucose level was evaluated using an enzymatic method, Kone-Pro biochemical analyzer and bioMérieux Glucose RTU kit. In subjects with fasting glucose level > or = 100 mg/dl, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. In all subjects submaximal exercise treadmill testing was performed. Heart rate recovery was defined as a difference between the peak heart rate and that after 2 minutes of recovery in sitting position. In subjects with carbohydrate disorders the mean value of HRR was 38.93 +/- 12.08/min and it was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in comparative group (57.0 +/- 11.44/min). In subjects with carbohydrate disorders negative correlation between HRR and patients' age as well as between HRR and fasting glucose level in males. On the basis of ROC curve analysis and OR (odds ratio) it was shown that HRR < or = 43.5/min results in almost threefold increased risk of carbohydrate disorders. In subjects with carbohydrate disorders the value of HRR is lowered, what stands for decreased parasympathetic activity and increased cardiovascular risk. HRR < or = 43.5/min results in almost threefold increased risk of carbohydrate disorders.

  16. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  17. Hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the users of an academic health center in the western region of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; de Andrade, Camila Quintiliano; Pereira, Marília Barbieri; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few population-based studies have quantified hearing levels in Brazil; additional studies on this subject are needed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the population served by the Clinical Audiology Service of an Academic Health Center in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2008. An additional aim was to check whether there is a positive association between the signs/symptoms and type of hearing loss. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of 2,145 patients. The health history, tonal and vocal audiometry, and imitanciometry findings were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.6 years. The majority of the subjects had normal hearing thresholds, and the prevalence of hearing loss was approximately 35%. As the patient's age increased, the frequency of conductive hearing loss decreased and that of sensorineural hearing loss increased. There was a tendency toward hearing loss worsening with age. Conclusion: Hearing complaints can predict the type of hearing loss; therefore, they should always be valued because they can be used as a form of screening and thus help to determine the diagnostic hypothesis. This could help to reduce the gap between the patient's perception of the complaints and the audiological assessment and thus improve the prognosis. PMID:25992004

  18. Visuomotor integration ability of pre-lingually deaf children predicts audiological outcome with a cochlear implant: a first report.

    PubMed

    Horn, David L; Davis, Rebecca A O; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the predictive relations between pre-implant visuomotor integration ability and subsequent oral speech/language outcomes in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Prior to implantation, children were given a task that tested their accuracy in copying geometric forms. Performance on this task predicted speech perception, sentence comprehension, and speech intelligibility outcomes over 3 years of CI use. We conclude that individual differences in visuomotor integration ability are predictive of some audiological outcome measures in deaf children with CIs.

  19. Visuomotor integration ability of pre-lingually deaf children predicts audiological outcome with a cochlear implant: a first report

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David L.; Davis, Rebecca A.O.; Pisoni, David B.; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the predictive relations between pre-implant visuomotor integration ability and subsequent oral speech/language outcomes in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Prior to implantation, children were given a task that tested their accuracy in copying geometric forms. Performance on this task predicted speech perception, sentence comprehension, and speech intelligibility outcomes over 3 years of CI use. We conclude that individual differences in visuomotor integration ability are predictive of some audiological outcome measures in deaf children with CIs. PMID:23060686

  20. The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses.

    PubMed

    Swarbrick, H A; Nguyen, P; Nguyen, T; Pham, P

    2001-05-01

    The ChromaGen lens system is designed to enhance colour perception in colour vision deficiency (CVD). To investigate its efficacy, 14 CVD subjects were prescribed ChromaGen contact lenses. Colour vision tests (Ishihara, Farnsworth Munsell D-15, Farnsworth Lantern) were administered at baseline, lens dispensing, and after a 2-week lens-wearing trial during which subjective responses were recorded daily using visual analogue scales. ChromaGen lenses significantly reduced ishihara error rates (p < 0.001; ANOVA), particularly for deutan subjects. There was also a significant reduction in errors (p < 0.005) on the D-15 test. Conversely, lens wear had no significant effect on Farnsworth Lantern test performance. Subjectively, subjects reported enhanced colour perception, but poor vision in dim light. Judgement of distance and motion were only slightly affected. We conclude that ChromaGen lenses may enhance subjective colour experience and assist in certain colour-related tasks, but are not indicated as an aid for CVD in occupations with colour vision-related restrictions.

  1. Decision-Making in Audiology: Balancing Evidence-Based Practice and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; Clemesha, Jennifer; Lundmark, Erik; Crome, Erica; Barr, Caitlin; McMahon, Catherine M

    2017-01-01

    Health-care service delivery models have evolved from a practitioner-centered approach toward a patient-centered ideal. Concurrently, increasing emphasis has been placed on the use of empirical evidence in decision-making to increase clinical accountability. The way in which clinicians use empirical evidence and client preferences to inform decision-making provides an insight into health-care delivery models utilized in clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate the sources of information audiologists use when discussing rehabilitation choices with clients, and discuss the findings within the context of evidence-based practice and patient-centered care. To assess the changes that may have occurred over time, this study uses a questionnaire based on one of the few studies of decision-making behavior in audiologists, published in 1989. The present questionnaire was completed by 96 audiologists who attended the World Congress of Audiology in 2014. The responses were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results suggest that audiologists rank clinical test results and client preferences as the most important factors for decision-making. Discussion with colleagues or experts was also frequently reported as an important source influencing decision-making. Approximately 20% of audiologists mentioned utilizing research evidence to inform decision-making when no clear solution was available. Information shared at conferences was ranked low in terms of importance and reliability. This study highlights an increase in awareness of concepts associated with evidence-based practice and patient-centered care within audiology settings, consistent with current research-to-practice dissemination pathways. It also highlights that these pathways may not be sufficient for an effective clinical implementation of these practices.

  2. Decision-Making in Audiology: Balancing Evidence-Based Practice and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Clemesha, Jennifer; Lundmark, Erik; Crome, Erica; Barr, Caitlin; McMahon, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Health-care service delivery models have evolved from a practitioner-centered approach toward a patient-centered ideal. Concurrently, increasing emphasis has been placed on the use of empirical evidence in decision-making to increase clinical accountability. The way in which clinicians use empirical evidence and client preferences to inform decision-making provides an insight into health-care delivery models utilized in clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate the sources of information audiologists use when discussing rehabilitation choices with clients, and discuss the findings within the context of evidence-based practice and patient-centered care. To assess the changes that may have occurred over time, this study uses a questionnaire based on one of the few studies of decision-making behavior in audiologists, published in 1989. The present questionnaire was completed by 96 audiologists who attended the World Congress of Audiology in 2014. The responses were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results suggest that audiologists rank clinical test results and client preferences as the most important factors for decision-making. Discussion with colleagues or experts was also frequently reported as an important source influencing decision-making. Approximately 20% of audiologists mentioned utilizing research evidence to inform decision-making when no clear solution was available. Information shared at conferences was ranked low in terms of importance and reliability. This study highlights an increase in awareness of concepts associated with evidence-based practice and patient-centered care within audiology settings, consistent with current research-to-practice dissemination pathways. It also highlights that these pathways may not be sufficient for an effective clinical implementation of these practices. PMID:28752808

  3. Do Audiologic Characteristics Predict Outcomes in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Judith E. C.; Karzon, Roanne K.; Ead, Banan; Tye-Murray, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether audiologic characteristics of unilateral hearing loss in children were associated with language, cognitive or achievement scores. Study design Case-control study Setting Pediatric otolaryngology ambulatory practice Patients Cases (n=109) were children aged 6–12 years with permanent unilateral hearing loss; controls (n=95) were siblings with normal bilateral hearing. Interventions Audiologic characteristics measured included side and severity of hearing loss, and word recognition scores in quiet and in noise. Main outcome measures Cognitive abilities were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; reading, math and writing achievement was measured with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition-Abbreviated; and oral language skills were measured with the Oral Written and Language Scales. Results Children with unilateral hearing loss had worse verbal cognitive and oral language scores than children with normal hearing, but no differences in achievement scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse cognitive scores and had significantly lower oral language scores. Higher word recognition scores in quiet of the normal hearing ear were associated with higher cognitive, oral language, and reading achievement scores. Higher word recognition scores in noise were slightly correlated with higher oral language scores. Conclusions As expected, children with unilateral hearing loss had worse language scores than their siblings with normal hearing with trends toward worse cognitive scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse outcomes than children with normal hearing or less severe unilateral loss. However, there were no differences in outcomes between children with right or left unilateral hearing loss. PMID:24232067

  4. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  5. Reliability of the Functional Reach Test and the influence of anthropometric characteristics on test results in subjects with hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Emerson Fachin; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; de Sousa, Pedro Henrique Côrtes; de Araujo Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Costa, Abraão Souza

    2012-01-01

    First designed as an alternative method of assessing balance and susceptibility to falls among elderly, the Functional Reach Test (FR) has also been used among patients with hemiparesis. Then this study aimed to describe the intra- and inter-rater and the test/re-test reliability of the FR measure in subjects with and without hemiparesis while verifying anthropometric influences on the measurements. The FR was administered to a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and to a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-rater reliability. It was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. Associations were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. In general, the intra-rater analysis did not show significant differences between the measures for the single, double or triple trials. Excellent ICC values were observed, and there were no significant associations with anthropometric parameters for the hemiparesis and control subjects. FR showed good reliability for patients with and without hemiparesis and the test measurements were not significantly associated with the anthropometric characteristics of the subjects.

  6. Subjective complaints versus neuropsychological test performance after moderate to severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Lannoo, E; Colardyn, F; Vandekerckhove, T; De Deyne, C; De Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychological test performance and subjective complaints of 85 patients with moderate to severe head injury were investigated at 6 months postinjury. The neuropsychological test battery included 10 measures of attention, memory, mental flexibility, reaction time, visuoconstruction and verbal fluency. Subjective complaints were assessed using a self-report questionnaire subdivided into four subscales (somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural). Ratings were obtained for the pre-injury and current status. Thirty-three trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head injured, relatives also completed the questionnaire. Head injured patients performed significantly below trauma control patients on nearly all test measures. Head injured patients and their relatives reported a significant increase in subjective complaints since the injury on all four subscales, with no differences between patients' and relatives' reports. These changes were also reported by the trauma controls, but they report fewer changes in somatic and cognitive functioning. Exploratory canonical correlation analyses revealed no correlations between any of the four scales of the questionnaire and the test measures, nor for the head injured, the trauma controls, or the relatives, indicating no relevant relationship between subjective complaints and neuropsychological test performance.

  7. Involvement of the audiovestibular system in multiple sclerosis. An otoneurologic and audiologic study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, R

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high

  8. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to Variable Accelerating Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Tarik; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of the functionality of a loop heat pipe that was subjected to variable accelerating forces. The topics include: 1) Summary of LHP (Loop Heat Pipe) Design Parameters; 2) Picture of the LHP; 3) Schematic of Test Setup; 4) Test Configurations; 5) Test Profiles; 6) Overview of Test Results; 7) Start-up; 8) Typical Start-up without Temperature Overshoot; 9) Start-up with a Large Temperature Overshoot; 10) LHP Operation Under Stationary Condition; 11) LHP Operation Under Continuous Acceleration; 12) LHP Operation Under Periodic Acceleration; 13) Effects of Acceleration on Temperature Oscillation and Hysteresis; 14) Temperature Oscillation/Hysteresis vs Spin Rate; and 15) Summary.

  9. A selective annotated bibliography for clinical audiology (1989-2009): books.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Vinent, Susan T; Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J

    2010-12-01

    This is the 2nd in a series of 3 planned companion articles that present a selected, annotated, and indexed bibliography of clinical audiology publications from 1989 through 2009. Research and preparation of the bibliography were based on published guidelines, professional audiology experience, and professional librarian experience. The first article in the series covered reference works. This article focuses on other books. The planned third companion article will present periodicals and online resources. Audiologists and librarians can use this bibliography to help them identify relevant clinical audiology literature.

  10. A selective annotated bibliography for clinical audiology (1988-2008): reference works.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Vinent, Susan T; Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J

    2009-06-01

    This is the 1st in a series of 3 planned companion articles that present a selected, annotated, and indexed bibliography of clinical audiology publications from 1988 to 2008. Research and preparation of the bibliography were based on published guidelines, professional audiology experience, and professional librarian experience. This article presents reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, and manuals). The future planned articles will cover other monographs, periodicals, and online resources. Audiologists and librarians can use these lists as a guide when seeking clinical audiology literature.

  11. Comparison of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test results between Czech subjects dependent on methamphetamine versus healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hosak, Ladislav; Preiss, Marek; Bazant, Jan; Tibenska, Andrea; Cermakova, Radka; Cermakova, Eva

    2012-06-01

    Methamphetamine is a neurotoxic agent. Its chronic abuse may result in cognitive impairment with negative consequences for patients' treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to compare Wisconsin Card Sorting Test profiles of Czech subjects dependent on methamphetamine with healthy individuals. Forty-three hospitalized Czech Caucasian patients including twenty-seven men at the average age of 25.3±5.2 years dependent on methamphetamine for 6.2±3.3 years were assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. We used the same neurocognitive test for the comparison group of healthy controls with the same ethnicity (N=52, men N=28, average age of 38.7±12.1 years). We applied the Chi-Square Test, Two-Sample T Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test to compare methamphetamine dependent patients with healthy volunteers. All recorded Wisconsin Card Sorting Test parameters were significantly different in the group of methamphetamine dependent patients versus healthy volunteers (P=0.04-0.006; Mann-Whitney U Test, Two-Sample T Test). The results showed a higher error rate and a smaller achievement quality in the patients as against healthy subjects. We ascertained a significant cognitive deterioration in the patients as compared to healthy volunteers even if the average patients' achievements were in the normal range according to the test norms. A cognitive impairment was present in the group of patients as compared to healthy controls. Better understanding of neurocognitive symptoms in methamphetamine dependent subjects should help to generate modern therapeutic approaches, both pharmacological and psychosocial, to prevent or attenuate the long-term negative consequences of methamphetamine use disorders.

  12. Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, Andrea; Morbelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Dessi, Barbara; Famà, Francesco; Ferrara, Michela; Girtler, Nicola; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

  13. Evaluating the test re-test reliability and inter-subject variability of Health Care Provider manual fluid resuscitation performance.

    PubMed

    Parker, Melissa J; Lee, Frank M H; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-10-15

    Health Care Providers (HCPs) report that manual techniques of intravascular fluid resuscitation are commonly used during pediatric shock management. The optimal pediatric fluid resuscitation technique is currently unknown. We sought to determine HCP test-retest reliability (repeatability) and inter-subject variability of fluid resuscitation performance outcomes to inform the design of future studies. Fifteen consenting HCPs from McMaster Children's Hospital, in Hamilton, Canada participated in this single-arm interventional trial. Participants were oriented to a non-clinical model representing a 15 kg toddler, which incorporated a 22-gauge IV catheter. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 600 mL (40 mL/kg) of saline to the simulated child under emergency conditions using prefilled 60-mL syringes. Each participant completed 5 testing trials. All testing was video recorded, with fluid administration time outcome data (in seconds) extracted from trial videos by two blinded outcome assessors. Data describing catheter dislodgement events, volume of saline effectively delivered, and participant demographics were also collected. The primary outcome of fluid administration time test-retest reliability was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intra-class correlation (ICC), with good reliability defined as ICC > 0.70. Differences in HCP fluid administration times are attributable to inter-subject variability rather than intra-subject variability based on one-way ANOVA analysis, F (14,60) = 43.125; p < 0.001. Test-retest reliability of subjects was excellent with ICC = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99); p < 0.001. Findings demonstrate excellent test-retest reliability of HCP fluid resuscitation performance in a setting involving a non-clinical model. Investigators can justify a single evaluation of HCP performance in future studies.

  14. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  15. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  16. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  17. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  18. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  19. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  20. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  1. Reduced Diaphragm Excursion During Reflexive Citric Acid Cough Test in Subjects With Subacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Min; Park, Geun-Young; Yoo, Yeonji; Sohn, Donggyun; Jang, YongJun; Im, Sun

    2017-09-12

    Diaphragm excursion is limited during respiratory maneuvers after a stroke. How the diaphragm is limited during reflexive coughs and affects the effectiveness of cough in stroke patients is unclear. This study aimed to measure reflexive cough strength by cough peak flow (CPF) induced by citric acid nebulization (2.8 mol/L), record diaphragm excursions during reflexive coughs in stroke subjects at risk of silent aspiration, and compare these values with those of stroke subjects without risk of aspiration or dysphagia. Twenty-one subjects with subacute stroke (mean stroke onset, 13.6 d) at risk of silent aspiration (penetration-aspiration scale, 8) and 21 stroke subjects without dysphagia or aspiration (controls) were included. Diaphragmatic excursions were assessed using real-time sonography in all subjects; the main outcome measure was reflexive CPF induced by citric acid nebulization. The median (interquartile range) values of citric acid-induced CPF values were significantly more reduced in the 21 subjects with silent aspiration (45 [0-83] L/min) than in the control subjects (97 [66-162] L/min) (P = .004). Diaphragmatic excursions during the reflexive coughs were also significantly reduced (P < .001), although both groups had a similar range in the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and level of disability, as measured by the modified Barthel index. Citric acid-induced CPF was significantly correlated with the number of generated coughs (rs = 0.69), voluntary cough CPF (rs = 0.85), and degree of diaphragm excursion on both sides (rs = 0.50 [hemiplegic] and rs = 0.55 [nonhemiplegic]) but not correlated with the degree of hemiparesis, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, or modified Barthel index scores. The 6-month follow up revealed that 7 subjects in group A experienced aspiration pneumonia. Stroke subjects at risk of silent aspiration showed reduced CPF and more limited diaphragm excursion during the citric acid

  2. Can color vision defective subjects who pass the farnsworth lantern test recognize surface color codes?

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L; Lian, Ka-Yee; Lakkis, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization requires that pilots be able to distinguish the colors used in air navigation and in particular be able to identify the colors of signal lights. Most national aviation authorities use a lantern test to assess the ability of applicants for a pilot's license who have abnormal color vision to recognize the colors of signal lights. However, color-coding is now widely used in aviation systems other than signal lights. Color is used in tarmac markings, maps, manuals, and electronic flight instrument displays. These color codes can use 10 or more colors, many more than the 3 to 5 used for signal lights. This study investigated whether people with defective color vision (DCV) who pass the Farnsworth lantern test can recognize the main colors used for surface color codes. There were 99 subjects with DCV who were tested using the Optec 900 version of the Farnsworth lantern test and also named the colors of a set of 10 surface colors that varied in shape (dots and lines) and size (3 sizes; angular diameters 0.27, 1.0, and 2.4 degrees; angular widths 0.14, 0.27, and 0.50 degrees). A control group of 20 subjects with normal color vision also named the surface colors. Of the DCV subjects, 19% passed the Farnsworth lantern test, of whom 74% made no errors with the surface colors. The other 26% made few errors (up to 5 errors in 120 presentations) and those errors were mostly to confuse red, orange, and brown. The subjects with normal color vision made no errors naming the surface colors. Those who pass the Farnsworth lantern test can recognize the colors of a 10-color surface color code with few or no errors. This is because the small (2.9-min arc) stimulus of the lantern test presents a more difficult task than the larger surface colors.

  3. Correlation of subjective questionnaires with cardiac function as determined by exercise testing in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Olson, Inger; Kazmucha, Jeffrey; Balise, Raymond; Chin, Rita; Chin, Clifford

    2010-10-01

    Although exercise testing is an important objective method used to assess cardiopulmonary function, subjective assessment often is used as a proxy in the clinical setting. This study aimed to determine whether responses to a subjective functional capacity questionnaire administered to parents and patients in a pediatric exercise laboratory correlate with objective assessment of functional capacity, measured by peak oxygen consumption during maximal voluntary exercise testing. Subjective questionnaire responses and exercise test results collected over 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. Symptoms and physical capabilities were assessed using a 6-point Likert scale regarding the ability to attend school/work, walk, climb stairs, and run, as well as the frequency of fatigue, palpitations, and chest pain. Values of 0 to 3 were considered abnormal, whereas values of 4-5 were regarded as normal. Exercise testing was performed on a stationary cycle ergometer with a continuous ramping protocol. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were continuously monitored. Blood pressures and electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained at 2-min intervals. Metabolic gas analysis was performed using a breath-by-breath method. The results of the exercise testing were normalized for body size and expressed as a percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption (%pVO(2)). Very weak but statistically significant correlations (τ < 0.25; P < 0.05) between the scores of the school/work, walking, stair climbing, running, and fatigue items and %pVO(2) were found using Kendall's rank correlations. The subjective Likert scales used to assess basic physical capacity and cardiac-associated symptoms have limited ability to predict actual functional capacity as measured by %pVO(2) achieved. The very weak rank-order correlation between %pVO(2) achieved and the subjective reporting of the ability to attend school/work, walk, climb stairs, and run has low clinical significance and will not be useful in

  4. Audiology occupational stress experienced by audiologists practicing in India.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Rohit; Gunjawate, Dhanshree; Ayas, Mohd

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the levels of occupational stress across different types of setting, years of experience, and age. A questionnaire-based observational research design using the audiology occupational stress questionnaire (AOSQ) was used. The sample comprised of audiologists registered under the Indian Speech and Hearing Association. The questionnaire was sent via personal email to 400 audiologists, of which 100 responded. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were carried out. Participants in both the groups experienced stress to some extent, with more stress reported in private practitioners. This study helps to identify certain factors that contribute towards work-related stress. These in turn have an impact on the overall professional output of a professional.

  5. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  6. Using Therapeutic Sound With Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound—broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech—resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics). PMID:18664499

  7. Contemporary issues in audiology: a hearing scientist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Parker, David J

    2002-01-01

    Audiology has developed significantly over the last 30 years leading to better identification and assessment of hearing loss and better habilitation services for both children and adults with congenital or acquired deafness. Advancement in the profession and its services has been largely dependent on the technological development of key methodologies such as the auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions. These methodologies have been used for the identification and assessment of the severity of hearing loss. As a result, these methodologies have underpinned the emergence of service development initiatives such as hearing screening and provision of hearing aids, particularly for newborn babies and young children. This review identifies, describes and evaluates the key methodologies and services involved and presents a hearing scientist's perspective on the developments to date. The aim is to provide state-of-the-art information to those working with children and adults with communication disorders, particularly speech and language therapists.

  8. Does the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test require maximal effort in healthy subjects of different ages?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristiane Golias; Mesquita, Rafael; Hayashi, Daniela; Merli, Myriam Fernanda; Vidotto, Laís Silva; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Probst, Vanessa S

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate if the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) requires maximal effort in healthy subjects of different ages. Cross-sectional. University-based research laboratory. 331 healthy subjects separated into six groups according to age: G1, 18 to 28 years; G2, 29 to 39 years; G3, 40 to 50 years; G4, 51 to 61 years; G5, 62 to 72 years and; G6, 73 to 83 years. Two ISWTs were performed and participants were permitted to run and to exceed 12 levels during the test, if necessary. Heart rate (HR) and symptoms of dyspnoea and fatigue were recorded before and after the test, and the percentage of age-predicted maximal HR (HRmax) was calculated. Maximal effort was defined as HRmax >90% of age-predicted HRmax. Almost 31% of the subjects exceeded 12 levels in the ISWT. At the end of the test, all groups presented a median [interquartile range] HR greater than 90% of HRmax (G1: 100 [95 to 104]; G2: 100 [96 to 105]; G3: 103 [97 to 108]; G4: 99 [91 to 106]; G5: 96 [87 to 106] and G6: 96 [91 to 109]% HRmax). Regarding symptoms, all groups showed higher values after the test (P<0.05). A multiple logistic regression analysis identified female gender, older age and a lower HR before the test as determinants of not achieving 90% of HRmax at the end of the test. The ISWT requires maximal effort in healthy individuals, but for that it is necessary to extend the test beyond twelve levels. Female gender, older age and lower heart rate before the test are the determinants of not reaching maximal effort. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle synergies during incremental rowing VO2max test of collegiate rowers and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Shaharudin, Shazlin; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergies during incremental rowing VO2 max Test of collegiate rowers and untrained subjects. As a power endurance sport, high aerobic capacity was one of the determinants of rowing performance. The modulation of muscle recruitment patterns following specific physiological demands was an indication of the robustness of muscle synergies composition which was overlooked in previous studies. Ten male collegiate rowers and physically active untrained subjects were recruited. Muscle synergies were extracted from 16 rowing-specific muscles using Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation. Incremental rowing VO2 max Test was performed on slides ergometer (SE). Rowing performance and physiological variables were analyzed. Rowers exerted greater power output, more energy expenditure and better rowing economy compared to untrained subjects. Rowers preferred to row slower with longer strokes compared to the untrained subjects. Three muscle synergies with high indices of similarity of waveform patterns were extracted in both groups. Significant association was found between muscle synergies and rowing economy. The findings of this study showed that muscle synergies were robust during aerobic-dominant activity for collegiate rowers and untrained subjects. Rowers and coaches could utilize the findings by emphasizing on muscle coordination training, which may enhance the rowing economy.

  10. Reporting Newborn Audiologic Results to State EHDI Programs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Winnie; Beauchaine, Kathryn L.; Grimes, Alison; O’Hollearn, Tammy; Mason, Craig; Ringwalt, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives All US states and territories have an Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program to facilitate early hearing evaluation and intervention for infants who are deaf or hard of hearing. To ensure efficient coordination of care, the state EHDI programs rely heavily on audiologists’ prompt reporting of a newborn’s hearing status. Several states have regulations requiring mandatory reporting of a newborn’s hearing status. This is an important public health responsibility of pediatric audiologists. Reasons for failing to report vary. Design The Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Pediatric Audiology Links to Services (EHDI) facility survey was used to inform reporting compliance of audiology facilities throughout the United States. The survey was disseminated via articles, newsletters, and call-to-action notices to audiologists. Results Among 1024 facilities surveyed, 88 (8.6%) reported that they did not report newborn’s hearing findings to their state EHDI program. Not knowing how to report to the state EHDI program was the most frequently chosen reason (60%). However, among the 936 facilities that were compliant with the reporting requirements, 51 estimated that they reported less than two-third of all hearing evaluation results (5.4%). Some facilities did not report a normal-hearing result and some failed to report because they assumed another facility would report the hearing results. Conclusions Survey results indicated that audiologists were compliant reporting hearing results to the state EHDI programs. However, there is room for improvement. Regular provider outreach and training by the state EHDI program is necessary to ensure those who are not reporting will comply and to clarify reporting requirements for those who are already compliant. PMID:28471783

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

  12. PREDICTION OF OUTCOME IN SCHIZOPHRENIA USING THE SUBJECTIVE RESPONSE TO A TEST DOSE OF A NEUROLEPTIC

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty four patients meeting R.D.C. criteria for schizophrenia were assessed using the B.P.R.S. before starting neuroleptics. They were then given a standardized test dose of haloperidol. Their subjective response to the test dose was assessed 4 hours later by a blind rater. The B.P.R.S. ratings were repeated after 3 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. A dysphoric response to the test dose was associated with a poor therapeutic outcome. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21897458

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of Sudden Ankle Inversion Measurements in Subjects With Healthy Ankle Joints

    PubMed Central

    Eechaute, Christophe; Vaes, Peter; Duquet, William; Van Gheluwe, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Context: Sudden ankle inversion tests have been used to investigate whether the onset of peroneal muscle activity is delayed in patients with chronically unstable ankle joints. Before interpreting test results of latency times in patients with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects, the reliability of these measures must be first demonstrated. Objective: To investigate the test-retest reliability of variables measured during a sudden ankle inversion movement in standing subjects with healthy ankle joints. Design: Validation study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 15 subjects with healthy ankle joints (30 ankles). Intervention(s): Subjects stood on an ankle inversion platform with both feet tightly fixed to independently moveable trapdoors. An unexpected sudden ankle inversion of 50° was imposed. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured latency and motor response times and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle, along with the time and angular position of the first and second decelerating moments, the mean and maximum inversion speed, and the total inversion time. Correlation coefficients and standard error of measurements were calculated. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.17 for the electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle (standard error of measurement = 2.7 milliseconds) to 0.89 for the maximum inversion speed (standard error of measurement = 34.8 milliseconds). Conclusions: The reliability of the latency and motor response times of the peroneus longus muscle, the time of the first and second decelerating moments, and the mean and maximum inversion speed was acceptable in subjects with healthy ankle joints and supports the investigation of the reliability of these measures in subjects with chronic ankle instability. The lower reliability of the electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle and the angular positions of both decelerating moments calls the use of these

  14. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (P<0.05) when compared to distal initiation sequence (0.08±1.26 cm). The change in the ROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.

  15. Test methods for FRP-concrete systems subjected to mechanical loads: state of the art review

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, A.; Bakis, C.E.; Boothby, T.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report addresses the methodology for determining the long-term behavior of bridge structures reinforced with fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) rods. In particular, a review of the existing literature on what has been done and what needs to be done for the development of accelerated test methods, with emphasis on mechanical loads, is presented. The focus of the report is on new, bonded FRP reinforcement for concrete bridge structures. Companion reports address stand-alone FRP systems subjected to mechanical loads, and stand-alone FRP and FRP-concrete systems subjected to environmental loads. 98 refs.

  16. Technical and audiological factors in the implementation and use of digital signal processing hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Naylor, G

    1997-01-01

    Fully digital hearing aids, to be worn behind or within the ear, are coming on to the market. The new possibilities and challenges of such aids are both technological and audiological in character. This paper describes some of the challenges, and one manufacturer's approach to them. The signal processing structure in one current digital hearing aid is presented, and justified in audiological terms, as a background to discussions of (i) the relative urgency of further advances in technology and audiological knowledge, and (ii) the challenges to the practice of hearing aid dispensing. It is concluded that further advances in rehabilitative audiology are more pressing than further major technological progress, and that the potential client benefits of the new generation of digital hearing aids will only be realized if the challenges they present to software design and dispensing practice are recognized and met.

  17. Post-surgical tympanostomy tube follow up with audiology: experience at the Freeman Hospital.

    PubMed

    Davies-Husband, C R; Harker, C; Davison, T; Yates, P D

    2012-02-01

    Tympanostomy tube (grommet) insertion is a common procedure, with little guidance in the current literature regarding post-operative surveillance. Our institution implemented a protocol to follow up post-surgical grommet patients via audiology at six weeks. A retrospective audit of all patients less than 16 years old who had undergone grommet insertion during a three-month period. A total of 149 patients had grommets inserted. Exclusion criteria left a cohort of 123 individuals; 82 (67 per cent) were followed up by audiology. Of these, 13 (11 per cent) did not attend follow up, and were discharged; 53 (43 per cent) were discharged from audiology with normal thresholds; and 16 (13 per cent) were referred back to a consultant. Therefore, the overall reduction in patients followed up by an otolaryngologist was 54 per cent. We recommend a six-week follow up with audiology following grommet insertion, allowing for referral back to ENT services in the event of related complications.

  18. Preparation for Testing a Multi-Bay Box Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.

  19. Correlation between bithermal caloric test results and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabel Vaamonde Sanchez; Santos-Perez, Sofia; Diz, Pilar Gayoso; Caballero, Torcuato Labella; Soto-Varela, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    Bithermal caloric testing and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are both diagnostic tools for the study of the vestibular system. The first tests the horizontal semicircular canal and the second evaluates the saccule and lower vestibular nerve. The results of these two tests can therefore be expected to be correlated. The aim of this study was to compare bithermal caloric test results with VEMP records in normal subjects to verify whether they are correlated. A prospective study was conducted in 60 healthy subjects (30 men and 30 women) who underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing and VEMPs. From the caloric test, we assessed the presence of possible vestibular hypofunction, whether there was directional preponderance and reflectivity of each ear (all based on both slow phase velocity and nystagmus frequency). The analysed VEMPs variables were: p1 and n1 latency, corrected amplitude, interaural p1 latency difference and p1 interaural amplitude asymmetry. We compared the reflectivity, hypofunction and directional preponderance of the caloric tests with the corrected amplitudes and amplitude asymmetries of the VEMPs. No correlations were found in the different comparisons between bithermal caloric testing results and VEMPs except for a weak correlation (p = 0.039) when comparing preponderance based on the number of nystagmus in the caloric test and amplitude asymmetry with 99 dB tone burst in the VEMPs test. The results indicate that the two diagnostic tests are not comparable, so one of them cannot replace the other, but the use of both increases diagnostic success in some conditions.

  20. The Bari Center: an audiology and otology pilot center for Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, A

    1996-01-01

    The Audiology and Otology Center for Mediterranean Countries began activities in 1990. Until today, the Bari Center has sponsored meetings, coordinated research projects and, above all, it has been host to 5 young colleagues coming from the Mediterranean Area, to take part in 2 or 3 month clinical stages: two from Egypt, one from Syria and one from Lybia. The Center is now verifying the possibilities of setting up an Audiology and Otology Center in Tirana (Albania).

  1. Automated Romberg testing in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Adelsberger, Rolf; Valko, Yulia; Straumann, Dominik; Tröster, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of dizziness. The underlying pathomechanism responsible for the recurrent vertigo attacks has been elucidated in detail and highly effective treatment strategies (liberation maneuvers) have been developed. However, many BPPV patients complain about problems of balance especially following liberation maneuvers. To objectively demonstrate differences in balance performance in BPPV patients compared to healthy subjects both prior and after BPPV liberation maneuvers. Seven patients with BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal and nine healthy subjects participated. To assess balance while standing, we analyzed the location and temporal stability of the center of pressure recorded by pressure-sensitive electronic soles during Romberg testing (on stable ground and on foam) and tandem stand. To assess regularity of gait, we analyzed the step frequency during walking of 50 m. All tests were performed prior and after liberation maneuvers in both groups. Healthy subjects and patients differ significantly in their balance performance and use different stabilization strategies both prior and after liberation maneuvers. Both Romberg tests indicated poorer balance in BPPV patients (mean COP shifted towards toes), especially in posttreatment tests, while tandem stand appeared unaltered. We did not observe differences in escorted (by an experimenter) walking regularities between patients and healthy subjects and between pre- and post-maneuver testing. Our findings confirm the typical clinical observation of a further posttreatment deterioration of already impaired postural performance in BPPV patients. While the etiology and the time course of this peculiar problem warrants further studies, the treating physician should be familiar with this transient side effect of therapeutic maneuvers to provide adequate counseling of patients. Finally, we successully demonstrated the pressure-sensitive electronic soles as a

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulation test in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zacharieva, S; Matrosov, P; Stoeva, I; Kirilov, G

    1989-04-01

    The hormonal responses to human corticotropin-releasing factor (hCRF) were investigated in 6 normal subjects, 13 patients with Cushing's disease (8 with diffuse bilateral hyperplasia and 5 with nodular hyperplasia) and one patient with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenal adenoma. hCRF (100 micrograms i.v.) was a potent stimulant of ACTH and cortisol in normal subjects. Patients with Cushing's disease due to diffuse hyperplasia showed variable ACTH and cortisol responses to hCRF. In both normal subjects and in patients hCRF consistently stimulated serum aldosterone levels. Patients with nodular hyperplasia had extremely suppressed plasma ACTH levels and no responses of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone to hCRF like in the patient with adrenal adenoma. Our results suggest that hCRF-stimulation test may be a useful tool for differentiating pituitary and adrenal forms of Cushing's syndrome.

  3. Establishing construct validity of the Biology I Subject Area Testing program in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis

    Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.

  4. Patient-centred audiological rehabilitation: perspectives of older adults who own hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Davidson, Bronwyn

    2014-02-01

    Patient-centred care is a term frequently associated with quality health care. Despite extensive literature from a range of health-care professions that provide description and measurement of patient-centred care, a definition of patient-centredness in audiological rehabilitation is lacking. The current study aimed to define patient-centred care specific to audiological rehabilitation from the perspective of older adults who have owned hearing aids for at least one year. Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of older adults concerning their perceptions of patient-centredness in audiological rehabilitation, and qualitative content analysis was undertaken. The participant sample included ten adults over the age of 60 years who had owned hearing aids for at least one year. Data analysis revealed three dimensions to patient-centred audiological rehabilitation: the therapeutic relationship, the players (audiologist and patient), and clinical processes. Individualised care was seen as an overarching theme linking each of these dimensions. This study reported two models: the first model describes what older adults with hearing aids believe constitutes patient-centred audiological rehabilitation. The second provides a guide to operationalised patient-centred care. Further research is required to address questions pertaining to the presence, nature, and impact of patient-centred audiological rehabilitation.

  5. Tele-audiology: Expanding Access to Hearing Care and Enhancing Patient Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Gladden, Chad; Beck, Lucille; Chandler, David

    2015-10-01

    Tele-audiology within the Department of Veterans Affairs has expanded significantly in response to growing Veteran hearing needs and issues, namely maldistribution of provider resources and continued lags in timely access to care. Although tele-audiology originated from successive telemedicine programs dating back to the early 1960s, the innovation that is currently being developed broadens tele-audiology and hearing care practice to virtual care modalities such as clinical video telehealth, store-and-forward telehealth, home telehealth, mobile health applications, secure messaging, and electronic consults. The purpose of this article is to address current and emerging tele-audiology initiatives in context of a connected health care practice model. It includes information on initiatives within the Department of Veterans Affairs, provides an overview of current and potential modalities for improving patient hearing care, and identifies the challenges that exist in implementing and sustaining these services. Information is intended to stimulate creative thinking about future innovative service delivery models. Significant challenges exist in the evolution of innovative tele-audiology services. Despite barriers, these initiatives have the potential to match existing capacity with emerging patient demands in a mutually beneficial partnership and can be successfully integrated into diverse health care and private sector organizations. American Academy of Audiology.

  6. [Box and block test of manual dexterity in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendes, M F; Tilbery, C P; Balsimelli, S; Moreira, M A; Cruz, A M

    2001-12-01

    Recently new disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced which can change the natural course of the disease. In clinical trials with these new agents the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is often used as a primary outcome instrument to measure neurological impairment and disability. A number of limitations have been identified when using the EDSS, some of wich are because the EDSS is an ordinal scale that is heavily biased to locomotor function. In this study we applied the box and block test of manual dexterity in normal subjects and relapsing-remitting MS patients. The results were that 64.8% of the female and 80.7% of the male patients had significant changes on this task compared with normal subjects, and as this test is easily applied and is sensitive in detecting upper extremity functional ability, we recommend its use in clinical trials to evaluate new drugs in MS patients.

  7. Astronaut Owen Garriott as test subject for Human Vestibular Function exp.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Skylab Human Vestibular Function M131 Experiment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Dr. Garriott is seated in the experiment's litter chair which can rotate the test subject at predetermined rotational velocity or programmed ecceleration/decelerational profile. The objectives of the M131 experiment are to obtain data pertinent to establishing the validity of measurements of specific behavioral/physiological responses influenced by vestibular activity under one-G and zero-G conditions; to determine man's adaptability to unusual vestibular conditions and predict habitability of future spacecraft conditions involving reduced gravity and Coriollis forces; and to measure the accuracy and variability in man's judgement of spatial coordinates based on atypical gravity receptor cues an

  8. Designing a biased specification-based subjective test of image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibman, Amy R.

    2015-03-01

    Specification-based subjective tests (SBSTs) form the basis for almost all performance analysis of image and video quality estimators (QEs). Our ability to compare the efficacy of different QEs across a wide range of applications depends on careful design of these SBST, so the conclusions that are drawn about how well a QE performs are reliable and accurate. In this paper, we explore methods to design biased SBSTs for image and video QEs. A biased SBST will produce an estimate of the performance of a given QE that is systematically different than its actual performance. We demonstrate by proof of concept that it's possible to create SBSTs that generate misleading or biased Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients between subjective and objective scores, and we present some diagnostics that begin to evaluate when influential observations have been included in the SBST. Understanding how to create biased tests is a first step toward the overall goal of creating more effective unbiased SBSTs.

  9. Astronaut Charles Conrad as test subject for Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, serves as test subject for the Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) (M092) Experiment, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by at TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, assists Conrad into the LBNP device. Kerwin served as monitor for the experiment.

  10. [Tachistoscope and dichotic listening test of the subject after the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Tasaki, H; Hojo, K; Yoshimura, I; Sato, T; Nakaoka, T; Iwabuchi, T

    1982-06-01

    The authors made neuropsychological studies by the tachistoscope and the dichotic listening test on a subject who had undergone the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum. As to the tachistoscopic recognition, stimulus material was composed with the various Japanese letters (Katakana, Hiragana, Kanji), various faces (variations of the eyebrow form and the mouth form) and various slopes of line. Table 1 shows results of the cases (the subject was the present case, subjects 1 and subject 2 were past cases). It was seen that the performance of the subject on Japanese letters tasks showed greater right visual field superiority than the one of subject 1 and subject 2. As to the auditory recognition, the tasks used for the dichotic listening test were the following (Table 2, 3, 4). Different digits (three pairs) of the subject showed greater right ear superiority (right ear: 61.1, left ear 5.9) than the ones of subject 1 and subject 2.

  11. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968

  12. Clinical and audiologic characteristics of patients with sensorineural tinnitus and its association with psychological aspects: an analytic retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Swiahb, Jamil Nasser; Hwang, Eul Seung; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to analyze clinical and audiologic characteristics of sensorineural tinnitus and to investigate the associating factors reflecting psychological aspects of stress and depression of the patients. This is a retrospective analytical study conducted in a tinnitus clinic of a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. The medical records of 216 patients suffering from sensorineural tinnitus were thoroughly evaluated to determine correlations between clinical and audiological characteristics, including age, sex, predisposing or etiologic factors, hearing levels up to extended high frequencies, and tinnitus severity. Psychological aspects of stress and depression were also evaluated and analyzed to seek the associations with tinnitus severity. All data were stored in our database bank and were statistically analyzed. Our study subjects showed a slight male predominance. The highest percentage of tinnitus was found in patients of 60-80 years old. Only 32.5 % of tinnitus patients were subjectively aware of their hearing loss, whereas 73 % of subjects had hearing deficits in some frequencies in their audiogram. Hearing impairments were of the low-frequency sensorineural type in 18.2 % of patients and were limited to the high frequencies in 77.9 % of patients. Tinnitus was unilateral in 51 % of patients and had a tonal nature in 45 % of patients. In total, 45.8 % of patients with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss had high-pitched tinnitus. There were significant correlations between tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance. Correlations with THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and Beck depression index scores were also found. Sensorineural tinnitus was related with hearing loss in some frequencies nevertheless of patients' own awareness of hearing loss. Loudness and annoyance of tinnitus seems to be two important factors reflecting psychological problems of patients' stress and depression.

  13. Audiological Findings in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 4C.

    PubMed

    Sivera, Rafael; Cavalle, Laura; Vílchez, Juan J; Espinós, Carmen; Pérez Garrigues, Herminio; Sevilla, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C (CMT4C) is a hereditary demyelinating early onset neuropathy with prominent unsteadiness and occasional cranial nerve involvement. Vestibulopathy caused by the dysfunction of cranial nerve VIII has been demonstrated in a high percentage of these patients, but the presence and degree of auditory neuropathy are unknown. The aim of the study was to characterize the hearing abnormalities of a series of patients with CMT4C and to determine the presence and severity of auditory neuropathy (AN) in these patients. Ten patients with genetically confirmed CMT4C underwent comprehensive clinical and audiological testing. The results were compared among patients in different age groups and also to the results of vestibular testing that had already been performed. Only 3 patients had hearing problems, but 9 had hearing abnormalities on ancillary testing that were compatible with different degrees of auditory nerve dysfunction. In the mildest cases, only the abnormality of the stapedial reflex and distortion of wave I in auditory brainstem responses could be detected. In the more severe cases, tonal audiometry revealed asymmetric hearing loss. These findings were more severe in older patients, even after correcting for age-related hypoacusia. In these patients, vestibular dysfunction could also be detected and seemed to be more profound and symmetric than hearing loss. This report confirms and defines the presence of different degrees of auditory neuropathy in all patients with CMT4C, being detectable, usually unilaterally, during infancy, and worsening with disease progression.

  14. Perceived risk following melanoma genetic testing: A 2-year prospective study distinguishing subjective estimates from recall

    PubMed Central

    Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Taber, Jennifer M.; Kohlmann, Wendy; Leaf, Samantha L.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of predictive genetic testing is to alert people to their risk before illness onset; however, little is known about how risk perceptions change following genetic testing and whether information is recalled accurately over time. In the United States, a CDKN2A/p16 mutation confers 76% lifetime risk of melanoma. Following genetic counseling and test reporting, subjective risk estimates and recall of counselor-provided risk estimates were assessed 5 times over the next 2 years among 60 adult members of 2 extended CDKN2A/p16 kindreds. No sustained changes from baseline in risk perceptions were reported. Unaffected carriers (n=15) consistently reported significantly lower subjective risk estimates (46%) than they were actually given (76%, p < .001) or recalled having been given (60%, p < .001). Noncarriers’ (n=27) risk estimates decreased following results disclosure, but rebounded, with both subjective and recalled estimates subsequently exceeding what they were told by the counselor (both ps < .001). Affected carriers’ (n=18) risk estimates for developing a new melanoma corresponded well to counselor-provided information (p =.362). For all 3 patient groups, results were consistent across multiple risk measures and remained similar when demographic, phenotypic, and baseline behavioral contributors to melanoma risk were statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with other studies of risk perception, but additional studies of more diverse populations are needed to understand the reasons behind both the persistence of initial risk estimates and their divergence from information provided by the counselor during genetic counseling. Additionally, determining whether holding subjective risk perceptions that differ from counselor-provided information ultimately affects adherence to management recommendations will help guide the presentation of risk information in genetic counseling practice. PMID:24322567

  15. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  16. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  17. Differentiation of Schizophrenia Patients from Healthy Subjects by Mismatch Negativity and Neuropsychological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chih-Min; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Shan, Jia-Chi; Hsieh, Ming H.; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III). The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ) were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%). Conclusions/Significance MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility. PMID:22496807

  18. HIV infection among people of foreign origin voluntarily tested in Spain. A comparison with national subjects

    PubMed Central

    The, E

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe exposure categories and HIV prevalence among subjects voluntarily tested in Spain by country of origin. Methods: HIV prevalence and exposure categories were compared between national and non-Spanish subjects voluntarily tested in 18 sexually transmitted disease/HIV testing clinics from 16 Spanish cities in 2000. Results: Of 8861 testers, 2810 (31.7%) came from foreign countries; 73.1% from Latin America, 9.1% from western Europe, 6.2% from central/eastern Europe, 4.4% from northern Africa, and 4.2% from sub-Sahara Africa. Among women from Latin America, 78% were sex workers compared to 5.5% Spanish women. HIV infection was diagnosed in 170 persons, 34.7% from foreign countries. HIV prevalence for Spanish subjects (23% for men and 1.0% for women) was significantly different from men and women from Latin America (11.3% and 0.3% respectively), Sub-Saharan Africa (9.1% and 7.5% respectively), and women from the north of Africa (11.8%). Compared with Spaniards, analyses of persons of the same exposure category showed higher HIV prevalence in men who had sex with men from Latin America (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–6.9), heterosexual men from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 19.3; 95% CI: 6.4–58.0), and Latin America (OR: 9.4; 95% CI: 3.4–25.9), heterosexual women from sub-Sahara Africa (OR: 16.9; 95% CI: 3.5–82.4) and from northern Africa (OR: 15.3; 95% CI: 3.2–73.2). Conclusions: An important proportion of HIV testers from these clinics came from foreign countries and some groups showed a high prevalence of HIV infection. Specific prevention and testing programmes adapted to the needs of migrants in Spain should be developed. PMID:12181461

  19. Contribution of sVEP visual acuity testing in comparison with subjective visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Visual acuity determination is an important task in ophthalmology and optometry practices. Visual acuity can be examined objectively or subjectively. The objective examination method, sVEP, allows for quick objective measurements of patient's visual acuity. Previous studies have not demonstrated the repeatability of this objective sVEP method. This study aims to evaluate the sVEP method and compare it to a subjective method. The sample was divided into two groups. For the first group, visual acuity was measured with sVEP and Snellen methods on only one patient twelve times. In the second group, visual acuity was measured twice with sVEP followed twice with the Snellen method with Landolt's rings and logMAR modification on 32 non-pathological patients. Results showed significant differences between average values of visual acuity obtained with both methods (sVEP and Snellen) in both samples (T-test, P < 0.01; Wilcoxon test, P = 0.02 in second group). In the second group, significant correlations between repeated sVEP measurements (Spearman test, P < 0.05, r = 0.69) were found but no significant correlation between average sVEP measurement and average Snellen measurement (Spearman test, P > 0.05, r = 0.15) was found. Objective measurement of visual acuity with sVEP is a valid and reliable method, but is recommended only when it is not possible to use a subjective method for measuring visual acuity, e.g. children, patients with mental retardation or simulating/dissimulating patients.

  20. Six-minute walk test before and after a weight reduction program in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Maja J; Klintenberg, M; Björck, U; Norström, F; Ridderstråle, M

    2013-03-01

    OBEJCTIVE: Weight loss and physical activity have shown favorable effects on risks associated with obesity. It is therefore of interest to evaluate exercise capacity and related co-morbidities in obese patients. We present data from obese subjects evaluated by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) before and after a 7.3 (6.1-8.2) month weight reduction program. 251 subjects completed the test at baseline (BMI 40.6 [36.9-44.6] kg/m(2) ) and 129 (51.4%) repeated the test after intervention (BMI 35.6 [31.2-38.5] kg/m(2) ). The six minute walking distance (6MWD) at baseline (535 [480-580] m) and at follow up (599 [522-640] m) correlated to several cardiovascular risk markers. Age, weight, height, resting heart rate, smoking status, fP-glucose and use of β-blockers explained 43 % of the variance in predicted 6MWD at baseline. The effect of smoking status, fP-glucose, β-blockers, and resting heart rate lost significance at follow up. Presence of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome had a negative influence on 6MWD but did not affect the impact of intervention based on percentage increase in walking distance. Gender had no impact on 6MWD. Reported pain during the test was common but decreased after intervention (57.0% vs. 28.7%, P < 0.001). The 6MWT may be used to evaluate intervention success beyond kilogram weight loss in obese subjects. We present formulas to predict 6MWD and the effect of weight loss on walking distance in clinical practice. Pain is a common problem which has to be considered when giving advice on exercise as a part of weight loss intervention. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. 'Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?' An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing.

    PubMed

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test.

  2. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    PubMed

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  3. Theory and research in audiology education: understanding and representing complexity through informed methodological decisions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Stella L

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of audiology has the opportunity to embark on research in education from an informed perspective, learning from professions that began this journey decades ago. The goal of this article is to position our discipline as a new member in the academic field of health professional education (HPE), with much to learn and contribute. In this article, I discuss the need for theory in informing HPE research. I also stress the importance of balancing our research goals by selecting appropriate methodologies for relevant research questions, to ensure that we respect the complexity of social processes inherent in HPE. Examples of relevant research questions are used to illustrate the need to consider alternative methodologies and to rethink the traditional hierarchy of evidence. I also provide an example of the thought processes and decisions that informed the design of an educational research study using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. As audiology enters the scholarly field of HPE, we need to arm ourselves with some of the knowledge and perspective that informs the field. Thus, we need to broaden our conceptions of what we consider to be appropriate styles of academic writing, relevant research questions, and valid evidence. Also, if we are to embark on qualitative inquiry into audiology education (or other audiology topics), we need to ensure that we conduct this research with an adequate understanding of the theories and methodologies informing such approaches. We must strive to conduct high quality, rigorous qualitative research more often than uninformed, generic qualitative research. These goals are imperative to the advancement of the theoretical landscape of audiology education and evolving the place of audiology in the field of HPE. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  5. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.

  6. Provocative use test of nickel coins in nickel-sensitized subjects and controls.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chew, A-L; Bashir, S J; Reagan, K E; Hostynek, J J; Maibach, H I

    2003-08-01

    Consensus exists on levels of nickel release that are well tolerated in exposure to nickel-containing items in direct and continuous contact with skin (e.g. watches). The clinical relevance of nickel-containing coins eliciting nickel dermatitis associated with extensive occupational exposure (e.g. coins handled by cashiers) has not been determined. To examine whether nickel-containing coins might be an elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in occupational settings with extensive exposure to coins (i.e. cashiers). Eighteen subjects (10 nickel sensitized and eight non-nickel sensitized) completed this study after screening of history, physical examination and diagnostic patch testing (5% nickel sulphate). Each volunteer handled 10 coins (nickel-containing coins or non-nickel-containing coins) in a cross-over design at 5-min intervals (5 min handling followed by 5 min rest) for 8 h per day, for a total of 12 days excluding the weekend. One hand was gloved while the other was not during coin handling. Visual scoring and bioengineering measurements were recorded at each of four predetermined sites at baseline (day 1), end of day 5 and day 12 (last day of exposure). There were no statistical differences for either visual or bioengineering data comparing: (i) nickel-sensitized vs. non-nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins at day 1, day 5 and day 12; (ii) day 12 vs. day 1 (baseline) for nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins; (iii) handling of nickel-containing coins vs. non-nickel-containing coins by nickel-sensitized subjects at day 5 and day 12; (iv) gloved hand vs. ungloved hand of nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins at day 12. Limitations of the method and clinical extrapolation are detailed. Individuals handling these nickel-containing coins daily did not develop ACD, as judged by visual signs or bioengineering parameters.

  7. [Pure tone audiology for Meniere disease: a clinical analysis of 75 cases].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-qing; Xie, Nan-ping

    2010-06-01

    To analyze clinical pure tone test data in patients with Meniere disease and study the changes in the audiometic curve configuration. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the pure tone test data in 75 cases (82 ears) from 1984 to 2008. The audiometic curve configuration was divided into 6 categories to analyze the relationship between the main curve types and the clinical stages. RESULTS The most common audiogram was the peak type (46.34%), followed by the falling type (19.51%) and the mountain type (12.19%), and the dip type was relatively rare (2.43%). No significant differences were found in the rate of peak audiograms between the clinical stages. The common audiogram peak frequency occurred at 2 kHz (47.39%). The top curve of 1-2 kHz had the largest proportion in mountain type audiograms (70%, 7/10 ears). The peak type and mountain type configuration are one of the audiological characteristics of Meniere disease, especially for 2 kHz peak, which may serve as the diagnostic features of Meniere disease in the vertigo patients on their first visit.

  8. Reliability of Pinch Strength Testing in Elderly Subjects with Unilateral Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Jorge H.; Valdes, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of pinch strength testing in elderly subjects with thumb CMC OA. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 27 patients with unilateral right-thumb CMC OA (mean ± SD age: 81.3 ± 4.7 years) were recruited. Each patient performed three pain-free maximal isometric contractions on each hand on two occasions, one week apart. Three different measurements were taken: tip, tripod, and key pinch strength. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) calculations were performed. [Results] Test-retest reliability of measurements of tip, tripod, and key pinch strength was excellent for the affected side (ICC=0.93, 0.96, and 0.99) and the contralateral thumb (ICC=0.91, 0.92, and 0.94). [Conclusions] The present results indicate that maximum pinch strength can be measured reliably using the Pinch Gauge Dynamometer, in patients with thumb CMC OA, which enables its use in research and in the clinic to determine the effect of interventions on improving pinch strength. PMID:25140081

  9. Clinical guide for audiologic tinnitus management II: Treatment.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Schechter, Martin A

    2005-06-01

    This article is the second of 2 that address the need for basic procedures that can be used commonly by audiologists to manage patients with clinically significant tinnitus, as well as hyperacusis. The method described is termed audiologic tinnitus management (ATM). ATM was developed specifically for use by audiologists. Although certain procedural components were adapted from the methods of tinnitus masking and tinnitus retraining therapy, ATM is uniquely and specifically defined. A detailed description of the ATM assessment procedures is provided in the companion article (J. A. Henry, T. L. Zaugg, & M. A. Schechter, 2005). The present article describes a specific clinical protocol for providing treatment with ATM. The treatment method described for ATM includes structured informational counseling and an individualized program of sound enhancement that can include the use of hearing aids, ear-level noise generators, combination instruments (noise generator and hearing aid combined), personal listening devices (wearable CD, tape, and MP3 players), and augmentative sound devices (e.g., tabletop sound generators). Ongoing treatment appointments involve primarily the structured counseling, evaluation, and adjustment of the use of sound devices, and assessment of treatment outcomes. The informational counseling protocol and an interview form for determining treatment outcomes are each described in step-by-step detail for direct clinical application. This article can serve as a practical clinical guide for audiologists to provide treatment for tinnitus in a uniform manner.

  10. Simulated learning environment (SLE) in audiology education: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dzulkarnain, Ahmad Aidil Arafat; Wan Mhd Pandi, Wan Mahirah; Rahmat, Sarah; Zakaria, Nur 'Azzah

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review the relevant peer-review literature investigating the outcome of simulated learning environment (SLE) training in audiology education. A systematic review research design. Fifteen databases were searched with four studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Three of the four studies revealed positive findings for the use of an SLE (that is, the SLE group showed a higher post-training score compared to the traditional training group or a significantly higher post-training score than the non-training groups). One study revealed negative findings where the traditional training group showed a significantly higher post-training score than the SLE group. In addition, both the studies comparing post- and pre-training scores reported significantly higher post-training scores than the pre-training scores of the participants that underwent SLE training. Overall, this review supports the notions that SLE training is an effective learning tool and can be used for basic clinical training. This conclusion should be treated with caution, considering the limited numbers of studies published in this area and future research should be conducted to cope with the gaps highlighted in this review.

  11. Brazilian young adults and noise: attitudes, habits, and audiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zocoli, Angela Maria Fontana; Morata, Thais Catalani; Marques, Jair Mendes; Corteletti, Lilian Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine behaviors and attitudes of Brazilian teenagers towards noise, and determine their audiological characteristics. Participants were 245 young persons (14 to 18 years old) who attended private school. Behaviors and attitudes were measured using the validated Portuguese version of the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS). Pure-tone audiometry was used to evaluate the hearing of a sub-sample of 24 participants. Music played through personal media players was the most common exposure reported. A substantial percentage of participants reported temporary tinnitus (69%) after attending discos, music concerts, and listening to music through headphones. Tinnitus complaints were more frequent among females (41%) than males (27%). Four participants (1.6%) reported use of a hearing protector. Among a subsample of 24 participants, two (8%) young women had bilateral audiometric notches. YANS scores in the present study were slightly lower than those obtained in Sweden and the US, indicating a more negative attitude towards noise. Gender, age, country, and/or region are variables that will influence exposure to noise or music and possibly hearing outcomes.

  12. Audiology In The Sudden Hearing Loss Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Chris; Shi, Helen; Reda, Domenic; Antonelli, PJ; Babu, S; Carey, JP; Gantz, BJ; Goebel, JA; Hammerschlag, PE; Harris, JP; Isaacson, B; Lee, D; Linstrom, CJ; Parnes, LS; Slattery, WH; Telian, SA; Vrabec, JT; Rauch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the pre- and post treatment population characteristics, and the overall stability of the audiologic outcomes found during the Sudden Hearing Loss Clinical Trial [ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT00097448]. Study Design Multi-center, prospective randomized non-inferiority trial of oral v. intratympanic (IT) steroid treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Setting Fifteen academically-based otology practices Patients 250 patients with unilateral SSNHL presenting within 14 days of onset with ≥50 dBHL pure tone average hearing threshold in the affected ear. Intervention Either 60 mg/day oral prednisone for 14 days with a 5-day taper (121 patients) or four IT doses over 14 days of 40mg/ml methylprednisolone (129 patients). Main Outcome Measure Primary endpoint was change in hearing [dB PTA] at 2 months after treatment. Non-inferiority was defined as <10 dB difference in hearing outcome between treatments. In this article, pre- and post treatment hearing findings will be reported in detail. Results A general (and stable) effect of treatment, and a specific effect of greater improvement at low frequencies was found in both treatment groups. Conclusions Hearing improvements are stable and a significantly greater improvement occurs wit lower frequency following either oral or IT steroid treatment of SSNHL. PMID:22805100

  13. Do Group Audiologic Rehabilitation Activities Influence Psychosocial Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Preminger, Jill E.; Yoo, Jae K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To attempt to determine whether group audiologic rehabilitation (AR) content affected psychosocial outcomes. Method A randomized controlled trial with at least 17 participants per group was completed. The 3 treatment groups included a communication strategies training group, a communication strategies training plus psychosocial exercise group, and an informational lecture plus psychosocial exercise group. Evaluations were conducted preclass, postclass, and 6-months postclass; they included hearing loss–related and generic quality of life scales, and a class evaluation form. Results All treatment groups demonstrated short- and long-term improvement on the hearing loss–related quality of life scale. Minimal differences were measured across treatment groups. A significant difference was observed between the lecture plus psychosocial exercise group and the communication strategies training group for 1 hearing loss–related quality of life subscale. Better outcomes were measured for the 2 groups with psychosocial exercises versus the communication strategies training group on 1 generic quality of life subscale. The results for the class evaluation did not discriminate among the treatment groups. Conclusions Class content had only a minimal influence on treatment outcomes. Recommended AR class content includes a mix of interventions including information, training, and psychosocial exercises. PMID:20595224

  14. Measuring numeracy without a math test: development of the Subjective Numeracy Scale.

    PubMed

    Fagerlin, Angela; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Ubel, Peter A; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Derry, Holly A; Smith, Dylan M

    2007-01-01

    Basic numeracy skills are necessary before patients can understand the risks of medical treatments. Previous research has used objective measures, similar to mathematics tests, to evaluate numeracy. To design a subjective measure (i.e., self-assessment) of quantitative ability that distinguishes low- and high-numerate individuals yet is less aversive, quicker to administer, and more usable for telephone and Internet surveys than existing numeracy measures. Paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The general public (N = 703) surveyed at 2 hospitals. Forty-nine subjective numeracy questions were compared to measures of objective numeracy. An 8-item measure, the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), was developed through several rounds of testing. Four items measure people's beliefs about their skill in performing various mathematical operations, and 4 measure people's preferences regarding the presentation of numerical information. The SNS was significantly correlated with Lipkus and others' objective numeracy scale (correlations: 0.63-0.68) yet was completed in less time (24 s/item v. 31 s/item, P < 0.05) and was perceived as less stressful (1.62 v. 2.69, P < 0.01) and less frustrating (1.92 v. 2.88, P < 0.01). Fifty percent of participants who completed the SNS volunteered to participate in another study, whereas only 8% of those who completed the Lipkus and others scale similarly volunteered (odds ratio = 11.00, 95% confidence interval = 2.14-56.65). The SNS correlates well with mathematical test measures of objective numeracy but can be administered in less time and with less burden. In addition, it is much more likely to leave participants willing to participate in additional research and shows much lower rates of missing or incomplete data.

  15. Psychophysical Map Stability in Bilateral Sequential Cochlear Implantation: Comparing Current Audiology Methods to a New Statistical Definition.

    PubMed

    Domville-Lewis, Chloe; Santa Maria, Peter L; Upson, Gemma; Chester-Browne, Ronel; Atlas, Marcus D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a statistical definition for stability in cochlear implant maps. Once defined, this study aimed to compare the duration taken to achieve a stable map in first and second implants in patients who underwent sequential bilateral cochlear implantation. This article also sought to evaluate a number of factors that potentially affect map stability. A retrospective cohort study of 33 patients with sensorineural hearing loss who received sequential bilateral cochlear implantation (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia), performed by the senior author. Psychophysical parameters of hearing threshold scores, comfort scores, and the dynamic range were measured for the apical, medial, and basal portions of the cochlear implant electrode at a range of intervals postimplantation. Stability was defined statistically as a less than 10% difference in threshold, comfort, and dynamic range scores over three consecutive mapping sessions. A senior cochlear implant audiologist, blinded to implant order and the statistical results, separately analyzed these psychophysical map parameters using current assessment methods. First and second implants were compared for duration to achieve stability, age, gender, the duration of deafness, etiology of deafness, time between the insertion of the first and second implant, and the presence or absence of preoperative hearing aids were evaluated and its relationship to stability. Statistical analysis included performing a two-tailed Student's t tests and least squares regression analysis, with a statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between the devised statistical definition and the current audiology methods for assessing stability, with a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.36 and a least squares regression slope (b) of 0.41, df(58), 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.55 (p = 0.004). The average duration from device switch on to stability in the first implant was 87

  16. Perception of depth distance of integral photography through the measurement of eye movement and subjective test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Suzuki, Makoto; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    We developed a measurement tool for binocular eye movement and examined the perception of depth distance in integral photography images, which is a type of three dimensional image, using the tool we developed. Furthermore, we evaluated the perception of the depth distance in integral photography images by the subjective test, and we considered the perception results of the depth distance, which were these two experimental results. Additionally, we examined the perception of the depth distance in the real objects, and compared with the results in the case of integral photography images and real objects.

  17. Simulation of brain damage on the Bender-Gestalt test by college subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, A R; Reed, M R

    1975-06-01

    The study found that nonbraindamaged college subjects could not simulate organicity on the Bender-Gestalt test when instructed to do so. Although Pascal-Suttell and Canter scoring methods failed to differentiate malingerers from an organic criterion group, an ABPP clinician sorted 89% of the records correctly in a pilot study. Differentiating criteria were then spelled out from the pilot study protocols. In the main study the expert clinician correctly identified all 20 malingerers. Subsequent studies of intra- and inter-rater reliability produced satisfactory results.

  18. The RAPID Neuropsychological Test Battery for Subjects Aged 50-89: From Norms to Cognitive Profile.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Géraldine; Mauny, Frédéric; Lavaux, Marie; Puyraveau, Marc; Binetruy, Mickael; Meyer, Agatha; Vandel, Pierre; Galmiche, Jean; Chopard, Gilles

    2017-09-22

    It is well established that healthy adults obtain low performances when simultaneously interpreting the results of multiple tests. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of French-speaking healthy older adults with low scores for the RAPID (Réseau d'Aide au diagnostic et à la PrIse en charge des Détériorations cognitives et de maladies neurologiques chroniques en Franche-Comté et au niveau national) battery test and consider different combinations of test scores within a specific domain and across different domains. The prevalence of low scores (i.e., ≤5th percentile) on the 14 RAPID primary measures was calculated from the RAPID normative sample (n = 476), based on 4 ages (50-89 years) and 3 levels of education. A high percentage (40.1%) of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low scores (i.e., false positives). In contrast, the risk of having low scores was much less important (<2%) when considering the combinations of 2 test-scores. Low scores are very common in healthy older subjects and are thus not necessarily pathological or indicative of truly impaired functioning. The information derived from a cognitive profile may provide a greater clinical relevance in an individual, since very few of the healthy older adults obtained low scores on combinations of 2 test-scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness. PMID:27630984

  20. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  1. Oral glucose tolerance test effects on endothelial inflammation markers in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; D'Angelo, A; Salvadeo, S A T; Ferrari, I; Fogari, E; Gravina, A; Mereu, R; Palumbo, I; Maffioli, P; Randazzo, S; Cicero, A F G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the level of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation markers in healthy subjects (H) and diabetic overweight patients (D). We enrolled 256 healthy subjects and 274 type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated blood glucose (BG), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline and after OGTT. We observed that BG, sICAM-1, IL-6, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and TNF-alpha values were higher in D group than in H group. In a large sample of adult healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics we observed that both answer to an OGTT with a significant increase in biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin. Type 2 diabetics experienced, however, a more significant increase in TNF-alpha, and sE-selectin.

  2. Coupon and Birdstrike Testing of F-111 ADBIRT Windshields Which Have Been Subjected to Simulated Pressure/Thermal Service Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    AD-A251 767 WL-TR-91-3088 COUPON AND BIRDSTRIKE TESTING OF F- I I ADBIRT WINDSHIELDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO SIMULATED PRESSURE/ THERMAL SERVICE... COUPON AND BIRDSTRIKE TESTING OF F-111 ADBIRT WINDSHIELDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO SIMULATED PRESSURE/THERMAL SERVICE LIFE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...111 Aircraft Coupon Testing ADBIRT Windshield Transparencies Birdstrike Testing 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block

  3. Centrifuge tests on small-scaled sandy slopes subjected to rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matziaris, Vasileios; Marsall, Alec; Yu, Hai-Sui

    2014-05-01

    The stability of sandy slopes has been evaluated by performing centrifuge model tests on Nottingham Centre for Geomechanics (NCG) 2m radius geotechnical centrifuge. Small-scaled slope models from fine-grained silica sand were subjected to rainfall conditions in the increased gravity environment. The intensity of rainfall, with respect to the soil permeability, and the duration that leads to instability were determined, defining rainfall thresholds. Tests were performed in a controlled climatic environment, using a climatic chamber. Slope models were prepared in 1-g environment using moisture-tapping method, ensuring initial unsaturated conditions. The infiltration of rainfall water and the resulting changes to the pore water pressure regime before and during failure were recorded using miniature pore water pressure transducers (PPTs) and tensiometers, while deformations were determined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Finally, some preliminary results are presented concerning changes of soil's degree of saturation and pore water pressures during gravity turn-on.

  4. Estimation of maximum temperature in a package subjected to hypothetical-accident thermal-test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.L.

    1996-05-01

    A simple reading-the-graph procedure has been developed to provide a quick estimate of maximum temperature in a package during hypothetical-accident thermal-test conditions. The procedure, based on applying the analytical solutions of a transient thermal-diffusion equation for temperatures in a semi-infinite solid and in an infinitely long circular cylinder subjected to step surface temperature boundary conditions, is applicable to all packages, with or without an internal heat source, that are protected by rectangular or cylindrical thermal insulating overpacks. Simple to follow, the procedure provides a conservative estimate of package maximum temperatures during hypothetical-accident thermal-test conditions. To demonstrate its applicability, the procedure is applied to the Mound 9859 tritium trap package and two values of the thermal diffusivity of the insulation in the overpack.

  5. Progressive failure of composite wind blades with a shear-web spar subjected to static testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, T. Y.; Chiu, Y. H.

    2017-06-01

    Composite wind blades of 1m long comprising glass-fabric/epoxy skins and a sandwich plate-type spar were designed and fabricated for static testing. In the composite wind blades, the spar supports the top and bottom skins to form the airfoil shape of NACA4418. The blades were tested to failure and the failure modes were identified at different loading stages. A structural failure analysis method which consists of a geometrically nonlinear finite element (FE) model and appropriate phenomenological failure criteria is used to study the progressive failure behaviours of the blades subjected to different types of quasi-static loads. The experimental load-displacement curves as well as failure loads and locations for different failure modes are used to validate the suitability of the proposed failure analysis method.

  6. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus test with specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Boivin, G; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Murray, G; Lalonde, R; Tevere, V J; Sun, R; Bergeron, M G

    1998-09-01

    The AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus (CMV) test, a new qualitative assay for the detection of CMV DNA in plasma, was compared to conventional methods and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays by using leukocytes and plasma from 179 blood samples from subjects with AIDS. For the diagnosis of CMV disease, cell-based assays such as a Q-PCR with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Q-PCR-PMNL) and a pp65 antigenemia assay had the highest sensitivities but suffered from a lack of specificity. The best agreement between the results of the Q-PCR-PMNL assay and those of the AMPLICOR test was found when a threshold diagnostic value of 690 copies per 10(5) cells was selected for the Q-PCR-PMNL assay. In that context, the AMPLICOR CMV test had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 95.3% when results were compared to results of the cell-based PCR assay. This threshold was close to the one described as associated with the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CMV disease in a recently published study (4). Blood samples that tested positive by the Q-PCR-PMNL assay but negative by the AMPLICOR CMV test were associated with viral loads (mean, 785 copies, median, 96 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) lower than the viral loads of blood samples that tested positive by both assays (mean, 21,452 copies; median, 9,784 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) (P = 0.003). The AMPLICOR CMV test gave positive results at least 48 days before the development of symptomatic CMV disease in a longitudinal analysis of a limited subset of patients (n = 6) from whom sequential specimens were available for testing. In conclusion, the AMPLICOR CMV test is a very convenient assay combining rapidity, simplicity, and the possibility of batch testing. A positive result by this test seems particularly important since this implies, in most instances, the presence or the imminence of CMV disease, although a negative test result does not rule out disease.

  7. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR Cytomegalovirus Test with Specimens from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Handfield, Julie; Toma, Emil; Murray, Gilles; Lalonde, Richard; Tevere, Vincent J.; Sun, Rita; Bergeron, Michel G.

    1998-01-01

    The AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus (CMV) test, a new qualitative assay for the detection of CMV DNA in plasma, was compared to conventional methods and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays by using leukocytes and plasma from 179 blood samples from subjects with AIDS. For the diagnosis of CMV disease, cell-based assays such as a Q-PCR with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Q-PCR-PMNL) and a pp65 antigenemia assay had the highest sensitivities but suffered from a lack of specificity. The best agreement between the results of the Q-PCR-PMNL assay and those of the AMPLICOR test was found when a threshold diagnostic value of 690 copies per 105 cells was selected for the Q-PCR-PMNL assay. In that context, the AMPLICOR CMV test had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 95.3% when results were compared to results of the cell-based PCR assay. This threshold was close to the one described as associated with the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CMV disease in a recently published study (4). Blood samples that tested positive by the Q-PCR-PMNL assay but negative by the AMPLICOR CMV test were associated with viral loads (mean, 785 copies, median, 96 copies per 105 leukocytes) lower than the viral loads of blood samples that tested positive by both assays (mean, 21,452 copies; median, 9,784 copies per 105 leukocytes) (P = 0.003). The AMPLICOR CMV test gave positive results at least 48 days before the development of symptomatic CMV disease in a longitudinal analysis of a limited subset of patients (n = 6) from whom sequential specimens were available for testing. In conclusion, the AMPLICOR CMV test is a very convenient assay combining rapidity, simplicity, and the possibility of batch testing. A positive result by this test seems particularly important since this implies, in most instances, the presence or the imminence of CMV disease, although a negative test result does not rule out disease. PMID:9705384

  8. Application of Lean Sigma to the Audiology Clinic at a Large Academic Center.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Matthew G; Tirabassi, Amy; Turner, Laurie; Lee, Emily; Ries, Kathryn; Lin, Sandra Y

    2016-04-01

    To apply Lean Sigma--a quality improvement strategy to eliminate waste and reduce variation and defects--to improve audiology scheduling and utilization in a large tertiary care referral center. The project goals included an increase in utilization rates of audiology block time and a reduction in appointment lead time. Prospective quality improvement study. Academic tertiary care center. All patients scheduling audiology clinic visits July 2013 to July 2014. Value stream mapping was performed for the audiology scheduling process, and wasteful steps were identified for elimination. Interventions included a 2-week block release, audiology template revision, and reduction of underutilized blocks. Schedule utilization and lead time for new patient diagnostic audiogram were measured for 5 months postintervention and compared with 5 months preintervention. Overall, 2995 preintervention and 3714 postintervention booked appointments were analyzed. Block utilization increased from 77% to 90% after intervention (P < .0001). Utilization of joint-with-provider visits increased from 39% to 67% (P < .0001). Booked appointments increased from 2995 to 3714, with joint-with-provider booked appointments increasing from 317 to 1193. Appointment lead time averaged 24 days postintervention, compared with 29 days preintervention (P = .06). Average monthly relative value units measured 13,321 preintervention and 14,778 postintervention (P = .09). Lean Sigma techniques were successfully used to increase appointment block utilization and streamline scheduling practices. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  9. Family member involvement in audiology appointments with older people with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Katie; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate family members' involvement in audiology rehabilitation appointments. Audiology appointments were video-recorded and analysed using quantitative coding and conversation analysis (CA). The study sample included 13 audiologists, 17 older adults with hearing impairment, and 17 family members. Initial coding showed that family members participated in 12% of the total talk time during audiology appointments. The CA results demonstrated that family members were not typically invited to join the conversation. However, family members would self-select to speak by: (1) responding to questions from the audiologist which were directed at the client; (2) self-initiating expansions on clients' turns; and (3) self-initiating questions. When family members did participate in the interaction, audiologists typically responded by shifting the conversation back to the client. While family members currently have minimal participation in audiology appointments, they display a strong interest in being involved and sharing their experiences of the client's hearing impairment. The findings suggest support for implementing family-centred care principles in audiology practice.

  10. Timed Up and Go test: Comparison of kinematics between patients with chronic stroke and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Vaugier, Isabelle; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Understanding locomotor behavior is important to guide rehabilitation after stroke. This study compared lower-limb kinematics during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in stroke patients and healthy subjects. We also determined the parameters which explain TUG sub-task performance time in healthy subjects. Biomechanical parameters were recorded during the TUG in standardized conditions in 25 healthy individuals and 29 patients with chronic stroke using a 3D motion-analysis system. Parameters were compared between groups and a stepwise regression was used to indicate parameters which explained performance time in the healthy subjects. The percentage difference in step length between the last and first steps was calculated, during walking sub-tasks for each group. Speed, cadence, step length, percentage paretic single support phase, percentage non-paretic swing phase, peak hip extension, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion were significantly reduced in the Stroke group compared to the Healthy group (p<0.05). In the Healthy group, step length and cadence explained 91% of variance for Go and 86% for Return (walking sub-tasks), and none of the parameters explained the Turn. Previous study in patients with stroke showed that the same parameters explained the variance during the walking sub-tasks and balance-related parameters explained the Turn. The present results showed that step length was differently modulated in each group. Thus the locomotor behavior of patients with stroke during obstacle circumvention is quite specific in light of the results obtained in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance testing of lidar components subjected to exposure in space via MISSE 7 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  12. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  13. Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.

  14. Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.

  15. Post-Flight Test Results of Acousto-Optic Modulator Devices Subjected to Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in a space environment for more than one and a half years included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator (AOM) devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  16. [The audiological phenotype and the prevalence of GJB2-related sensorineural loss of hearing in the infants suffering acoustic disturbances].

    PubMed

    Lalaiants, M R; Markova, T G; Bakhshinian, V V; Bliznets, E A; Poliakov, A V; Tavartikiladze, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study specific features of the audiological phenotype and the prevalence of GJB2-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in the infants suffering acoustic disturbances. The study included 264 children with bilateral non-syndromic sensorineural loss of hearing diagnosed during the first year of life by means of detailed audiological examination that included tympanometry, registration of short-latency auditory action potentials (SLAAP), delayed evoked otoacoustic emission (DEOAE), distortion product-frequency otoacoustic emission (DPFOAE), and auditory brain-stem response (ABR). In addition, stationary acoustically evoked responses (SAER) were recorded in 38 children presenting with hearing impairment associated with GJB2-related sensorineural loss of hearing. The follow-up dynamic study involved 113 children subjected to repeated audiological examination. The study revealed the genotype with pathological mutations in 182 (69.0%) children including 171 (64.8%) ones with biallelic mutations and 11 (4.2%) with a single mutation (heterozygous genotype). Eighty two (31.0%) children had genotype without mutations. A total of 21 different mutations and 30 different genotypes were identified. Analysis of the family histories of the children showed that neither the absence of relatives suffering from hearing impairment nor the presence of risk factors of acquired hearing impairment excludes the possibility of GJB2-related sensorineural loss of hearing in the infants. Otoacoustic emission fails to be registered in the majority of the children with the altered genotype (87%) during the stay in the maternity house. Mutations in the GJB2 gene are most frequently diagnosed in the patients with the moderate, moderately severe, and severe loss of hearing. At the same time, almost half of the infants presenting with the mild loss of hearing were found to exhibit changes in the GJB2 gene. The thresholds of registration of short

  17. Comparison between clinical and audiological results of tympanoplasty with modified sandwich technique and underlay technique.

    PubMed

    Nemade, Sanjana Vijay; Shinde, Kiran Jaywant; Naik, Chetana Shivadas; Qadri, Haris

    2017-04-21

    Surgical repair of the tympanic membrane, termed a type one tympanoplasty is a tried and tested treatment modality. Overlay or underlay technique of tympanoplasty is common. Sandwich tympanoplasty is the combined overlay and underlay grafting of tympanic membrane. To describe and evaluate the modified sandwich graft (mediolateral graft) tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia and areolar fascia. To compare the clinical and audiological outcome of modified sandwich tympanoplasty with underlay tympanoplasty. A total of 88 patients of chronic otitis media were studied. 48 patients (Group A) underwent type one tympanoplasty with modified sandwich graft. Temporalis fascia was underlaid and the areolar fascia was overlaid. 48 patients (Group B) underwent type one tympanoplasty with underlay technique. We assessed the healing and hearing results. Successful graft take up was accomplished in 47 patients (97.9%) in Group A and in 40 patients (83.3%) Group B. The average Air-Bone gap closure achieved in Group A was 24.4±1.7dB while in Group B; it was 22.5±3.5dB. Statistically significant difference was found in graft healing rate. Difference in hearing improvement was not statistically significant. Double layered graft with drum-malleus as a 'meat' of sandwich maintains a perfect balance between sufficient stability and adequate acoustic sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Standard operating procedure: implementation, critical analysis, and validation in the Audiology Department at CESTEH/Fiocruz.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Anelisse Vasco Mascarenhas de; Quixabeiro, Elinaldo Leite; Luz, Geórgia Rosangela Soares; Franco, Viviane Moreira; Santos, Viviane Fontes Dos

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate three standard operational procedures (SOPs), regarding the application of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) test, implemented by the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies in Occupational Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH) through the application of a questionnaire and to verify whether the SOPs are effective and assess the necessity for improvement. The study was conducted in three phases: in the first phase, eight speech-language pathologists and seven physicians, with no experience in BAEP, were instructed to read and perform each SOP, eventually all individuals evaluated the SOPs by responding to a questionnaire; in the second phase, the questionnaires were analyzed and the three SOP texts were reviewed; in the third phase, nine speech-language pathologists and six physicians, also with no experience in BAEP, read and re-evaluated the reviewed SOPs through a questionnaire. In the first phase, difficulties in understanding the texts were found, raising doubts about the procedures; however, every participant was able to perform the procedure as a whole. In the third phase, after the review, all individuals were able to perform the procedures appropriately and continuously without any doubts. The assessment of the SOPs by questionnaires showed the need for adaptation in the texts. After the texts were reviewed according to the suggestions of the health professionals, it was possible to observe that the SOPs assisted in the execution of the task, which was conducted without any difficulties or doubts, being regarded effective and ensuring quality to the service offered.

  19. Stages of change in audiology: comparison of three self-assessment measures.

    PubMed

    Ingo, Elisabeth; Brännström, K Jonas; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane

    2017-07-01

    In a clinical setting, theories of health behaviour change could help audiologists and other hearing health care professionals understand the barriers that prevent people with hearing problems to seek audiological help. The transtheoretical (stages of change) model of health behaviour change is one of these theories. It describes a person's journey towards health behaviour change (e.g. seeking help or taking up rehabilitation) in separate stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and, finally, maintenance. A short self-assessment measure of stages of change may guide the clinician and facilitate first appointments. This article describes correlations between three stages of change measures of different lengths, one 24-item and two one-item. Participants were recruited through an online hearing screening study. Adults who failed the speech-in-noise recognition screening test and who had never undergone a hearing aid fitting were invited to complete further questionnaires online, including the three stages of change measures. In total, 224 adults completed the three measures. A majority of the participants were categorised as being in one of the information- and help-seeking stage of change (contemplation or preparation). The three stages of change measures were significantly correlated. Conclusions Our results support further investigating the use of a one-item measure to determine stages of change in people with hearing impairment.

  20. Subtyping Somatic Tinnitus: A Cross-Sectional UK Cohort Study of Demographic, Clinical and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Vella, Claire; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus is the ability to modulate the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus by somatic manoeuvres. The condition is still not fully understood and further identification of this subtype is essential, particularly for the purpose of establishing protocols for both its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of somatic tinnitus within a large UK cohort using a largely unselected sample. We believe this to be relatively unique in comparison to current literature on the topic. This was investigated by using a total of 608 participant assessments from a set of recognised tinnitus and audiology measures. Results from a set of chi-square tests of association found that amongst the individuals with somatic tinnitus, a higher proportion had pulsatile tinnitus (different from heartbeat), were under the age of 40, reported variation in the loudness of their tinnitus and reported temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. The same pattern of results was confirmed using a multivariate analysis of the data based on logistic regression. These findings have strong implications towards the profiling of somatic tinnitus as a distinct subtype of general tinnitus. PMID:25996779

  1. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  2. New testing software for quantifying discrimination capacity in subjects with ocular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, José J.; Jiménez, José R.; Ortiz, Carolina; Alarcón, Aixa; Anera, Rosario G.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new visual test, designed as software for quantifying discrimination capacity under low-illumination conditions. This is an important task in the presence of visual disturbances, such as those perceived by subjects with some ocular pathologies. For this purpose, we propose a visual-disturbance index, checking the test with two groups of observers having different ocular pathologies: a group with unilateral keratitis and another group affected with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). To compare the test results to objective data, we use a double-pass device to measure the Strehl ratio, a parameter that quantifies the retinal-image quality, taking into account aberrations, retinal reflection, and intraocular scattering working jointly. Diseased eyes present higher disturbance indexes and a lower Strehl ratio compared to their healthy fellow eyes, registering a significant descending correlation between the disturbance index and the Strehl ratio. The lower the Strehl ratio is, the higher the disturbance index for the eyes studied. Therefore, in keratitis and ARMD eyes, our results demonstrate a deterioration in the retinal-image quality and a lower discrimination capacity to peripheral stimuli, reducing visual performance. The test presented here could be useful for the study and time course in different eye diseases, especially those involving an increase in scattered light or alterations in the ocular media, as shown in this work.

  3. Human analogue of the morris water maze for testing subjects at risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laczó, J; Andel, R; Vyhnalek, M; Vlcek, K; Magerova, H; Varjassyova, A; Tolar, M; Hort, J

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have difficulties with spatial orientation. To test hypothesis that spatial navigation is impaired early in MCI patients representing the presymptomatic stage of AD. We tested patients with probable AD (n = 21), MCI, further classified according to Petersen's criteria as amnestic MCI (aMCI) single domain (n = 11), aMCI multiple domain (n = 31), or nonamnestic MCI (n = 7). The aMCI group was also stratified using cued recall according to Dubois' criteria into memory impairment of the hippocampal type (n = 10) and isolated memory retrieval impairment-nonhippocampal (n = 32) and also according to ApoE4 status into E4+ (n = 12) and E4- (n = 30). These patients and controls (n = 28) were tested in the human variant of the Morris water maze. Depending on the subtest, the subjects could use the egocentric or allocentric (hippocampus-dependent) navigation. The AD and aMCI multiple domain groups were impaired in all subtests. The aMCI single domain group was impaired in allocentric subtests. The hippocampal MCI group performed poorer than the nonhippocampal MCI group and similarly to the AD group. The ApoE4+ group was as bad as the AD group when compared with the E4- group. aMCI subjects represent a very heterogeneous population, and spatial memory or cued recall examination can add more value to aMCI classification. ApoE4+ patients are more impaired than ApoE4- patients. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Audiological profile of patients treated for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Patricia Helena Pecora; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Schultz, Christiane; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo; Lopes, Luiz Fernando

    To characterize the hearing loss after cancer treatment, according to the type of treatment, with identification of predictive factors. Two hundred patients who had cancer in childhood were prospectively evaluated. The mean age at diagnosis was 6 years, and at the audiometric assessment, 21 years. The treatment of the participants included chemotherapy without using platinum derivatives or head and neck radiotherapy in 51 patients; chemotherapy using cisplatin without radiotherapy in 64 patients; head and neck radiotherapy without cisplatin in 75 patients; and a combined treatment of head and neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin in ten patients. Patients underwent audiological assessment, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and immittancemetry. The treatment involving chemotherapy with cisplatin caused 41.9% and 47.3% hearing loss in the right and left ear, respectively, with a 11.7-fold higher risk of hearing loss in the right ear and 17.6-fold higher in the left ear versus patients not treated with cisplatin (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Children whose cancer diagnosis occurred after the age of 6 have shown an increased risk of hearing loss vs. children whose diagnosis occurred under 6 years of age (p=0.02). The auditory feature found after the cancer treatment was a symmetrical bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Chemotherapy with cisplatin proved to be a risk factor, while head and neck radiotherapy was not critical for the occurrence of hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Research of the optical properties of solar-reflective materials subjected to accelerated and nonaccelerated exposure tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rausch, R A

    1980-10-01

    Research on candidate reflective materials for use in solar thermal power applications is reported. The candidate materials have been subjected to exposure tests conducted previously at the Phoenix, Arizona test site. The samples have been exposed to each of three test conditions - one non-accelerated and two different accelerated tests (nominally 8 suns). Post-exposure optical measurements of spectral reflectance were then conducted for the exposure test samples. Reflectance specularity data for the subject materials are obtained from optical measurements performed by Battelle-PNL. Summarized is an investigation of the accumulated reflectance data for correlations using three of the various materials included in the exposure test sample set. (LEW)

  6. Relationships between seat properties and human subject kinematics in rear impact tests.

    PubMed

    Welcher, J B; Szabo, T J

    2001-05-01

    The mitigation of whiplash associated disorders (WAD) has received increased priority in the last 10 years. Although the exact mechanism(s) for WAD causation have not been established, several have been proposed and it is likely the mechanism(s) are associated with the kinematics of the head relative to the torso. It follows that automotive seat designs that address reductions in certain head-torso kinematics may lead to a reduction in WAD potential. Seat properties that may have an effect on head-neck kinematics include geometry, stiffness and energy absorption. This study evaluated the performance of five seats with varying properties, including the new Volvo 'WHIPS' seat. Seat properties such as geometry relative to the occupant's head, dynamic and static stiffness, and energy absorption were determined via component testing. A new prototype dynamic seat test, which used a pendulum and seat back pan, was evaluated. Human subject impact tests were conducted using three occupants in rear impacts with velocity changes of 4 and 8 km/h. Potentially relevant occupant kinematic parameters were identified, and then correlated with seat properties in an attempt to determine any relative influence of seat properties on potential WAD mechanisms. Two higher velocity human subject tests using the Volvo Whiplash Injury Protection System (WHIPS) seat were also conducted. Vertical and horizontal head to head restraint distances were found to be most influential on occupant head-neck kinematics. Horizontal and vertical head to head restraint offsets were significantly correlated with rearward translational motion of the head center of gravity relative to the upper torso across all occupants. Rearward offset was also significantly correlated with rearward rotation of the head relative to upper torso, while vertical offset was significantly correlated with head acceleration relative to the upper torso during the flexion phase of the impact. Seat constitutive properties such as

  7. Influence of intranasal epinephrine and lidocaine spray on olfactory function tests in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Gi; Ha, Seung Yong; Eun, Young-Gyu; Kim, Myung-Gu

    2011-12-01

    Although topical decongestants and anesthetics are widely used in preparation for nasal endoscopy, no controlled trials have evaluated the effects of these agents on olfaction. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Tertiary referral hospital. The authors recruited 72 healthy subjects and randomly assigned them to 1 of 4 groups (control, phenylephrine group, lidocaine group, and both agents). After baseline tests with the Korean version of Sniffin' Stick Test II (KVSS II), topical agents were applied to each nostril. Fifteen minutes later, repeat tests were carried out. Pre- and postspray results of the olfactory tests were compared, and the differences among groups were analyzed. The mean ± SD prespray KVSS II score of the study group was 30.2 ± 3.8, and there were no statistically significant differences among the study groups (P = .353). Mean ± SD pre- and postspray KVSS II scores were 29.0 ± 3.5 and 30.7 ± 3.7 (P = .128) in the control group, 30.6 ± 3.6 and 31.7 ± 3.3 (P = .262) in the phenylephrine group, and 31.4 ± 3.6 and 32.1 ± 3.1 (P = .557) in the lidocaine group, respectively. In the phenylephrine and epinephrine spray group, the mean ± SD pre- and postspray scores were 29.9 ± 4.4 and 31.3 ± 3.7 (P = .071), respectively. Neither topical intranasal phenylephrine nor lidocaine use affected the results of the olfactory test, even when the agents were used in combination.

  8. Clinical availability of the deep tendon reflex test using a novel apparatus in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a novel apparatus intended to improve the consistency and reliability of the deep tendon reflex (DTR) test. [Subjects] The participants included 50 healthy adults (25 male and 25 female) between 20 and 31 years of age who showed no knee abnormalities upon physical examination. [Methods] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to verify inter-rater reliability for two parameters examined in the DTR test using a newly designed apparatus. These parameters were the patellar reflex amplitude and first knee extension angle. Pearson’s product correlation coefficient was then used to examine the correlation between these two parameters. [Results] The inter-rater reliability analysis showed a high correlation between the examiners for both DTR parameters (ICCs = 0.91–0.96). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two parameters (r = 0.91). [Conclusion] The results show that it is possible to use the novel apparatus described herein to obtain reliable results in the DTR test. PMID:25729159

  9. Clinical availability of the deep tendon reflex test using a novel apparatus in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a novel apparatus intended to improve the consistency and reliability of the deep tendon reflex (DTR) test. [Subjects] The participants included 50 healthy adults (25 male and 25 female) between 20 and 31 years of age who showed no knee abnormalities upon physical examination. [Methods] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to verify inter-rater reliability for two parameters examined in the DTR test using a newly designed apparatus. These parameters were the patellar reflex amplitude and first knee extension angle. Pearson's product correlation coefficient was then used to examine the correlation between these two parameters. [Results] The inter-rater reliability analysis showed a high correlation between the examiners for both DTR parameters (ICCs = 0.91-0.96). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two parameters (r = 0.91). [Conclusion] The results show that it is possible to use the novel apparatus described herein to obtain reliable results in the DTR test.

  10. Astronaut Owen Garriott as test subject for Human Vestibular Function exp.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Skylab Human Vestibular Function M131 Experiment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The objectives of the M131 experiment are to obtain data pertinent to establishing the validity of measurements of specific behavioral/physiological responses influenced by vestibular activity under one-G and zero-G conditions; to determine man's adaptability to unusual vestibular conditions and predict habitability of future spacecraft conditions involving reduced gravity and Coriollis forces; and to measure the accuracy and variability in man's judgement of spatial coordinates based on atypical gravity receptor cues and inadequate visual cues.

  11. Astronaut Charles Conrad as test subject for Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-09

    S73-27707 (9 June 1973) --- Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, serves as test subject for the Lower Body Negative Pressure (MO92) Experiment, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1/2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, assists Conrad into the LBNP device. Kerwin served as monitor for the experiment. The purpose of the MO92 experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The data collected in support of MO92 blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, LBNPD pressure, leg volume changes, and body weight. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  13. Educational needs of speech and language therapists in the field of audiology.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    Speech and language therapists have rather diverse educational backgrounds globally. Their qualifications vary from a 1 to 2-year diploma or certificate programme in a non-university educational setting, to a 6-year university graduate education. Although speech and language therapy is generally considered an interdisciplinary profession, both in education and in clinical practice, in some countries the main emphasis may still be on special education, medicine (mainly medical audiology) or, because of a joint qualification, psychology. This article discusses the requirements for audiological education in proper assessment and (re)habilitation of hearing impairments. Future challenges of both the profession and the discipline of speech and language therapy are also highlighted.

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is more accurate than ECG-stress testing in diagnosing myocardial ischemia in subjects with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Romualdo; Lacalaprice, Francesca; Tiano, Luca; Muçai, Andi; Perna, Gian Piero

    2014-06-15

    Cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing (CPET) is used to grade the severity of heart failure and to assess its prognosis. However it is unknown whether CPET may improve diagnostic accuracy of standard ECG stress testing to identify or exclude obstructive coronary artery disease (O-CAD) in patients with chest pain. We prospectively studied 1265 consecutive subjects (55 ± 8 years, 156 women) who were evaluated with ECG stress testing (ET) for chest pain. No one had a documented O-CAD. All patients performed an incremental CPET with ECG recordings on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Of 1265 patients, 73 had a positive CPET and 1192 had a negative CPET. Seventy-three patients with a positive CPET and 71 patients with a negative CPET agreed to undergo nuclear SPECT imaging and coronary angiography. Follow-up lasted 48 ± 7 months. As compared with ET, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were all improved significantly (ET: 48%, 55%, 33%, 95%; CPET: 88%, 98%, 73%, 99%, respectively, P<0.001). Patients with both peak VO2>91% of predicted VO2 max and absence of VO2-related signs of myocardial ischemia had no evidence of O-CAD in 100% of cases. Cardiac events occurred in 32 patients with a positive CPET and 8 patients with a negative CPET (log rank 18.2, P<0.0001). In patients with chest pain, CPET showed a better diagnostic and predictive accuracy than traditional ET to detect/exclude myocardial ischemia. Its use should be encouraged among physicians as a first line diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  16. High Test-retest-reliability of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Özgül, Özüm Simal; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Vollert, Jan; Fischer, Marc; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2017-03-22

    Pain-related-evoked potentials (PREP) is an established electrophysiological method to evaluate the signal transmission of electrically stimulated A-delta fibres. Although prerequisite for its clinical use, test-retest-reliability and side-to-side differences of bilateral stimulation in healthy subjects have not been examined yet. We performed PREP twice within 3 to 14days in 33 healthy subjects bilaterally by stimulating the dorsal hand. Detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) after electrical stimulation, the corresponding pain ratings, latencies of P0, N1, P1 and N2 components and the corresponding amplitudes were assessed. Impact of electrically induced pain intensity, age, sex, and arm length on PREP was analysed. MANOVA, t-Test, interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Bland-Altmann-Analysis as well as ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. Measurement from both sides on both days resulted in mean N1-latencies from 142.39 ±18.12ms to 144.03 ±16.62ms and in mean N1P1-amplitudes from 39.04 ±12.26μV to 40.53 ±12.9μV. Analysis of a side-to-side effect showed for the N1-latency a F-value of 0.038 and for the N1P1-amplitude of 0.004 (p >0.8). We found intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) from 0.88 to 0.93 and a standard error of measurement (SEM) < 10% of mean values for all measurements concerning the N1-Latency and N1P1-amplitude. Intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement and Bland-Altman-Analyses revealed excellent test-retest-reliability for N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude without systematic error and there was no side-to-side effect on PREP. N1-latency (r=0.35, p <0.05) and N1P1-amplitude (r=-0.45, p <0.05) correlated with age and additionally N1-latency correlated with arm length (r=0.45, p<0.001). In contrast, pain intensity during the stimulation had no effect on both N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude. In summary, PREP showed high test

  17. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  18. Recent progress made in testing laser diodes and optical materials subjected to exposure in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, progress made so far in the performance testing of waveguide laser components sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. The results of post-testing of several optical materials that were recently returned back after more than one year of exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) will be presented. The items were part of the MISSE 6 mission that was transported to the ISS via STS 123 on March 11, 2008 and returned to the Earth via STS 128 that was launched on August 2009. The materials experienced no visible damage during lengthy exposure in space. In the case of laser diode, a comparison of elemental analysis with pre-flight conditions will be presented. Furthermore, the optical components sent on MISSE 7 mission via STS-129 and later retrieved by STS-134 will be briefly discussed.

  19. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SUBJECTED TO MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Viviane Martins Mana; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Brandäo, Camila Fernanda Costa Cunha Moraes; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Botelho, And Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. It was a double-blind and crossover study comprising 24 active individuals within the age group 18-30 years. The comparisons were conducted: the effect of exercise (week 1 x 2) and caffeine intake (GC x GP) on thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) variables during pre-exercise time (30 min. after caffeine or placebo intake) and post-exercise (5 min after treadmill test). The comparison between weeks 1 and 2 showed increase in the first week, in the following items: TBARS, IL-6 and IL-10 in the GC and GP groups. The comparison within the same week showed that GC individuals presented lower post-exercise TBARS values in the first and second weeks; IL- 6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group in both weeks. The paired analysis comparing pre- and post-exercise, with and without caffeine showed that IL-6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group. Caffeine used by athletes can decrease oxidative stress. The increased IL-6 suggest that this ergogenic supplement may stimulate muscle hypertrophy, since IL-6 has myokine effect. However, the caffeine effect on IL-6 level and muscle hypertrophy increase should be better investigated in future studies.

  20. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  1. Presentation of Aural Stimuli to Newborns and Premature Infants: An Audiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cassidy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.

  2. [Echocardiography during ergometric tests in subjects with stable effort angina (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fedele, F; Arata, L; Giannico, S; Pastore, L R; Di Renzi, L; Penco, M; Agati, L; Dagianti, A

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of echocardiography in detecting left ventricle wall motion abnormalities, their location and their spontaneous or therapeutic regression, was assessed performing monodimensional and two-dimensional echocardiography in 35 patients with stable effort angina, without previous AMI. A control group of 10 normal subjects was also studied. The Authors evaluated echocardiographic findings on subjects at rest, during supine bicycle exercise and after sublingual nitroglycerin administration, defining the quality of wall motion as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic or dyskinetic in M-mode, and normal or asynergic in 2-D. They also analyzed, in M-mode, some echocardiographic indices of regional left ventricle function (IVSE, PWE, VIVS, VPW, delta TS, delta TP), and, in 2-D, the percent of systo-diastolic endocardial outline changes versus standard references in 7 sectors of left ventricle (anterior, lateral, inferior, septal in short-axis, septal, postero-lateral in long-axis, and apical) by means of a HP 9845B Computer, interfaced to a Digitizer. The percentage of feasibility of exercise echocardiography has been 60% in M-Mode, and 70% in 2-D. Mono and two-dimensional findings were normal in all patients at rest, whereas, during exercise, 57% of them, in M-mode, and 88% in 2-D, showed segmental contraction abnormalities. The Authors conclude that exercise echocardiography, though technically difficult, is feasible, Both M-mode and 2-D involve peculiar advantages or disadvantages. They provide, however, a valuable tool in detecting the mechanical consequences of exercise-induced regional myocardial ischemia and may be applicable in patients with equivocal exercise test.

  3. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from postmortem human subject tests under axial impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. The study reexamined lower leg postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and noninjury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the covariable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike information criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. The mean age, stature, and weight were 58.2±15.1 years, 1.74±0.08 m, and 74.9±13.8 kg, respectively. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other 2 distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-olds at 5, 25, and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45, and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 k

  4. [Publication rates of audiology master and doctoral theses in peer-reviewed journals].

    PubMed

    Çelikgün, Bahtiyar; Derinsu, Ufuk; Çiprut, A Ayça; Torun, Merve; Kalcıoğlu, M Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Theses are the prime indicators of the scientific productivity of a country and one of the main and strongest resources for the emergence of scientific articles. This study aims to examine, by using the survey method, how many of the audiology master and/or doctoral theses in Turkey were turned into a scientific work. Individuals who received a master's degree in audiology were surveyed whether their theses had been reviewed as a paper or publication. Forty-five of the 230 audiology specialists and 22 audiologists with a doctorate degree working in Turkey participated in the study by answering the survey questions. In general, while 45.4% of master theses were presented orally or as a poster presentation in a national convention, 20.4% were presented orally or as a poster presentation in an international convention. While 18.1% of theses were published as an article in a national journal, 15.9% were published as an article in an international SCI or SCI-E journal. The distribution of the doctoral theses is 26.6%, 33.3%, 13.3% and 26.6%, respectively. We found the rate of theses in audiology turning into a scientific article to be below the desired level, as in other fields. The reasons for this should be emphasized and efforts should be made to raise these rates to the desired level.

  5. Working Papers in Experimental Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume VII, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.

    Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…

  6. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  7. Working Papers in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.

    Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…

  8. Analysis of Preferred Textbooks in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marilyn

    Directors of 100 undergraduate training programs in speech language pathology and audiology were surveyed about the readability level and faculty satisfaction with currently used textbooks. For each of seven fundamental courses, Ss were asked to indicate the academic level at which students typically completed the courses, the textbook currently…

  9. Addressing patients' psychosocial concerns regarding hearing aids within audiology appointments for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Katie; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise

    2014-09-01

    It has long been documented that patients may experience emotional reactions to a diagnosis of hearing impairment and recommendation of hearing aids. Because of this, patients may raise psychosocial concerns regarding their hearing rehabilitation during audiology appointments, particularly in relation to getting hearing aids. However, thus far there has been little systematic research exploring how patients' concerns about hearing aids are addressed by audiologists within appointments. This study used conversation analysis to examine a corpus of 63 video-recorded initial audiology appointments with older adults with hearing impairment. The findings demonstrated that when patients expressed concerns regarding hearing aids, these concerns were typically psychosocial in nature and expressed in a way that carried a negative emotional stance. These types of turns thus invited an empathic response. However, patients' concerns were not typically addressed by audiologists during the appointment. As a consequence, patients persistently re-raised their concerns in subsequent turns, leading to expanded sequences of interaction during the management phase of the appointment. Older adults' psychosocial concerns regarding hearing aids may not always be sufficiently addressed within audiology appointments. A greater emphasis on emotionally focused communication within audiology could result in improved outcomes from hearing health care services.

  10. Epidemiologic Issues in Audiology: Impact on Professional Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    The benefits and disadvantages in conducting universal infant hearing screening and in the transition of audiology from a master's to a doctoral level profession are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Epidemiologic strategies which may inform decision making in these two important and controversial areas are presented. (Author/CR)

  11. Knowledge translation in audiology: promoting the clinical application of best evidence.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sheila T; Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T; Scollie, Susan D

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced.

  12. Epidemiology: An Essential Science for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    1997-01-01

    Introduces epidemiology as a health science that is essential as a complement to the basic laboratory and clinical sciences in speech-language pathology and audiology. A definition of epidemiology is presented. Principles of epidemiology, including causal criteria, and concepts such as incidence, prevalence, and risk are discussed. (Author/CR)

  13. Auditory complaints and audiologic assessment in children with surgically repaired cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço Cerom, Jaqueline; Renata José, Maria; Azenha, Fabiana de Souza Pinto; Macedo, Camila de Cássia; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: At the initial consultation, the speech–language pathologist and audiologist may consider possible diagnostic hypotheses based on the child's history and the parents' complaint. Aim: To investigate the association of hearing complaints with the findings obtained in the conventional audiologic assessment in children with cleft lip and palate. Retrospective study. Methods: We analyzed medical charts of 1000 patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent surgical repair between 1988 and 1995 at a mean age of 6 years 8 months. We excluded charts with records of inconsistent audiological responses and charts with missing data for any of the audiologic evaluations considered. Thus, the sample consisted of 393 records. Results: Two hundred thirty-nine patients presented hearing loss in one or both ears, but only 3.8% reported hearing complaints. The most frequent were otorrhea followed by otalgia. There was no statistical significance between the complaint and gender (p = 0.26) nor between the complaint and hearing loss (p = 0.83). Conclusion: This study showed no association between the hearing complaint and the conventional audiologic assessment. PMID:25992011

  14. Working Papers in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.

    Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…

  15. Working Papers in Experimental Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume VII, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing, NY. Queens Coll.

    Seven papers review research in speech-language pathology and audiology. K. Polzer et al. describe an investigation of sign language therapy for the severely language impaired. S. Dworetsky and L. Clark analyze the phonemic and nonphonemic error patterns in five nonverbal and five verbal oral apraxic adults. The performance of three language…

  16. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  17. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SUBJECTED TO MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST.

    PubMed Central

    Salicio, Viviane Martins Mana; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Brandäo, Camila Fernanda Costa Cunha Moraes; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Botelho, and Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blind and crossover study comprising 24 active individuals within the age group 18-30 years. The comparisons were conducted: the effect of exercise (week 1 x 2) and caffeine intake (GC x GP) on thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) variables during pre-exercise time (30 min. after caffeine or placebo intake) and post-exercise (5 min after treadmill test). Results: The comparison between weeks 1 and 2 showed increase in the first week, in the following items: TBARS, IL-6 and IL-10 in the GC and GP groups. The comparison within the same week showed that GC individuals presented lower post-exercise TBARS values in the first and second weeks; IL- 6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group in both weeks. The paired analysis comparing pre- and post-exercise, with and without caffeine showed that IL-6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group. Conclusion: Caffeine used by athletes can decrease oxidative stress. The increased IL-6 suggest that this ergogenic supplement may stimulate muscle hypertrophy, since IL-6 has myokine effect. However, the caffeine effect on IL-6 level and muscle hypertrophy increase should be better investigated in future studies. PMID:28480382

  18. Testing efficacy in determination of recurrent supraventricular tachycardia among subjectively symptomatic children following "successful" ablation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Deepti P; Du, Wei; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-08-01

    Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children can be successfully terminated using catheter ablation techniques; however, chronic, true success may be less. Sensed tachycardia (ST) is common following ablation and the differentiation from true arrhythmia recurrences can be challenging. Records of all patients ≤ 18 years who underwent successful ablation for simple forms of SVT and followed-up for at least a year between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. Patients with congenital heart disease, atrial muscle tachycardia, and associated ventricular tachycardia were excluded. The diagnostic utility of commonly performed tests was assessed. Among the 205 eligible subjects, 202 underwent successful ablation (98.5%), of who five were lost to follow-up before 1 year. The early success rate (6 weeks postablation) and mid-term success rate (1 year postablation) were high (97.5% and 87.4%, respectively) whereas the chronic success (5 years postablation) was only 75%. Although true arrhythmia recurrence was significantly higher in the young (mean 11.5 years vs 13.5 years, P = 0.03) and males (P = 0.02), the presence of diffuse, right-sided fibers was the only independent predictor of true recurrence (odds ratio = 2.7, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval 1.1, 6.8). Significant ST was reported by 111 patients (56%). The 30-day ambulatory event monitor had the highest sensitivity (71%) when compared to exercise test (19%) and electrocardiogram (24%) in identifying true arrhythmia recurrence. Acute and early success may not guarantee chronic ablation success. Postablation, symptomatic patients can be most effectively evaluated using ambulatory event monitoring; however, true recurrence may still be missed and requires closer monitoring. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nonlinear Analysis of Sensory Organization Test for Subjects with Unilateral Vestibular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups—healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy—were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation. PMID:24632582

  20. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    PubMed

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study.

  1. Nonlinear analysis of sensory organization test for subjects with unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Hsu, Li-Chi; Lin, Chen; Chang, Fu-Ling; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT) is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups--healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy--were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP) signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation.

  2. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  3. Reducing Loss to Follow-Up with Tele-audiology Diagnostic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Dharmar, Madan; Simon, Anne; Sadorra, Candace; Friedland, Gerald; Sherwood, Jennifer; Morrow, Hallie; Deines, Dawn; Nickell, Deborah; Lucatorta, David; Marcin, James P

    2015-11-06

    Infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screen require diagnostic follow-up visits but often face access barriers such as travel distance and shortage of pediatric audiologists. Telemedicine (tele-audiology) is a potential solution to provide diagnostic hearing evaluations for families of infants facing access barriers. We determined the feasibility and impact of a tele-audiology program that provided comprehensive diagnostic evaluations to a region with a high lost to follow-up rate among newborns who did not pass their newborn hearing screen. We evaluated the tele-audiology program using parent and provider surveys to determine the perception of quality and satisfaction of care. We also compared the lost to follow-up rate of the tele-audiology program with the loss to follow-up in the region before the implementation of the program. Twenty-two infants who did not pass their newborn hearing screen were referred to the tele-audiology program for diagnostic evaluation. Among these infants, 59.1% were diagnosed with some form of hearing loss. The mean quality score rated by both parents and providers on the telemedicine interaction was over 6.5 on a 7-point Likert scale. All parents rated the importance of tele-audiology as 7 (extremely important) for their family, whereas the provider rated the mean importance as 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 5.9, 6.9) on a 7-point Likert scale. Almost all parents actively participated or were engaged during history taking and counseling and were comfortable in discussing their child's hearing status remotely over telemedicine. All infants completed their diagnostic evaluation with no loss to follow-up compared with 22% loss to follow-up in the region before the implementation of the program. Tele-audiology is a feasible solution that reduces the loss to follow-up among infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screen and have access barriers to qualified audiologists for diagnostic evaluations.

  4. Audiologic limitations of Vibrant Soundbridge device: Is the contralateral hearing aid fitting indispensable?

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinsei; Roh, Kyung Jin; Moon, In Seok; Kim, Sung Huhn; Hwang, Kyu Rin; Lee, Jeon Mi; Hou, Jee Hay; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic limitations of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) implant and the benefits of contralateral hearing aid (HA) fitting in VSB recipients. Retrospective study. Twenty-three patients with symmetrical sensorineural or mixed hearing loss were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent VSB implantation in one ear and HA fitting in the other. Aided pure-tone audiometry was performed to measure the functional gains of each device. The Korean version of the Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) was used to determine the sentence speech perception in a quiet environment and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a noisy environment. VSB implantation resulted in hearing gains comparable to that of conventional HAs at high frequencies, whereas the functional gains at low frequencies were not satisfactory in the mixed hearing loss group. In these patients, the contralateral HA sufficiently amplified the low frequencies. The results of the K-HINT of the SNR in the VSB-aided ear were not significantly improved when compared to HA-aided contralateral ear. However, binaural fitting of a VSB and HA resulted in substantially improved SNR when compared to the unaided condition. This improvement of the SNR strongly correlated with functional gains at low frequencies in the contralateral HA-aided ear. Although unilateral VSB implantation is limited in terms of low-tone enhancement and speech perception in noisy environments, contralateral HA fitting can overcome these limitations and increase the efficacy of hearing rehabilitation. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2116-2123, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Sunset dates of chemicals subject to final TSCA section 4: test requirements and related section 12(b) actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This table lists all chemical substances and mixtures that are and/or have been the subject of final TSCA Section 4 test rules and/or TSCA Section 4 enforceable consent agreements/orders (ECAs) issued under the TSCA Existing Chemicals Testing Program.

  6. Does ischemic burden on stress testing influence patient survival in subjects with known severe multi-vessel CAD?

    PubMed

    Mukundan, Shey; Travin, Mark I; Levsky, Jeffrey M; Liakos, Matthew P; Spevack, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic burden observed during stress testing has been postulated to predict prognosis irrespective of anatomic atherosclerotic burden observed on angiography. However, it is not known if the stress test result influences the long-term prognosis of subjects with diffuse coronary artery disease. We sought to determine the prognostic importance of stress test false negativity amongst patients with severe multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing stress testing in the previous decade. We selected subjects from the dates of 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2005 who underwent a nuclear stress test (MPI) or stress echocardiogram (SE) within six months of a coronary angiogram demonstrating severe, multi-vessel CAD. We excluded those with a prior MI, PCI, CABG, resting wall motion abnormality, or perfusion defect at rest. Determination of patient death during the followup period was performed using the U.S. social security index. 139 subjects (MPI 81, SE 58) were studied; stress tests were positive for ischemia in 80%. Rates of death were similar at 1 year (MPI 9%, SE 5%, p-value 0.44), 5 years (MPI 20%, SE 14%, p-value 0.36) and 10 years (MPI 30%, SE 26%, p-value 0.63). Using multivariate analysis, mortality at each time period was not affected by stress test positivity. Amongst subjects with diffuse and severe atherosclerosis with preserved ventricular function, ischemic burden on stress testing did not influence short or long-term survival.

  7. Physiological Requirements to Perform the Glittre Activities of Daily Living Test by Subjects With Mild-to-Severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gérson F; Moreira, Graciane L; Tufanin, Andréa; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Castro, Antonio A; Jardim, José R; Nascimento, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    The Glittre activities of daily living (ADL) test is supposed to evaluate the functional capacity of COPD patients. The physiological requirements of the test and the time taken to perform it by COPD patients in different disease stages are not well known. The objective of this work was to compare the metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements and the time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test by COPD subjects with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Spirometry, Medical Research Council questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and 2 Glittre ADL tests were evaluated in 62 COPD subjects. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 ), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate, SpO2 , and dyspnea were analyzed before and at the end of the tests. Maximum voluntary ventilation, Glittre peak V̇O2 /cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) peak V̇O2 , Glittre V̇E/maximum voluntary ventilation, and Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate ratios were calculated to analyze their reserves. Subjects carried out the Glittre ADL test with similar absolute metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements. Ventilatory reserve decreased progressively from mild to severe COPD subjects (P < .001 for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] 1 vs GOLD 2, P < .001 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P < .001 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). Severe subjects with COPD presented a significantly lower metabolic reserve than the mild and moderate subjects (P = .006 and P = .043, respectively) and significantly lower Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate than mild subjects (P = .01). Time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test was similar among the groups (P = .82 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 2, P = .19 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P = .45 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). As the degree of air-flow obstruction progresses, the COPD subjects present significant lower ventilatory reserve to perform the Glittre ADL test. In addition, metabolic and cardiac reserves may

  8. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W; Diamond, Pamela M; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2014-02-01

    Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n = 704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler χ (2) difference testing. Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography.

  9. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. Purpose We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. Methods We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n=704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler χ2 difference testing. Results Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Conclusions Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography. PMID:23868613

  10. Following international trends while subject to past traditions: neuropsychological test use in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne; Nybo, Taina; Persson, Bengt A; Rivera, Diego Fernando; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice. Test use was moderated by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments, and symptom validity tests were seldom applied on a standard basis. Most tests were of Anglo-American origin. New test methods are implemented rapidly in the Nordic countries, but test selection is also characterized by the dominating position of established and much researched tests. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria traditions are currently weak, but national differences in size of test batteries seem to be influenced by these longstanding traditions.

  11. Reading in Subjects with an Oral Cleft: Speech, Hearing and Neuropsychological Skills

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Amy L.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; DeVolder, Ian; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate speech, hearing, and neuropsychological correlates to reading among children, adolescents and young adults with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Method All testing was completed in one visit at a Midwestern university hospital. Subjects in both the NSCL/P (n = 80) and control group (n = 62) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (average age = 17.60 and 17.66, respectively). Subjects completed a battery of standardized tests evaluating intelligence, neuropsychological skills, and word reading. Subjects with NSCL/P also underwent speech assessment and past audiology records were evaluated. Results After controlling for age and SES, subjects with cleft performed significantly worse on a test of word reading. For subjects with cleft, word reading deficits were not associated with measures of speech or hearing, but were correlated with impairments in auditory memory. Conclusions These findings show poorer reading among subjects with NCL/P compared to those without. Further work needs to focus on correlates of reading among subjects with cleft to allow early identification and appropriate intervention/accommodation for those at risk. PMID:24188114

  12. Digit span and verbal fluency tests in patients with mild cognitive impairment and normal subjects in Thai-community.

    PubMed

    Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Intalapaporn, Somboon; Assantachai, Prasert

    2010-02-01

    Far too little attention has been paid to the difference of Digit Span test and category verbal fluency test (CVFT) between normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. To investigate the difference of Digit Span test and CVFT between normal subjects and patients with MCI and study the influence of age, gender, and education on the task performance. The authors collected data of 77 participants diagnosed with amnestic MCI (from 517 participants screened) and 30 normal subjects aged 50 or over enrolled from communities in Bangkok. The Digit Span test and CVFT (semantic fluency and Controlled word association test for letter fluency) were used to evaluate the subjects. MCI patients had significantly lower digit span score, in both Digits Forward and Digits Backward, poorer performance on semantic fluency for animals and fruits and letter fluency test. The logistic regression model of MCI diagnosis showed that only Digits Backward score was a predictor of MCI diagnosis (OR 0.643 for each increment of 1 digit, p = 0.009, 95% confidence interval 0.462-0.896). The cut-off point of Digit Backward score was 4 and yielded sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 57%. Females had lower scores than males in every test except semantic fluency for fruits. The digit span and semantic fluency scores decreased as age increased but letter fluency increased correspondently with age. The digit span and CVFT scores increased in parallel with the increase of education. MCI patients had poorer performance on the Digit Span and CVFT tests than normal age and education matched subjects. Digits Backward test can predict the MCI diagnosis. Age, gender and education have an impact on the performance of the tests.

  13. The influence of voice volume, pitch, and speech rate on progressive relaxation training: application of methods from speech pathology and audiology.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Glenn E; Larkin, Kevin T

    2006-06-01

    Vocal characteristics of therapists, including voice volume, pitch and timbre of speech, and rate of speech have been hypothesized to facilitate the therapeutic process, particularly during procedures like progressive relaxation training (PRT). Very little empirical work, however, has examined the relation between vocal characteristics and treatment process or outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocal characteristics during a single session of PRT applying technological innovations devised for speech pathology and audiology settings for evaluating therapist's vocal characteristics. Forty-eight high anxious young adult women were randomly assigned to one of four conditions for training: PRT with the recommended therapist voice (RV) that decreased in tone, volume, and rate across the session, PRT with conversational therapist voice during the session (CV), a credible treatment control called systematic self-relaxation (SR), or no treatment control (NT). All subjects participated in a single PRT session during which heart rate, EMG, self-report measures of tension (SRT) and anxiety, and treatment credibility ratings were obtained. Results revealed significant reductions in SRT, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate for participants in all groups. Only the RV group displayed significant reductions in EMG when compared with the other three groups. Participants in the RV group also rated the therapist's voice as "more facilitating" of relaxation when compared to the CV group. These results suggest that methods employed for evaluating the quality of vocal characteristics in speech and audiology clinics may be useful for evaluating the quality of therapist's voice when conducting PRT.

  14. Investigation of ototoxicity of artesunate as add-on therapy in patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer: new audiological results from a prospective, open, uncontrolled, monocentric phase I study.

    PubMed

    König, Miriam; von Hagens, Cornelia; Hoth, Sebastian; Baumann, Ingo; Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Edler, Lutz; Sertel, Serkan

    2016-02-01

    Artesunate (ART) has been used for a long time in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has been considered safe. The present phase I study aimed to determine the daily dose of ART that is well tolerated as add-on therapy in patients with breast cancer for 4 weeks of therapy. Ototoxicity could be a potential safety concern in settings different from malaria. Therefore, comprehensive audiological assessment was essential. The ARTIC M33/2 study was a prospective, open, uncontrolled, monocentric phase I dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of ART in patients with advanced breast cancer. Patients received either 100, 150 or 200 mg oral ART daily for a test phase of 4 weeks as add-on therapy to their ongoing oncological treatment. For the investigation of the safety of ART for hearing, an audiological assessment was performed with each patient before the intake of ART and after 4 weeks of therapy. Twenty-three female patients were included in the study. During the test phase, four patients had adverse events (AEs) of the auditory system possibly related to the intake of ART. However, none of these AEs was classified as severe AE (SAE) and did not require treatment interruption. Four patients had AEs concerning the vestibular system (vertigo) during the test phase, one of which was classified as SAE. However, the SAE was fully reversible after discontinuation of ART. None of the audiological results after 4 weeks of therapy with ART showed any dose-limiting auditory toxicity. However, audiological monitoring in further clinical studies with prolonged use of oral ART in doses up to 200 mg daily is warranted. The ARTIC M33/2 study is registered at eudract.ema.europa.eu with the Number 2007-004432-23 and at clinicaltrials.gov with the Number NCT00764036.

  15. The influence of laboratory set-up in usability tests: effects on user performance, subjective ratings and physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the influences of situational factors on user behaviour in usability tests. Sixty participants carried out two tasks on a computer-simulated prototype of a mobile phone. Employing a 3 x 2 mixed experimental design, laboratory set-up was varied as a between-subjects variable (presence of facilitator and two non-interactive observers, presence of facilitator or no person present) while task difficulty was manipulated as a within-subjects variable (low vs. high). Performance data, subjective measures and physiological parameters (e.g. heart rate variability) were taken. The results showed that the presence of non-interactive observers during a usability test led to a physiological stress response, decreased performance on some measures and affected the emotional state of test participants. The presence of a facilitator (i.e. a participating observer) also influenced the emotional state of the test participant. Practitioners involved in usability testing need to be aware of undue influences of observers, in particular, if the observers are non-interactive. The findings presented in this paper have implications for the practice of usability testing. They indicated a considerable influence of observers on test participants (physiology and emotions) and on the outcomes of usability tests (performance measures). This should be considered when selecting the set-up of a usability testing procedure.

  16. Cognitive Reserve in Young and Old Healthy Subjects: Differences and Similarities in a Testing-the-Limits Paradigm with DSST

    PubMed Central

    Zihl, Josef; Fink, Thomas; Pargent, Florian; Ziegler, Matthias; Bühner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is understood as capacity to cope with challenging conditions, e.g. after brain injury or in states of brain dysfunction, or age-related cognitive decline. CR in elderly subjects has attracted much research interest, but differences between healthy older and younger subjects have not been addressed in detail hitherto. Usually, one-time standard individual assessments are used to characterise CR. Here we observe CR as individual improvement in cognitive performance (gain) in a complex testing-the-limits paradigm, the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), with 10 repeated measurements, in 140 younger (20–30 yrs) and 140 older (57–74 yrs) healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed attention, memory and executive function, and mood and personality traits as potential influence factors for CR. We found that both, younger and older subjects showed significant gains, which were significantly correlated with speed of information processing, verbal short-term memory and visual problem solving in the older group only. Gender, personality traits and mood did not significantly influence gains in either group. Surprisingly about half of the older subjects performed at the level of the younger group, suggesting that interindividual differences in CR are possibly age-independent. We propose that these findings may also be understood as indication that one-time standard individual measurements do not allow assessment of CR, and that the use of DSST in a testing-the-limits paradigm is a valuable assessment method for CR in young and elderly subjects. PMID:24404176

  17. The Statistical Basis for Serial Monitoring in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Garnett P.; Reavis, Kelly M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Dille, Marilyn F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Audiologists regularly use serial monitoring to evaluate changes in a patient’s auditory function over time. Observed changes are compared with reference standards to determine whether further clinical action is necessary. Reference standards are established in a control sample of otherwise healthy subjects to identify the range of auditory shifts that one might reasonably expect to occur in the absence of any pathological insult. Statistical approaches to this seemingly mundane problem typically invoke 1 of 3 approaches: percentiles of the cumulative distribution, the variance of observed shifts, and the “standard error of measurement.” In this article, the authors describe the statistical foundation for these approaches, along with a mixed model–based alternative, and identify several necessary, although typically unacknowledged assumptions. Regression to the mean, the phenomenon of an unusual measurement typically followed by a more common one, can seriously bias observed changes in auditory function and clinical expectations. An approach that adjusts for this important effect is also described. Design Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) elicited at a single primary frequency, f2 of 3175 Hz, were collected from 32 healthy subjects at baseline and 19 to 29 days later. Ninety percent test–retest reference limits were computed from these data using each statistical approach. DPOAE shifts were also collected from a sample of 18 cisplatin patients tested after 120 to 200 mg of cisplatin. Reference limits established according to each of the statistical approaches in the healthy sample were used to identify clinically alarming DPOAE shifts in the cisplatin patient sample. Results Reference limits established with any of the parametric methods were similar. The percentile-based approach gave the widest and least precisely estimated intervals. The highest sensitivity for detecting clinically alarming DPOAE shifts was based on a mixed

  18. Tinnitus referral pathways within the National Health Service in England: a survey of their perceived effectiveness among audiology staff.

    PubMed

    Gander, Phillip E; Hoare, Derek J; Collins, Luke; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A

    2011-07-06

    In the UK, audiology services deliver the majority of tinnitus patient care, but not all patients experience the same level of service. In 2009, the Department of Health released a Good Practice Guide to inform commissioners about key aspects of a quality tinnitus service in order to promote equity of tinnitus patient care in UK primary care, audiology, and in specialist multi-disciplinary centres. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate utilisation and opinions on pathways for the referral of tinnitus patients to and from English Audiology Departments. We surveyed all audiology staff engaged in providing tinnitus services across England. A 36-item questionnaire was mailed to 351 clinicians in all 163 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts identified as having a tinnitus service. 138 clinicians responded. The results presented here describe experiences and opinions of the current patient pathways to and from the audiology tinnitus service. The most common referral pathway was from general practice to a hospital-based Ear, Nose & Throat department and from there to a hospital-based audiology department (64%). Respondents considered the NHS tinnitus referral process to be generally effective (67%), but expressed needs for improving GP referral and patients' access to services. 'Open access' to the audiology clinic was rarely an option for patients (9%), nor was the opportunity to access specialist counselling provided by clinical psychology (35%). To decrease the number of inappropriate referrals, 40% of respondents called for greater awareness by referrers about the audiology tinnitus service. Respondents in the present survey were generally satisfied with the tinnitus referral system. However, they highlighted some potential targets for service improvement including 1] faster and more appropriate referral from GPs, to be achieved through education on tinnitus referral criteria, 2] improved access to psychological services through audiologist training, and

  19. Tinnitus referral pathways within the National Health Service in England: a survey of their perceived effectiveness among audiology staff

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the UK, audiology services deliver the majority of tinnitus patient care, but not all patients experience the same level of service. In 2009, the Department of Health released a Good Practice Guide to inform commissioners about key aspects of a quality tinnitus service in order to promote equity of tinnitus patient care in UK primary care, audiology, and in specialist multi-disciplinary centres. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate utilisation and opinions on pathways for the referral of tinnitus patients to and from English Audiology Departments. Methods We surveyed all audiology staff engaged in providing tinnitus services across England. A 36-item questionnaire was mailed to 351 clinicians in all 163 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts identified as having a tinnitus service. 138 clinicians responded. The results presented here describe experiences and opinions of the current patient pathways to and from the audiology tinnitus service. Results The most common referral pathway was from general practice to a hospital-based Ear, Nose & Throat department and from there to a hospital-based audiology department (64%). Respondents considered the NHS tinnitus referral process to be generally effective (67%), but expressed needs for improving GP referral and patients' access to services. 'Open access' to the audiology clinic was rarely an option for patients (9%), nor was the opportunity to access specialist counselling provided by clinical psychology (35%). To decrease the number of inappropriate referrals, 40% of respondents called for greater awareness by referrers about the audiology tinnitus service. Conclusions Respondents in the present survey were generally satisfied with the tinnitus referral system. However, they highlighted some potential targets for service improvement including 1] faster and more appropriate referral from GPs, to be achieved through education on tinnitus referral criteria, 2] improved access to psychological

  20. Test-Retest Stability of Calibrated BOLD-fMRI in HIV− and HIV+ Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau; Vaida, Florin; Ellis, Ronald; Buxton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Subject performance, scanner hardware, or biological factors can affect single session neuroimaging measures. Stability studies using calibrated blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) have been performed in health but not disease. We utilized calibrated BOLD-fMRI to determine the effects of HIV on neurovascular coupling. 6 clinically stable HIV-infected patients (HIV+) and 10 seronegative controls (HIV−) were scanned at two separate sessions approximately 3 months apart. Both mild hypercapnia (5% CO2) exposure and a visual functional activation task were performed. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and inter-subject variance were determined for calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures (baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional CBF, BOLD, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) changes) for HIV+ and HIV− subjects. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, or education. HIV+ subjects had lower mean baseline CBF (p <0.04, Cohen’s d=−1.07) and functional BOLD responses (p< 0.001, Cohen’s d=−2.47) and a trend towards a decrease in mean functional CBF responses (p= 0.07, Cohen’s d=−0.92) despite similar mean functional CMRO2 changes (p= 0.71, Cohen’s d=0.19). The stability of each calibrated BOLD-fMRI measure, as assessed by ICC, was significantly lower for HIV+ subjects. In addition, HIV+ participants had greater inter-subject variability for baseline CBF (p <0.02), functional BOLD (p< 0.001), CBF (p< 0.001), and CMRO2 (p< 0.002) responses. Our results demonstrate that calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures have excellent stability within healthy controls. In contrast, these values have greater variability in clinically stable HIV+ subjects and may reflect alterations in coupling between CBF and CMRO2 with disease. PMID:20932922

  1. Subjective Learning Discounts Test Type: Evidence from an Associative Learning and Transfer Task

    PubMed Central

    Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher; Speagle, James Z.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which memory test format and test transfer influence the dynamics of metacognitive judgments. Participants completed 2 study-test phases for paired-associates, with or without transferring test type, in one of four conditions: (1) recognition then recall, (2) recall then recognition, (3) recognition throughout, or (4) recall throughout. Global judgments were made pre-study, post-study, and post-test for each phase; judgments of learning (JOLs) following item study were also collected. Results suggest that metacognitive judgment accuracy varies substantially by memory test type. Whereas underconfidence in JOLs and global predictions increases with recall practice (Koriat’s underconfidence-with-practice effect), underconfidence decreases with recognition practice. Moreover, performance changes when transferring test type were not fully anticipated by pre-test judgments. PMID:20178957

  2. Developing Achievement Test: A Research for Assessment of 5th Grade Biology Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Nilay; Tas, Erol

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare a multiple-choice achievement test with high reliability and validity for the "Let's Solve the Puzzle of Our Body" unit. For this purpose, a multiple choice achievement test consisting of 46 items was applied to 178 fifth grade students in total. As a result of the test and material analysis…

  3. Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

  5. The Subjective Well-Being Construct: A Test of Its Convergent, Discriminant, and Factorial Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthaud-day, Marne L.; Rode, Joseph C.; Mooney, Christine H.; Near, Janet P.

    2005-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, we found empirical support for the prevailing theory that subjective well-being consists of three domains: (1) cognitive evaluations of one's life (i.e., life satisfaction or happiness); (2) positive affect; and (3) negative affect. Multiple indicators of satisfaction/happiness were shown to have strong…

  6. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  7. Ambulatory monitoring of left ventricular function during cardiopulmonary exercise tests in normal sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Imbriaco, M; Cuocolo, A; Pace, L; Nappi, A; Nicolai, E; Cardei, S; Morisco, C; Romano, M; Salvatore, M

    1995-04-01

    Ambulatory monitoring (VEST) of left ventricular (LV) function is a useful and accurate method to measure cardiac function during exercise and rest. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV response to exercise in normal sedentary subjects. Ten normal sedentary subjects underwent continuous ambulatory monitoring of LV function by VEST during upright bicycle exercise associated with combined analysis of pulmonary gas exchange. All parameters of LV function were measured in control conditions at rest, at the anaerobic threshold (point of nonlinear increase in ventilation relative to oxygen uptake) and at peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2). Heart rate and cardiac output significantly increased from control conditions to anaerobic threshold (p < 0.001) and from anaerobic threshold to peak VO2 (p < 0.001). Ejection fraction, end diastolic volume and stroke volume significantly increased from control conditions to anaerobic threshold (p < 0.001), showing no significant change from anaerobic threshold to peak VO2. Finally, end-systolic volume significantly decreased from control conditions to anaerobic threshold (p < 0.001), showing no significant change from anaerobic threshold to peak VO2. VEST is particularly useful in the evaluation of cardiac response to exercise in normal sedentary subjects, providing a better understanding of the spectrum of the normal LVEF response to exercise. Our data demonstrate that ejection fraction response to exercise is variable after anaerobic threshold, and a uniform increase is not necessarily expected in normal sedentary subjects.

  8. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  9. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086

  10. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Han, Woojae

    2016-09-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea.

  11. The University of Texas at Dallas/Callier Center for Communication Disorders Doctor of Audiology Program.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Ross J; Thibodeau, Linda; Cokely, Carol

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history and resources of the doctor of audiology (AuD) program at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD)/Callier Center for Communication Disorders, as well as to provide an overview of the program. Data from 1999, when the AuD program was approved by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Program, to the present were reviewed. The UTD/Callier Center AuD program includes more than 40 faculty members, spans 3 campuses, and has 8 research laboratories. Total enrollment is 32 students (8 students are admitted each year for the 4-year program). Students have access to extensive resources and learning opportunities. The clinical and research programs at the UTD/Callier Center are actively involved in providing high-quality, in-depth education to future doctors of audiology.

  12. The audiological journey and early outcomes of twelve infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder from birth to two years of age.

    PubMed

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Purdy, Suzanne Carolyn; Ching, Teresa Y C; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-08-01

    To describe the audiological journey of a group of infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) following the fitting of hearing aids, and to investigate the potential benefits of including cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs) and a measure of functional auditory behaviour during early audiological management. Results from chart revision of estimated hearing threshold, early behavioural testing, parental observation, and functional auditory behaviour assessments were described, and compared to visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) thresholds obtained at a mean corrected age of 10 months (SD 3). The relationship with CAEPs and functional performance was examined. The study included 12 infants diagnosed with ANSD and fitted with amplification. The estimated 4FA at a mean corrected age of four months (SD5) was within ± 10 dB of VRA results in 75% of infants when unaided and aided behavioural observation audiometry (BOA), together with unaided and aided parental observations was combined. Infants with a greater proportion of CAEPs present had higher PEACH scores. Delaying amplification until VRA results were available would have led to a significant period of auditory deprivation for infants in this study group. None of the assessments could accurately determine hearing thresholds when used in isolation, however when used in combination clinicians were able to obtain sufficient information to fit hearing aids early, and identify infants requiring closer monitoring.

  13. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Subjective Complaints Questionnaire for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jon Joseph; Story, Ian; McMeeken, Joan

    2009-06-01

    Physiotherapists commonly record detailed patient information regarding subjective complaints for low back pain (LBP), particularly to assist in the process of classifying patients into specific subgroups. A self-administered Subjective Complaints Questionnaire for LBP (SCQ-LBP) measuring such information was developed for the purposes of future clinical research, particularly in the area of LBP classification. The development comprised literature review, feedback from experienced physiotherapists and pilot questionnaire testing in a patient population. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire in a self administered format as well as concurrent validity against a suitable reference standard was evaluated. The agreement between the self administered questionnaire compared to when administered by a physiotherapist was also tested as the latter method is the most common form of retrieving subjective complaints in clinical practice. Thirty participants with LBP were recruited and at least moderate test-retest reliability was demonstrated in 56 of the 57 self administered questionnaire items. Preliminary evidence was found supporting the concurrent validity of selected items. At least moderate agreement was demonstrated in 51 of the 57 items when comparing between the self administered and physiotherapist administered conditions. The questionnaire is a useful tool for collecting subjective complaints information, particularly for clinical research on the classification of LBP, however, further research regarding validity is required.

  14. Usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Test in Psychiatry by U.S. and Canadian Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Rosenthal, Renathe H.; Clegg, Kathleen A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors explored psychiatry clerkship usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Subject Test. METHODS: U.S. and Canadian psychiatry clerkship directors (N=150) were sent an 18-item questionnaire surveying evaluation and remediation practices. RESULTS: Of 111 questionnaires (74%) returned, 76 (69%) reported using the…

  15. OCTO "Outcomes of cochlear implant for the octogenarians: audiologic and quality-of-life".

    PubMed

    Cloutier, François; Bussières, Richard; Ferron, Pierre; Côté, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact on quality of life, hearing performance, and surgical complications among patients aged 80 years and older, at the time of cochlear implantation. Retrospective chart review and quality of life assessment. Tertiary referral center. All elderly cochlear implant recipients aged 80 years and older (30 patients), who underwent implantation through the Quebec Cochlear Implant Program. Postoperative validated quality-of-life questionnaire with clinical and audiologic data extraction using the medical record. The validated "Glasgow Benefit Inventory" questionnaire was used to quantify the impact on quality of life. Audiologic preoperative and postoperative evaluation consisted of speech recognition scores (MAT and HINT scores). Complications were retrospectively collected after each cochlear implantation. A majority of them reported using their cochlear implant almost always with great quality-of-life benefits (increase +37.5 on the GBI). They also experienced a significant improvement in audiologic performance as seen with speech recognition scores (p < 0.0001). There were very few surgical complications, but 4 patients had delayed complications (otalgia, tinnitus, and hyperacusis). This is the most extensive study on the impact of quality of life for patients aged 80 years and older who received a cochlear implant. The audiologic benefit in this population is undeniable, and the quality-of-life improvement is comparable to studies made on much younger patients. It is also well-tolerated surgery with relatively low risk but with possible delayed complications. Given all these results, there should be no concerns regarding implantation in well-selected octogenarians.

  16. Can general practitioners do the follow-ups after surgery with ventilation tubes in the tympanic membrane? Two years audiological data.

    PubMed

    Austad, Bjarne; Hetlevik, Irene; Bugten, Vegard; Wennberg, Siri; Olsen, Anita Helene; Helvik, Anne-Sofie

    2014-04-05

    A university hospital in Mid-Norway has modified their guidelines for follow-up after insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the tympanic membrane, transferring the controls of the healthiest children to general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these guidelines by exploring audiological outcome and subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery, assessing if follow-ups in general practice resulted in poorer outcome. A retrospective observational study was performed at the university hospital and in general practice in Mid-Norway. Children below 18 years who underwent surgery with VTs between Nov 1st 2007 and Dec 31st 2008 (n = 136) were invited to participate. Pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and tympanometry were measured. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective hearing, ear complaints and the location of follow-ups. This study includes enough patients to observe group differences in mean threshold (0.5-1-2-4 kHz) of 9 dB or more. There were no preoperative differences in audiometry or tympanometry between the children scheduled for follow-ups by GPs (n = 23) or otolaryngologists (n = 50). Two years after surgery there were no differences between the GP and otolaryngologist groups in improvement of mean hearing thresholds (12.8 vs 12.6 dB, p = 0.9) or reduction of middle ears with effusion (78.0 vs 75.0%, p = 0.9). We found no differences between the groups in terms of parental reports of child hearing or ear complaints. Implementation of new clinical guidelines for follow-ups after insertion of VTs did not negatively affect audiological outcomes or subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery.

  17. Effect of direct and indirect voice training in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréia Cristina Muznlinger dos; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Behlau, Mara

    2015-01-01

    To verify the effect of two approaches of vocal training in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students, a direct and an indirect approach. Participants were 25 female Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students divided into two groups: direct training with vocal exercises, DTG (n=13); and indirect training with vocal orientations, ITG (n=12). The training sessions were conducted by the same speech language pathologist in six weekly sessions of 30 minutes. Both groups underwent multidimensional voice assessment, pre- and post-training: vocal self-assessment; Vocal Symptoms Scale (VSS); auditory perceptual analysis of sustained vowel and connected speech; acoustic analysis of voice through the Vocal Range Profile (VRP) and Speech Range Profile (SRP); and Group Climate Questionnaire, only at the end of training. The DTG showed changes in auditory perceptual analysis of vowel, which was less diverted after training; and expansion of the voice range in the VRP and SRP, which proves best vocal performance. However, the ITG showed no changes in any of the parameters evaluated. In Group Climate, the ITG obtained the highest conflict score in comparison to the DTG, probably because the indirect approach did not favor exchange in the group and did not allow a better quality interaction. The direct approach provided greater benefits to students than the indirect approach, with significant change in voice quality, and can serve as inspiration to Speech Language Pathology and Audiology courses to prevent dysphonia.

  18. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Katerina; Naude, Alida M

    2014-11-11

    To counter the global increase in infection-related deaths, infection control has recently developed into an active area of research. Many diseases can be prevented by infection control. In the confines of the audiology clinic, cross-contamination by micro-organisms associated with opportunistic infections remains a real concern. The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study. The majority (84%; n = 42) of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38) making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30) of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area. Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  19. Telehealth in audiology: the need and potential to reach underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Clark, Jackie L; Koekemoer, Dirk; Hall, James W; Krumm, Mark; Ferrari, Deborah V; McPherson, Bradley; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Mars, Maurice; Russo, Iêda; Barajas, Jose J

    2010-03-01

    Permanent hearing loss is a leading global health care burden, with 1 in 10 people affected to a mild or greater degree. A shortage of trained healthcare professionals and associated infrastructure and resource limitations mean that hearing health services are unavailable to the majority of the world population. Utilizing information and communication technology in hearing health care, or tele-audiology, combined with automation offer unique opportunities for improved clinical care, widespread access to services, and more cost-effective and sustainable hearing health care. Tele-audiology demonstrates significant potential in areas such as education and training of hearing health care professionals, paraprofessionals, parents, and adults with hearing disorders; screening for auditory disorders; diagnosis of hearing loss; and intervention services. Global connectivity is rapidly growing with increasingly widespread distribution into underserved communities where audiological services may be facilitated through telehealth models. Although many questions related to aspects such as quality control, licensure, jurisdictional responsibility, certification and reimbursement still need to be addressed; no alternative strategy can currently offer the same potential reach for impacting the global burden of hearing loss in the near and foreseeable future.

  20. Readability Level of Spanish-Language Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Audiology and Otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Coco, Laura; Colina, Sonia; Atcherson, Samuel R; Marrone, Nicole

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the readability level of the Spanish versions of several audiology- and otolaryngology-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and include a readability analysis of 2 translation approaches when available-the published version and a "functionalist" version-using a team-based collaborative approach including community members. Readability levels were calculated using the Fry Graph adapted for Spanish, as well as the Fernandez-Huerta and the Spaulding formulae for several commonly used audiology- and otolaryngology-related PROMs. Readability calculations agreed with previous studies analyzing audiology-related PROMs in English and demonstrated many Spanish-language PROMs were beyond the 5th grade reading level suggested for health-related materials written for the average population. In addition, the functionalist versions of the PROMs yielded lower grade-level (improved) readability levels than the published versions. Our results suggest many of the Spanish-language PROMs evaluated here are beyond the recommended readability levels and may be influenced by the approach to translation. Moreover, improved readability may be possible using a functionalist approach to translation. Future analysis of the suitability of outcome measures and the quality of their translations should move beyond readability and include an evaluation of the individual's comprehension of the written text.

  1. Bone anchored hearing implants without skin thinning: the Gruppo Otologico surgical and audiological experience.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Sozzi, Valerio; Sanna, Mario

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the surgical and audiological outcomes of an installation of a bone-anchored hearing system (BAHS) procedure without tissue reduction using Ponto implants and abutments. Retrospective consecutive case series. Forty-nine patients, 18 years or older and eligible for treatment with a bone-anchored hearing system with tissue preservation surgery, were included in the study. Following a systematic scheme for medical outcomes, we collected the data regarding surgical intervention, quality of life (GBI), skin and soft tissue reactions (Holgers grading system), pain and numbness (VAS). Hearing performance (aided thresholds and speech recognition in noise) was recorded in 20 patients. No implants were lost, skin, and soft tissue reactions were mild in 96 % of the all visits. Quality of life (GBI) generally improved in the aided condition compared to prior to implantation. Audiologically, 100 % of the 20 patients examined showed improvement of speech reception and sound field thresholds comparing aided to unaided. An average improvement of 33 dB on PTA was recorded. The study, presenting data on a large population, treated with tissue preservation and modern titanium implants, shows that this treatment is a viable solution that results in fewer complications, high degree of predictability and good audiological results.

  2. Audiological follow-up of 24 patients affected by Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barozzi, Stefania; Soi, Daniela; Spreafico, Emanuela; Borghi, Anna; Comiotto, Elisabetta; Gagliardi, Chiara; Selicorni, Angelo; Forti, Stella; Cesarani, Antonio; Brambilla, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cardiovascular problems, facial abnormalities and several behavioural and neurological disabilities. It is also characterized by some typical audiological features including abnormal sensitivity to sounds, cochlear impairment related to the outer hair cells of the basal turn of the cochlea, and sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, predominantly in the high frequency range. The aim of this report is to describe a follow-up study of auditory function in a cohort of children affected by this syndrome. 24 patients, aged 5-14 years, were tested by means of air/bone conduction pure-tone audiometry, immittance test and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. They were evaluated again 5 years after the first assessment, and 10 of them underwent a second follow-up examination after a further 5 years. The audiometric results showed hearing loss, defined by a pure tone average >15 dB HL, in 12.5% of the participants. The incidence of hearing loss did not change over the 5-year period and increased to 30% in the patients who underwent the 10-year follow-up. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss was detected in 20% of the patients. A remarkable finding of our study regarded sensorineural hearing impairment in the high frequency range, which increased significantly from 25% to 50% of the participants over the 5-year period. The increase became even more significant in the group of patients who underwent the 10-year follow-up, by which time the majority of them (80%) had developed sensorineural hearing loss. Otoacoustic emissions were found to be absent in a high percentage of patients, thus confirming the cochlear fragility of individuals with Williams syndrome. Our study verified that most of the young Williams syndrome patients had normal hearing sensitivity within the low-middle frequency range, but showed a weakness regarding the high frequencies, the threshold of which worsened significantly over time in

  3. Audiological comparison between two different clips prostheses in stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Potena, M; Portmann, D; Guindi, S

    2015-01-01

    To compare audiometric results and complications of stapes surgery with two different types of piston prosthesis, the Portmann Clip Piston (Medtronic) (PCP) and the Soft Clip Piston (Kurz) (SCP). Study conducted on 64 patients who underwent primary stapedotomy from 2008 to 2011. We matched for each case of stapedotomy with the PCP (Medtronic Xomed Inc. Portmann Clip Piston Stainless Steel/Fluoroplastic) a case with the SCP (Heinz Kurz GmbH Medizintechnik Soft Piston Clip Titanium). Each group consisted of 32 patients, and patients in both groups were matched with respect to gender, age, bilateral or unilateral otosclerosis, otological symptoms (tinnitus, vertigo or dizziness), family history, operated side and the Portmann grading for otosclerosis. The length of the prosthesis used was reported. Post-operative complications such as tinnitus, vertigo, hearing loss and altered taste were documented. Each patient was subjected to a preoperative and postoperative audiogram (follow-up at the second month after the surgery). We used the Student test for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at < 0.01. None of the patients experienced a post-operative hearing loss and none required a later revision surgery. No statistically significant difference was found between the two populations regarding demographic data (age, sex, side, bilaterality, family history, stage and lenght of piston) and hearing level (> 0.01) in the air, bone conduction and air-bone gap (ABG). Postoperative complications did not result to be significantly different between the two groups. Also, both groups showed a significant improvement (< 0.01) in the post-operative air, bone conduction and air-bone gap. There was no statistically significant difference (> 0.01) between the post-operative hearing results (bone conduction, air conduction, air-bone gap) using the two pistons. The mean ABG improvement was respectively 16.63 dB in the SCP group and 20.59 dB in the PCP group. The titanium

  4. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    PubMed

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  5. A Subjective Test of Modulated Blade Spacing for Helicopter Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.

  6. Normal values of esophageal pressure responses to a rapid drink challenge test in healthy subjects: results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Marin, I; Cisternas, D; Abrao, L; Lemme, E; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Coello, R; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A M; Meixueiro, A; Remes-Troche, J; Zavala, M A; Ruiz de León, A; Perez de la Serna, J; Valdovinos, M A; Serra, J

    2017-06-01

    Multiple water swallow is increasingly used as a complementary challenge test in patients undergoing high-resolution manometry (HRM). Our aim was to establish the range of normal pressure responses during the rapid drink challenge test in a large population of healthy subjects. Pressure responses to a rapid drink challenge test (100 or 200 mL of water) were prospectively analyzed in 105 healthy subjects studied in nine different hospitals from different countries. Esophageal motility was assessed in all subjects by solid-state HRM. In 18 subjects, bolus transit was analyzed using concomitant intraluminal impedance monitoring. A virtually complete inhibition of pressure activity was observed during multiple swallow: Esophageal body pressure was above 20 mm Hg during 1 (0-8) % and above 30 mm Hg during 1 (0-5) % of the swallow period, and the pressure gradient across the esophagogastric junction was low (-1 (-7 to 4) mm Hg). At the end of multiple swallow, a postswallow contraction was evidenced in only 50% of subjects, whereas the remaining 50% had non-transmitted contractions. Bolus clearance was completed after 7 (1-30) s after the last swallow, as evidenced by multichannel intraluminal impedance. The range of normal pressure responses to a rapid drink challenge test in health has been established in a large multicenter study. Main responses are a virtually complete inhibition of esophageal pressures with a low-pressure gradient across esophagogastric junction. This data would allow the correct differentiation between normal and disease when using this test. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects.

    PubMed

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J

    2014-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  8. Organization of the referral and counter-referral system in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school.

    PubMed

    Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina; Estevam, Stephanie Falarara; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of the referral and counter-referral flow in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school and to characterize the patients' profiles. Evaluation, retrospective, and prospective study, in which 503 patient records, without age restriction, were selected from a clinic-school and the following variables were analyzed: demographic information, speech and hearing diagnosis, and references. Patients were distributed into two groups according to the referrals made: internal (G1, n=341) and external (G2, n=162) to the clinic-school. A prevalence of male subjects under 12 years of age and with diagnosis of language disorders (primary and secondary) was found. It was observed that 83% patients in G1 were recalled for evaluation and speech therapy after an average of 7 months of waiting; and from the patients in G2 that were contacted (n=101), 13.9% were summoned and are satisfied with the place indicated for therapy after an average of 4 months of waiting. From those who did not receive care, 46% sought another service, and of these, 72.5% were successful. The data show the effectiveness and appropriateness of referrals made internally, suggesting that, when the team works together, the network operates more adequately. However, in relation to external referrals, they did not reach the proposed goals, indicating a lack of speech-language pathologists in public services and the low interest of patients in looking for other places of care.

  9. On the Likelihood Ratio Test in Structural Equation Modeling when Parameters are Subject to Boundary Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, Reinoud D.; Garre, Francisca Galindo; Dolan, Conor; van den Wittenboer, Godfried

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how the use of inequality constraints on parameters in structural equation models may affect the distribution of the likelihood ratio test. Inequality constraints are implicitly used in the testing of commonly applied structural equation models, such as the common factor model, the autoregressive model, and the latent growth…

  10. Exemplary Advanced Placement Programs: Comparing AP Test Scores by Subject and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, John

    This study compared performance of seniors at 21 Montgomery County (Maryland) high schools on the Advanced Placement (AP) Tests. The schools were ranked by the percentage of college-educated adults within the school boundaries, and the ranking was compared to Advanced Placement test results (the average number of students, per 100 seniors, who…

  11. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  12. What is treatment evaluation research? What is its relationship to the goals of audiological rehabilitation? Who are the stakeholders of this type of research?

    PubMed

    Gagné, J P

    2000-08-01

    Three topics related to treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation are discussed. First, the International Classification of Impairments, Activities and Participation (ICIDH-2) (World Health Organization, 1999) is described and proposed as a general conceptual framework for the design of intervention and research activities in audiological rehabilitation. Second, the three main domains of treatment evaluation research (efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency) are briefly outlined. Third, the various consumers of treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation are identified. Also, the domains of treatment evaluation research that are of interest to each of these consumer groups are presented. An analysis of the main interests of each group of stakeholders suggests that, at present, evaluative research in audiological rehabilitation does not adequately meet the needs of all stakeholders. Nevertheless, the future of evaluative research in audiological rehabilitation is promising, for several reasons: 1) research related to audiological rehabilitation is being actively pursued especially in the areas of treatment efficacy and treatment effectiveness; 2) the audiological rehabilitation community should be able to adapt its endeavors to the proposed conceptual framework of health conditions fairly easily (ICIDH-2; World Health Organization, 1999); 3) the research needs of the primary stakeholders of audiological rehabilitation are known; and 4) there is a keen interest within the professional community to develop this area of research. All of these conditions are propitious for setting the research agenda of treatment evaluation research in audiological rehabilitation for the next several years.

  13. The tryptophan depletion test. Impact on sleep in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Huwig-Poppe, C; Voderholzer, U; Backhaus, J; Riemann, D; König, A; Hohagen, F

    1999-01-01

    The tryptophan depletion test is a research tool to study the functional consequences of decreasing the brain serotonin metabolism. Since serotonin is involved in sleep regulation and assumed to be of high importance in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, the acute polysomnographic effects of tryptophan depletion were studied in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the reciprocal interaction model of non-REM and REM-sleep regulation we expected that tryptophan depletion in healthy controls should provoke alterations of sleep similar to depression, whereas we assumed that these effects would be more pronounced in patients with OCD. 12 healthy subjects with a mean age of 34 years and 12 patients suffering from OCD with a mean age of 30 years had 4 polysomnographic investigations. After 1 adaption and 1 baseline night subjects received a low protein diet on day 3 and 4 until midday. On day 4 at 18.00 h subjects ingested an aminoacid mixture devoid of tryptophan. This procedure resulted in a decrease of 85% in healthy subjects and 80% in OCD patients at 22.00 h. The tryptophan depletion led to more pronounced disturbances of sleep continuity in OCD patients than in healthy subjects in terms of an increase of wake time and a decrease of total sleep time. In both groups a decrease of sleep stage 2 could be observed. Healthy subjects showed significant alterations of phasic REM parameters as REM density and total number of rapid eye movements, what was not the case for OCD patients. Our results indicate the important role of the serotonergic system for sleep maintainance and the phasic aspects of REM sleep. Furthermore our data demonstrate that the tryptophan depletion test is a useful tool to evaluate the hypothesis of a serotonergic involvement in sleep regulation and the etiology of psychiatric disorders.

  14. Activation during the Trail Making Test measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Katja; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Haeussinger, Florian B; Heinzel, Sebastian; Dresler, Thomas; Mueller, Laura D; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Metzger, Florian G

    2014-01-15

    Cognitive decline is very common in age and particularly in subjects with neurodegenerative conditions. Besides memory and language, executive functions are very often affected in elderly and patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. However, the neural alterations associated with these executive deficits are still not fully understood. Therefore, we measured cortical activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 16 healthy elderly subjects (50-75 years) performing the Trail Making Test (TMT), a widely used neuropsychological instrument measuring executive function. In line with previous studies focusing on younger subjects, the results showed frontal activation during the TMT A and the TMT B in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the frontopolar area and also Broca's area. Furthermore, significant activation in the left motor, somatosensory cortices and somatosensory association cortices was demonstrated. Additionally, after a median split the differences between younger (<58 years) and older (>58 years) subjects were analyzed with the older subjects showing a less focused prefrontal activation. Altogether, fNIRS was found to be suitable to detect cortical activation in elderly subjects during performance of the TMT as well as aging-related differences in prefrontal activation topography. These neural correlates of executive functions should be further investigated as a potential prodromal neural marker of executive deficits and neurodegenerative processes.

  15. Retrospective analysis of skin complications related to bone-anchored hearing aid implant: association with surgical technique, quality of life, and audiological benefit.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Daniel; Garcia, Juan Manuel; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; Montes, Felipe; Barón, Clemencia; Jiménez, Roberto C; Peñaranda, Augusto

    2017-04-25

    The bone-anchored hearing aid is an effective form of auditory rehabilitation. Due to the nature of the implant, the most common complications are skin related. A number of alternative surgical implantation techniques have been used to reduce the frequency and severity of skin complications, including the U-shaped graft and the linear incision. To assess skin complications and their association with surgical technique, quality of life, and audiological benefit in patients with bone-anchored hearing aids. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary referral center in Bogotá, Colombia. Patients who had been fitted with a bone-anchored hearing aid implant (unilaterally or bilaterally) for at least 6 months were included in the study. The Holgers classification was used to classify skin complications (Grade 0=none; Grade 1=erythema; Grade 2=erythema and discharge; Grade 3=granulation tissue; and Grade 4=inflammation/infection resulting in the removal of the abutment). The Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was used to determine quality of life, and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire was used to determine the subjective audiological benefit. A total of 37 patients were included in the study (30 with unilateral implants and 7 with bilateral implant). Of the 44 implants evaluated, 31 (70.3%) were associated with skin complications (7 [15.9%] Grade 1; 4 [9.1%] Grade 2; 15 [34.1%] Grade 3, 5 [11.4%] Grade 4). The U-shaped graft was statistically associated with major complications (Grades 3 and 4) compared with the linear incision technique (p=0.045). No statistically significant differences were found between Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit scores and severity of complications. Similarly, no differences were found between Glasgow Benefit Inventory physical health questions and skin complications. Despite the high frequency, skin complications did not seem to affect quality of life or subjective audiological benefits of

  16. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  17. An Investigation of Test Variables Potentially Useful to the Washington Pre-College Testing Program for Community College Subject Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenmun, Renny; And Others

    This study was to identify variables potentially useful in predicting a larger proportion of variance in community college study fields than accounted for by the current Washington Pre-College (WPC) battery. Selected tests from the Comparative Guidance and Placement (CGP) Core and Research Batteries, and the Tool and Form Matching subtests from…

  18. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  19. Development of a low cost test rig for standalone WECS subject to electrical faults.

    PubMed

    Himani; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a contribution to the development of low-cost wind turbine (WT) test rig for stator fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator is proposed. The test rig is developed using a 2.5kW, 1750 RPM DC motor coupled to a 1.5kW, 1500 RPM self-excited induction generator interfaced with a WT mathematical model in LabVIEW. The performance of the test rig is benchmarked with already proven wind turbine test rigs. In order to detect the stator faults using non-stationary signals in self-excited induction generator, an online fault diagnostic technique of DWT-based multi-resolution analysis is proposed. It has been experimentally proven that for varying wind conditions wavelet decomposition allows good differentiation between faulty and healthy conditions leading to an effective diagnostic procedure for wind turbine condition monitoring.

  20. Demand for audiology services: 30-yr projections and impact on academic programs.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Ian M; Freeman, Barry A

    2013-05-01

    Significant growth in the U.S. population over the next 30 yr will likely increase the demand for hearing-care services. In addition, increased accessibility to hearing-care services may be realized due to increased insurance coverage associated with health-care reform efforts. In order to meet this demand, the supply of audiologists will have to keep pace. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has developed a Physician Supply Model to predict the necessary number of physicians needed in the future to meet demand. This model is adopted for predicting whether the supply of audiologists will be adequate over the next 30 yr. To apply the Physician Supply Model to the audiology profession and then determine if the predicted supply of audiologists will meet the demand for audiologists over the next 30 yr. The Physician Supply Model was modified to account for variables unique to the profession of audiology, and the future supply of audiologists is predicted. The predicted demand for audiology was developed based on changes in population demographics over the next 30 yr. The results of the demand calculations and the supply calculations were compared. The current growth rate for audiologists was determined by examining the difference between the number of graduates entering the field and the number leaving. One of the unexpected variables is that the past attrition of graduates, that is, the number of persons who voluntarily leave audiology at some point after graduation, is approximately 40%. The attrition rate combined with the retirement rate results in more persons exiting the profession than entering. Lowering the attrition rate to 20% will result in a positive growth rate. However, even with an attrition rate of 0%, the supply of audiologists will not meet demand. To meet demand, the number of persons entering the field will have to increase by 50% beginning immediately. In addition, the attrition rate will have to be lowered to 20%. Any combination of

  1. Standardized patients in audiology: a proposal for a new method of evaluating clinical competence.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Brooke Freeman; Bohnert, Carrie; Preminger, Jill E

    2013-05-01

    While accrediting organizations require AuD programs to provide evidence that their students are able to demonstrate knowledge and competencies in specific content areas, there are no generally accepted mechanisms for the assessment and the measurement of these proficiencies. We propose that AuD programs consider developing standardized patient (SP) cases in order to develop consistent summative assessment programs within and across universities. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for establishing SP programs to evaluate competencies in AuD students by detailing the history of SP cases and their use, developing a rationale for this method of assessment, and outlining the steps for writing and implementing SP cases. Literature review. SPs have been used to assess clinical competence in medical students for over 50 yr. The prevalence of SP assessment in allied health professions (e.g., dentistry, psychology, pharmacy) has increased over the last two decades but has only gained a limited following in audiology. SP assessment has been implemented in medical education using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, a multistation, timed exam that uses fictional cases to assess students' clinical abilities. To date, only one published report has been completed that evaluates the use of SPs to assess clinical abilities in audiology students. This article expands upon the work of English et al (2007) and their efforts to use SPs to evaluate counseling abilities. To this end, we describe the steps necessary to write a case, procedures to determine performance requirements, and the need to develop remediation plans. As an example, we include a case that we have developed in order to evaluate vestibular assessment and patient communication skills. Utilizing SP assessment in audiology education would provide useful means to evaluate competence in a uniform way. Future research is necessary to develop reliable and valid cases that may be implemented

  2. Evaluation of the main coagulation tests in the presence of hemolysis in healthy subjects and patients on oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, G; Villa, C; Tamborini, A; Villa, S

    2015-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate, on healthy subjects and patients on oral anticoagulant therapy vitamin K antagonist (OAT-vka), the possible interference caused by hemolysis on the main coagulation tests. To obtain hemolyzed samples, two methods were used: heat shock and mechanical system. The coagulation tests on hemolyzed samples were performed employing optical automated analyser BCSxp (Siemens Healthcare(®)). Moreover, the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) tests were also carried out manually using an electromechanical device (KC4 - Amelung). The PT test, on healthy subjects, in case of moderate hemolysis can be performed without significant interference on automatic instrument. On manual instrument, the PT test can be performed even in case of marked hemolysis. For patients on OAT-vka, the PT test in case of marked hemolysis can be performed both on automatic and manual instrument. For the aPTT test, it can be carried out manually, because also in case of marked hemolysis a statistically significant difference was not observed. For the fibrinogen test, a dramatic concentration decrease was already clear for weak hemolysis. A decreased function on antithrombin test was statistically significant for mild-moderate hemolysis. The D-dimer test showed increased values for mild hemolysis. The rejection of hemolyzed sample and/or the request of a second sample are not always the proper attitudes to take for performing clotting tests. The rational management of the hemolyzed samples decreases the employment of both nursing and technical staff significantly, the turnaround time and, consequently, does not lead to additional costs for each patient involved. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  4. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  5. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Heleodório H; Avila, Mariana A; Hanashiro, Daniela N; Camargo, Paula R; Salvini, Tania F

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs) and propulsion (hop for distance) after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5 ± 2.1 years; height 1.72 ± 0.10 m; weight 67.8 ± 9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m²), with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; P<0.01) and decreased the H/Q ratio (10, 20 and 13%; P<0.01) for the isometric and eccentric modes at 30°/s and 120°/s, respectively. It also decreased the time in two of the five agility tests (carioca and pivot diagonal; P<0.01), and increased the distance in the hop tests, for both dominant and non-dominant limbs (P<0.01). Although the eccentric training led to an increase in extensor peak torques as well as an improvement in most of the functional tests, the hypothesis that a strong correlation would be observed between peak torques and functional tests was not confirmed. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number 12607000590460.

  6. Effect of subject restraint and resistance pad placement on isokinetic knee flexor and extensor strength: implications for testing and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Otten, Roald; Whiteley, Rod; Mitchell, Tim

    2013-03-01

    In clinical practice, several subject restraint and resistance pad placement variations are used when an isokinetic knee flexion/extension test is performed. However, it is unknown if these variations affect the outcome measures. The aims of this study were to determine if these setup variations affect isokinetic outcomes and to establish the smallest detectable difference for these setup variations. Variation in isokinetic setup affects outcome measures. Cross-sectional repeated-measures crossover study. Ten recreationally active adult men were examined with isokinetic dynamometry on 4 separate days. In the first 3 days, fully strapped and trunk-unstrapped testing was conducted with the resistance pad placed distally on the shin. On days 1 and 3, the unstrapped condition was performed first, followed by the strapped condition. On day 4, the resistance pad was placed proximal on the shin (anterior cruciate ligament testing). There were no within-condition differences for days 1, 2, or 3 for the strapped and unstrapped conditions (P > 0.05). Between-condition comparisons were significant (eg, quadriceps peak torque, P < 0.001; hamstring peak torque, P = 0.043) for the strapped, unstrapped, and proximal resistance pad placement conditions. The strapped condition generally showed the largest torques, and the unstrapped, the least. The smallest detectable differences were relatively large (eg, quadriceps peak torque strapped = 20.6%). The greatest intraclass correlation values were found when strapped. Subject setup significantly influences isokinetic outcome measures at the knee. Since the strapped condition demonstrated the greatest repeatability, it is recommended. The smallest detectable differences were relatively high for all variables and should be considered in the interpretation of the effect size of interventions. Subject setup strapping must be considered when investigating test-retest values or when comparing subjects after isokinetic testing at the knee

  7. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Vane Subelements Subjected to Rig Testing in a Gas Turbine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael; Calomino, Anthony; Thomas, David J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2004-01-01

    Vane subelements were fabricated from a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. A cross-sectional slice of an aircraft engine metal vane was the basis of the vane subelement geometry. To fabricate the small radius of the vane's trailing edge using stiff Sylramic SiC fibers, a unique SiC fiber architecture was developed. A test configuration for the vanes in a high pressure gas turbine environment was designed and fabricated. Testing was conducted using a pressure of 6 atm and combustion flow rate of 0.5 kg/sec, and consisted of fifty hours of steady state operation followed by 102 2-minute thermal cycles. A surface temperature of 1320 C was obtained for the EBC-coated SiC/SiC vane subelement. This paper will briefly discuss the vane fabrication, test configuration, and results of the vane testing. The emphasis of the paper is on characterization of the post-test condition of the vanes.

  8. Statistical variations in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete subjected to drop weight test

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraja, M.C.; Dhang, N.; Gupta, A.P.

    1999-07-01

    The variation in impact resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete as determined from a drop weight test is reported. The observed coefficients of variation are about 57 and 46% for first-crack resistance and the ultimate resistance in the case of fiber concrete and the corresponding values for plain concrete are 54 and 51%, respectively. The goodness-of-fit test indicated poor fitness of the impact-resistance test results produced in this study to normal distribution at 95% level of confidence for both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete. However, the percentage increase in number of blows from first crack to failure for both fiber-reinforced concrete and as well as plain concrete fit to normal distribution as indicated by the goodness-of-fit test. The coefficient of variation in percentage increase in the number of blows beyond first crack for fiber-reinforced concrete and plain concrete is 51.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Minimum number of tests required to reliably measure the properties of the material can be suggested based on the observed levels of variation.

  9. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  10. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Setti, Annalisa; Loughman, James; Savva, George M; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health.

  11. Displacement measurement on specimens subjected to non-Gaussian random vibrations in fatigue life tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncossi, M.; Di Sante, R.; Rivola, A.

    2014-05-01

    High-cycle fatigue life tests conducted using controlled random vibrations are commonly used to evaluate failure in components and structures. In most cases, a Gaussian distribution of both the input vibration and the stress response is assumed, while real-life loads may be non-Gaussian causing the response to be non-Gaussian as well. Generating non-Gaussian drive signals with high kurtosis and a given power spectral density, however, does not always guarantee that the stress response will actually be non-Gaussian, because this depends on the adherence of the tested system to the Central Limit Theorem. On the other side, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations, and therefore to evaluate and select input loads. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and non-stationary non-Gaussian excitation signals. The Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) technique was used for the first time in this type of test, to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response in terms of differential displacement at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal drops occurring during the experiment is described and the results are discussed with respect to the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal.

  12. A comparative study of two protocols for treadmill walking exercise testing in ambulating subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lundgaard, E; Wouda, M F; Strøm, V

    2017-05-23

    This is a comparative study of two exercise testing protocols. The objective of this study was to compare maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and achieved criteria for maximal exercise testing between the Sunnaas Protocol-a newly designed treadmill exercise test protocol-and the Modified Bruce Protocol in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was conducted in Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway. Twenty persons (19 men) with incomplete SCI (AIS D) capable of ambulating without assistive devices performed two treadmill walking exercise tests (Sunnaas Protocol and Modified Bruce Protocol) until exhaustion 1-3 days apart. The key differences between the protocols are the smaller increments in speed and shorter duration on each workload in the Sunnaas Protocol. Cardiovascular responses were measured continuously throughout both tests. The subjects exhibited statistically significantly higher VO2 max when using the Sunnaas Protocol (37.1±9.9 vs 35.4±9.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P=0.01), with a mean between-test difference of 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (95% confidence interval: 0.49-3.16). There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate (HR max). Nineteen (95%) subjects achieved at least three of the four criteria for maximal oxygen uptake using the Sunnaas Protocol. Thirteen (65%) subjects achieved at least three of the criteria using a Modified Bruce protocol. The small differences in both VO2 max and achieved criteria in favor of the Sunnaas Protocol suggest that it could be a useful alternative treadmill exercise test protocol for ambulating persons with incomplete SCI.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 23 May 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.34.

  13. Novel MRI tests of orocecal transit time and whole gut transit time: studies in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock, G; Lam, C; Hoad, C L; Costigan, C; Cox, E F; Placidi, E; Thexton, I; Wright, J; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Marciani, L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonic transit tests are used to manage patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Some tests used expose patients to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to compare novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests for measuring orocecal transit time (OCTT) and whole gut transit time (WGT), which also provide data on colonic volumes. Methods 21 healthy volunteers participated. Study 1: OCTT was determined from the arrival of the head of a meal into the cecum using MRI and the Lactose Ureide breath test (LUBT), performed concurrently. Study 2: WGT was assessed using novel MRI marker capsules and radio-opaque markers (ROMs), taken on the same morning. Studies were repeated 1 week later. Key Results OCTT measured using MRI and LUBT was 225 min (IQR 180–270) and 225 min (IQR 165–278), respectively, correlation rs = 0.28 (ns). WGT measured using MRI marker capsules and ROMs was 28 h (IQR 4–50) and 31 h ± 3 (SEM), respectively, correlation rs = 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Repeatability assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.45 (p = 0.017) and 0.35 (p = 0.058) for MRI and LUBT OCTT tests. Better repeatability was observed for the WGT tests, ICC being 0.61 for the MRI marker capsules (p = 0.001) and 0.69 for the ROM method (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusions & Inferences The MRI WGT method is simple, convenient, does not use X-ray and compares well with the widely used ROM method. Both OCTT measurements showed modest reproducibility and the MRI method showed modest inter-observer agreement. PMID:24165044

  14. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials and subjective visual vertical testing in patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Otolith function in subjects with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is investigated through vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) testing. The study group included 62 patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (30 females, 32 males), with age range 24-56 years (40.6 ± 9.1). The control group included 44 healthy volunteers of similar age and gender distribution. The entire study group had: (1) serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml; (2) normal bone mineral density as indicated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with T-score >-1; (3) normal middle ear function; (4) Age is ≤60 years. All subjects enrolled in the current study underwent audiovestibular evaluation consisting of pure-tone audiometry, immittancemetry, cervical VEMP (cVEMP), ocular VEMP (oVEMP), and SSV. The entire control group had normal cVEMP, two subjects had abnormal oVEMP. Thirty-three subjects (53%) in the study group had abnormal oVEMP and 31 subjects (50%) had abnormal cVEMP. Forty-one (66%) had abnormal VEMP when abnormal VEMP was considered as either abnormal oVEMP or cVEMP. The entire control and study groups had normal SSV test results. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with development of otolith dysfunction affecting both the utricle and saccule. This was suggested by the high prevalence of abnormal ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) in the study group.

  15. Dynamic Stability and Risk of Tripping during the Timed Up and Go Test in Hemiparetic and Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is often used to estimate risk of falls. Foot clearance and displacement of the center of mass (COM), which are related to risk of tripping and dynamic stability have never been evaluated during the TUG. Accurate assessment of these parameters using instrumented measurements would provide a comprehensive assessment of risk of falls in hemiparetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze correlations between TUG performance time and displacement of the COM and foot clearance in patients with stroke-related hemiparesis and healthy subjects during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG and to compare these parameters between fallers and non-fallers. 29 hemiparetic patients and 25 healthy subjects underwent three-dimensional gait analysis during the TUG test. COM and foot clearance were analyzed during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG. Lateral displacement of the COM was greater and faster during the walking sub-tasks and vertical displacement of the COM was greater during the turn in the patients compared to the healthy subjects (respectively p<0.01 and p<0.05). Paretic foot clearance was greater during walking and displacement of the COM was slower during the turn in the patients (p<0.01). COM displacement and velocity during the turn were correlated with TUG performance in the patients, however, vertical COM displacement was not. These correlations were significant in the healthy subjects. There were no differences between COM parameters or foot clearance in fallers and non-fallers. Hemiparetic patients are less stable than healthy subjects, but compensate with a cautious gait to avoid tripping. Instrumented analysis of the TUG test appears relevant for the assessment of dynamic stability in hemiparetic patients, providing more information than straight-line gait.

  16. Aerobic capacity testing with inactive individuals: the role of subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Gurney, Burke; Mermier, Christine M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), an assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness, is regularly used as the primary outcome in exercise interventions. Many criteria have been suggested for validating such tests-most commonly, a plateau in oxygen consumption. The current study investigated the proportion of inactive individuals who reached a plateau in oxygen uptake and who achieved a valid test as assessed by secondary criteria (RERmax ≥ 1.1; RPEmax ≥ 18; age predicted HRmax ±10bpm), and the correlates of a successful plateau or achievement of secondary criteria during a VO2max session. Participants (n = 240) were inactive individuals who completed VO2max assessments using an incremental treadmill test. We explored physical, behavioral, and motivational factors as predictors of meeting criteria for meeting a valid test. Approximately 59% of the sample achieved plateau using absolute (increase of VO2 of 150ml O2 or less) and 37% achieved plateau using relative (increase of VO2 of 1.5ml/kg O2 or less) criteria. Being male, having a higher BMI, a greater waist-to-hip ratio, and increased self-efficacy were associated with lower odds of achieving an absolute plateau, whereas none of these factors predicted odds of achieving relative plateau. Findings raise questions about the validity of commonly used criteria with less active populations.

  17. Exploring the utility of measures of critical thinking dispositions and professional behavior development in an audiology education program.

    PubMed

    Ng, Stella L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Lucy, S Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Discussions about professional behaviors are growing increasingly prevalent across health professions, especially as a central component to education programs. A strong critical thinking disposition, paired with critical consciousness, may provide future health professionals with a foundation for solving challenging practice problems through the application of sound technical skill and scientific knowledge without sacrificing sensitive, empathic, client-centered practice. In this article, we describe an approach to monitoring student development of critical thinking dispositions and key professional behaviors as a way to inform faculty members' and clinical supervisors' support of students and ongoing curriculum development. We designed this exploratory study to describe the trajectory of change for a cohort of audiology students' critical thinking dispositions (measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: [CCTDI]) and professional behaviors (using the Comprehensive Professional Behaviors Development Log-Audiology [CPBDL-A]) in an audiology program. Implications for the CCTDI and CPBDL-A in audiology entry-to-practice curricula and professional development will be discussed. This exploratory study involved a cohort of audiology students, studied over a two-year period, using a one-group repeated measures design. Eighteen audiology students (two male and 16 female), began the study. At the third and final data collection point, 15 students completed the CCTDI, and nine students completed the CPBDL-A. The CCTDI and CPBDL-A were each completed at three time points: at the beginning, at the middle, and near the end of the audiology education program. Data are presented descriptively in box plots to examine the trends of development for each critical thinking disposition dimension and each key professional behavior as well as for an overall critical thinking disposition score. For the CCTDI, there was a general downward trend from time point 1 to

  18. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    PubMed

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two-test

  19. [The dichotic listening test in the determination of cerebral dominance in normal subjects (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Morais, J

    1981-01-01

    The dichotic listening test is supposed to produce lateral differences in performance that would be in relationship with the functional asymmetry of the brain. Although the existence of this relationship is beyond doubt, the review of the literature shows that it may be affected by many uncontrolled factors and that cerebral dominance in normal people cannot be predicted on the basis of the test of dichotic listening. Some attempts to identify those uncontrolled factors are examined here. It appears, in addition, that the main contribution of the structural interpretation of the auditory laterality effect is that it provided a description of the neural course of auditory information. Regarding the hypotheses that inferiority of one ear would be due either to a delay in reaching the processing centers, or to a loss of information as a consequence of a longer pathway, it is claimed that the first is inconsistent with some empirical data and the second is, until now, entirely speculative.

  20. Novel insights into the behavioral analysis of mice subjected to the forced-swim test

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Faas, G C; Ferando, I; Mody, I

    2015-01-01

    The forced-swim test (FST) is one of the most widely used rodent behavioral assays, in which the immobility of animals is used to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. However, the existing, and mostly arbitrary, criteria used for quantification could lead to biased results. Here we believe we uncovered new confounding factors, revealed new indices to interpret the behavior of mice and propose an unbiased means for quantification of the FST. PMID:25871976

  1. The roll damping assessment via decay model testing (new ideas about an old subject)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Antonio C.; Oliveira, Allan C.

    2009-06-01

    The methodology to obtain the non-linear roll damping from decay tests is very old. It has been proposed by Froude in the 19th century and used from then on. Behind it there is a quadratic model [dot θ |dot θ |] for the damping and a subsequent equivalent linearization. Probably all model basin in the world follows this approach to assess the damping from a decay test. This is well documented and so is the methods to get the p 1- p 2 coefficients. This is very general in the sense that in principle, it could be applied to any kind of hull. However, it has become clear that for hull with a flat bottom such as a very large crude carrier (VLCC), this approach may lead to confusing results such as negative p 2. Faced with this, the work presents a completely new idea. Avoiding the polynomial approximation, the basic attitude is to devise two regions from the decaying test response. The first, called the large amplitude response region yields a larger damping, probably due to the large bilge keel vortices that are attracted to the hull flat bottom. The second is the small amplitude response region where the vortices are not attracted to the bottom but travels approximately 45° sidewise. These observations has led to a new approach called the bi-linear approach as discussed in the work after analyzing several (many) model test results. In fact, a new modified bi-linear approach is ultimately proposed after the understanding of a transition region instead of a transition angle.

  2. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 2; Temperature Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.

  3. Novel insights into the behavioral analysis of mice subjected to the forced-swim test.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Faas, G C; Ferando, I; Mody, I

    2015-04-14

    The forced-swim test (FST) is one of the most widely used rodent behavioral assays, in which the immobility of animals is used to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. However, the existing, and mostly arbitrary, criteria used for quantification could lead to biased results. Here we believe we uncovered new confounding factors, revealed new indices to interpret the behavior of mice and propose an unbiased means for quantification of the FST.

  4. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150

  5. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  6. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them.

  7. Lumbar spine stability for subjects with and without low back pain during one-leg standing test.

    PubMed

    Sung, Paul S; Yoon, BumChul; Lee, Dongchul C

    2010-07-15

    An experimental design comparing kinematic changes in the lumbar spine axis in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) while standing on one leg with and without visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lumbar stability index, which includes relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST), in subjects with and without LBP. Even though a number of studies have evaluated postural adjustments based on kinematic changes in subjects with LBP, lumbar spine stability has not been examined for abnormal postural responses with visual feedback. All participants were asked to maintain the stork test position (standing on one leg with the contra lateral hip flexed 90 degrees) for 25 seconds. The outcome measures included RHT and RST for the axes of the core spine and lumbar spine. Independent t tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare the differences for both axes. The age variable was used as a covariate to control confounding effects for the data analyses. The RHT was longer for the lumbar spine axis in subjects without LBP than those with LBP, especially without visual feedback. There was also significant interaction in RST between subjects with and without LBP (F = 7.18, P = 0.01). For the core axis of the trunk, significant differences existed based on the main effect of side (F = 9.07, P = 0.004), trunk rotation (F = 24.30, P = 0.001), and both of these interactions (F = 8.93, P = 0.004). However, there was a lack of significant interaction with age for the lumbar and core spine axes (F = 0.06, P = 0.81). Although the control group included slightly younger volunteers compared with the LBP group, the stability index of the core spine significantly decreased in RHT and RST, especially when visual feedback was blocked for subjects with LBP. The interaction between visual feedback and trunk rotation indicated that core spine stability is critical in

  8. Effect of interdisciplinary service learning experience for audiology and speech-language pathology students working with adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kaf, Wafaa A; Barboa, Linda S; Fisher, Bradley J; Snavely, Lydia A

    2011-12-01

    An interdisciplinary service learning (SL) experience with audiology and speech-language pathology students was designed to examine changes in students' attitudes toward adults with dementia following an SL experience in which they socialized with nursing home residents who had dementia. Nineteen audiology and 24 speech-language pathology students completed an SL course, and 14 audiology and 18 speech-language pathology students did not participate in the SL course. The students interacted with 24 nursing home residents with dementia; specifically, the audiology students conducted 2 hearing evaluations with the residents, and the speech-language pathology students socialized with the residents during 15 visits. The students' attitudes toward older adults with dementia were assessed using Kogan's Attitudes Toward Old People Scale (Kogan, 1961) and qualitative analysis of their journal entries. The results were compared across groups over time. The SL groups showed more positive attitudes than the non-SL students, and their later journal entries were more positive than earlier entries. This SL experience provided clinical opportunities for audiology and speech-language pathology students to work with adults with dementia. Direct contact with the residents resulted in more positive attitudes toward older adults in residential facilities.

  9. Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Fitted with Hearing Aids Applying the American Academy of Audiology Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Current Practice and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elizabeth; McCreery, Ryan; Spratford, Meredith; Roush, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Up to 15% of children with permanent hearing loss (HL) have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which involves normal outer hair cell function and disordered afferent neural activity in the auditory nerve or brainstem. Given the varying presentations of ANSD in children, there is a need for more evidence-based research on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. This study compared the speech production, speech perception, and language outcomes of children with ANSD, who are hard of hearing, to children with similar degrees of mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), all of whom were fitted with bilateral hearing aids (HAs) based on the American Academy of Audiology pediatric amplification guidelines. Speech perception and communication outcomes data were gathered in a prospective accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between six mo and seven yr of age. Three sites were involved in participant recruitment: Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Iowa. The sample consisted of 12 children with ANSD and 22 children with SNHL. The groups were matched based on better-ear pure-tone average, better-ear aided speech intelligibility index, gender, maternal education level, and newborn hearing screening result (i.e., pass or refer). Children and their families participated in an initial baseline visit, followed by visits twice a year for children <2 yr of age and once a yr for children >2 yr of age. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare children with ANSD to children with SNHL. Paired t-tests indicated no significant differences between the ANSD and SNHL groups on language and articulation measures. Children with ANSD displayed functional speech perception skills in quiet. Although the number of participants was too small to conduct statistical analyses for speech perception testing, there appeared to be a trend in which the ANSD group

  10. Effects of general fatigue induced by incremental maximal exercise test on gait stability and variability of healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; Andrade, Adriano O

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether general fatigue induced by incremental maximal exercise test (IMET) affects gait stability and variability in healthy subjects. Twenty-two young healthy male subjects walked in a treadmill at preferred walking speed for 4min prior (PreT) the test, which was followed by three series of 4min of walking with 4min of rest among them. Gait variability was assessed using walk ratio (WR), calculated as step length normalized by step frequency, root mean square (RMSratio) of trunk acceleration, standard deviation of medial-lateral trunk acceleration between strides (VARML), coefficient of variation of step frequency (SFCV), length (SLCV) and width (SWCV). Gait stability was assessed using margin of stability (MoS) and local dynamic stability (λs). VARML, SFCV, SLCV and SWCV increased after the test indicating an increase in gait variability. MoS decreased and λs increased after the test, indicating a decrease in gait stability. All variables showed a trend to return to PreT values, but the 20-min post-test interval appears not to be enough for a complete recovery. The results showed that general fatigue induced by IMET alters negatively the gait, and an interval of at least 20min should be considered for injury prevention in tasks with similar demands.

  11. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-01-01

    Background: As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. Objective: The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Methods: Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Results: Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Discussion: Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine. PMID:22879806

  12. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  13. Testing silicon MEMS structures subjected to thermal loading by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Pietro; De Nicola, Sergio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Finizio, Andrea; Iodice, Mario; Magro, Carlo; Pierattini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    We have applied digital holography (DH) as interferometric tool for measuring the out of plane deformation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical structures. DH has been adopted as method for determining with high accuracy deformations due to the residual stress introduced by fabrication process evaluating MEMS behavior subjected to thermal load. A thermal characterization of these structures requires to cope two fundamental problems. The first one regards the loss of the focus due to thermal expansion of the MEMS sample support. With an out-of-focus image, a correct reconstruction of the sample image can not be obtained. To overcome the problem an auto-tracking procedure has been adopted. The other problem regards the direct comparison of images reconstructed at two different distances. In fact, in DH the numerical reconstruction image is enlarged or contracted according to the reconstruction distance. To avoid this problem, we have adopted a novel but very simple method for keeping constant the image size by imposing the reconstruction pixel constant through the fictitious enlargement of the number of the pixel of the recorded digital holograms. These procedures have been employed in order to characterize MEMS with different shapes and dimensions. The measured profiles obtained by DH can be employed to evaluate both the residual stress induced during the fabrication processes and its dependence on the temperature.

  14. Testing silicon MEMS structures subjected to thermal loading by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Pietro; De Nicola, Sergio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Finizio, Andrea; Iodice, Mario; Magro, Carlo; Pierattini, Giovanni

    2003-12-01

    We have applied digital holography (DH) as interferometric tool for measuring the out of plane deformation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical structures. DH has been adopted as method for determining with high accuracy deformations due to the residual stress introduced by fabrication process evaluating MEMS behavior subjected to thermal load. A thermal characterization of these structures requires to cope two fundamental problems. The first one regards the loss of the focus due to thermal expansion of the MEMS sample support. With an out-of-focus image, a correct reconstruction of the sample image can not be obtained. To overcome the problem an auto-tracking procedure has been adopted. The other problem regards the direct comparison of images reconstructed at two different distances. In fact, in DH the numerical reconstruction image is enlarged or contracted according to the reconstruction distance. To avoid this problem, we have adopted a novel but very simple method for keeping constant the image size by imposing the reconstruction pixel constant through the fictitious enlargement of the number of the pixel of the recorded digital holograms. These procedures have been employed in order to characterize MEMS with different shapes and dimensions. The measured profiles obtained by DH can be employed to evaluate both the residual stress induced during the fabrication processes and its dependence on the temperature.

  15. Psychoacoustic Characteristics of Tinnitus versus Temporal Resolution in Subjects with Normal Hearing Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cochlear or neural mechanisms of tinnitus generation may affect auditory temporal resolution in tinnitus patients even with normal audiometry. Thus, studying the correlation between tinnitus characteristics and auditory temporal resolution in subjects with tinnitus may help in proper modification of tinnitus management strategy. Objective This study aims to examine the relationship between the psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and the auditory temporal resolution in subjects with normal audiometry. Methods Two normal hearing groups with ages ranging from 20 to 45 years were involved: control group of 15 adults (30 ears) without tinnitus and study group of 15 adults (24 ears) with tinnitus. Subjective scaling of annoyance and sleep disturbance caused by tinnitus, basic audiological evaluation, tinnitus psychoacoustic measures and Gaps in Noise test were performed. Data from both groups were compared using independent sample t-test. Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group were correlated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Significantly higher hearing threshold, higher approximate threshold and lower correct Gaps in Noise scores were observed in tinnitus ears. There was no significant correlation between psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group. Conclusion Auditory temporal resolution impairment was found in tinnitus patients, which could be attributed to cochlear impairment or altered neural firing within the auditory pathway. It is recommended to include temporal resolution testing in the tinnitus evaluation battery to provide a proper management planning. PMID:28382121

  16. Tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy in a UK National Health Service audiology department: Patients’ evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments

    PubMed Central

    Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C. J.; Lammaing, Karen; Cropley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ judgements of the effectiveness of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapies offered in a specialist UK National Health Service audiology department. Design: Cross-sectional service evaluation questionnaire survey. Patients were asked to rank the effectiveness of the treatment they received on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no effect, 5 = very effective). Study sample: The questionnaire was sent to all patients who received treatment between January and March 2014 (n = 200) and 92 questionnaires were returned. Results : The mean score was greatest for counselling (Mean = 4.7, SD = 0.6), followed by education (Mean = 4.5, SD = 0.8), cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.7), and hearing tests (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.9). Only 6% of responders rated counselling as 3 or below. In contrast, bedside sound generators, hearing aids, and wideband noise generators were rated as 3 or below by 25%, 36%, and 47% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective components of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy interventions were judged by the patients to be counselling, education, and CBT. PMID:27195947

  17. Increased corticosterone levels in mice subjected to the rat exposure test.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane Santana; Santos Gomes, Karina; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable interest in studying prey-predator relationships to develop rodent-based models for the neurobehavioral aspects of stress and emotion. However, despite the growing use of transgenic mice and results showing important differences in the behavioral responses of rats and mice, little research has been conducted regarding the responses of mice to predators. The rat exposure test (RET), a recently developed and behaviorally validated prey-predator (mouse-rat)-based model, has proven to be a useful tool in evaluating the defensive responses of mice facing rats. To further validate the RET, we investigated the endocrine and behavioral responses of mice exposed to this apparatus. We first constructed a plasma corticosterone secretion curve in mice exposed to a rat or to an empty cage (control). Rat-exposed mice showed a pronounced rise in corticosterone levels that peaked 15 min from the beginning of the predator exposure. The corticosterone levels and behavioral responses of mice exposed to a rat or to a toy in the RET apparatus were then measured. We observed high plasma corticosterone levels along with clear avoidance behaviors represented by decreases in tunnel and surface area exploration and increases in risk assessment behaviors and freezing. This strongly suggests that the test elicits a repertoire of behavioral responses compatible with an aversion state and indicates that it is a promising model for the evaluation of prey-predator interactions. However, more physiological, neurochemical, and pharmacological studies are needed to further validate the test. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  19. Analyses of layer-thickness effects in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Thompson, G. A.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Becher, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.

  20. A SUMMARY OF TEST OBSERVATIONS WHEN IBUTTONS ARE SUBJECTED TO RF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R J; Baluyot, E V

    2011-10-26

    The iButton is a 'one-wire', temperature sensor and data logger in a short metal cylinder package 17 mm in diameter and 6 mm tall. The device is designed to be attached to a surface and acquire temperature samples over time periods as short as 1 second to as long as 300 minutes. Both 8-bit and 16-bit samples are available with 8kB of memory available. Lifetime is limited to an internal battery that cannot be replaced or recharged. The RF test interest originated with the concern that the data logger could inadvertently record electrical emanations from other nearby equipment. The normal operation of the data logger does not support high speed sampling but the control interface will operate at either 15.4 kbps or 125 kbps. There were no observable effects in the operation of the module or in the data that could be attributed to the use of RF energy. They made the assumption that these devices would potentially show RF sensitivity in any of the registers and in the data memory equally, therefore gross changes in the data might show RF susceptibility. No such sensitivity was observed. Because significant power levels were used for these tests they can extrapolate downward in power to state that no RF susceptibility would occur at lower power levels given the same configurations.

  1. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  2. Tests on GFRP Pultruded Profiles with Channel Section Subjected to Web Crippling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.

  3. The cholinergic REM induction test with RS 86 after scopolamine pretreatment in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Riemann, D; Hohagen, F; Fleckenstein, P; Schredl, M; Berger, M

    1991-09-01

    A shortened latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is one of the most stable biological abnormalities described in depressive patients. According to the reciprocal interaction model of non-REM and REM sleep regulation, REM sleep disinhibition at the beginning of the night in depression is a consequence of heightened central nervous system cholinergic transmitter activity in relation to aminergic transmitter activity. A recent study has indicated that muscarinic supersensitivity, rather than quantitatively enhanced cholinergic activity, may be the primary cause of REM sleep abnormalities in depression. The present study tested this hypothesis by treating healthy volunteers for 3 days with a cholinergic antagonist (scopolamine) in the morning, in an effort to induce muscarinic receptor supersensitivity. On the last day of scopolamine administration, RS 86, an orally active cholinergic agonist, was administered before bedtime to test whether this procedure would induce sleep onset REM periods. Whereas scopolamine treatment tended to advance REM sleep and to heighten REM density in healthy controls in comparison to NaCl administration, the additional cholinergic stimulation did not provoke further REM sleep disinhibition. This result underlines the need to take a hypofunction of aminergic transmitter systems into account in attempts to explain the pronounced advance of REM sleep typically seen in depressives.

  4. Tests on GFRP Pultruded Profiles with Channel Section Subjected to Web Crippling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.

  5. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis-to-test correlation for structures subjected to dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% and to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.

  6. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis-to-test correlation for structures subjected to dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.

  7. Psychogenetics of Turner syndrome: an investigation of 28 subjects and respective controls using the Bender test and Piagetian scales.

    PubMed

    Ricardi, F C F; Zaia, L L; Pellegrino-Rosa, I; Rosa, J T; Mantovani de Assis, O Z; Saldanha, P H

    2010-08-31

    Piagetian scales and the Bender visual motor gestalt test (BT) were applied to 28 subjects with universal 45,X Turner syndrome (TS), and their respective controls, in order to investigate their cognitive performance. Dermatoglyphics were also analyzed to obtain clues concerning embryological changes that may have appeared during development of the nervous system and could be associated with cognitive performance of TS patients. Dermatoglyphic pattern distribution was similar to that reported in previous studies of TS individuals: ulnar loops in the digital patterns and finger ridge, a-b, and A'-d counts were more frequent, while arch and whorl patterns were less frequent compared to controls. However, we did not find higher frequencies of hypothenar pattern, maximum atd angle, and ulnarity index in our TS subjects, unlike other investigations. Furthermore, we found significant differences between TS and control T line index values. The BT scores were also lower in probands, as has been previously reported, revealing a neurocognitive deficit of visual motor perception in TS individuals, which could be due to an absence of, or deficiency in, cerebral hemispheric lateralization. However, TS subjects seemed to improve their performance on BT with age. Cognitive performance of the TS subjects was not significantly different from that of controls, confirming a previous study in which TS performance was found to be similar to that of the normal Brazilian population. There were significant correlations between BT scores and Piagetian scale levels with dermatoglyphic parameters. This association could be explained by changes in the common ectodermal origin of the epidermis and the central nervous system. TS subjects seem to succeed in compensating their spatial impairments in adapting their cognitive and social contacts. We concluded that genetic counseling should consider cognitive and psychosocial difficulties presented by TS subjects, providing appropriate treatment and

  8. Effect of traditional Arabic coffee consumption on the glycemic index of Khalas dates tested in healthy and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Alkaabi, Juma; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Saadi, Hussein; Gariballa, Salah; Yasin, Javed

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of dates with coffee is common among Arabs and may affect postprandial hyperglycemia ex-cursion. The study aimed to determine the effect of coffee on the glycemic index of a common variety of dates (Khalas) tested in healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals. Study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 40.2±6.7 years) and ten diabetic participants with a mean HbA1c of 6.6±(0.7%) and a mean age of 40.8±5.7 years. Each subject participated in five days of tests with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the dates (with/without coffee). Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the interventions. Statistical analyses were performed using the independent samples and paired t-tests. Mean±SE glycemic indices of the Khalas dates for the healthy individuals were 55.1±7.7 and 52.7±6.2 without and with coffee consumption, respectively. Similar values were observed for those with diabetes (53.0±6.0 and 41.5±5.4). Differences between glycemic indices of Khalas with or without coffee were not significant (p=0.124). There were no significant differences in glycemic index between the diabetic and healthy subjects (p=0.834 and p=0.202 without and with coffee respectively). In conclusion, at least in the short term, coffee does not adversely affect capillary glucose levels following Khalas dates consumption in healthy and diabetic volunteers.

  9. The GRE Subject Test Performance of U.S. and Non-U.S. Examinees, 1982-84: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) subject-matter achievement tests are offered in 17 fields. This study investigated the performance of U.S. and non-U.S. citizens on the Subject Tests, and the relationship of selected English-proficiency-related background variables to the test performance of non-U.S. citizens. It was also concerned with…

  10. Gender, race and diet affect platelet function tests in normal subjects, contributing to a high rate of abnormal results.

    PubMed

    Miller, Connie H; Rice, Anne S; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F

    2014-06-01

    To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2-6 occasions at 2 week intervals using four methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyser (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P < 0·0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P < 0·0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8·5% of specimens without such exposures (P = 0·0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. [Different significance in normal subjects and in glaucoma patients tested with Optopol PTS-910, in the galucoma program].

    PubMed

    Dascalu, Ana Maria; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Stana, Daniela; Serban, Dragoş

    2013-01-01

    to quantify the inter-test variability (dB) for the Optopol PTS automated perimeter, Glaucoma Fast threshold program. A prospective study was performed on 166 glaucomatous patients and a control group of 30 normal subjects, tested by complete ophthalmological exam and automated perimetry (Optopol PTS-910). The visual field was tested weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. The visual field defects were classified according to the Aulhorn-Karmeyer descriptive scale. For the control group, the medium inter-test variability was of 1.57 +/- 0.24 dB, lower next to fixation and increasing towards the 50 degree isopter. The medium inter-test variability increases along with the perimetric stage :1.57 +/- 0.66 dB for pre-perimetric glaucoma, 2.13 + 1.04 dB for non-specific defects group, 3.23 + 1.01 dB for the stage 1, 3.52 + 2.61 dB, for the stage 2, 3.65 + 1.19dB for the stage 3 and 5.82 +/- 1.67dB for the stage 4. For the cases of preperimetric glaucoma and non-specific defects, a similar profile of variability to the normal subjects can be observed. For the stages 2-4, the profile of the areas with maxim inter-test variability moves towards the relative scotoma and the surrounding area. A better description of the inter-test variability and the evolution of this intricate parameter of the retinal light sensitivity is useful for the differential diagnostic between the real change and the "background noise" in early detection of the functional progression in glaucoma.

  12. A Screening Approach for Classroom Acoustics Using Web-Based Listening Tests and Subjective Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils’ comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman’s sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. Conclusions/Significance In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils’ comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (p<0.001) and distance to the loudspeakers (p<0.001). Of the physical classroom features, presence of suspended acoustic panels (p<0.05) and length of the classroom (p<0.01) predicted speech comprehension. Of the pupils’ descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (p<0.05) predicted speech comprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil’s descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom. PMID:25615692

  13. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols.

  14. High Order Statistics and Time-Frequency Domain to Classify Heart Sounds for Subjects under Cardiac Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named α(opt), β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features.

  15. High Order Statistics and Time-Frequency Domain to Classify Heart Sounds for Subjects under Cardiac Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named α opt, β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features. PMID:26089957

  16. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Kavita R; Pote, Sonali; Pujari, Sudeep; Deka, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT) of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1). Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS) and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P) value using Chi-square test of <0.005 was taken as significant. RESULTS Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire), Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20), 75.86% had a low TBUT (<10s), 58.62% had a low Schirmer's I test (≤10 mm), 86.20% had Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, 79.31% had Lissamine green staining score of ≥1. We found statistically significant associations between positive Schirmer test and arthritis (P<0.002), dryness elsewhere (P<0.001), contact lens use (P<0.002), systemic medication (P<0.0001), sleeping with eyes partly open (P<0.002), history of dry eyes treatment (P<0.0001), environmental factors (P<0.001), swimming (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation

  17. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  18. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01.

  19. Static Subjective Visual Vertical in Healthy Volunteers: The Effects of Different Preset Angle Deviations and Test-Retest Variability

    PubMed Central

    Venhovens, J.; Meulstee, J.; Verhagen, W. I. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The static subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed in 24 healthy volunteers with different preset angles (i.e., 10, 20, and 30 degrees), and in 20 other volunteers, the static SVV was tested and retested 1 week later. The static SVV results are influenced by the side of the preset angle (Wilcoxon test, p ≤ 0.001), but not by the preset angle deviation. The test-retest static SVV outcomes are stable at a group level; however, they show statistically relevant variability at an individual level (−0.240 ≤ intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ≤ 0.508). A robust static SVV protocol is described in this paper. PMID:27928394

  20. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.

  1. Audiological and electrophysiological evaluation of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Leite, Renata Aparecida; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Gonçalves, Isabela Crivellaro

    2006-08-01

    We examined the peripheral auditory system and the auditory brainstem pathway of children with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). One hundred and one children, 51 with AIDS diagnosis and 50 normal children were evaluated. Audiological assessment included immittance measures, pure tone and speech audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR). The children with AIDS more frequently had abnormal results than did their matched controls, presenting either peripheral or auditory brainstem impairment. We suggest that AIDS be considered a risk factor for peripheral and/or auditory brainstem disorders. Further research should be carried out to investigate the auditory effects of HIV infection along the auditory pathway.

  2. Neuromuscular Fatigue During a Modified Biering-Sørensen Test in Subjects with and Without Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Mark J.; Behm, David G.; MacKinnon, Scott N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies employing modified Biering-Sørenson tests have reported that low back endurance is related to the potential for developing low back pain. Understanding the manner in which spinal musculature fatigues in people with and without LBP is necessary to gain insight into the sensitivity of the modified Biering-Sørenson test to differentiate back health. Twenty male volunteers were divided into a LBP group of subjects with current subacute or a history of LBP that limited their activity (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The median frequency of the fast Fourier transform was calculated from bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) of the upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), lower lumbar erector spinae (LLES) and biceps femoris while maintaining a prescribed modified Biering-Sørensen test position and exerting isometric forces equivalent to 100, 120, 140 and 160% of the estimated mass of the head-arms-trunk (HAT) segment. Time to failure was also investigated across the percentages of HAT. Fatigue time decreased with increasing load and differences between groups increased as load increased, however these differences were not significant. Significant differences in the EMG median frequency between groups occurred in the right biceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05) with significant pairwise differences occurring at 140% for the left biceps femoris and at 160% for the right biceps femoris. There were significant pairwise differences at 120% for average EMG of the right biceps femoris and at 140% for the right ULES, and right and left biceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05). The modified Biering-Sørensen test as usually performed at 100% HAT is not sufficient to demonstrate significant differences between controls and subjects with varying degrees of mild back disability based on the Oswestry classification. Key pointsThe results do not wholly support the modified Biering-Sørensen test utilizing resistance of 100% HAT to discern differences in fatigue in subjects with mild low back

  3. Audiological Evaluation of Patients Taking Kanamycin for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhagat, Sanjeev; Verma, Bhimsain; Singh, Ravinder; Singh, Surinderpal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis is increasing in developing countries. Aminoglycosides are an integral part of second-line drugs, however ototoxicity is a major limitation for their use. This study aims to determine the extent of hearing loss in patients taking one of the commonly prescribed drugs for Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), Kanamycin, at a Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab, India, which is a 1200 bed tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients (68 males and 32 females) with confirmed diagnosis of MDR-TB were included in this study conducted between January 2012 and February 2014. Subjects were between 15 to 60 years of age, with a mean age of 37.46 ± 10.1. Pure tone audiometry (PTA) was performed before the start of the therapy, as a baseline, and was repeated after 1 week and 6 weeks of Kanamycin use to assess hearing loss as an effect of therapy. Results: Of the 100 patients examined, ototoxicity was found in 18 subjects post therapy. Incidence of high frequency hearing loss was 2% at week 1, and 12% after 6 weeks of follow up. However, 4% of the cases developed flat loss at week 6. The hearing loss was bilateral in 13 patients and unilateral in 5 patients. Ototoxicity was more common in males (66.67%) compared to females (33.3%). Maximum cases were found in the age group of 36 to 45 years (36.8%), the majority being from a rural background (83.3%). The association with socioeconomic status (P=0.024) and co-morbid conditions like diabetes and hypertension (P=0.001) reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Lack of specific guidelines to monitor patients taking aminoglycosides makes ototoxicity a major adverse effect of their use in MDR-TB. More studies are mandated to study the risk factors associated with the development of ototoxicity and for the development of alternate drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:27429949

  4. The audiological profile of adults with and without hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is any influence of systemic arterial hypertension on the peripheral auditory system. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 40 individuals between 30 and 50 years old, who were divided into groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension, using data from high-frequency audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The results were compared with those from groups of normal-hearing individuals, with and without systemic arterial hypertension, who underwent the pure-tone audiometry test. All individuals also underwent the following procedures: otoscopy, acoustic immittance measures, pure-tone audiometry at frequencies from 250 to 16000 Hz, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions test and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension in either conventional or high-frequency audiometry. Regarding transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, there was a trend toward statistical significance whereby the systemic arterial hypertension group showed lower results. Regarding distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, the systemic arterial hypertension group showed significantly lower results at the following frequencies: 1501, 2002, and 3003 Hz. A discriminant analysis indicated that the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions variables best distinguished individuals with and without systemic arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: Data from this study suggest cochlear dysfunction in individuals with systemic arterial hypertension because their otoacoustic emission results were lower than those in the systemic arterial hypertension group. PMID:27166767

  5. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    PubMed

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Utility of the guinea pig like model of audiology studies and proposal of surgical accesses to the ear and neck].

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Azuara-Pliego, Enrique; Hernández-Orozco, Francisco; Collado-Corona, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the utility of the guinea pig model in audiology research and describe the different surgical accesses to the middle and inner ear in order to use these techniques for the production of experimental deafness. In addition, we describe a surgical technique for laryngeal denervation. Finally, we discuss the auditory-evoked potentials obtained in newborn and mature animals, in whom experimental deafness was produced. Our purpose was to confirm the use of the guinea pig as an ideal model for audiologic studies and for neck surgery.

  7. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P <0.01). Using a paired design and a power of 0.8, a minimum of 12 participants would be needed to detect a 10 mm change in 5 h postprandial mean ratings and 17 to detect a 500 kJ difference in ad libitum EI. Intra-individual variability of appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The evaluation of ordinary Portland cement concrete subject to elevated temperatures in conjunction with acoustic emission and splitting tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Min; Hou, Tsung-Chin; Chen, Guan-Ying; Hou, Ping-Ni

    2017-04-01

    The research objective was to evaluate Ordinary Portland Cement concrete subject to various elevated temperatures. Single OPC concrete mixture with water to cem