Science.gov

Sample records for sublineolum em seis

  1. Excised leaf method for high volume evaluation of sorghum germplasm for resistance against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar phase of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is the most important leaf disease of sorghum. Due to the hyper-variable nature of the fungus, continuous evaluation of sorghum germplasm to identify new sources of resistance is imperative. Field and greenhouse evaluations for anth...

  2. Molecular mapping of Cg1, a gene for resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum sublineolum is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum and has been reported in most areas where the crop is grown. Several control strategies have been developed but host plant resistance has been regarded as the most effective strategy for ...

  3. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  4. SEI Approach to Harmonization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    technologies © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Harmonization: Multimodel Improvement in Practice 5 SEI Webinar Series Competition for implementation resources...4 and 5 ...‖ • ―[6S]... an enabler for measuring the value of... improvements‖ • ―Six Sigma provides a way to connect process improvement and...business value‖ • ―..conducting Level 5 SCAMPI appraisals in 5 -6 days…‖ Raytheon • CMMI + R6S + IPDS + DFSS • Escaping defects from 6/KSLOC to 1.16/KSLOC

  5. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  6. SeisCORK Meeting Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    microbiological sampling) on a single CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) system [ Davis et al., 1992; Jannasch el al., 2003; Shipboard Scientific...Shiboard Scie tif gic Party 04) Sir For2B SeisCORK Meeting Report WHOI-01-2006 Appendix A: Meeting Participants Tom Pettigrew, P.E. Fred Spiess Staff...Expedition 301 benefits from operational and scientific achievements from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 168 [ Davis et al., 1997], which focused on

  7. The GEMS-2 SEIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Banerdt, B.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Nibut, T.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Schibler, P.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and recently selected for the phase A study. The objective of the GEMS SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as well as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, and an infrasound sensor is additionally considered. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from the Phoenix lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. Thanks to the wind and thermal shield, together with the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs), long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The

  8. The GEMS-2 Seis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; de Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Pike, T.; Nebut, T.; Tillier, S.; Robert, O.; Gabsi, T.; Pot, O.; Lecomte, B.; Escande, N.; Mocquet, A.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Roll, R.; Bierwirth, M.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the Mars SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, as far as structure of the mantle and shape of discontinuities will be determined by the experience. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the inner core to the meteoritic rate measurement. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, and environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature. The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm and protected by a wind and thermal shield. Long term VBB bias will be protected from both temperature and pressure variations (as well as passively compensated), allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the ground, in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling. Infrasound, which might be associated to dust devils and atmospheric discharge, will be also monitored. The overall mass of the SEIS instrument is about 6 kg, including all sensors, data control processors and installation devices. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition. The instrument operation is designed to be very simple. It will operate in a “deploy and forget” strategy (with a deployment and closely monitored during the first month however) uploading data and events of interests at each pass of the relay satellite. When relay is not available, the data will be stored on-board. The upload

  9. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Shizuko Sei (formerly Shizuko Aoki) is a medical officer with over 27 years of translational and clinical research experience in the field of cancer and AIDS. After completing her pediatric oncology fellowship at NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR), she held various positions in the CCR and Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) before joining the DCP in July 2015. |

  10. Draft SEI Program Plans: 1994-1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    analyzed within a specific area of knowledge and experience. The SEI has developed a feature-oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) method that develops a...Computer Resources Support Improvement Program FAA Federal Aviation Administration FFRDC federally funded research and development center FODA feature

  11. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    better automation to understand the threat. • Automated static analysis of artifacts • Large-scale analysis of indicators 5 Fall 2014 SEI Research...Review J. Spring; October 29, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Malware Analysis Process Artifact Catalog DoD Malware Static Analysis...2014 Carnegie Mellon University Static Analysis Improvements 1. Compiler transformation framework • ROSE [Quinlan 2000] • Well-established program

  12. SEIS Experiment for the INSIGHT Mission: Towards 2018 Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, N.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; IJpelaan, F.; Jerjean, L.; Pont, G.; Sylvestre-Baron, A.; Laudet, P.; Bousquet, P.; Hohhman, T.; Umland, J.; Bone, B.; Hurst, K.; Giardini, D.; Zweifel, P.; Bramanti, C.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Christensen, U.

    2016-10-01

    After giving an outline of the InSight mission, with a focus on SEIS activities on Mars, we will describe the SEIS instrument and its performances, and provide a status of its development at the time of the workshop.

  13. Prototype Tool Support for SEI Process and Risk Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M.; Kelly, J.; Kiper, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of tool support for risk assessment that uses selected components of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) information, specifically: Capability Maturity Model (CMM) process activities, CMM process goals and the SEI taxonomy of software project risks.

  14. The SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Karczewski, J. F.; Mimoun, D.; Zweifel, P.; Pike, T.; Ammann, J.; Anglade, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will integrate a VBB (Very Broad Band) two axis seismometer, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the VBB and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. SEIS instrument was first proposed and accepted for NetLander mission (and will also be in charge of data acquisition for SPICE experiment). This seismic package should also be proposed for future missions.

  15. Future needs for space robots for SEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Don

    1992-03-01

    Recent studies of the types, numbers, and roles of robotic systems for use in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), with a focus on planet surface systems (PSS), are summarized in this paper. These high-level systems' engineering, modeling, and analysis activities have supported trade studies and development of preliminary requirements for intelligent systems including supervised autonomous robotic systems. The analyses are summarized, results presented, and conclusions and recommendations are made. One conclusion is that SEI will be `enabled' by the use of supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces. These intelligent systems include capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements including supervised autonomous robotic systems. With the proper level of intelligent systems, the number and skills of humans on the planet surface will be determined predominantly by surface science and technology (not outpost) objectives and requirements. A broad range of robotic system uses in Earth orbit or during space transport are indicated by current studies. These include assembly of very large spacecraft systems such as propulsion systems and aerobraking structures. Maintenance is another robotic system use being studied. The differences in requirements for these and other space robotic systems compared to current industrial robotic systems are presented. Improvements in safety, reliability, and maintainability for these remote systems are stressed. Space robotics, especially those systems being developed to operate on planetary surfaces, can be considered a form of the emerging technology of field robotics on Earth. The solutions to the problems we will be solving to make the exploration of our solar system possible and practical will apply to the many problems we have which require operating in hazardous environments on Earth and to critically improving human productivity in many fields.

  16. Conducting SEI (Software Engineering Institute)-Assisted Software Process Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Agresti, W.W., "Applying Industrial Engineering to the Software Development Process," Proceedings, IEEE Fall COMPCON, Washington, DC: IEEE Com- puter...information. CMU/SEI-89-TR-7 1.2. Software Process Maturity Framework A software process maturity framework was developed by the SEI for two purposes : to pro...training. The purpose of this briefing is to give SEI team members a good understanding of the organization and the types of software it develops . Typical

  17. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Aligining Acquisition Strategy and Software Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    CMU /SEI-2010-TN-018: “Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems“ 8 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review...occur for a given AQA  Created acquisition strategy tactics associated with AQAs *Results published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2013-TN-026: “Results in...published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2014-TN-019: “A Method for Aligning Acquisition Strategies and Software Architectures“ 12 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review

  18. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    DOE PAGES

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF₆ shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  19. The SEI facility for fluid-bed wood gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Bullpitt, W.S.; Rittenhouse, O.C. ); Masterson, L.D. )

    1989-09-01

    In mid 1985, construction was begun on the world's largest fluidized bed, wood gasification plant at the clay processing plant in Quincy, Fla. In March 1986, the plant was purchased by Southern Electric International (SEI). This paper describes how SEI coordinated the redesign of many of the plant systems and supervised the completion of construction and startup. In late 1986, the gasifier plant was sold. SEI remains involved as the operations and maintenance contractor on-site and is now responsible for design changes and equipment maintenance.

  20. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review High Confidence Cyber Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Initial Condition, Time bound Result 1: Improved SMC by Combining Over and Under Approximations REK Result 2: Improved Sequentialization by Using...Memory Consistency Rles 24 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review de Niz Oct 28th, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Task 2: Improved Software...Univt•r·sity 25 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review de Niz Oct 28th, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Task 2: Improved Software Model Checking

  1. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Distribution Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Team: Dr. Jose A. Morales Dr. William Casey Aaron Volkmann ( presenting ) Report Documentation Page Form...Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Copyright 2014 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based...Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. DM-0001740 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University

  2. 1989 SEI Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Software Specification: A Framework, H. Dieter Rombach CM-17 User Interface Development, Gary Perlman CM-19 Software Requirements, John W. Brackett...reviews. Support Materials for The Software Technical Review Process Edited by John Cross, This support materials package includes materials helpful in...engineer. It discusses both written and oral communication. SEI-CM-18-1.0 CMU/SEI-89-TR-21 79 Software Requirements John Brackett, Boston

  3. Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

  4. The Mars SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Schibler, P.; Giardini, D.; Pont, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars SEIS experiment. The SEIS experiment was first proposed by IPGP (and accepted) for the NetLander mission. It integrates two VBB (Very Broad Band) seismometers, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the seismic and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. As NetLander mission has been cancelled (while fortunately the development still goes on), this seismic package can be proposed for future Mars missions.

  5. 76 FR 72729 - SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al. November 18, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment...

  6. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Insider Threat Mitigation LINE Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Manning Case 11/18/2014 Copywrite © 2014 Kathleen M Carley 7 Come to poster session to see detailed results and talk with analysts! 8 Fall 2014...Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Moore, 28-30 October 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Contact Information Slide Format Presenter / Point of

  7. LispSEI: The Programmer’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Taste ) .:( Smell ) .;(See) (defvar *TRACE-SENSE* NIL) (defvar $SOUNO-TYPE: 0) ;;Equivalent to... taste touch)) (defvar *ENTITIES* ’(object sound smell taste contact)) ;Wanked from LispSEI.l: (defvar PRIMITIVE 0) (defvar COMPLEXOBJ 1) (defvar POLYGON... smell -threshold. (dot-constraint smell -intensity-constraint ( smell -threshold) smell (> (emission-intensity entity) smell -threshol d)) ;;Only taste

  8. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  9. MatSeis developer's guide:version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Lane Christopher; Young, Christopher John

    2007-05-01

    This guide is intended to enable researchers working with seismic data, but lacking backgrounds in computer science and programming, to develop seismic algorithms using the MATLAB-based MatSeis software. Specifically, it presents a series of step-by-step instructions to write four specific functions of increasing complexity, while simultaneously explaining the notation, syntax, and general program design of the functions being written. The ultimate goal is that that the user can use this guide as a jumping off point from which he or she can write new functions that are compatible with and expand the capabilities of the current MatSeis software that has been developed as part of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  10. The role of SEI in lithium and lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Ardel, G.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.; Eshkenazy, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses fundamental processes taking place at the lithium and Li{sub x}C{sub 6} electrode/electrolyte interphases and models for these interphases. The authors deal with both nonaqueous and polymer (dry and gel) electrolytes, graphitized and nongraphitized carbonaceous materials as anodes for Li-ion batteries. Each electrode/electrolyte combination has its own unique features and problems but there are some general phenomena common to all of them. Issues to be reviewed include SEI composition, morphology and formation reactions, graphite surface modifications including chemical bonded SEI and micro channels formation, electrode degradation processes, lithium deposition-dissolution and intercalation-deintercalation mechanisms, rate-determining steps (RDS), electrolyte and electrode parameters and conditions affecting the above mentioned processes. Technology-related issues are emphasized.

  11. SEI in-space operations and support challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Ronald

    A modeling and assessment process used to integrate SEI operations and support (OAS) planning processes with the systems engineering design, and system integration disciplines. Four areas of the OAS activity require the development of large infrastructures to maintain an operational capability: earth, orbital, transorbital, and lunar/Martian surface locations. An analytical process that can be used to develop OAS requirements is illustrated. Relationships of manufacturing, prelaunch operations, and orbital operations when deriving requirements are shown. If a concurrent engineering process is used, a more operationally efficient design can be defined early in the program to support all functions. Challenges associated with SEI logistics, the necessity for using functional analyses in the development of system requirements, some candidate operational lunar or Mars systems, and analytical modeling results on the candidate designs are discussed.

  12. FAll 2014 SEI Research Review Verifying Evolving Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Scalable verification of evolving software • reduce re-verification effort • close semantic gap between compiler and verifier • enable safe use of... compiler optimizations in safety-critical code Related Work: Current solutions are limited by • effectiveness (syntactic slicing, regression...developed by us 5 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Gurfinkel, October 28, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Model Problem: Certifying Compiler for

  13. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all... would not promote its recovery. The sei whale has been listed as ``endangered'' under the...

  14. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  15. SEI Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education for 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    be exemplified by the case of the Therac - 25 therapeutic radiation machine. The machine evolved from earlier designs, with hardware func- tion being...Curriculum Topic Index 17 2.6. Curriculum Design 21 2.7. Project Experience Component 21 2.8. Electives 25 2.9. Pedagogical Considerations 25 2.10. The...advanced programming. CMU/SEI-91-TR-2 25 2.8. Electives Electives may comprise 20% to 40% of a curriculum. Although software engineering is a young

  16. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  17. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  18. Low frequency vocalizations attributed to sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis).

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Mark F; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Wenzel, Frederick W; Tremblay, Christopher J; Carter Esch, H; Warde, Ann M

    2008-08-01

    Low frequency (<100 Hz) downsweep vocalizations were repeatedly recorded from ocean gliders east of Cape Cod, MA in May 2005. To identify the species responsible for this call, arrays of acoustic recorders were deployed in this same area during 2006 and 2007. 70 h of collocated visual observations at the center of each array were used to compare the localized occurrence of this call to the occurrence of three baleen whale species: right, humpback, and sei whales. The low frequency call was significantly associated only with the occurrence of sei whales. On average, the call swept from 82 to 34 Hz over 1.4 s and was most often produced as a single call, although pairs and (more rarely) triplets were occasionally detected. Individual calls comprising the pairs were localized to within tens of meters of one another and were more similar to one another than to contemporaneous calls by other whales, suggesting that paired calls may be produced by the same animal. A synthetic kernel was developed to facilitate automatic detection of this call using spectrogram-correlation methods. The optimal kernel missed 14% of calls, and of all the calls that were automatically detected, 15% were false positives.

  19. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: FY14-03 Software Assurance Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie...service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0001767 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie...2: Applying Software Quality Models to Software Assurance 4 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon

  20. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Value-Driven Iterative and Incremental Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and...0001795 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Value-Driven Incremental Development...Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Technical Approach Multi-dimensional Analysis Drives

  1. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  2. 75 FR 39916 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and requests... ``Sei Whale Recovery Plan Information'' 3. Mail: National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of...

  3. 75 FR 65005 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration, Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP... comprehensive restoration of the Mississippi barrier islands. These actions are related to the consequences of... and wildlife, prevention of erosion, barrier island restoration, and other related water...

  4. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses Software Engineering Institute...DATE 28 OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses - SEI Research Review...etc. Large CPS are integrated out of components developed by suppliers that use their own analysis methods and make their own assumptions

  5. SEI (Software Engineering Institute) Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Framework, H. Dieter Rombach CM-17 User Interface Development, Gary Perlman CM-19 Software Requirements, John W. Brackett Pedagogical Concerns Case...Software Technical Review Process Edited by John Cross, This support materials package includes materials helpful in teach- Indiana University of ing a...communication. SEI-CM- 18-1.0 CMU/SEI-89-TR-21 79 Software Requirements • John Brackett, This curriculum module is concerned with the definition of

  6. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  7. Genomic and proteomic characterization of SE-I, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wentao; Zhang, Yaning; Wang, Guangcao; Bai, Juan; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yufeng; Jiang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    A bacteriophage infecting pathogenic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from a swine farm experiencing an outbreak of acute swine erysipelas; we designated this phage SE-I. SE-I has an icosahedral head, a long tail and a double-stranded DNA genome. The 34,997-bp genome has a GC content of 34 % and contains 43 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding packaging, structural, lysin-holin, and hypothetical proteins. Components of purified SE-I were separated using SDS-PAGE and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were identified, encoded by ORF9, ORF15, ORF23, ORF30, ORF31, ORF33, ORF39, ORF40 and ORF 42. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on the sequence of the large terminase subunit revealed that SE-I is closely related to Staphylococcus phages P954 and phi3396. The CHAP-domain-containing protein encoded by ORF25 was expressed in E. coli and which was able to inactivate host bacteria. SE-I was able to infect 7 of 13 E. rhusiopathiae strains, but was unable to infect Salmonella, Streptococcus suis, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the isolation, characterization, and genomic and proteomic analysis of a temperate phage infecting E. rhusiopathiae, and it might lead to the development of new anti- E. rhusiopathiae agents.

  8. Silicon nanowire degradation and stabilization during lithium cycling by SEI layer formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S Tom

    2014-06-11

    Silicon anodes are of great interest for advanced lithium-ion battery applications due to their order of magnitude higher energy capacity than graphite. Below a critical diameter, silicon nanowires enable the ∼300% volume expansion during lithiation without pulverization. However, their high surface-to-volume ratio is believed to contribute to fading of their capacity retention during cycling due to solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) growth on surfaces. To better understand this issue, previous studies have examined the composition and morphology of the SEI layers. Here we report direct measurements of the reduction in silicon nanowire diameter with number of cycles due to SEI formation. The results reveal significantly greater Si loss near the nanowire base. From the change in silicon volume we can accurately predict the measured specific capacity reduction for silicon nanowire half cells. The enhanced Si loss near the nanowire/metal current collector interface suggests new strategies for stabilizing nanowires for long cycle life performance.

  9. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  10. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Analysis Methodology - Approach •Strace Android APK ...logcat, network information, apk and signature data - can run up to 30 minutes, average around 4 minutes to complete all activities 11 Fall

  11. SeisRockHT - Seismic Rockfall Monitoring in the Hohe Tauern region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Daniel; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Mertl, Stefan; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    SeisRockHT focuses on open hardware and free software applied for scientific long-term monitoring strategies in harsh environments. In detail, SeisRockHT aims at the establishment of two seismic networks to quantitatively observe seismicity and rockfall events at high alpine north faces. Due to the rare character of rockfall events, a continuous and long-term observation strategy is targeted. The long-term perspective is assured through the project partner of the Austrian seismic service who will include SeisRockHT networks when the project is completed. Two study sites were selected for monitoring: the Kitzsteinhorn and the Hohe Sonnblick exhibiting two different scales of monitoring networks. The smaller scaled Kitzsteinhorn investigation site is closely related to bedrock permafrost processes, whereas the larger-scaled Sonnblick investigation site aims a classic alpine north face. SeisRockHT will develop a suite of optimum methods for characterization, detection and localization of the seismic events recorded at the two sites. Beside analysis of discrete seismic events, ambient seismic noise analysis promises a closer insight into rockfall precursory seismic characteristics.Based on the high quality complementary data delivered by already established long-term monitoring projects at the two sites, potential rockfall triggers will be suggested.

  12. 75 FR 54420 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Statement (SEIS) would be prepared for the proposed SH 71 roadway between Riverside Drive and SH 130 in... for proposed improvements to State Highway (SH) 71 from Riverside Drive to SH 130, in Travis County... to 40 CFR 1508.22 and 43 TAC Sec. 2.5(e)(2) for proposed improvement of SH 71 from Riverside Drive...

  13. How many records should be used in ASCE/SEI-7 ground motion scaling procedure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    U.S. national building codes refer to the ASCE/SEI-7 provisions for selecting and scaling ground motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis of structures. Because the limiting values for the number of records in the ASCE/SEI-7 are based on engineering experience, this study examines the required number of records statistically, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of “true” structural responses. Based on elastic–perfectly plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground motions; the number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. As compared to benchmark responses, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is conservative if fewer than seven ground motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides more accurate estimate of the responses. Selecting records based on their spectral shape and design spectral acceleration increases the accuracy and efficiency of the procedure.

  14. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  15. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Applying Agile Methods to DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Defense Adoption Proponents Team (ADAPT) member E-Learning Agile Course Multiple Presentations ... presentations , program committees: GSAW 2014, Agile 2014, Contracts in Agile International Meeting, AFEI/SEI DoD Agile Summit, GAO Working Groups 8

  16. 77 FR 40406 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Highway (SH) 71 West through Oak Hill, in Travis County, Texas, is being rescinded. FOR FURTHER... of US 290/SH 71 West through Oak Hill, in Travis County, Texas. The improvements proposed between... the NOI to prepare a SEIS for US 290/SH 71 West through Oak Hill from RM 1826 to Joe Tanner Lane....

  17. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground-motion scaling procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The procedures and criteria in 2006 IBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2006) and 2007 CBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2007) for the selection and scaling ground-motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures are based on ASCE/SEI 7 provisions (ASCE, 2005, 2010). According to ASCE/SEI 7, earthquake records should be selected from events of magnitudes, fault distance, and source mechanisms that comply with the maximum considered earthquake, and then scaled so that the average value of the 5-percent-damped response spectra for the set of scaled records is not less than the design response spectrum over the period range from 0.2Tn to 1.5Tn sec (where Tn is the fundamental vibration period of the structure). If at least seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) are taken as the average of the EDPs determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of EDPs are taken as the maximum values of the EDPs. ASCE/SEI 7 requires a minimum of three ground-motions. These limits on the number of records in the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure are based on engineering experience, rather than on a comprehensive evaluation. This study statistically examines the required number of records for the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of" true" structural responses. Based on elastic-perfectly-plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground-motions. The number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. The records in each set were selected either (i) randomly, (ii) considering their spectral shapes, or (iii) considering their spectral shapes and design spectral-acceleration value, A(Tn). As compared to benchmark (that is, "true") responses from unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground

  18. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Clean Water Act. The SEIS will be used as a basis for the Corps' permit decision and to ensure compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The SEIS will also address issues related to... (71 FR 33446). On October 31, 2010, the EPA's authority to issue and enforce mining permits in...

  19. SEI Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-11

    Malicious Code Detection and Analysis Techniques • Trustworthy Embedded Systems • Digital Investigations and Video Exploitation Gap Area Tools...Workshop ATAM QAW eLearning Pilots Technical Assessments QUASAR Mission Success in Complex Environments Line-Funded Exploratory New Starts (LENS...area technologies to advance the state of practice of digital exploitation and analysis. 20 Secure Software and Systems Develop and adapt

  20. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  1. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  2. Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) at TiO2 Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries: Defining Apparent and Effective SEI Based on Evidence from X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ventosa, Edgar; Madej, Edyta; Zampardi, Giorgia; Mei, Bastian; Weide, Philipp; Antoni, Hendrik; La Mantia, Fabio; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2017-01-25

    The high (de)lithiation potential of TiO2 (ca. 1.7 V vs Li/Li(+) in 1 M Li(+)) decreases the voltage and, thus, the energy density of a corresponding Li-ion battery. On the other hand, it offers several advantages such as the (de)lithiation potential far from lithium deposition or absence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The latter is currently under controversial debate as several studies reported the presence of a SEI when operating TiO2 electrodes at potentials above 1.0 V vs Li/Li(+). We investigate the formation of a SEI at anatase TiO2 electrodes by means of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The investigations were performed in different potential ranges, namely, during storage (without external polarization), between 3.0-2.0 V and 3.0-1.0 V vs Li/Li(+), respectively. No SEI is formed when a completely dried and residues-free TiO2 electrode is cycled between 3.0 and 2.0 V vs Li/Li(+). A SEI is detected by XPS in the case of samples stored for 6 weeks or cycled between 3.0 and 1.0 V vs Li/Li(+). With use of SECM, it is verified that this SEI does not possess the electrically insulating character as expected for a "classic" SEI. Therefore, we propose the term apparent SEI for TiO2 electrodes to differentiate it from the protecting and effective SEI formed at graphite electrodes.

  3. High-Fidelity e-Learning: SEI’s Virtual Training Environment (VTE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the rights of the trademark holder. Internal use. PeTillission to reproduce this document and to prepare derivative works from this document for... internal use is granted, provided the copyTight and "No Wammty" statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use. This...18 19 21 21 22 22 23 25 25 i I CMU/SEI-TR-2009-005 Appendix A Appendix B Bibliography Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Case Study U. S

  4. Electronic structure and defect properties of Tl6SeI4: Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2012-10-01

    We report density functional calculations of electronic structure, phase diagram, and dielectric, optical, and defect properties of Tl6SeI4. We discuss how electronic structure and defect properties affect resistivity and carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) products in Tl6SeI4. We find large Born effective charges due to covalency involving Tl-6p states. High Born charges generally enhance the static dielectric constant. This provides a mechanism for effective screening of charged defects and impurities. We find that high resistivity can be obtained under near-stoichiometric growth conditions via Fermi level pinning near the middle of the band gap by shallow donors and acceptors, as opposed to deep traps that can give high resistivity, but at the expense of short carrier drift lengths. Defect calculations also reveal the presence of deep native donors that may cause electron trapping. The experimentally observed good μτ products may be explained by a combination of small effective masses and effective screening of charged defects. High resistivity and good μτ products make Tl6SeI4 a promising room-temperature radiation detector material. We also show the calculated defect diffusion barriers, which affect defect migration under external bias in a detector.

  5. SeisCode: A seismological software repository for discovery and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Reyes, C. G.; Clark, A.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    SeisCode is a community repository for software used in seismological and related fields. The repository is intended to increase discoverability of such software and to provide a long-term home for software projects. Other places exist where seismological software may be found, but none meet the requirements necessary for an always current, easy to search, well documented, and citable resource for projects. Organizations such as IRIS, ORFEUS, and the USGS have websites with lists of available or contributed seismological software. Since the authors themselves do often not maintain these lists, the documentation often consists of a sentence or paragraph, and the available software may be outdated. Repositories such as GoogleCode and SourceForge, which are directly maintained by the authors, provide version control and issue tracking but do not provide a unified way of locating geophysical software scattered in and among countless unrelated projects. Additionally, projects are hosted at language-specific sites such as Mathworks and PyPI, in FTP directories, and in websites strewn across the Web. Search engines are only partially effective discovery tools, as the desired software is often hidden deep within the results. SeisCode provides software authors a place to present their software, codes, scripts, tutorials, and examples to the seismological community. Authors can choose their own level of involvement. At one end of the spectrum, the author might simply create a web page that points to an existing site. At the other extreme, an author may choose to leverage the many tools provided by SeisCode, such as a source code management tool with integrated issue tracking, forums, news feeds, downloads, wikis, and more. For software development projects with multiple authors, SeisCode can also be used as a central site for collaboration. SeisCode provides the community with an easy way to discover software, while providing authors a way to build a community around their

  6. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the SEI formation on graphite electrodes for Li+-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Lukas; Martens, Slađana; Ma, Jiwei; Stimming, Ulrich; Schneider, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The SEI-formation on graphitic electrodes operated as an Li+-ion battery anode in a standard 1 M LiPF6 EC/DMC (1 : 1) electrolyte has been studied in situ by EC-STM. Two different modes of in situ study were applied, one, which allowed to follow topographic and crystallographic changes (solvent cointercalation, graphite exfoliation, SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane) of the graphite electrode during SEI-formation, and the second, which gave an insight into the SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane in real time. From the in situ EC-STM studies, not only conclusions about the SEI-topography could be drawn, but also about the formation mechanism and the chemical composition, which strongly depend on the electrode potential. It was shown that above 1.0 V vs. Li/Li+ the SEI-formation is still reversible, since the molecular structure of the solvent molecules remains intact during an initial reduction step. During further reduction, the molecular structures of the solvents are destructed, which causes the irreversible charge loss. The STM studies were completed by electrochemical methods, like cyclic voltammetry, the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and charge/discharge tests of MCMB electrodes.

  7. An application of queuing theory to SIS and SEIS epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Suarez, Carlos M; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Lopez, Osval Montesinos; Hernandez-Cuevas, Karla

    2010-10-01

    In this work we consider every individual of a population to be a server whose state can be either busy (infected) or idle (susceptible). This server approach allows to consider a general distribution for the duration of the infectious state, instead of being restricted to exponential distributions. In order to achieve this we first derive new approximations to quasistationary distribution (QSD) of SIS (Susceptible- Infected- Susceptible) and SEIS (Susceptible- Latent- Infected- Susceptible) stochastic epidemic models. We give an expression that relates the basic reproductive number, R0 and the server utilization,p.

  8. A Bibliography of Externally Published Works by the SEI Engineering Techniques Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    disciplines. Supporting material can be found in many standard engineering texts. [Feiler88] Feller, RH.; Smeaton , R. "Managing Development of Very Large...17,20,21,22, 23, 24, 25 F r Smeaton , R. 16Feiler, P.H. 4, 12, 14, 16, 17 Smith, D. 7 G Spector, A. 8 Garlan, D. 17 Stevens, S.M. 7, 11, 25,26 Stewart...RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include Area Code) 22e. OFFICE SYMBOL John S. Herman, Capt, USAF (412) 268-7631 ESC/AVS (SEI) DD FORM

  9. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A

  10. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  11. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  12. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; McCulloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  13. Electronic states and spectroscopic parameters of selenium monoiodide, SeI: A theoretical contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinassi, Antonio Ricardo; Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Ornellas, Fernando R.

    2017-03-01

    A new species, selenium monoiodide (SeI), was investigated for the first time at a high level of theoretical approach, SA-CASSCF/MRCI. The overall picture of all doublet and quartet (Λ + S) states correlating with the three lowest dissociation channels and the associated Ω states provide reliable results to help understand the lack of experimental data on its transitions and to plan the investigation and determination of spectroscopic parameters. Transition probabilities were computed for the transitions X2 - X1, A1 - X1, A2 - X1, and A2 - X2, originated from the spin-forbidden 1 4Σ- - X 2Π system, and the corresponding radiative lifetimes evaluated.

  14. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  15. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  16. Assessment of the state of the art in life support environmental control for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, Charles H.; Noyes, Gary P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines the types of technology that would be used in a lunar base for environmental control and life support system and how it might relate to in situ materials utilization (ISMU) for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). There are three types of interaction between ISMU and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS): (1) ISMU can reduce cost of water, oxygen, and possibly diluent gasses provided to ECLSS--a corollary to this fact is that the availability of indigenous resources can dramatically alter life support technology trade studies; (2) ISMU can use ECLSS waste systems as a source of reductant carbon and hydrogen; and (3) ECLSS and ISMU, as two chemical processing technologies used in spacecraft, can share technology, thereby increasing the impact of technology investments in either area.

  17. Met promotes the formation of double minute chromosomes induced by Sei-1 in NIH-3T3 murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jia; Wu, Di; Yu, Yang; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Fei; Xu, Lu; Wang, Liqun; Wang, Nan; Tian, Xing; Wang, Falin; Liang, Hongbin; Gao, Yating; Cui, Xiaobo; Ji, Guohua; Bai, Jing; Yu, Jingcui; Meng, Xiangning; Jin, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Guan, Xin-yuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Fu, Songbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Sei-1 is an oncogene capable of inducing double minute chromosomes (DMs) formation. DMs are hallmarks of amplification and contribute to oncogenesis. However, the mechanism of Sei-1 inducing DMs formation remains unelucidated. Results DMs formation significantly increased during serial passage in vivo and gradually decreased following culture in vitro. micro nuclei (MN) was found to be responsible for the reduction. Of the DMs-carrying genes, Met was found to be markedly amplified, overexpressed and highly correlated with DMs formation. Inhibition of Met signaling decreased the number of DMs and reduced the amplification of the DMs-carrying genes. We identified a 3.57Mb DMs representing the majority population, which consists of the 1.21 Mb AMP1 from locus 6qA2 and the 2.36 Mb AMP2 from locus 6qA2-3. Materials and Methods We employed NIH-3T3 cell line with Sei-1 overexpression to monitor and characterize DMs in vivo and in vitro. Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to reveal amplification regions and DMs-carrying genes. Metaphase spread was prepared to count the DMs. Western blot and Met inhibition rescue experiments were performed to examine for involvement of altered Met signaling in Sei-1 induced DMs. Genomic walking and PCR were adopted to reveal DMs structure. Conclusions Met is an important promotor of DMs formation. PMID:27494853

  18. 77 FR 36032 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... TransCanada Keystone XL Pipeline Proposed To Extend From Phillips, MT (the Border Crossing) to Steele... TransCanada's proposed international pipeline project (the revised Keystone XL Project), which is... a Presidential permit for the revised Keystone XL Pipeline Project. The SEIS will supplement...

  19. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... (SEIS) for the Cal Black Memorial Airport at Halls Crossing, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Decision concerning the development of Cal Black Memorial Airport. This supplemental EIS does not involve any new development or project at the airport. The Cal Black Memorial Airport opened in April 1992....

  20. SeisCube Instrument and Environment Considerations for the Didymos System Geophysical Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadu, Alexandre; Murdoch, Naomi; Mimoun, David; Karatekin, Ozgur; Garica, Raphaël F.; Carrasco, Jose A.; De Quiros, Francisco G.; Vasseur, Hugues; Eubanks, Marshall; Radley, Charles; Ritter, Birgit; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the Asteroid Impact & Deviation Assessment (AIDA) mission proposed by ESA and NASA, the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX) mission concept has been selected for a preliminary study phase. Two 3-Unit CubeSats are embedded into the AIM probe and released into the asteroid binary system [1]. SeisCube will be deployed close to the secondary to reach its surface at a low relative velocity in order to stay on the ground after several rebounds, in a similar way that is foreseen for Mascot-2. The purpose of SeisCube is to provide information about the surface, the sub-surface and the internal structure of the asteroid, by analyzing rebound acceleration profile and seismic activity [2]. We describe the considered instrumentation necessary to fulfill the science objectives (gravimeters, accelerometers, geophones, etc.) in terms of measurement dynamics, frequency ranges, acquisition methods and other common budgets for space equipment. We also present the environment considerations which have to be taken into account for the platform and payload designs. The thermal aspect will be particularly discussed since it is a major issue in the airless body exploration [3] [4]. It implies some modifications in the CubeSat structure, integration and thermal regulation to ensure survival and operations under extreme conditions at the asteroid surface. We then describe the platform subsystems needed to ensure the operations after the deployment and the associated budgets and accommodation. As a direct consequence of the previous topics, we will finally discuss the possible trades-off to satisfy the main science requirements and the associated concept of operations. [1] O. Karatekin, D. Mimoun, J. A. Carrasco, N. Murdoch, A. Cadu, R. F. Garcia, F. G. De Quiros, H. Vasseur, B. Ritter, M. Eubanks, C. Radley and V. Dehant, "The Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX): Proposal to explore Didymos system using Cubsats," in European Geophysical Union, 2016. [2] N. Murdoch, A

  1. Update on the Next Generation Earthquake Early Warning in SeisComP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Yannik; Boese, Maren; Smith, Deborah; Clinton, John; Meier, Men-Andrin

    2016-04-01

    An effective Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system has to be evolutionary, updating its alerts as new data becomes available progressively in real-time. Typically, this involves combining different algorithms tailored towards providing alerts for either moderate or large sized earthquakes using either seismic or geodetic data, or a combination of both. A common approach in most algorithms is to rapidly estimate rupture parameters and then use ground motion prediction equations to compute the expected peak ground motion at a target site. For moderate size earthquakes (SeisComP3, combining point-source algorithms (Gutenberg algorithm: Meier et al. [2015]; Virtual Seismologist: Cua and Heaton [2007]) with a finite rupture algorithm (FinDer: Böse et al., [2012]). Relying on a widely used real-time monitoring platform, such as SeisComP3, facilitates testing and operating new algorithms in real-time in different seismic networks and thus different tectonic regimes. Special focus has also been given to modularity and

  2. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  3. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  4. Identification of Li-Ion Battery SEI Compounds through (7)Li and (13)C Solid-State MAS NMR Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura A; Tavassol, Hadi; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Xing, Wenting; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Solid-state (7)Li and (13)C MAS NMR spectra of cycled graphitic Li-ion anodes demonstrate SEI compound formation upon lithiation that is followed by changes in the SEI upon delithiation. Solid-state (13)C DPMAS NMR shows changes in peaks associated with organic solvent compounds (ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, EC/DMC) upon electrochemical cycling due to the formation of and subsequent changes in the SEI compounds. Solid-state (13)C NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements of lithiated Li-ion anodes and reference poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) powders, along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results, indicate that large-molecular-weight polymers are formed in the SEI layers of the discharged anodes. MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy results additionally indicate that delithiated anodes exhibit a larger number of SEI products than is found in lithiated anodes.

  5. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopic Indicators in SeisMic Archive (SISMA) (Rainer+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Misto, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2017-02-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. CoRoT was launched on 2006 December 27 and it was retired on 2013 June 24. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA; http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The ground-based activities started with the Large Programme 178.D-0361 using the FEROS spectrograph at the 2.2m telescope of the ESO-La Silla Observatory, and continued with the Large Programmes LP182.D-0356 and LP185.D-0056 using the HARPS instrument at the 3.6m ESO telescope. In the framework of the awarded two HARPS Large Programmes, 15 nights were allocated each semester over nine semesters, from 2008 December to 2013 January, for a total of 135 nights. The HARPS spectrograph covers the spectral range from 3780 to 6910Å, distributed over echelle orders 89-161. We usually used it in the high-efficiency mode EGGS, with resolving power R=80000 to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectroscopic time series. All of the data (reduced spectra, indicators, and photometric series) are stored as either FITS or PDF files in the SISMA archive and can be accessed at http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/. The data can also be accessed through the Seismic Plus portal (http://voparis-spaceinn.obspm.fr/seismic-plus/), developed in the framework of the SpaceInn project in order to gather and help coordinated access to several different solar and stellar seismic data sources. (1 data file).

  7. Automated infrasound signal detection algorithms implemented in MatSeis - Infra Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren

    2004-07-01

    MatSeis's infrasound analysis tool, Infra Tool, uses frequency slowness processing to deconstruct the array data into three outputs per processing step: correlation, azimuth and slowness. Until now, an experienced analyst trained to recognize a pattern observed in outputs from signal processing manually accomplished infrasound signal detection. Our goal was to automate the process of infrasound signal detection. The critical aspect of infrasound signal detection is to identify consecutive processing steps where the azimuth is constant (flat) while the time-lag correlation of the windowed waveform is above background value. These two statements describe the arrival of a correlated set of wavefronts at an array. The Hough Transform and Inverse Slope methods are used to determine the representative slope for a specified number of azimuth data points. The representative slope is then used in conjunction with associated correlation value and azimuth data variance to determine if and when an infrasound signal was detected. A format for an infrasound signal detection output file is also proposed. The detection output file will list the processed array element names, followed by detection characteristics for each method. Each detection is supplied with a listing of frequency slowness processing characteristics: human time (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.SSS), epochal time, correlation, fstat, azimuth (deg) and trace velocity (km/s). As an example, a ground truth event was processed using the four-element DLIAR infrasound array located in New Mexico. The event is known as the Watusi chemical explosion, which occurred on 2002/09/28 at 21:25:17 with an explosive yield of 38,000 lb TNT equivalent. Knowing the source and array location, the array-to-event distance was computed to be approximately 890 km. This test determined the station-to-event azimuth (281.8 and 282.1 degrees) to within 1.6 and 1.4 degrees for the Inverse Slope and Hough Transform detection algorithms, respectively, and

  8. Response of sorghum accessions from four African countries against Colletotrichum sublineolum, causal agent of sorghum anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-two sorghum accessions were randomly selected from the Ethiopia, Mali, Sudan, and Uganda germplasm collections maintained by the US National Plant Germplasm System to evaluate variation in anthracnose resistance. The accessions were planted in a randomized complete block design in College S...

  9. Distributed Computing for Seismic Data Retrieval using FISSURES DHI Client FMI Implimented from MatSeis 1.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. M.; Li, Q.; Creager, K. C.; Ning, R.; Crotwell, H. P.; Zuzlewski, S.; Hellman, S. B.; Schoch, K. S.; Laughbon, C. J.; Stromme, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Three software development efforts have recently combined to allow a seamless method for obtaining data from the IRIS DMC over the Internet and analyzing it in MATLAB. During the past few years IRIS has constructed the initial framework and definitions for FISSURES servers and Data Handling Interface (DHI) clients. FISSURES uses the distributed computing language Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which allows software systems to work across the Internet in a platform independent and computer-language neutral manner. Starting from the FISSURES object model three seismic services have been defined: event, network and seismogram. From these three object types a DHI client is used to access information through FISSURES services. Using the University of Washington developed FISSURES-Matlab-Interface (FMI) DHI client, all three FISSURES objects can be accessed via the Internet and downloaded into local MATLAB objects, allowing access to earthquake event catalogs, seismograms, network and instrument information. The DHI client FMI can be implemented from MatSeis. MatSeis, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, is a MATLAB based, Graphical User Interface (GUI) controlled software package with seismic data visualization, signal processing, and database importing and exporting capabilities, to list just a few. In this poster, we will discuss the seismic data retrieval currently prototyped for the IRIS DMC, as well as the planned connections to the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC), and South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP) data center.

  10. Attempts at in vitro fertilization and culture of in vitro matured oocytes in sei ( Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's ( B. edeni) whales.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M U; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, H; Matsuoka, K; Fujise, Y; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2009-02-01

    The cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.

  11. Mars deep internal structure determination using Phobos tide measurement strategy with the SEIS/InSight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pou, Laurent; Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphaël; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, William Bruce; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique; Zhu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in 2018 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris, ETH of Zürich, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena, MPS of Göttingen, Imperial College of London, and ISAE from Toulouse. One of the mission goals is to determine the deep internal structure of Mars in order to improve our models on the formation and evolution of telluric planets. In particular, the SEIS experiment aims at assessing the state (solid or liquid) of the planet core together with its size. This will be possible using the Phobos tide, a solid tide on Mars induced by one of its natural satellite, Phobos. As it orbits the planet, Phobos creates a small displacement of the Martian surface which will be measured to determine the absolute amplitude of one of the tide main harmonics which depends on Mars internal structure through the gravimetric factor γ2 (a combination of the gravitational and displacement Love numbers) at a frequency range around 50 μHz. Since Phobos orbital properties are already well-known, comparing these measurements with existing proposed models of Mars allows us to refine the previous estimations of the Mars core state and diameter. Reliable assessment of the core state will be possible if the Phobos tide absolute amplitude is measured with a precision of 2.5 10-11 m/s2 at 50μHz, making noise determination and

  12. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    DOE PAGES

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; ...

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression.more » A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.« less

  13. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Leung, Kevin; Chen, Long-Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. The agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  14. SEI Formation and Interfacial Stability of a Si Electrode in a LiTDI-Salt Based Electrolyte with FEC and VC Additives for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Fredrik; Xu, Chao; Niedzicki, Leszek; Marcinek, Marek; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Björefors, Fredrik; Edström, Kristina; Younesi, Reza

    2016-06-22

    An electrolyte based on the new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), is evaluated in combination with nano-Si composite electrodes for potential use in Li-ion batteries. The additives fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are also added to the electrolyte to enable an efficient SEI formation. By employing hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), the SEI formation and the development of the active material is probed during the first 100 cycles. With this electrolyte formulation, the Si electrode can cycle at 1200 mAh g(-1) for more than 100 cycles at a coulombic efficiency of 99%. With extended cycling, a decrease in Si particle size is observed as well as an increase in silicon oxide amount. As opposed to LiPF6 based electrolytes, this electrolyte or its decomposition products has no side reactions with the active Si material. The present results further acknowledge the positive effects of SEI forming additives. It is suggested that polycarbonates and a high LiF content are favorable components in the SEI over other kinds of carbonates formed by ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) decomposition. This work thus confirms that LiTDI in combination with the investigated additives is a promising salt for Si electrodes in future Li-ion batteries.

  15. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  16. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juchuan; Baggetto, Loic; Martha, Surendra K; Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  17. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  18. Wide-Angle Refraction Tomographic Inversion of Mid Cayman Spreading Center and its Oceanic Core Complex, CaySEIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Hayman, N. W.; Grevemeyer, I.; Peirce, C.; Dannowski, A.; Papenberg, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The CaySEIS experiment, conducted in April 2015, is a multi-national collaborative seismic study of the Mid Cayman Spreading Center (MCSC), an ultra-slow spreading center [15 mm/yr fr] in the Caribbean Sea. Ultra-slow spreading centers are thought to have very thin crust and a paucity of magmatism due to cooler mantle conditions. However, the suggestion that gabbro-cored oceanic core complexes (OCCs), volcanic deposits, and multiple layers of hydrothermal vents are widespread in the MCSC and other ultra-slow spreading centers has led to questions about the relationship between seafloor spreading rates and magmatism. To investigate this further, we conducted the CaySEIS experiment, with five wide-angle seismic refraction lines parallel and perpendicular to the neovolcanic zone. This analysis is based on two east-west oriented 100-km-long seismic refraction lines, which were each occupied by 18 ocean bottom seismometers. Line 2 lies across the central MCSC and an OCC called Mt. Dent. Line 3 crosses the northern end of the MCSC near the Oriente Transform Zone. With the wide-angle OBS data we can image the seismic velocity structure of Mt. Dent and distinguish between two models of OCCs - either Mt. Dent is composed of mostly gabbro with peridotite lenses identified by a low velocity gradient, or it is composed of mostly peridotite with gabbroic bodies identified by a constant velocity gradient. The crustal structure of both lines gives more insight into the asymmetry of the MCSC and the style of seafloor spreading to the east vs. the west. The 2-D velocity models reveal Mt. Dent has thick crust of 8 km with a low velocity gradient, supporting the magmatic gabbroic origin of OCCs. The surrounding crust to the west of the MCSC is highly variable, with areas of very thin crust. The crust to the east of the MCSC has an approximately constant thickness of 4 km. The development of OCCs may contribute to the crustal heterogeneity of ultra-slow spreading centers.

  19. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The InSIght mission will deploy in September 2016 a Geophysical Station on Mars, equipped with a suite of geophysical instruments, including 3 axis Very Broad Band Seismometer, 3 axis Short Period Seismometer, 3 axis Flux gate Magnetometer, Heat flow probe, geodetic beacon, infrasound/microbarometer, wind sensors and cameras. As for all NASA missions, Children and teenagers will be associated to the mission in the framework of the K12 InSight program, part of it being associated to the SEIS instrument.The two faces of the InSight/SEIS Education program are directed toward the promotion of Space Technologies and of Space Science.For Space technologies, this has already started with the InSight Elysium Educational project. The goal of the project, supported by CNES and performed by Technical High School near Toulouse, was the fabrication of a full scale mockup of the lander (see more at https://jeunes.cnes.fr/fr/elysium-le-jumeau-terrestre-dinsight ). The mockup was exhibited during the June, 2015 Paris air show. More than 300 students participated to the Elysium project.For Space Science, this will be made with the SEIS@Mars Educational project. Its plan is to transmit the SEIS data to a network of several hundred of middle and high schools worldwide, associated to existing "seismo(graph) at school" programs in the United States (https://www.iris.edu/hq/sis), France (www.edusismo.org) Switzerland (www.seismoatschool.ethz.ch) and United Kingdom (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/schoolseismology/). If the transmission of these data to the SEIS@school network will be automatic after their release by the NASA Planetary Data System, an earlier transmission will be made, especially after mid 2017, but also before through the integration of selected Schools to the project activities: the selected classrooms will perform the same activities as the project scientists. They will have to process rapidly the proprietary data in order to identify MarsQuake(s) and will be allowed to perform

  20. MineSeis -- A MATLAB GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling ground motions from multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts is important to the understanding of their source characteristics such as spectrum modulation. MineSeis is a MATLAB{reg_sign} (a computer language) Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed for the effective modeling of these multi-shot mining explosions. The program provides a convenient and interactive tool for modeling studies. Multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts are modeled as the time-delayed linear superposition of identical single shot sources in the program. These single shots are in turn modeled as the combination of an isotropic explosion source and a spall source. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model for underground nuclear explosions is used as the explosion source model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed as the spall source model. Delays both due to the delay-firing and due to the single-shot location differences are taken into account in calculating the time delays of the superposition. Both synthetic and observed single-shot seismograms can be used to construct the superpositions. The program uses MATLAB GUI for input and output to facilitate user interaction with the program. With user provided source and path parameters, the program calculates and displays the source time functions, the single shot synthetic seismograms and the superimposed synthetic seismograms. In addition, the program provides tools so that the user can manipulate the results, such as filtering, zooming and creating hard copies.

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  2. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  3. Use and Organizational Effects of Measurement and Analysis in High Maturity Organizations: Results from the 2008 SEI State of Measurement and Analysis Practice Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    comparisons can be found in Section 6.7. 36 | CMU/SEI-2008-TR-024 F re q u e n c y o f u s e 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 ML1 or DK ML2 ML3 ML4 or ML5...64 | CMU/SEI-2008-TR-024 V a lu e o f m e a s u re m e n t & a n a ly s is ( S 3 Q 1 ) 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 ML1 or DK ML2 ML3 ML4 or

  4. Enterotoxin Gene Cluster-Encoded SEI and SElN from Staphylococcus aureus Isolates are Crucial for the Induction of Human Blood Cell Proliferation and Pathogenicity in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Roetzer, Andreas; Gruener, Corina S.; Haller, Guenter; Beyerly, John; Model, Nina; Eibl, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the toxin family of bacterial superantigens, the six members of the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) seem to have unusual characteristics. They are present in the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains, but their role in disease remains uncertain. We assessed secretion levels, immunogenicity, and toxicity of native and recombinant egc proteins. After having developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found different quantities of egc proteins secreted by bacterial isolates. Supernatants induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, purified recombinant egc proteins were shown to have differing superantigenicity potentials. Immunization with identical amounts of all members of egc, and the prominent toxic agent SEB, resulted in neutralizing antisera. Two egc proteins, SEI and SElN, were found to play a predominant role within the cluster. Both displayed the highest potential to activate blood cells, and were essential to be neutralized in supernatants. The application of a supernatant of a strain bearing only egc was sufficient for a lethal outcome in a rabbit model. Again, neutralization of SEI and SElN led to the survival of all tested animals. Finally, nanogram amounts of purified rSEI and rSElN led to lethality in vivo, pointing out the importance of both as virulence determinants among egc superantigens. PMID:27801832

  5. DigitSeis: A New Digitization Software and its Application to the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński Observatory Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogiatzis, P.; Altoé, I. L.; Karamitrou, A.; Ishii, M.; Ishii, H.

    2015-12-01

    DigitSeis is a new open-source, interactive digitization software written in MATLAB that converts digital, raster images of analog seismograms to readily usable, discretized time series using image processing algorithms. DigitSeis automatically identifies and corrects for various geometrical distortions of seismogram images that are acquired through the original recording, storage, and scanning procedures. With human supervision, the software further identifies and classifies important features such as time marks and notes, corrects time-mark offsets from the main trace, and digitizes the combined trace with an analysis to obtain as accurate timing as possible. Although a large effort has been made to minimize the human input, DigitSeis provides interactive tools for challenging situations such as trace crossings and stains in the paper. The effectiveness of the software is demonstrated with the digitization of seismograms that are over half a century old from the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński observatory that is still in operation as a part of the Global Seismographic Network (station code HRV and network code IU). The spectral analysis of the digitized time series shows no spurious features that may be related to the occurrence of minute and hour marks. They also display signals associated with significant earthquakes, and a comparison of the spectrograms with modern recordings reveals similarities in the background noise.

  6. A New Look at the Bathymetric and Potential-Field Structure of the Cayman Trough via CaySEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, N. W.; Harding, J.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Peirce, C.; Grevemeyer, I.; Dannowski, A.; Papenberg, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cayman Trough (CT) has one of the world's deepest axial valleys, thinnest crust, end-member basalt composition, and slowest spreading rate. Accommodating motion between the North American and Caribbean plates, and the Gonave microplate, marine magnetic anomalies show that the Mid-Cayman Spreading Center (MCSC) has been spreading at ~15 mm/yr (F.R.) since 20 Ma, if not 49 Ma. At a little over 100 km in length, the MCSC is now recognized to host oceanic core complexes (OCCs), hydrothermal vents, and a seafloor of variably distributed lower crustal gabbros, upper mantle peridotite/serpentinite, and basaltic lavas. Though spreading rate appears to be relatively symmetric over geologic time, the structure of the CT is quite asymmetric, with a broad region of low gravity and somewhat lineated magnetic anomalies to the east, and gravity highs and irregular magnetic anomalies to the west. Until now it has been difficult to further assess the nature of the CT because of the sparse and generally old data from the region; the CT's claim on thinnest crust, for example, stems primarily from pre-1960's seismic data and inferences from satellite gravity. The CaySEIS active-source OBS-experiment on the R/V Meteor thus set out in April of 2015 to provide a more complete, deeper view of the CT. A serendipitous discovery during the expedition is that the off-axis seafloor is characterized by curvilinear ridges preserving what appear to be dismembered OCCs. Thus, a previously proposed model based on the oblique volcanic ridge to the south of the axial OCC, Mt. Dent, could also apply to the geologic history of the CT. This model, which we call "the magmatic cleaver", envisions how intrusions cut the OCC surfaces and raft the hanging-wall-dominated portion of the OCC to the east, and the footwall-dominated portion to the west. The "cleaver" appears to have been operating over at least the last 20 Ma, illustrating how melt flow in ultraslow-spread crust can create distinctive

  7. Cusp Ion Fountain Observations from the e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) with DMSP and RISR-N conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows associated with ambipolar ion acceleration in the cusp/cleft and polar cap regions are investigated using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) and the DMSP satellites in June 2014. e-POP encountered the cusp/cleft ion fountain at 10-14 MLT and around 1000 km altitude during these experiments. Such intermediate-altitude observations of ion upflow have been sampled only rarely by previous satellite missions and ground-based radars. The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) onboard e-POP measures two-dimensional ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, from which, high-precision energy and angle information of entering ions can be inferred. Large field-aligned ion bulk flow velocities (2.5 km/s) are estimated from the angle information with a resolution of the order of 25 m/s. The ion velocities were, in general, upward in the cusp region and downward in the polar cap region. The ion temperatures have been resolved by investigating the slop shape of the distribution function. It has been found that only weak perpendicular (to B) heating occurred during these events, which when combined with the simultaneous soft electron precipitation observed by the DMSP SSJ/4 instrument, suggests that ambipolar electric fields play a dominant role in accelerating ions upward at and below 1000 km. Also, structured DC field-aligned currents derived from the magnetic field instrument (MGF) onboard e-POP are found to be well-correlated with upflow velocities. In addition, ion composition information is available from e-POP's ion mass spectrometer (IRM). Oxygen ions (O+) were found to dominate (85%) in the identified events, accompanied by a small fraction (15%) of hydrogen ions (H+) and helium ions (He+). We will compare these in situ measurements with RISR-N observations in order to further our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for, and

  8. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and

  9. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  10. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  11. Strategy on removing oxygen impurity for crystal growth of one candidate Tl6SeI4 for room-temperature hard radiation detector(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenwen; Liu, Zhifu; Churilov, Alexei V.; He, Yihui; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Hao; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Chung, Duck Young; Wessels, Bruce W.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-09-01

    Thallium based chalcogenide and halide semiconductors such as Tl4HgI6, TlGaSe2, Tl6SeI4 and Tl6SI4 are promising materials for room-temperature hard radiation detection. They feature appropriate band gaps, high mass densities and facile growth technology. However, these materials are being plagued by the Tl oxides impurity from Tl precursor or Tl containing binary precursors, which leads to problems including tube breakage, parasitic nucleation and detector performance deterioration. In this work, we present a facile way to chemically reduce Tl oxidations, and then eliminate oxygen impurity by adding high-purity graphite powder during synthesis and crystal growth. We also further investigated the reactivity between Tl oxides and graphite. The detector performance of Tl6SeI4 crystal was dramatically improved after lowering/removing the oxygen impurities. This result not only indicates the significance of removing oxygen impurity for improving detector performance. Our results suggest that the chemical reduction method we developed by adding carbon powder during synthesis is highly effective in substantially reducing oxygen impurities from Tl containing materials.

  12. Small-scale spatial variability of sperm and sei whales in relation to oceanographic and topographic features along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, H.; Gunnlaugsson, T.; Budgell, W. P.; Horne, J.; Nøttestad, L.; Olsen, E.; Søiland, H.; Víkingsson, G.; Waring, G.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars provided the first opportunity to correlate oceanic distributions of cetaceans with synoptic acoustic (ADCP to 700 m depth, multi-beam echosounders) measurements of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) potential habitat (spatial scale<100 km). The identified habitat features were tested with independent observations from the Icelandic combined cetacean and redfish cruises in 2001 and 2003 using data from a 3D ocean general circulation model of the MAR region (Regional Oceans Modelling System (ROMS) model 5 km resolution). The spatial autocorrelation of sampled encounter rates of sperm Physeter macrocephalus and sei whales Balaenoptera borealis indicated scale-dependent variability in the distribution of both species. Despite the large area surveyed, the observations of both species exhibited a strong small-scale structure (range parameter 20-50 km), indicating affinities to cross-seamount or cross-frontal structures. Potential cross-seamount and cross-frontal habitat structures were derived from the acoustic transect data by analysing fine-scale gradients in the 3D flow patterns and bathymetry, including interactions between frontal and topographic parameters. PLS regression was used to determine the potential habitat drivers of sperm and sei whales, both during the G.O. Sars cruise and during the Icelandic cruises in 2001 and 2003. The selected parameters, which reflected flow gradients interacting with the steep topography, were finally applied for modelling the habitat suitability of both target species along the northern MAR using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The results suggest aggregations of sperm and sei whales along the MAR are primarily associated with fine-scale frontal processes interacting with the topography in the upper 100 m of the water column just north of the Sub-Polar Front (SPF) and the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ). As moderate and high habitat suitabilities

  13. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  14. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  15. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  16. Predicting the occurrence of embolic events: an analysis of 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Embolic events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. We analyzed the database of the prospective cohort study SEI in order to identify factors associated with the occurrence of embolic events and to develop a scoring system for the assessment of the risk of embolism. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the multicenter study SEI. Predictors of embolism were identified. Risk factors identified at multivariate analysis as predictive of embolism in left-sided endocarditis, were used for the development of a risk score: 1 point was assigned to each risk factor (total risk score range: minimum 0 points; maximum 2 points). Three categories were defined by the score: low (0 points), intermediate (1 point), or high risk (2 points); the probability of embolic events per risk category was calculated for each day on treatment (day 0 through day 30). Results There were 499 episodes of infective endocarditis (34%) that were complicated by ≥ 1 embolic event. Most embolic events occurred early in the clinical course (first week of therapy: 15.5 episodes per 1000 patient days; second week: 3.7 episodes per 1000 patient days). In the total cohort, the factors associated with the occurrence of embolism at multivariate analysis were prosthetic valve localization (odds ratio, 1.84), right-sided endocarditis (odds ratio, 3.93), Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.23) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 1.86). In left-sided endocarditis, Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.1) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 2.1) were independently associated with embolic events; the 30-day cumulative incidence of embolism varied with risk score category (low risk, 12%; intermediate risk, 25%; high risk, 38%; p < 0.001). Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus etiology and vegetation size are associated with an increased risk of embolism. In left

  17. Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; Randriamora, Frédéric; Bosson, Alexis; Kitou, Thierry; Vidal, Cyril; Bouin, Marie-Paule; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Clouard, Valérie

    2010-05-01

    Lesser Antilles observatories are in charge of monitoring the volcanoes and earthquakes in the Eastern Caribbean region. During the past two years, our seismic networks have evolved toward a full digital technology. These changes, which include modern three components sensors, high dynamic range digitizers, high speed terrestrial and satellite telemetry, improve data quality but also increase the data flows to process and to store. Moreover, the generalization of data exchange to build a wide virtual seismic network around the Caribbean domain requires a great flexibility to provide and receive data flows in various formats. As many observatories, we have decided to use the most popular and robust open source data acquisition systems in use in today observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time seismic data flows, with a high number of tunable modules (filters, triggers, automatic pickers, locators). The later is renowned for its ability to exchange seismic data using the international SEED standard (Standard for Exchange of Earthquake Data), either by producing archive files, or by managing output and input SEEDLink flows. French Antilles Seismological and Volcanological Observatories have chosen to take advantage of the best features of each software to design a new data flow scheme and to integrate it in our global observatory data management system, WebObs [Beauducel et al., 2004]1, see the companion paper (Part 2). We assigned the tasks to the different softwares, regarding their main abilities : - EarthWorm first performs the integration of data from different heterogeneous sources; - SeisComP takes all this homogeneous EarthWorm data flow, adds other sources and produces SEED archives and SEED data flow; - EarthWorm is then used again to process this clean and complete SEEDLink data flow, mainly producing triggers, automatic locations and alarms; - WebObs provides a friendly human interface, both

  18. The Correlation of Tree Phenology with nest number of Orang Utan Sumatera (Pongo abelii) on Primary Forest, Resort Sei Betung, Gunung Leuser National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartini, K. S.; Patana, P.; Oktaviani, M.

    2017-03-01

    Food availability affect the orangutan activities, including activities to make nests. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the phenology of trees with the number of nests made by orangutans in primary forest Resort Sei Betung, Gunung Leuser National Park. Multi linear regression was used in this study to determine the relation and correlation between phenology and the presence of orangutan nests on a track that has been created. It took over 6 months (March - August 2015). There were 15 orangutan nests found on the track during the study. The equation model was : = 27,649 -0,011X1-0,104X2-0,056X3, and there was no significant differences (sig >0,05). The value of R2 was 70,3%. It means that all predictors simultaneously explain 70,3% of the presence of orangutan’s nest, and there is an expected predictors that may be the most affect on nest presence. The season or the intensity of rain may consider as an expected predictor.

  19. MineSeis -- A MATLAB{reg_sign} GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-04-01

    Large scale (up to 5 kt) chemical blasts are routinely conducted by mining and quarry industries around the world to remove overburden or to fragment rocks. Because of their ability to trigger the future International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), these blasts are monitored and studied by verification seismologists for the purpose of discriminating them from possible clandestine nuclear tests. One important component of these studies is the modeling of ground motions from these blasts with theoretical and empirical source models. The modeling exercises provide physical bases to regional discriminants and help to explain the observed signal characteristics. The program MineSeis has been developed to implement the synthetic seismogram modeling of multi-shot blast sources with the linear superposition of single shot sources. Single shot sources used in the modeling are the spherical explosion plus spall model mentioned here. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model is used as the spherical explosion model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed for the spall component. The program is implemented with the MATLAB{reg_sign} Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing the user with easy, interactive control of the calculation.

  20. SEI Software Engineering Education Directory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Systems: VAX-8600 Compiler Design CS 465 U P X T - Textbooks: Compiler Design Theory, Lewis , Rosenkrantz, Steams Systems: VAx-8600 Simulation Techniques...Corvallis, OR,- 97331 United States Degrees: BS, MS, PHD Contact: Prof. Lewis , Ted Professor (503) 754-3273 Courses: Software Design CS 319 U P R T...Software Engineering Laboratory CS247 B P E Y Systems: microcomputer (vanes) Stanford University (Entry 2); Terman Engineering Center; Department of

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  3. Recommendations from the AIA/SEI Workshop on Research Advances Required for Real-Time Software Systems in the 1990’s held at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 13-14 September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    decision making under a problem domain "* online planning - shipboard, in route, getting back, on-vehicle mission replanning "• low-level adaptive control...of an ultra-reliable underwater vehicle: "* fault tolerance "• vehicle online planning "• adaptive control "* data compression "* rule-based systems...SEI-89-SR-18 6.5 System Connectivity * As SPOc systems employ distributed processor architectures and themselves form part of even larger space

  4. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  5. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  6. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this

  7. Seismic structure and crustal nature of the geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: results of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, V.; Martinez, S.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Diaz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates causing continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a wide-angle seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), to provide information about the crustal structure and nature of the different geological provinces, and to reveal the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The inverted model along this profile show four different domains. In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a velocity >7 km/s just 2-3 km below its top, similarly to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the

  8. Crustal nature and seismic structure of the geological provinces offshore the SW Iberia: Highlights of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, S.; Sallares, V.; Gailler, A.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Gutscher, M.; Diaz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SW Iberian margin hosts the present day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr causing seismic activity of moderate magnitude. During fall 2008 and in the frame of the EU-funded NEAREST project, was carried out a wide-angle seismic survey (NEAREST-SEIS cruise) consisting in 2 profiles. The main objectives of the survey were to gather information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, identify the nature of the different geological provinces, obtain the physical properties of the crust, and unveil the deep geometry of the interfaces between main faults. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain (TAP), Gorringe Bank (GB), Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (HAP), Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), and finally reaching the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine Abyssal Plain (SAP). The inverted model shows four well-differentiated domains in terms of seismic structure. In the TAP there is a 3-4 km-thick sediment layer with low velocity, lying above a basement showing a remarkably high velocity (< 7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the GB. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an uppermost unit with very low velocity corresponding to the Upper Miocene Horseshoe Gravitational Unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which corresponds to the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as very serpentinized, exhumed upper mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidence for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km thick Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long and trends N-S, across the Iberian margin shelf, Portimao Bank, Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and

  9. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that

  10. The reactions of para-halo diaryl diselenides with halogens. A structural investigation of the CT compound (p-FC6H4)2Se2I2, and the first reported “RSeI3” compound, (p-ClC6H4)SeI·I2, which contains a covalent Se-I bond.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicholas A; Godfrey, Stephen M; Hughes, Jill; Khan, Rana Z; Mushtaq, Imrana; Ollerenshaw, Ruth T A; Pritchard, Robin G; Sarwar, Shamsa

    2013-02-28

    The reactions of the diaryl-diselenides (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) and (p-ClC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) with diiodine have been investigated. Species of stoichiometry "RSeI" are formed when the ratio employed is 1:1. The solid-state structure of "(p-FC(6)H(4))SeI" has been determined, and shown to be a charge-transfer (CT) adduct, (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2), where the Se-Se bond is retained and the diiodine molecule interacts with only one of the selenium atoms. The Se-I bond in (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2) is 2.9835(12) Å, which is typical for a (10-I-2) Se-I-I CT system. When diiodine is reacted in a 3:1 ratio with (p-XC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) (X = F, Cl) species of stoichiometry "RSeI(3)" are formed. The structure of "(p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI(3)" reveals that this is not a selenium(IV) compound, but is better represented as a selenium(II) CT adduct, (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI·I(2). The Se-I bond to the diiodine molecule is typical in magnitude for a CT adduct, Se-I: 2.8672(5) Å, whereas the other Se-I bond is much shorter, Se-I: 2.5590(6) Å, and is a genuine example of a rarely observed covalent Se-I bond, which appears to be stabilised by a weak Se···I interaction from a neighbouring iodine atom. The reaction of (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P results in the formation of a CT adduct, Ph(3)PSe(p-ClC(6)H(4))I, which has a T-shaped geometry at selenium (10-Se-3). By contrast, the reaction of (p-FC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P does not form an adduct, but results in the formation of Ph(3)PI(2) and (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2).

  11. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer [Computational exploration of the Li-electrode|electrolyte interface complicated by a nanometer thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-09-30

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have “selective” transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li+ ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li+ + e → Li0, occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. We consider the passivation layer, called “solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)”, as “the most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries,” partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure–property relationship. In predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, we find that it is an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li+ ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li+ and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li+ transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure–property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li

  12. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer [Computational exploration of the Li-electrode|electrolyte interface complicated by a nanometer thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-09-30

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have “selective” transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li+ ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li+ + e → Li0, occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. We consider the passivation layer, called “solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)”, as “themore » most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries,” partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure–property relationship. In predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, we find that it is an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li+ ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li+ and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li+ transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure–property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li2O, and their mixtures. After sorting out the Li+ ion diffusion carriers and

  13. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  14. Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  15. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  16. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  17. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rural EMS unit find funding for major equipment, such as an ambulance? The following programs can ... EMS units. Grants may be used to purchase equipment (including vehicles), provide training, establish wellness and fitness ...

  18. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  19. Comparison of EPA's QMS to SEI's CMMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, P; Braun, L; Marohl, D

    2001-01-01

    EPA and other government organizations make decisions based on environmental measurements. How good are the data? How well are the data generators performing? What measurements apply to them? How can the data life cycle processes be improved so data generators can continually provide the best data? EPA's Quality Management System requirements go beyond evaluation of environmental data quality itself to examine systems associated with production, collection, processing (validation/verification), transfer, reduction, storage, and retrieval of data throughout a life cycle. This QMS specifies minimum quality requirements for particular environmental programs. But how can you measure and compare programs that go well beyond the minimum, towards optimal quality? This paper compares EPA's requirements for Quality Management Systems (R2) and Project Plans (R5) to the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (CMMISM). The CMMISM model provides for growth (staged or continuous) and a comprehensive assessment that is not yet provided in EPA's R2 or R5. Properly implemented, the CMMISM model serves as a quality framework for integrating and aligning organizational processes and implementing a program of continual process improvements. It identifies process areas ("things to do"), and provides measures of performance ("how well things are done") against specific goals and practices. CMMISM uses a Systems Engineering Management approach, built on process models, that helps identify "how good" the system is. Goodness is defined as stages in a complete model for optimal operation. CMMISM provides two methods for evaluating the goodness of the project. The Staged model in CMMISM provides a Maturity Level that is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the manner in which a specified set of processes are performed. As the organization advances in maturity, these levels become more defined and processes are tailored for specific project needs. The other method is called the Continuous Model in CMMISM, and it allows you to achieve Capability Levels. These are used to describe how well each project is doing in relationship to the different process areas. There are six Capability Levels from 0-5 that apply to individual process areas. Organizations using the Capability Level approach can select individual process areas that are important to specific projects and work to improve the processes. Improving capability in individual process areas raises the organization's overall quality of products delivered. The Continuous Model, unlike the Staged Model, lets you pick higher maturity level process areas before completing all of the ones below. Environmental measurement programs need to focus on the quality of the systems where data are collected, processed, transferred, and so forth. DynCorp built on the quality foundation from our experience with R2 to successfully implement CMMISM practices in the development of Forms II Lite and other applications. DynCorp is now migrating to the CMMISM model that has evolved from the existing CMM model. The CMMISM model focuses on the full cycle of Requirements Management from identification, development, collection, refinement, analysis, and validation throughout a project life cycle. It also has a more refined focus on the identification, development, collection, analysis, and evaluation of meaningful measurements, so the results can be used to improve a process or product.

  20. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  1. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. SeisCORK Engineering Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    nano - and micro -earthquakes, a nano -earthquake is comparable to breaking a baseball bat) for three reasons: 1) After an event fluid may flow in the...biology) may provide precursors to the seismic activity. This is exciting. We want to see the small events ( nano - and micro -earthquakes, a nano ...casing scenarios and science goals, is an excellent concept. Although the primary science goal is micro - and nano -earthquake monitoring, if possible, we

  3. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  4. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  5. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  6. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  7. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  8. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  9. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  10. Real time monitoring of induced seismicity in the Insheim and Landau deep geothermal reservoirs, Upper Rhine Graben, using the new SeisComP3 cross-correlation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Wegler, Ulrich; Bruestle, Andrea; Becker, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Real time information on the locations and magnitudes of induced earthquakes is essential for response plans based on the magnitude frequency distribution. We developed and tested a real time cross-correlation detector focusing on induced microseismicity in deep geothermal reservoirs. The incoming seismological data are cross-correlated in real time with a set of known master events. We use the envelopes of the seismograms rather than the seismograms themselves to account for small changes in the source locations or in the focal mechanisms. Two different detection conditions are implemented: After first passing a single trace correlation condition, secondly a network correlation is calculated taking the amplitude information of the seismic network into account. The magnitude is estimated by using the respective ratio of the maximum amplitudes of the master event and the detected event. The detector is implemented as a real time tool and put into practice as a SeisComp3 module, an established open source software for seismological real time data handling and analysis. We validated the reliability and robustness of the detector by an offline playback test using four month of data from monitoring the power plant in Insheim (Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany). Subsequently, in October 2013 the detector was installed as real time monitoring system within the project "MAGS2 - Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems". Master events from the two neighboring geothermal power plants in Insheim and Landau and two nearby quarries are defined. After detection, manual phase determination and event location are performed at the local seismological survey of the Geological Survey and Mining Authority of Rhineland-Palatinate. Until November 2015 the detector identified 454 events out of which 95% were assigned correctly to the respective source. 5% were misdetections caused by local tectonic events. To evaluate the completeness of the automatically obtained catalogue, it is

  11. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  12. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  13. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  14. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  15. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  16. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  17. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  18. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  19. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  20. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  1. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  2. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  3. Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract  Title:        STRUCTURAL  COMPOSITES  WITH  TUNED  EM   CHIRALITY     Grant  No.:  FA9550-­‐09-­‐1...structural   composites  with   tunable   chiral   elements   has   produced   some   impressive   results   in   the

  4. Lessons Learned: Integrating EMS and Environmental Compliance Auditing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    audit an EMS against the – ISO 14001 :2004 Standard – Installation’s own commitments and procedures established under their EMS (i.e. are they doing...what they said they would do?) – Army Policy • Findings are documented in a Word report (external audits) • ISO 14001 conformance is determined by...regulatory requirements • EMS Findings – Conformance: management system conforms to ISO 14001 standard – Major Nonconformance: EMS is missing element

  5. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive EM loan training package has been developed for use by National Office and Staff Office personnel...

  6. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  7. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their

  8. What Do They Want from Us? A Survey of EM Program Directors on EM Application Criteria

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Kass, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although a relatively young specialty, emergency medicine (EM) is popular among medical students and is one of the most competitive large specialties. Consequently, students increasingly seek more opportunity to differentiate themselves from their colleagues by pursuing more clerkships at the cost of taking out additional loans: this despite the fact that those who match in EM typically do so in their top three choices. We sought to ascertain what factors EM program directors seek in their typical candidate. Methods We recruited EM program directors via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors email listserv to participate in an anonymous survey regarding the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the number of standardized letters of evaluation (SLOE), and the number of EM rotations during the fourth year. Results 135 respondents completed the anonymous survey: 59% of respondents stated their program did not have a minimum USMLE Step 1 score, but 39% reported a minimum score of 210 or higher; 95% of programs do not require Step 2 to grant an interview, but 46% require it to place the student on the rank list; 80% require only one EM rotation to grant an interview and none require more than two; 95% of programs will accept two SLOEs for both application and rank list placement. Conclusion For the typical EM applicant, there is likely little benefit to performing more than two rotations and obtaining more than two SLOEs. Students can defer USMLE Step 2 but must complete it by the time rank lists are due. Our study was limited by the anonymity of the survey, and comments by the respondents revealed the questions did not account for some nuances programs apply to their application review process. PMID:28116023

  9. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J Sunil

    2015-04-04

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains.

  10. Cryo-EM: Spinning the Micelles Away.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Sigworth, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    Structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (MPs) demands that the samples be pure, monodisperse, and stable. Detergents are required to extract MPs from the lipid bilayer in which they reside and to stabilize them for downstream biophysical analyses. Some of the best MP-stabilizing detergents pose problems for cryo-EM studies, but in this issue of Structure, Hauer et al. (2015) now offer a solution called GraDeR.

  11. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  12. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  13. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  14. The US DOE EM international program

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Roach, Jay A.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into the remainder of FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  15. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-02-23

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury.

  16. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  17. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  18. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  19. Improving Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the United States Through Improved and Centralized Federal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    other emergencies. 4 • Public Awareness of the EMS Discipline. The public at large is not aware of the EMS structure in its community or at a higher...regard for its imperative role in community service. For this reason, placing EMS under the USFA at the federal level would cause EMS to still be...service to include EMS is appropriate, and in some cases, it is not. Not all communities have a dedicated fire service, which can make EMS provision

  20. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  1. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  2. Genetic-based EM algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Bouchaffra, Djamel

    2005-08-01

    We propose a genetic-based expectation-maximization (GA-EM) algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models from multivariate data. This algorithm is capable of selecting the number of components of the model using the minimum description length (MDL) criterion. Our approach benefits from the properties of Genetic algorithms (GA) and the EM algorithm by combination of both into a single procedure. The population-based stochastic search of the GA explores the search space more thoroughly than the EM method. Therefore, our algorithm enables escaping from local optimal solutions since the algorithm becomes less sensitive to its initialization. The GA-EM algorithm is elitist which maintains the monotonic convergence property of the EM algorithm. The experiments on simulated and real data show that the GA-EM outperforms the EM method since: 1) We have obtained a better MDL score while using exactly the same termination condition for both algorithms. 2) Our approach identifies the number of components which were used to generate the underlying data more often than the EM algorithm.

  3. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  4. The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

  5. Results of SEI Line-Funded Exploratory New Starts Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    for the suffix tree data structure to include lightweight set encodings based on a technique called bit- arrays but designed for sparse arrays ...Homann 2009] Homann, R., Fleer, D., Giegerich, R., & Rehmsmeier, M. “mkESA: Enhanced Suffix Array Con- struction Tool.” Bioinformatics 25, 8 (2009...raw data for efficient resolution of string matching. We instrument suffix tree data structures and algorithms found in bio-informatics stud- ies

  6. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    probabilities, and the states them- selves have been assigned code bytes that are to be generated when the state is visited . For exam- ple, in the following...Thus, in order to apply their framework to our problem, we had to visit each of these many choices to determine the best option for our problem domain...University, 2009. www.cert.org/research/2008research- report.pdf [Pleszkoch 2009] Pleszkoch, Mark & Cohen, Cory. Detection of the Allaple Polymorphic Packer

  7. Dynamics of stochastic SEIS epidemic model with varying population size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wei, Fengying

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the stochasticity into a deterministic model which has state variables susceptible-exposed-infected with varying population size in this paper. The infected individuals could return into susceptible compartment after recovering. We show that the stochastic model possesses a unique global solution under building up a suitable Lyapunov function and using generalized Itô's formula. The densities of the exposed and infected tend to extinction when some conditions are being valid. Moreover, the conditions of persistence to a global solution are derived when the parameters are subject to some simple criteria. The stochastic model admits a stationary distribution around the endemic equilibrium, which means that the disease will prevail. To check the validity of the main results, numerical simulations are demonstrated as end of this contribution.

  8. Advancing Cyber Intelligence Practices Through the SEI’s Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    and why Training Type and quality Intent Motive Intrinsic Personal rewards to act on the threat-bragging rights, knowledge, justify skills...satisfy boredom, patriotism, or hacktivist a llegiance Extrinsic External rewards to act on the threat- fame, money--or to avoid punishment...localjnational politics Motive The reasons for why such individuals are susceptible to the cyber threat-ignorance, financial trouble

  9. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  10. SEI rover solar-electrochemical power system options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    A trade study of power system technology for proposed lunar vehicles and servicers is presented. A variety of solar-based power systems were selected and analyzed for each. The analysis determined the power system mass, volume, and deployed area. A comparison was made between periodic refueling/recharging systems and onboard power systems to determine the most practical system. The trade study concluded that the power system significantly impacts the physical characteristics of the vehicle. The refueling/recharging systems were lighter and more compact, but dependent on availability of established lunar base infrastructure. Onboard power systems pay a mass penalty for being fully developed systems.

  11. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    traditional Liu and Layland task model to include the demand of memory band- width where caches play a big role [Liu 1973]. In our task model, a task...sacrifices opportunities to fuse track data to improve the quality of the common operating picture. Our concept is to auction additional quanta of...summarized below. Question 1: What is the scarce resource? We will auction additional quanta of bandwidth beyond the baseline R2 protocol, so that

  13. Laser photovoltaic power system synergy for SEI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hickman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Solar arrays can provide reliable space power, but do not operate when there is no solar energy. Photovoltaic arrays can also convert laser energy with high efficiency. One proposal to reduce the required mass of energy storage required is to illuminate the photovoltaic arrays by a ground laser system. It is proposed to locate large lasers on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large lenses or mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. During the eclipse periods or lunar night, the lasers illuminate the solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power.

  14. SEI nuclear technology findings by the Stafford Synthesis Group

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is key to reducing travel time to Mars, greatly reducing the mass in low Earth orbit, and enhancing schedule flexibility by increasing the Earth orbit departure launch window. Nuclear thermal rockets have twice to three times the performance of the best chemical rockets. This directly translates into reduced trip times and lower mass in low Earth orbit. Trip times of < 400 days in space are possible, a limitation if restricted to chemical propulsion. Psychological, physiological and radiological problems are significant issues for long mission times. The psychology of being cooped up so long in a minimum-sized capsule is cause for concern - much longer than considered healthy for nuclear submarine crews. The effects of long-term weightlessness are being debated. Short trip times eliminate the need for artificial gravity. The largest uncertainty is the effect of galactic radiation that will expose the crew to high levels of radiation for as much as 60 rem/yr.

  15. SEI SPRUCE Project: Curating Recommended Practices for Software Producibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    recommended practices per month until we had published web pages on five software topics. Having a small collection of high-quality content for visitors to...recommended practices for five software topics, we began to develop approaches for a promotion campaign to announce the site, draw more traffic to it...Managing Intellectual Property in the Acquisition of Software -Intensive Systems The web page for Managing Intellectual Property in

  16. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Modern avionics architectures are multi- threaded to increase utilization of individual processors through techniques, such as rate - monotonic analysis...tool development. We also established industry collaborations with VistaPrint, Inc. 3.5 Evaluation Criteria The a priori success criteria for judging...sometimes called a social choice function: i ivF max Eq 4-1 where vi is the value v of some decision outcome for agent i. Now, each participant in the

  17. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    goals. If we ask, for example, ―Why do you want this system to have a really fast response time?‖ we might hear that this will differentiate the product ...quality and reputation of products Figure 3-2: Ten Categories of Business Goals In addition to papers enumerating and describing business goals, we also...individual who has these goals has them for him/herself or his/her family. System These can be goals for a system being developed or acquired. Portfolio

  18. Summary of SEI (Software Engineering Institute) Technical Operations: 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    University (Texas Instruments) • Florida A & M University • George Mason University • Johns Hopkins University (Westinghouse Electric Corporation...assignments in 1987, two from the Navy, and one each from the Air Force and the Army. Craig Meyers and Roger Smeaton , both Navy affiliates, worked on...the Ada Embedded Systems Testbed Project. Meyers was from the Naval Surface Weapons Center in Dahlgren, Virginia; and Smeaton was from the Naval

  19. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Littlewood et al. [ Littlewood 1993] measure the operational security of a system by quantitatively estimating the intuitive notion of “the system’s ability to...2003. [ Littlewood 1993] Littlewood , B.; Brocklehurst, S.; Fenton, N.; Mellor, P.; Page, S.; Wright, D.; Dobson, J.; McDermid, J.; & Gollman, D

  20. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  1. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  2. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  3. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  4. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  5. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  6. Accounting for the differences in the structures and relative energies of the highly homoatomic np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded S2I4 2+, the Se-I pi-bonded Se2I4 2+, and their higher-energy isomers by AIM, MO, NBO, and VB methodologies.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Scott; Crawford, Margaret-Jane; Du, Hongbin; Harcourt, Richard D; Knapp, Carsten; Laitinen, Risto S; Passmore, Jack; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Suontamo, Reijo J; Valkonen, Jussi

    2007-02-05

    The bonding in the highly homoatomic np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded S2I42+ (three sigma + two pi bonds), the Se-I pi-bonded Se2I42+ (four sigma + one pi bonds), and their higher-energy isomers have been studied using modern DFT and ab initio calculations and theoretical analysis methods: atoms in molecules (AIM), molecular orbital (MO), natural bond orbital (NBO), and valence bond (VB) analyses, giving their relative energies, theoretical bond orders, and atomic charges. The aim of this work was to seek theory-based answers to four main questions: (1) Are the previously proposed simple pi*-pi* bonding models valid for S2I42+ and Se2I42+? (2) What accounts for the difference in the structures of S2I42+ and Se2I42+? (3) Why are the classically bonded isolobal P2I4 and As2I4 structures not adopted? (4) Is the high experimentally observed S-S bond order supported by theoretical bond orders, and how does it relate to high bond orders between other heavier main group elements? The AIM analysis confirmed the high bond orders and established that the weak bonds observed in S2I42+ and Se2I42+ are real and the bonding in these cations is covalent in nature. The full MO analysis confirmed that S2I42+ contains three sigma and two pi bonds, that the positive charge is essentially equally distributed over all atoms, that the bonding between S2 and two I2+ units in S2I42+ is best described by two mutually perpendicular 4c2e pi*-pi* bonds, and that in Se2I42+, two SeI2+ moieties are joined by a 6c2e pi*-pi* bond, both in agreement with previously suggested models. The VB treatment provided a complementary approach to MO analysis and provided insight how the formation of the weak bonds affects the other bonds. The NBO analysis and the calculated AIM charges showed that the minimization of the electrostatic repulsion between EI2+ units (E = S, Se) and the delocalization of the positive charge are the main factors that explain why the nonclassical structures are favored for S2I42

  7. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  8. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  9. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-09-20

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  10. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  11. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  12. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-10-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms.

  13. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  14. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  15. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  16. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  17. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  18. Databases and archiving for cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-EM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives – EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualising and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  19. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  20. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  1. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  2. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  3. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  4. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  5. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  7. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  8. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  9. Lietuvos Teritorijos Gravimetrinio Žemėlapio Tikslumo Vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birvydienė, Rosita; Krikštaponis, Boleslovas; Obuchovski, Romuald; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Petroškevičius, Petras; Šlikas, Dominykas

    2010-01-01

    Remiantis matavimų, atliktų Lietuvos gravimetrinio tinklo punktuose, duomenimis, įvertintas Lietuvos teritorijos 1:200 000 mastelio Bouguer anomalijų gravimetrinio žemėlapio tikslumas. Vertinimui naudota 686 gravimetrinių punktų sunkio pagreičio reikšmės, kurių vidutinė kvadratinė paklaida neviršija 9 μGal. Nustatytos teritorijos, kuriose sunkio pagreitis, apskaičiuotas pagal žemėlapį, turi sistemingąsias paklaidas. Gautas vidutinis skirtumas tarp žemėlapyje taikomos Potsdamo sunkio sistemos ir IGSN 71 sistemos, apibrėžtos Lietuvos gravimetriniame tinkle atliktais absoliučiaisiais gravimetriniais matavimais.

  10. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  11. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  12. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  13. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  14. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  15. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  16. An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...2006- 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W91 2HQ-06-C-0050...239.18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  17. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  18. Implementing an Air Force Major Command-Level EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    n c e 7 Required ISO Elements for AF Organizational-Level EMS  MAJCOMs Are Required to Have the Following ISO Elements:  Scope and Policy...systems - Satisfy requirements of Execut ive Orders 13423 and 13514 and the I SO 14001 environmental management standard - Integrate ESOH tools and

  19. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a method’s success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  20. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-10-19

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  1. EM-63 Decay Curve Analysis for UXO Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    rectangular with 25% duty cycle , 15 amps maximum. The EM bottom sensor coil is a circular 50 cm diameter multiturn air cored coil, co- planar with the...to discriminate metal objects (both UXO and non- UXO) from magnetic rocks /soil, 32% of target excavations, over 3,800 targets, would have been

  2. Functionalized Anatomical Models for EM-Neuron Interaction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in-vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  3. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  4. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  5. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  6. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  7. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  8. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  9. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  10. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress.

  11. Nonlinear Smoothing and the EM Algorithm for Positive Integral Equations of the First Kind

    SciTech Connect

    Eggermont, P. P. B.

    1999-01-15

    We study a modification of the EMS algorithm in which each step of the EMS algorithm is preceded by a nonlinear smoothing step of the form Nf-exp(S*log f) , where S is the smoothing operator of the EMS algorithm. In the context of positive integral equations (a la positron emission tomography) the resulting algorithm is related to a convex minimization problem which always admits a unique smooth solution, in contrast to the unmodified maximum likelihood setup. The new algorithm has slightly stronger monotonicity properties than the original EM algorithm. This suggests that the modified EMS algorithm is actually an EM algorithm for the modified problem. The existence of a smooth solution to the modified maximum likelihood problem and the monotonicity together imply the strong convergence of the new algorithm. We also present some simulation results for the integral equation of stereology, which suggests that the new algorithm behaves roughly like the EMS algorithm.

  12. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  13. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  14. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  15. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  16. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  17. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules.

  18. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  19. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  20. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  1. Color a bright energy picture with EMS controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    After 80 years in the crayon-manufacturing business, Binney and Smith found that more than 50% of their staggering annual utility costs were being generated by non-production loads. To curtail waste, they installed an expandable EMS which controls energy in the company's two separate, multi-building facilities from one central location. The system selected was an AI2100/MAX System manufactured by American Auto-Matrix, Export, PA.

  2. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  3. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Addo-Quaye, Charles; Buescher, Elizabeth; Best, Norman; Chaikam, Vijay; Baxter, Ivan; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation. PMID:28040779

  4. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  5. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  6. A study on characteristics of EM radiation from stripline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, effective methods for predicting and suppressing electromagnetic interference over a broad band are required. In this paper, we focus on the prediction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from a stripline structure with a ground thin wire by an equivalent circuit model. First, frequency responses of common-mode (CM) current on the printed circuit board and EM radiation are studied with finite difference time domain modeling. Secondly, an equivalent circuit model for predicting CM current is proposed. The equivalent circuit model for prediction is based on the concepts of CM antenna impedance, distributed constant circuit, and electric coupling between the power plane and the thin ground wire. Good agreement between the predicted and full-wave analysis results indicates the validity of the proposed equivalent circuit model. The frequency response of EM radiation from the stripline structure can be identified using our proposed model. In addition, the equivalent circuit model provides enough flexibility for different geometric parameters and can be used to develop physical insights and design guidelines.

  7. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less.

  8. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  9. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  10. Bayesian Modeling of Biomolecular Assemblies with Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A growing array of experimental techniques allows us to characterize the three-dimensional structure of large biological assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance in solution, new structure determination methods such cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), crosslinking/mass spectrometry and solid-state NMR have emerged. Often it is not sufficient to use a single experimental method, but complementary data need to be collected by using multiple techniques. The integration of all datasets can only be achieved by computational means. This article describes Inferential structure determination, a Bayesian approach to integrative modeling of biomolecular complexes with hybrid structural data. I will introduce probabilistic models for cryo-EM maps and outline Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling model structures from the posterior distribution. I will focus on rigid and flexible modeling with cryo-EM data and discuss some of the computational challenges of Bayesian inference in the context of biomolecular modeling. PMID:28382301

  11. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  12. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  13. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  14. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  15. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  16. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  17. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  19. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  20. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem.

    PubMed

    Katsevich, E; Katsevich, A; Singer, A

    2015-01-22

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise.

  1. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  2. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  3. Testing For EM Upsets In Aircraft Control Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of transient electrical signals evaluated in laboratory tests. Method of evaluating nominally fault-tolerant, aircraft-type digital-computer-based control system devised. Provides for evaluation of susceptibility of system to upset and evaluation of integrity of control when system subjected to transient electrical signals like those induced by electromagnetic (EM) source, in this case lightning. Beyond aerospace applications, fault-tolerant control systems becoming more wide-spread in industry; such as in automobiles. Method supports practical, systematic tests for evaluation of designs of fault-tolerant control systems.

  4. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care.

  5. Unravelling the structures of biological macromolecules by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Understanding how proteins and other biological macromolecules perform their complicated tasks in the living cell is often aided by knowledge of their three-dimensional structures. Because many tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterisation at the atomic level is most useful. Recent developments in electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-EM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of new information about biological processes that were impossible to characterize with previously existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  6. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL∗ Patrick Godon1,4, Edward M. Sion1, Paul E. Barrett2, and Albert P. Linnell3 1...However, more recent full three-dimensional hydrodynami- cal simulations, e.g., (Blondin 1998; Kunze et al. 2001; Bisikalo et al. 2003), have followed...deflection is believed to cause X-ray absorption in CVs (and LMXBs) around orbital phase 0.7, if the inclination is at least 65◦ ( Kunze et al. 2001

  7. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  8. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  9. Demonstrate a Leap-Ahead EM Gun Armament System that Proves the Maturity of the Technology for Future Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-26

    This report, comprised of viewgraphs, discusses the Army EM program and the challenges it faces. Topics include pulsed power, hypervelocity lethality plans, systems and technology integration , and the army EM gun program.

  10. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  11. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  12. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  13. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal…

  14. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  15. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a…

  16. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-13

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.

  17. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  18. Surgical treatment of moyamoya disease in children: which is more effective procedure, EDAS or EMS?

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S

    1986-01-01

    At present, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) and encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) are the treatments of choice for moyamoya disease in children, but no attempts have been made to determine which is the more effective procedure, for the ischemic lesions in moyamoya disease. Ten patients (seven children and three adults) underwent EDAS and/or EMS: three patients EDAS on both sides; seven patients EDAS on one side and EMS on the other. These ten patients were followed up with a neurological examination and r-CBF and angiographic studies. Postoperative angiograms and r-CBF studies demonstrated more revascularization from the external carotid artery in sides treated with EDAS than with sides treated with EMS. From these results, it is concluded that the EDAS surgical procedure is superior to that of EMS for moyamoya disease.

  19. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  20. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  1. The EM/MPM algorithm for segmentation of textured images: analysis and further experimental results.

    PubMed

    Comer, M L; Delp, E J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present new results relative to the "expectation-maximization/maximization of the posterior marginals" (EM/MPM) algorithm for simultaneous parameter estimation and segmentation of textured images. The EM/MPM algorithm uses a Markov random field model for the pixel class labels and alternately approximates the MPM estimate of the pixel class labels and estimates parameters of the observed image model. The goal of the EM/MPM algorithm is to minimize the expected value of the number of misclassified pixels. We present new theoretical results in this paper which show that the algorithm can be expected to achieve this goal, to the extent that the EM estimates of the model parameters are close to the true values of the model parameters. We also present new experimental results demonstrating the performance of the EM/MPM algorithm.

  2. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  3. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  4. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  5. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white

  6. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  7. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  8. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  9. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  10. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  11. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  12. GW astronomy, EM observations, and the interactions between them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essick, Reed; LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I present an overview of the types of low latency searches operated by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration, focusing on the products produced by each and how they tie into the broader astronomical community. This includes both automated and manual follow-up to characterize the source localization as well as statements about the data quality surrounding the candidate. In broad strokes, I'll also describe the internal and external communication mechanisms put in place to announce candidates and report follow-up activities, with particular emphasis placed on how GW and EM data are mutually beneficial. Time permitting, I will also describe some consequences of observed diurnal cycles governing when the LIGO detectors are likely to record data and studies comparing localizations from different algorithms.

  13. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  14. Development of A New Electromagnetic Sounding System, Em-across

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    We developed and tested a new electromagnetic sounding system. It is called EM- ACROSS (ElectroMagnetic - Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal Sys- tem), and originally Ogawa and Kumazawa (1996) proposed. The essential points of this method are the transmission of accurately controlled electromagnetic waves, and precise synchronization between the source and observation points, and acquisition the transfer function between the source and receivers. This transfer function includes the information of the area where the electromagnetic waves propagates. We developed hardware to establish an EM-ACROSS system. To generate the accu- rately controlled source signal and to synchronize the receivers with the source, we utilize GPS clock. The time-keeping for the transmission and data recordings is better than micro seconds. We examined this system by the transmission from the current dipole (moment 200Am) at the frequencies below 100Hz and the observations at the distances up to 3km in Tono area. We transmitted the controlled source signal which the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum from 200 seconds data attained up to 104. The accuracy of the synchronization was ascertained in data stacking of the received signal. The longer stacking reduced the error of the received signal as theoretically expected. From the observed transfer function, the resistivity of the experimental site was estimated as about 100 m, which is the typical value at the test site. We represent that the exploration using the accurately controlled electromagnetic sig- nal is realized. We come to convince ACROSS has a potential for explorations.

  15. Quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailean, James C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Sullivan, Barry J.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate quantitatively the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The 'perceived' signal-to-nose ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering.

  16. DNA-ligase activities appear normal in the CHO mutant EM9.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; Thompson, L H; Becker, F F

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant strain EM9 was previously shown to be hypersensitive to killing by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), to have a 12-fold increased baseline incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and to be defective in rejoining DNA strand breaks after treatment with EMS, MMS, or X-rays. A study was performed to determine if the primary biochemical defect might be a DNA ligase. DNA-ligase activities were assayed and compared after separation of the multiple forms of ligase by AcA 34 gel-filtration chromatography of total cellular extracts. In EM9 cells the levels of the presumptive replicative forms, DNA ligase Ia (480 kd) and ligase Ib (240 kd) were about 50% and 60%, respectively, of those in the parental AA8 cells, whereas DNA ligase II (80 kd) was unaltered in EM9 . In a phenotypic revertant line ( 9R1 ) ligases Ia, Ib and II levels were 35%, 37% and 100%, respectively, of those in AA8 . The reduced levels of ligases Ia and Ib in EM9 and 9R1 cells are apparently not related directly to the mutant phenotype and may be attributable to the somewhat slower growth rates of these strains compared with those of AA8 . To determine if the repair defect in EM9 might reside in the ability to induce DNA-ligase activity after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, AA8 and EM9 cells were treated with MMS at 30 micrograms/ml for 60 min before preparing fractions for ligase assays. Under these conditions the activities of ligases Ia and Ib decreases 70-80% in both cell lines, but ligase II increased 2.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in AA8 and EM9 . As a further test of defective ligase activities in EM9 , assays were performed in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl or after heating the fractions for 10 min at 50 degrees C. Although all 3 forms of ligase showed altered activity under both of these conditions, there were no significant differences between EM9 and AA8 cells. These data combined with the above results provide strong

  17. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  18. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is ± 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is ± 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We

  19. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  20. cryoSPARC: algorithms for rapid unsupervised cryo-EM structure determination.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Ali; Rubinstein, John L; Fleet, David J; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful method for determining the structures of biological macromolecules. With automated microscopes, cryo-EM data can often be obtained in a few days. However, processing cryo-EM image data to reveal heterogeneity in the protein structure and to refine 3D maps to high resolution frequently becomes a severe bottleneck, requiring expert intervention, prior structural knowledge, and weeks of calculations on expensive computer clusters. Here we show that stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and branch-and-bound maximum likelihood optimization algorithms permit the major steps in cryo-EM structure determination to be performed in hours or minutes on an inexpensive desktop computer. Furthermore, SGD with Bayesian marginalization allows ab initio 3D classification, enabling automated analysis and discovery of unexpected structures without bias from a reference map. These algorithms are combined in a user-friendly computer program named cryoSPARC (http://www.cryosparc.com).

  1. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qiu, Chang-Kai

    2016-12-01

    To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss-Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM "footprint" concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.

  2. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  3. Quantify Lateral Dispersion and Turbulent Mixing by Spatial Array of chi-EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    before being transported to the northeast, with strong south-east/north- west gradients. The other assets were moved northward immediately, causing an...experiments. REFERENCES Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B., 1993, Submesoscale Dynamics near a Seamount . Part I: Measurements of Ertel Vorticity, American...EM-APEX Floats and Moorings (N00014-08-1-0560) as a part of the ITOP DRI. Fourteen EM-APEX floats were air-deployed into two W. Pacific typhoons

  4. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  5. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  6. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  7. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  8. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  9. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  10. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  11. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  12. Using PAs in prehospital environments to reduce ED and EMS overuse.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine M; Tozier, William L

    2017-04-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) and EDs in large cities are burdened with a significant number of patients with chronic disease who have limited options for receiving proper care. Despite their relatively small numbers, these "superusers" can have a significant effect on EMS, particularly in large cities. Additionally, EDs are not designed to provide chronic and continuous healthcare. This article describes how several organizations use physician assistants to manage these patients.

  13. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  14. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  15. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  16. Two SERK Receptor-Like Kinases Interact with EMS1 to Control Anther Cell Fate Determination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Ahsan, Nagib; Biener, Gabriel; Paprocki, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1. The SERK1/2 genes function in the same genetic pathway as EMS1 in anther development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer, and coimmunoprecipitation approaches revealed that SERK1 interacted biochemically with EMS1. Transphosphorylation of EMS1 by SERK1 enhances EMS1 kinase activity. Among 12 in vitro autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation sites identified by tandem mass spectrometry, seven of them were found to be critical for EMS1 autophosphorylation activity. Furthermore, complementation test results suggest that phosphorylation of EMS1 is required for its function in anther development. Collectively, these data provide genetic and biochemical evidence of the interaction and phosphorylation between SERK1/2 and EMS1 in anther development. PMID:27920157

  17. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  18. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  19. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  20. Streptavidin crystals as nanostructured supports and image-calibration references for cryo-EM data collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Ounjai, Puey; Sigworth, Fred J

    2008-11-01

    For cryo-EM structural studies, we seek to image membrane proteins as single particles embedded in proteoliposomes. One technical difficulty has been the low density of liposomes that can be trapped in the approximately 100nm ice layer that spans holes in the perforated carbon support film of EM grids. Inspired by the use of two-dimensional (2D) streptavidin crystals as an affinity surface for biotinylated DNA (Crucifix et al., 2004), we propose to use the crystals to tether liposomes doped with biotinylated lipids. The 2D crystal image also serves as a calibration of the image formation process, providing an absolute conversion from electrostatic potentials in the specimen to the EM image intensity, and serving as a quality control of acquired cryo-EM images. We were able to grow streptavidin crystals covering more than 90% of the holes in an EM grid, and which remained stable even under negative stain. The liposome density in the resulting cryo-EM sample was uniform and high due to the high-affinity binding of biotin to streptavidin. Using computational methods, the 2D crystal background can be removed from images without noticeable effect on image properties.

  1. Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

    2013-12-01

    Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

  2. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E.M.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling. PMID:26846888

  3. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  4. Stroke savvy. The accuracy of EMS-reported last known normal times.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Keith; Wesley, Karen

    2014-09-01

    We collected EMS-reported "last known normal" (LKN) times for patients brought to the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the neurologist-determined and EMS-reported LKN times (deltaLKN). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use if the EMS-reported times were used instead of the neurologist-determined times. Of 251 patients, mean and median deltaLKN were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. deltaLKN was < 15 minutes in 91% of the entire group and < 15 minutes in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Of patients who received IV tPA, none would've been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who didn't receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times by an average of 208 minutes. All of the potentially incorrectly included patients would've been wake-up strokes.

  5. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  6. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects. PMID:28304348

  7. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  8. If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellard, Stanley J.

    2012-10-01

    Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

  9. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  10. CryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after branching

    PubMed Central

    Galej, Wojciech P.; Wilkinson, Max E.; Fica, Sebastian M.; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing proceeds by two consecutive trans-esterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. We present the 3.8Å cryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5’-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg2+ site in the U2/U6 snRNA triplex, and the 5’-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2’OH. The 5’-exon is held between the Prp8 N-terminal and Linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1. Non-Watson-Crick interactions between the branch helix and 5’-splice site dock the branch adenosine into the active site, while intron nucleotides +3 to +6 base-pair with the U6 snRNA ACAGAGA sequence. Isy1 and the step one factors Yju2 and Cwc25 stabilise docking of the branch helix. The intron downstream of the branch site emerges between the Prp8 RT and Linker domains and extends towards Prp16 helicase, suggesting a plausible mechanism of remodelling before exon ligation. PMID:27459055

  11. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  12. Specimen preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A.; Russo, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various specimen supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector and support technology. PMID:27572723

  13. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-03-17

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects.

  14. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z G

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  15. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  16. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations.

  17. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  18. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS).

    PubMed

    Tun, Hein M; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 10(5) copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS.

  19. Employee retention: applying hospital strategies to EMS. With increasing demand for and decreasing supply of EMTs and paramedics, retention strategies should be a priority for EMS organizations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Retention strategies are a priority for EMS organizations. These strategies must be broad and varied to address the variety of reasons employees leave healthcare organizations. The value of creating these programs should manifest itself through increased employee satisfaction and an increased sense of belonging to the organization.

  20. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  1. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel.

  3. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  4. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  5. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  6. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy

  7. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice.

  8. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  9. VAXELN Experimentation: Programming a Real-Time Periodic Task Dispatcher Using VAXELN Ada 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER Karl Shingler SEI Joint Program Office This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense...34); 28 CMU/SEI-87.TR-532 boom I@. Pat (OXT"rant.mimlteo). slaw- Lise ; WmttedStriaoLvat (0em.dl; BOOCNOZO.Vat (Caguemi S.stio); enale) M%.: i Fremttedl

  10. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  11. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  12. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  13. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  14. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-01-18

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  15. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  16. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  17. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  18. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  19. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  20. Facility location: a review of context-free and EMS models.

    PubMed Central

    ReVelle, C; Bigman, D; Schilling, D; Cohon, J; Church, R

    1977-01-01

    EMS location models are those formulated to address specific problems of emergency medical services systems; context-free location models are those developed without reference to particular applications. The literature on these two types of public facility location models is reviewed, and the development of the maximal covering model from several earlier context-free models is described, with emphasis on problem statements and articulation of service objectives. An application of the maximal covering model to fire truck location points up the ability of this model to handle multiple objectives; its ability to compare alternative solutions gives it great utility for planning and evaluating EMS systems of a wide range of complexity. Potential applications of the maximal covering model are discussed regarding EMS problems involving multiple time standards and service objectives, location of special equipment, and siting of fixed facilities. PMID:885725

  1. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  2. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1, Isolated from a Patient with a Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Soehnlen, Marty; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1 was isolated from a whole-blood sample from a female patient. The draft genome sequence of Em1 contains 4,038,467 bp, with a G+C content of 36.37%. A preliminary genome analysis showed that Em1 contains genes conferring resistance to β-lactams. The bacterium has hemolysin genes and a set of genes involved in heme uptake and heme utilization, showing its potential to cause bloodstream infections. A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system was identified. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis assigned the bacterium to the species E. meningoseptica (ANI, >95%). The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a pathogen in humans. PMID:27789634

  3. Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Kim, JungMin; Booth, David S; Greenberg, Charles H; Rossi, Andrea; Liao, Maofu; Li, Xueming; Alian, Akram; Griner, Sarah L; Juge, Narinobu; Yu, Yadong; Mergel, Claudia M; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Strop, Pavel; Tampé, Robert; Edwards, Robert H; Stroud, Robert M; Craik, Charles S; Cheng, Yifan

    2012-04-04

    In spite of its recent achievements, the technique of single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has not been widely used to study proteins smaller than 100 kDa, although it is a highly desirable application of this technique. One fundamental limitation is that images of small proteins embedded in vitreous ice do not contain adequate features for accurate image alignment. We describe a general strategy to overcome this limitation by selecting a fragment antigen binding (Fab) to form a stable and rigid complex with a target protein, thus providing a defined feature for accurate image alignment. Using this approach, we determined a three-dimensional structure of an ∼65 kDa protein by single particle cryoEM. Because Fabs can be readily generated against a wide range of proteins by phage display, this approach is generally applicable to study many small proteins by single particle cryoEM.

  4. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  5. Robust estimation for class averaging in cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Tagare, Hemant D

    2014-01-01

    Single Particle Reconstruction (SPR) for Cryogenic Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) aligns and averages the images extracted from micrographs to improve the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR). Outliers compromise the fidelity of the averaging. We propose a robust cross-correlation-like w-estimator for combating the effect of outliers on the average images in cryo-EM. The estimator accounts for the natural variation of signal contrast among the images and eliminates the need for a threshold for outlier rejection. We show that the influence function of our estimator is asymptotically bounded. Evaluations of the estimator on simulated and real cryo-EM images show good performance in the presence of outliers.

  6. Network Analysis of Students' Representation Use in Mechanics and E&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the representational tools that students in the Modeling Instruction-Introductory E&M (MI-E&M) course use on introductory physics problems. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop and communicate a sophisticated understanding of science topics, particularly in physics where multiple representations are often used within a single problem. The Modeling Instruction curriculum highlights representation development as a part of the modeling process, making the MI-E&M course a rich context to collect data. In the Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 semesters, over 150 students total (from 3 sections of MI-E&M) were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M), and asked which representations they would use in that given situation. Using network analysis, we compare how students use representations in Mechanics and E&M contexts.

  7. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  8. A comparative study of the PIFA and printed monopole antenna EM absorption.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Ikbal; Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Rashed; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a comparative study on electromagnetic (EM) absorption in the human head between a printed monopole antenna and a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA). The specific absorption rate (SAR) values and total absorbed power in the human head phantom are used to evaluate EM absorption for both antennae. Moreover, antenna performances in terms of return loss, radiation efficiency, and gain are also investigated in this study. The finite integration technique (FIT) based on CST Microwave studio and SAM head phantom are used in this study. The antenna performances are measured in an anechoic chamber and the SAR is tested using COMOSAR measurement system. The obtained results indicate that the printed monopole antenna lead to higher EM absorption in the human head as compared to PIFA for both GSM frequencies.

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing for Identification of EMS-Induced Mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ji, Fei; Sadreyev, Ruslan

    2017-01-05

    Forward genetic analysis using chemical mutagenesis in model organisms is a powerful tool for investigation of molecular mechanisms in biological systems. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, mutagenesis screens using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have led to important insights into genetic control of animal development and physiology. A major bottleneck to this approach is identification of the causative mutation underlying a phenotype of interest. In the past, this has required time-consuming genetic mapping experiments. More recently, next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed development of new methods for rapid mapping and identification of EMS-induced lesions. In this unit we describe a protocol to map and identify EMS-induced mutations in C. elegans. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.

    2002-02-26

    Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the

  11. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  12. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  13. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  14. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27789647

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2016-10-27

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  17. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one,…

  18. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  19. Preliminary Seafloor Controlled Source EM Results From APPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, J. P.; MacGregor, L.; Constable, S.; Everett, M.

    2001-12-01

    Certain events in the life cycle of oceanic lithosphere are dominantly two-dimensional. These include formation of crust at axial spreading centers and deformation at the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary. These processes may result in an electrically anisotropic oceanic lithosphere by creating conductive pathways in preferred orientations. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) soundings and Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made during the Anisotropy and Physics of the Pacific Lithosphere Experiment (APPLE), carried out in February/March 2001 approximately 600 km west of San Diego, California. Twenty seafloor electromagnetic field sensors were deployed: 4 long-wire CSEM recorders with 200 m electrode offsets, 6 high-frequency MT/CSEM recorders with two orthogonal 10 m offset electrodes and two orthogonal induction coil magnetometers, and 10 low-frequency MT recorders with a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and two orthogonal 10 m electric dipoles, 5 of which also recorded CSEM data. Every instrument was recovered, with data, during this primary cruise and a follow-up recovery cruise for the long-period instruments in August 2001. The deep-towed EM transmitter (DASI) was a 100 m horizontal electric dipole, which was towed in a 30 km radius circle around a central core of recorders. A radial tow was also performed. DASI transmitted a 4 Hz square wave throughout the CSEM phase of the experiment. Initial processing of the CSEM data reveals evidence of crustal anisotropy. In particular, transmitted electromagnetic energy is attenuated more strongly when propagating from west to east than from north to south. The difference in attenuation is about a factor of two, at a range of 30 km and a frequency of 4Hz. This confirms earlier results from the PEGASUS experiment, which proposed that oceanic lower crust and upper mantle with east-west trending lineaments of increased conductivity will exhibit greater attenuation of electric fields in the east

  20. 76 FR 60017 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... stockpile remains safe and reliable. Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is an essential component... weapons, tritium decays at a rate of 5.5 percent per year. Accordingly, as long as the Nation relies on a..., transportation of tritiated effluents and/or low level radioactive waste streams, and other applicable...

  1. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Eliciting Unstated Requirements at Scale (EURS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    introducing ideation • Affinitize visually as well as virtually • Automate identification of relevant ideas to keep others informed of what might...Review Konrad Stoddard Oct. 28, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Contact Information Presenter / Point of Contact Mike Konrad Software

  2. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  3. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-25100] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental... Travel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement (ENF TM FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The... cross country travel. In 2009 a complaint was filed with the Eastern District Federal Court (Court...

  4. 75 FR 16731 - Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Interface, to decrease the likelihood that fires would become stand-replacing wildfires; (2) Restore... the likelihood that wildfires would become large stand-replacing wildfires, and to restore...

  5. Expenditures for Public Schools in the Southeast. Southeastern Educational Information System Analyses. SEIS Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ronald

    The reluctance of the Southeast to increase educational spending is closely linked to the region's lagging behind the rest of the nation in quality of education and hence in overall standard of living. Six "myths" about educational spending, widely held in the Southeast, are here addressed: (1) That educational expenditures, worthwhile…

  6. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    W. Collins Peter Feiler John Goodenough Aaron Greenhouse Jorgen Hansson Alan R. Hevner John Hudak Angel Jordan Rick Kazman Richard C . Linger...Mark G. Pleszkoch Stacy J. Prowell Natasha Sharygina Kurt C . Wallnau Gwen Walton Chuck Weinstock Lutz Wrage December 2005...John Goodenough Aaron Greenhouse Jorgen Hansson Alan R. Hevner John Hudak Angel Jordan Rick Kazman Richard C . Linger Mark G. Pleszkoch Stacy J

  7. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  8. The Watts New? Collection: Columns by the SEI’s Watts Humphrey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use. This document may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely...all of the buzzwords, would like to act strategically, and talks about being the industry leader, managers are hypnotized by their short-term problems

  9. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Non-Crystalline Glasses in the System Se-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    34Transylvania", 2200-Brasov, Romania Vitreous Sexl-., samples (x=0.1; 0.15; 0.20) have been prepared and studied by thermal analysis, iodometry , X-ray...thermogravimetric curves reveal important loss of material (iodine) of the same order of magnitude as for the losses observed by iodometry measurements. 3.3

  11. Robotic Lunar Rover Technologies and SEI Supporting Technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klarer, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing robotic rover technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) can be applied toward the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR have demonstrated the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low-data-rate teleoperation, multivehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, standard bandwidth stereo vision, and autonomous path following based on both internal dead reckoning and an external position location update system. These activities serve to support the use of robotic rovers for an early return to the lunar surface by demonstrating capabilities that are attainable with off-the-shelf technology and existing control techniques. The breadth of technical activities at SNL provides many supporting technology areas for robotic rover development. These range from core competency areas and microsensor fabrication facilities, to actual space qualification of flight components that are designed and fabricated in-house.

  12. A Software Process Framework for the Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Capability Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    named after the 19th-century economist Vilfredo Pareto , that most effects come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the... Pareto analysis The analysis of defects by ranking causes from most significant to least significant. Pareto analysis is based on the principle

  13. A Software Process Framework for the SEI Capability Maturity Model: Repeatable Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Vilfredo Pareto , that most effects I come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. peer review - A review...to the next maturity level. Using the Pareto principle [Juran88b], the CMM prescribes the "vital few" key process areas to focus on depending on an...or interfacing with the individuals responsible for performing in the topic area. (See train for contrast.) Pareto analysis - The analysis of defects

  14. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Probabilistic Analysis of Time Sensitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Osmosis SMC Tool Osmosis is a tool for Statistical Model Checking (SMC) with Semantic Importance Sampling. • Input model is written in subset of C...ASSERT() statements in model indicate conditions that must hold. • Input probability distributions defined by the user. • Osmosis returns the...on: – Target relative error, or – Set number of simulations Osmosis Main Algorithm 1 http://dreal.cs.cmu.edu/ (?⃑?): Indicator

  15. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Edge-Enabled Tactical Systems (EETS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    distributed collaboration in VREP simulations for 5-12 quadcopters and ground robots • Open-source middleware and algorithms released to community...Integration into CMU Drone-RK quadcopter and Platypus autonomous boat platforms • Presentations at DARPA (CODE), AFRL C4I Workshop, and AFRL Eglin

  16. An Alternative Three-Level Model for Estimating SEIs and Their Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    After a brief review of recent research concerning school effectiveness, this paper proposes an approach to operationalizing school effectiveness that is based on the achievement of students in a school over a period of time. This three-level model does not follow a single cohort of students as they progress through school. Rather, it uses the…

  17. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    always feasible. However, today more and more systems have this requirement, including e - commerce systems and mobile embedded systems . For systems to...interfaces—similar to the distributed com- ponent object model (DCOM) or object request brokers (ORBs) based on the CORBA speci- fication. A system or...of automated development based on “ modeling software system families such that, given a particular requirements specification, a highly customized

  18. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  19. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    and Fisheries of Republic of Indonesia (KKP), Bali BPPL lab on their Baruna Jaya 8 cruise in August 2016. Arrangement to sh ip the EM APEX float to...windy period when the processes measured by the EM APEX floats were most active) by Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Republic of Indonesia...story why ww D10ftd to RDCMFT). The..,. boold is lr. Matheus Eko Rud.an1o. M.Sus..IT Ministly of Morine AJfairs and Fisheries (KKP) lMRO·Bali

  20. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  1. Genomic characterization of EmsB microsatellite loci in Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Valot, Benoît; Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    EmsB is a molecular marker applied to Echinococcus multilocularis genotyping studies. This marker has largely been used to investigate the epidemiology of the parasite in different endemic foci. The present study has lifted the veil on the genetic structure of this microsatellite. By in silico analysis on the E. multilocularis genome the microsatellite was described in about 40 copies on the chromosome 5 of the parasite. Similar structure was found in the relative parasite Echinococcus granulosus, where the microsatellite was firstly described. The present study completes the first investigations made on the EmsB microsatellite origins and confirms the reliability of this highly discriminant molecular marker.

  2. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as ‘movies’ made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired. PMID:26546989

  3. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  4. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  5. Specially Conditioned EM Fields for Propellant-less Impulsion within Higher Dimensional Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. David

    2009-03-01

    A higher dimensional realm with room for both slower than light (STL) and faster-than-light (FTL) travel is defined, together with paths within this realm that enable: unlabored (momentum-conserving and energy-preserving) ship acceleration and deceleration between STL and FTL speeds. And it is shown that fields guiding ships on unlabored paths within this deeper realm must have components in more than the 3 spatial directions in which ordinary electromagnetic (EM) fields act. This is shown possible with EM fields that are transformed from lower U1 to higher SU2 Lie symmetry.

  6. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C.

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  7. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  8. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  9. In Situ Data Processing With Workflow-based Embedded Cyberinfrastructure (emCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, G.; Silva, F.; Graham, E. A.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Rundel, P.

    2011-12-01

    The decreasing cost of sensors and sensor networks has led to the wide scale adoption of this technology by large numbers of scientists for the collection of data in the field. At the same time, advances in both hardware and software have resulted in increased processing power at the sensor, enabling sensors in the field to do more than just data collection. With an increase in the number of sensors and deployments, scientists need tools for the configuration, operation, and debugging problems on their sensor networks. Furthermore, as the amount of data increases, scientists need a way to quickly and easily tag, process, archive, and share their datasets. Without proper tools, it is common for data processing to happen weeks or sometimes months after it is collected. This leads to important events being missed and makes real-time data analysis impossible. Additionally, because data is often manually processed through a series of repetitive steps, the analysis is susceptible to errors that are hard to track after data is combined and shared among researchers. Our emCI (embedded cyberinfrastructure) toolkit enables researchers to easily collect, analyze, and share their data. emCI provides a web-portal with upload/download capabilities that accept data in a number of different formats and ultimately can be used to archive data and share datasets among scientists. emCI uses an embedded general-purpose computer in the field for interfacing with sensors, coordinating data collection, and providing reliable data transfer to the emCI web portal. emCI relies on workflow technologies to automate data processing pipelines and to provide provenance information. In particular, emCI uses the Pegasus Workflow Management System as a core component, adapting it to the embedded computation environment. emCI allows scientists to distribute tasks among sensors in field and servers in the lab. In-situ processing using embedded workflows enable data reduction and validation in the

  10. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  11. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help.

  12. Properties of the EM cascade: A tutorial utilizing high resolution 3D color graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W R

    1987-02-01

    The fundamental interactions of electrons and photons are reviewed that are important to shower physics. The shower is then described, including a simple model, an advanced analytic model, and Monte Carlo approaches. Examples of real, as well as simulated, EM showers are discussed, and some ''rules of thumb'' are provided. (LEW)

  13. Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

  14. Correction to ATel 10128: Spectral Comparison Object SN 1999em -> SN 1999ee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-01

    We report a correction to the spectroscopic classification announced in ATel #10128. The spectral comparison shows that SN 2017bke is similar to type Ia supernova SN 1999ee (which was incorrectly typed as SN 1999em) at t = -7 days from the maximum light. We apologize for any confusion caused by this typo error.

  15. EmPOWERing Children with Learning Disabilities: A Practitioner-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the expressive writing needs of students who struggle have become a critical and life-influencing problem. This article provides an overview of current research on the writing needs of students with LD and a practitioner-based reflection on the Singer and Bashir EmPOWER approach, a resource that can help teachers meet…

  16. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated…

  17. Automated structure refinement of macromolecular assemblies from cryo-EM maps using Rosetta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Song, Yifan; Barad, Benjamin A; Cheng, Yifan; Fraser, James S; DiMaio, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM has revealed the structures of many challenging yet exciting macromolecular assemblies at near-atomic resolution (3–4.5Å), providing biological phenomena with molecular descriptions. However, at these resolutions, accurately positioning individual atoms remains challenging and error-prone. Manually refining thousands of amino acids – typical in a macromolecular assembly – is tedious and time-consuming. We present an automated method that can improve the atomic details in models that are manually built in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM maps. Applying the method to three systems recently solved by cryo-EM, we are able to improve model geometry while maintaining the fit-to-density. Backbone placement errors are automatically detected and corrected, and the refinement shows a large radius of convergence. The results demonstrate that the method is amenable to structures with symmetry, of very large size, and containing RNA as well as covalently bound ligands. The method should streamline the cryo-EM structure determination process, providing accurate and unbiased atomic structure interpretation of such maps. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17219.001 PMID:27669148

  18. The Role of Journals in Building up Communities: The Experience of "Ciência em Tela"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    "Ciência em Tela" is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes…

  19. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  20. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

    2016-01-01

    In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis. PMID:27959895

  1. Advanced Spacecraft EM Modelling Based on Geometric Simplification Process and Multi-Methods Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leman, Samuel; Hoeppe, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    This paper is about the first results of a new generation of ElectroMagnetic (EM) methodology applied to spacecraft systems modelling in the low frequency range (system's dimensions are of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength).This innovative approach aims at implementing appropriate simplifications of the real system based on the identification of the dominant electrical and geometrical parameters driving the global EM behaviour. One rigorous but expensive simulation is performed to quantify the error generated by the use of simpler multi-models. If both the speed up of the simulation time and the quality of the EM response are satisfied, uncertainty simulation could be performed based on the simple models library implementing in a flexible and robust Kron's network formalism.This methodology is expected to open up new perspectives concerning fast parametric analysis, and deep understanding of systems behaviour. It will ensure the identification of main radiated and conducted coupling paths and the sensitive EM parameters in order to optimize the protections and to control the disturbance sources in spacecraft design phases.

  2. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  3. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

    2016-01-01

    In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis.

  4. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python.

  5. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  6. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  7. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  8. The VLF-EM imaging of potential collapse on the LUSI embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungkono; Husein, Alwi; Prasetyo, Hardi; Bahri, Ayi S.; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Santosa, Bagus J.

    2014-10-01

    Collapse and overtopping repeatedly occur in LUSI Embankment. Discontinuities (crack or fracture) in the embankment are major reasons for embankment failures or collapses. Very-low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurement is essentially a non-destructive technique which displays subsurface 2-D cross section of resistivity. The cross section result has the possibility of detecting discontinuities and liquid saturation in embankment before it collapsed by observing which part of it in the cross section has low resistivity. This paper presents results of a survey conducted at the LUSI embankment in Eastern Java, Indonesia in a part of potential collapse. VLF-EM profiles measured along the embankment crest provided an overview of the whole embankment and served to detect anomalous zones. The noise assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) is applied to reject unwanted VLF-EM noise and Inv2DVLF software is applied to obtain result of 2-D resistivity models. In the selected area, the drill log and the standard penetration test (SPT) value gave detailed information about subsurface layer below embankment. This information is valuable for supporting 2-D resistivity image obtained from VLF-EM data inversion. Furthermore, the low resistivity in embankment layer is associated to discontinuities (fracture, crack or fault) along the embankment which caused its collapse.

  9. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the…

  10. Virtual Environmental Management Office (VEMO): The Air National Guard’s Multi-Site Organization EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Installation report to leadership Start all over again Guarding America – Defending Freedom How do you communicate and “share” this ANG utilizes...the tabs at the top will allow you to see pages associated to that tab. Click on the appropriate page and it will open that site The EMS/ISO 14001

  11. Demographics and Fellowship Training of Residency Leadership in EM: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Josh; Hardy, Ross; Chacko, Jerel; Husain, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medicine (EM) fellowships are becoming increasingly numerous, and there is a growing trend among EM residents to pursue postgraduate fellowship training. Scant data have been published on the prevalence of postgraduate training among emergency physicians. We aimed to describe the prevalence and regional variation of fellowships among EM residency leadership. Methods We conducted an online anonymous survey that was sent to the Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) membership in October 2014. The survey was a brief questionnaire, which inquired about fellowship, secondary board certification, gender, and length in a leadership position of each member of its residency leadership. We separated the responses to the survey into four different geographic regions. The geographic regions were defined by the same classification used by the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). We defined residency leadership as program director (PD), associate PD and assistant PD. Residencies that did not complete the survey were then individually contacted to encourage completion. The survey was initially piloted for ease of use and understanding of the questions with a select few EM PDs. Results We obtained responses from 145 of the 164 Accrediting Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited EM residencies (88%). The fellowship prevalence among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 21.4%, 20.3%, and 24.9% respectively. The most common fellowship completed was a fellowship in toxicology. Secondary board certification among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 9.7%, 4.8%, and 2.9% respectively. Eighty-two percent of PDs have at least five years in residency leadership. Seventy-six percent of PDs were male, and there was a near-even split of gender among associate PDs and assistant PDs. The Western region had the highest percentage of fellowship and or secondary board certification among all levels of residency leadership. Conclusion There is a

  12. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  13. Empirical and accurate method for the three-dimensional electrostatic potential (EM-ESP) of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Shi; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2010-04-01

    The electrostatic potential (ESP) is an important property of interactions within and between macromolecules, including those of importance in the life sciences. Semiempirical quantum chemical methods and classical Coulomb calculations fail to provide even qualitative ESP for many of these biomolecules. A new empirical ESP calculation method, namely, EM-ESP, is developed in this study, in which the traditional approach of point atomic charges and the classical Coulomb equation is discarded. In its place, the EM-ESP generates a three-dimensional electrostatic potential V(EM)(r) in molecular space that is the sum of contributions from all component atoms. The contribution of an atom k is formulated as a Gaussian function g(r(k);alpha(k),beta(k)) = alpha(k)/r(k)(betak) with two parameters (alpha(k) and beta(k)). The benchmark for the parameter optimization is the ESP obtained by using higher-level quantum chemical approaches (e.g., CCSD/TZVP). A set of atom-based parameters is optimized in a training set of common organic molecules. Calculated examples demonstrate that the EM-ESP approach is a vast improvement over the Coulombic approach in producing the molecular ESP contours that are comparable to the results obtained with higher-level quantum chemical methods. The atom-based parameters are shown to be transferrable between one part of closely related aromatic molecules. The atom-based ESP formulization and parametrization strategy can be extended to biological macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules. Since ESP is frequently used to rationalize and predict intermolecular interactions, we expect that the EM-ESP method will have important applications for studies of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions in numerous areas of chemistry, molecular biology, and other life sciences.

  14. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  15. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  16. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  17. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Pektaş, Bayram; Altintaş, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the

  18. An optimal hydrodynamic model for the normal type IIP supernova 1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utrobin, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is still no consensus about progenitor masses of type IIP supernovae. Aims: We study a normal type IIP SN 1999em in detail and compare it to a peculiar type IIP SN 1987A. Methods: We computed the hydrodynamic and time-dependent atmosphere models interpreting simultaneously both the photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results: The bolometric light curve of SN 1999em and the spectral evolution of its Hα line are consistent with a presupernova radius of 500 ± 200~R⊙, an ejecta mass of 19.0 ± 1.2~M⊙, an explosion energy of (1.3±0.1) × 1051 erg, and a radioactive 56Ni mass of 0.036 ± 0.009~M⊙. A mutual mixing of hydrogen-rich and helium-rich matter in the inner layers of the ejecta guarantees a good fit of the calculated light curve to that observed. Based on the hydrodynamic models in the vicinity of the optimal model, we derive the approximate relationships between the basic physical and observed parameters. The hydrodynamic and atmosphere models of SN 1999em are inconsistent with the short distance of 7.85 Mpc to the host galaxy. Conclusions: .We find that the hydrogen recombination in the atmosphere of a normal type IIP SN 1999em, as well as most likely other type IIP supernovae at the photospheric epoch, is essentially a time-dependent phenomenon. It is also shown that in normal type IIP supernovae the homologous expansion of the ejecta in its atmosphere takes place starting from nearly the third day after the supernova explosion. A comparison of SN 1999em with SN 1987A reveals two very important results for supernova theory. First, the comparability of the helium core masses and the explosion energies implies a unique explosion mechanism for these core collapse supernovae. Second, the optimal model for SN 1999em is characterized by a weaker 56Ni mixing up to ≈660 km s-1 compared to a moderate 56Ni mixing up to ~3000 km s-1 in SN 1987A, hydrogen being mixed deeply downward to ~650 km s-1.

  19. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  20. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities

  1. A cross-validation procedure for stopping the EM algorithm and deconvolution of neutron depth profiling spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Coakley, K.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The iterative EM algorithm is used to deconvolve neutron depth profiling spectra. Because of statistical noise in the data, artifacts in the estimated particle emission rate profile appear after too many iterations of the EM algorithm. To avoid artifacts, the EM algorithm is stopped using a cross-validation procedure. The data are split into two independent halves. The EM algorithm is applied to one half of the data to get an estimate of the emission rates. The algorithm is stopped when the conditional likelihood of the other half of the data passes through its maximum. The roles of the two halves of the data are then switched to get a second estimate of the emission rates. The two estimates are then averaged.

  2. <em>Excitati>on ofem>> em>>Fast em>>Waves and em>>Global Kink-Mode em>>Oscillations em>from> anem>> em>>Erupting em>>Arched em>>Laboratory em>Magnetoplasma>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    Arched magnetoplasma structures ubiquitously exist in the solar atmosphere and affect energetic phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. In a laboratory setup, excitation of fast-waves (with characteristics of EUV/EIT waves on the Sun) and global kink-mode oscillations from an erupting arched magnetoplasma was recorded with an unprecedented detail by capturing spatio-temporal evolution of the three-dimensional magnetic-field and plasma density. Images of the arched magnetoplasma evolution were recorded using a fast-CCD camera. The global kink-mode oscillations were observed as transverse oscillations across the symmetry plane of the magnetoplasma. The arched magnetoplasma (plasma β ≈ 10-3, Lundquist number ≈ 102-105, radius/ion-gyroradius ≈ 20, B ≈ 1000 Gauss at footpoints) was created using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) plasma source and it evolved in an ambient magnetoplasma produced by another LaB6 source (See Ref. [2] for details). The experiment runs continuously with a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. Hence, plasma parameters were recorded with a good resolution (spatial-resolution/magnetoplasma-length ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, temporal-resolution/eruption-time ≈ 10-3) using movable probes in three-dimensions. Mimicking the behavior of solar eruptions, a long pre-eruption phase (lasting up to 150 Alfvén transit times) was created in the laboratory by gradually increasing the electrical current. This leads to an impulsive eruption of the arched magnetoplasma within 4 Alfvén transit times. The relative magnitudes of the parameters of the arched and ambient magnetoplasma were varied to simulate a variety of conditions relevant to solar eruptions, examine the relevance of the existing models of the kink-mode oscillations, and investigate the dispersion characteristics of the fast wave. References: (1) Tripathi and Gekelman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 075005 (2010); (2) Tripathi and Gekelman, Solar Phys. 286, 479 (2013)Figure Caption: Time-evolution of the density-profile of the magnetoplasma showing the pre-eruption, impulsive eruption, and post-eruption phases. The magnetoplasma expands along the negative x-axis. The kink-mode oscillations are indicated in the post-eruption phase.(Work performed at Basic Plasma Science Facility, UCLA and supported by US DOE and NSF)

  3. A high EMS daisy-chain SPI interface for battery monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qidong; Yang, Yintang; Chai, Changchun

    2017-03-01

    A high EMS current-mode SPI interface for battery monitor IC (BMIC) is presented to form a daisychain bus configuration for the cascaded BMICs and the communication between the MCU and master BMIC. Based on analog and digital mixed filtering technique, the proposed daisy-chain can avoid the isolated communication issue in electromagnetic interference environment, and reduce the extensively required I/O ports of MCU, at the same time reduce the system cost. The proposed daisy-chain interface was introduced in a 6-ch battery monitor IC which was fabricated with 0.35 μm 30 V BCD process. The measurement result shows that the presented daisy-chain SPI interface achieves better EMS performance with different EMI injection while just consuming a total operation current up to 1 mA. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334003).

  4. Surgical treatment for paediatric patients with moyamoya disease by indirect revascularization procedures (EDAS, EMS, EMAS).

    PubMed

    Matsushima, T; Fujiwara, S; Nagata, S; Fujii, K; Fukui, M; Kitamura, K; Hasuo, K

    1989-01-01

    Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good collateral formation through EDAS, EMAS, or EMS in about 70-80 percent of all surgically treated sides. The symptoms such as TIA, RIND, and/or involuntary movements disappeared in the cases with a good collateral formation but not in those with insufficient development of the collateral circulation. The indirect EC-IC bypass surgery seems effective for most of the children with Moyamoya disease who present with ischaemic signs.

  5. Focus: The interface between data collection and data processing in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Nikhil; Righetto, Ricardo D; McLeod, Robert; Caujolle-Bert, Daniel; Castano-Diez, Daniel; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning

    2017-03-23

    We present a new software package called Focus that interfaces cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data collection with computer image processing. Focus creates a user-friendly environment to import and manage data recorded by direct electron detectors and perform elemental image processing tasks in a high-throughput manner while new data is being acquired at the microscope. It provides the functionality required to remotely monitor the progress of data collection and data processing, which is essential now that automation in cryo-EM allows a steady flow of images of single particles, two-dimensional crystals, or electron tomography data to be recorded in overnight sessions. The rapid detection of any errors that may occur greatly increases the productivity of recording sessions at the electron microscope.

  6. Denoising and covariance estimation of single particle cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Bhamre, Tejal; Zhang, Teng; Singer, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The problem of image restoration in cryo-EM entails correcting for the effects of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) and noise. Popular methods for image restoration include 'phase flipping', which corrects only for the Fourier phases but not amplitudes, and Wiener filtering, which requires the spectral signal to noise ratio. We propose a new image restoration method which we call 'Covariance Wiener Filtering' (CWF). In CWF, the covariance matrix of the projection images is used within the classical Wiener filtering framework for solving the image restoration deconvolution problem. Our estimation procedure for the covariance matrix is new and successfully corrects for the CTF. We demonstrate the efficacy of CWF by applying it to restore both simulated and experimental cryo-EM images. Results with experimental datasets demonstrate that CWF provides a good way to evaluate the particle images and to see what the dataset contains even without 2D classification and averaging.

  7. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  8. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  9. Validation of cryo-EM structure of IP₃R1 channel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stephen C; Flanagan, John; Popova, Olga B; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J; Serysheva, Irina I

    2013-06-04

    About a decade ago, three electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle reconstructions of IP3R1 were reported at low resolution. It was disturbing that these structures bore little similarity to one another, even at the level of quaternary structure. Recently, we published an improved structure of IP3R1 at ∼1 nm resolution. However, this structure did not bear any resemblance to any of the three previously published structures, leading to the question of why the structure should be considered more reliable than the original three. Here, we apply several methods, including class-average/map comparisons, tilt-pair validation, and use of multiple refinement software packages, to give strong evidence for the reliability of our recent structure. The map resolution and feature resolvability are assessed with the gold standard criterion. This approach is generally applicable to assessing the validity of cryo-EM maps of other molecular machines.

  10. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  11. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  12. [Function analysis of the effective strain Rhodococcus ruber Em1 in wastewater treatment system by quantitative competitive PCR].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Li, Xi-wu; Li, Xu-dong; Liu, Shuang-jiang; Liu, Zhi-pei; Tan, Zhou-liang

    2007-04-01

    A quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) system was developed to quantify the number and analyze the function of the Rhodococcus ruber Em1 strain in a wastewater treatment system in Nanchong oil refinery plant. Strain Em1 was able to degrade various kinds of hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds with high efficiency and produce bioemulsifier, so it was introduced into the waste liquid petroleum-disposing system. The sediment samples were collected from the disposing system in the range of 5 months, and then the numbers of strain Eml and degrading efficiencies were studied. The results showed that the primers based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Em1 were specific at species level. The PCR products amplified from sediment total DNA with the specific primers were cloned and sequenced, in which 62.2% were the fragments of 16S rRNA gene of strain Em1. Furthermore, the number of Em1 strain ranging from 3.4 x 10(5) - 4.3 x 10(8) CFU/g in the sediment samples were detected, which indicated that the strain Eml added into purposely did exist stably and reproduced well in the waste-deposing system during a long period. The high relativity, with relative coefficient R2 of 0.89, between Eml cell number and the amount of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal proved that the strain Em1 played an important role in this bio-augmentation treatment system.

  13. Process Study of Oceanic Responses to Typhoons Using Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings Ren-Chieh Lien Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington...Long-term observations of atmospheric forcing and upper oceanic conditions were made by moorings in the western Pacific Ocean, in collaboration with...of ITOP), subsurface temperature measurements on the moorings were transmitted via Iridium satellite, and one upward-looking 75-kHz Long Ranger ADCP

  14. Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM61 MK2 Vehicle-Towed Array for Wide Area Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    years old whereas other portions were only designed to survive a single 2002 APG fielding, the system is best operated by its inventors . Through...check, cleaning air filters, and greasing the axles of the tow platform. Major unforeseen problems included persistent jamming of our GPS base-to-radio...coils are deployed on their native wheels ). Although the system is capable of using EM61 upper coils and employing the “D” setting on the electronics

  15. Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband EM Sensor for UXO Detection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    chose to use a MOTU audio signal processing system that ESS already had on hand. This system provides 24 ADC channels and 24 DAC channels, and...processing system with a PC and the MOTU digital audio unit (left). Photograph of the MOTU digital audio unit and signal cables that connect to the...resistance COTS Commercial-Off-The-Shelf DAC Digital to Analog Converter DC Direct Current DSP Digital Signal Processor EM Electromagnetic EMI

  16. Improved EM Tactical Applications through UAS-Enhanced High-Resolution Mesoscale Data Assimilation and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    transition the prototype end-to-end (observation to tactical decision aid ( TDA )) demonstration system. All meteorological inputs to the demonstration...developed NAVDAS (including aircraft data assimilation), COAMPS, adjoint, and EM TDA technologies to produce a UAS-enabled, integrated, and...enhance synergistic development of UAS-based TDAs . Six specific technologies that will be developed, tested, and integrated in this project are i

  17. Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    nitric acid (HNO3 at 1:1 with deionized H2O). Solu- tions were then filtered and stored in vials. Chloride content analysis was performed using ion...ER D C SR -1 3- 1 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81 En gi ne er...at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC SR-13-1 February 2013 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the

  18. Remedial investigation Phase 2 supplemental work plan for the Hanford Site 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 1100 Area, the central warehousing, vehicle maintenance, and transportation operations center for the Hanford Site, was designated an (NPL) National Priorities List site in July 1989. This NPL site was divided into four operable units, and the first equipment maintenance operable unit, 1100-EM-1, was assigned the highest priority. The following summary focuses on the major issues related to contaminant sources, meteorology, surface hydrology, geology, pedology, hydrogeology, and ecology. The 110-EM-1 Phase 1 R1 report recommended further investigation at six waste management units assigned to or within the operable unit. 1100-1 (Battery Acid Pit)--an unlined dry sump, or french drain, used for the disposal of waste acid from vehicle batteries; 1100-2 (Paint and solvent Pit)--a former sand and gravel pit subsequently used for the disposal of construction debris and, reportedly, waste paints, thinner, and solvents; 1100-4 (Antifreeze Tank Site)--The site of a former underground storage tank used for the disposal of waste vehicle antifreeze; UN-1100-6 (Discolored Soil Site)--the location of an apparent disposal event onto the ground surface involving a container of organic waste liquids; Horn Rapids Landfill--a solid waste facility used primarily for the disposal of office and construction waste and the burning of classified documents; asbestos, sewage sludge, fly ash, and, potentially, drums of unidentified organic liquids alleged to be disposed at this location; and Ephemeral Pool--the location of 1100 Area parking lot runoff accumulation during infrequent, high-intensity precipitation events. This remedial investigation supplemental work plan details the efforts for final characterization of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit that will provide data to be used for the evaluation of remedial operations in the Phase 3 1100-EM-1 feasibility study. 19 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Motions: Analysis of LatMix -EM-APEX Float Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    observing processes that lead to lateral mixing of water properties. The exploitation of autonomous platforms is a long-term goal. OBJECTIVES...Primary conclusions of the experiment are • EM-APEX float array is a powerful tool in assessing the motion and water properties on small...Goodman. (2015). Submesoscale water -mass spectra in the Sargasso Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 1325-1338. Lien, R.-C. and P. Müller (1992). Normal mode

  20. Sector collapse at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano (Lesser Antilles): numerical simulation and landslide behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Kelfoun, Karim; Fournier, Nicolas; Randrianasolo, Auran

    2012-03-01

    Kick 'em Jenny volcano is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. It lies within a horseshoe-shaped structure open to the west northwest, toward the deep Grenada Basin. A detailed bathymetric survey of the basin slope at Kick 'em Jenny and resulting high-resolution digital elevation model allowed the identification of a major submarine landslide deposit. This deposit is thought to result from a single sector collapse event at Kick 'em Jenny and to be linked to the formation of the horseshoe-shaped structure. We estimated the volume and the leading-edge runout of the landslide to be ca. 4.4 km3 and 14 km, respectively. We modelled a sector collapse event of a proto Kick 'em Jenny volcano using VolcFlow, a finite difference code based on depth-integrated mass and momentum equations. Our models show that the landslide can be simulated by either a Coulomb-type rheology with low basal friction angles (5.5°-6.5°) and a significant internal friction angle (above 17.5°) or, with better results, by a Bingham rheology with low Bingham kinematic viscosity (0 < ν B < 30 m2/s) and high shear strength (130 < γ ≤ 180 m2/s2). The models and the short runout distance suggest that the landslide travelled as a stiff cohesive flow affected by minimal granular disaggregation and slumping on a non-lubricated surface. The main submarine landslide deposit can therefore be considered as a submarine mass slide deposit that behaved like a slump.

  1. Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Zhu, Hongtu; Tang, Niansheng

    2008-12-01

    We consider novel methods for the computation of model selection criteria in missing-data problems based on the output of the EM algorithm. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving incomplete data within an EM framework, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Toward this goal, we develop a class of information criteria for missing-data problems, called IC(H) (,) (Q), which yields the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion as special cases. The computation of IC(H) (,) (Q) requires an analytic approximation to a complicated function, called the H-function, along with output from the EM algorithm used in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. The approximation to the H-function leads to a large class of information criteria, called IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q). Theoretical properties of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q), including consistency, are investigated in detail. To eliminate the analytic approximation to the H-function, a computationally simpler approximation to IC(H) (,) (Q), called IC(Q), is proposed, the computation of which depends solely on the Q-function of the EM algorithm. Advantages and disadvantages of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q) and IC(Q) are discussed and examined in detail in the context of missing-data problems. Extensive simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the small-sample and large-sample performance of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q) and IC(Q) in missing-data problems. An AIDS data set also is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  2. The development of a water rescue unit in an urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Weiss, L D; McCaughan, R J; Paris, P M; Kennedy, R A

    1989-08-01

    A river rescue unit was developed in Pittsburgh in March 1986. From its time of inception through December 31, 1987, the unit responded 572 times (325 times in 1987); this included 144 medical calls. Many of the other calls were police related, false alarms, routine patrols, or public service calls. We present a description of the service, type of training necessary, costs involved, and administrative aspects of running a marine emergency medical services system and its integration into an urban EMS system.

  3. Investigation of Electromagnetic Signatures of a FPGA Using an APREL EM-ISIGHT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    signature. Every part emits a unique EM signature similar to that of a human fingerprint . The same types of parts will have similar signatures, but with...DNA) fingerprinting is a new way to identify embedded ICs through the collection of unintentional RF emissions (Cobb et al., 2010). This leaked...fabrication practices that create a unique fingerprint for each device. Extreme variations can be linked to a process defect, a counterfeit device, or

  4. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-05-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  5. Comments on the New Tesla Electromagnetics. Part I. Discrepancies in Present EM Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    new "superrelativity" to describe the expanded electromagnetic reality uncovered by Nikola Tesla . (14) "Charge" is assumed to be quantized, in addition...California, 94030, 1980. The present electromagnetics is just a special case of a much more fundamental electromagnetics discovered by Nikola Tesla , just...AD-RI27 574 COMMENTS ON THE NEW TESLA ELECTROMAGNET ICS PART I L/i DISCREPANCIES IN PRESENT EM THEORY(U) BEARDEN (THOMAS E) HUNTSVILLE AL T E BEARDEN

  6. The Effect of Ambulance Staffing Models in a Metropolitan, Fire-Based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eric J; Panchal, Ashish R; Davis, James E; Keseg, David P

    2017-01-18

    Introduction The staffing of ambulances with different levels of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers is a difficult decision with evidence being mixed on the benefit of each model. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to describe a pilot program evaluating alternative staffing on two ambulances utilizing the paramedic-basic (PB) model (staffed with one paramedic and one emergency medical technician[EMT]).

  7. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  8. Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map

    PubMed Central

    Hryc, Corey F.; Chen, Dong-Hua; Afonine, Pavel V.; Jakana, Joanita; Wang, Zhao; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Jiang, Wen; Adams, Paul D.; King, Jonathan A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2017-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages. PMID:28270620

  9. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  10. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965-1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-03-21

    The 1965-1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart's law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities.

  11. Direct electron detection yields cryo-EM reconstructions at resolutions beyond ¾ Nyquist frequency

    PubMed Central

    Bammes, Benjamin E.; Rochat, Ryan H.; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2012-01-01

    One limitation in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is the inability to recover high-resolution signal from the image-recording media at the full-resolution limit of the transmission electron microscope. Direct electron detection using CMOS-based sensors for digitally recording images has the potential to alleviate this shortcoming. Here, we report a practical performance evaluation of a Direct Detection Device (DDD) for biological cryo-EM at two different microscope voltages: 200 and 300 kV. Our DDD images of amorphous and graphitized carbon show strong per-pixel contrast with image resolution near the theoretical sampling limit of the data. Single-particle reconstructions of two frozen-hydrated bacteriophages, P22 and ε15, establish that the DDD is capable of recording usable signal for 3-D reconstructions at about 4/5 of the Nyquist frequency, which is a vast improvement over the performance of conventional imaging media. We anticipate the unparalleled performance of this digital recording device will dramatically benefit cryo-EM for routine tomographic and single-particle structural determination of biological specimens. PMID:22285189

  12. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  13. Modeling Beta-Traces for Beta-Barrels from Cryo-EM Density Maps.

    PubMed

    Si, Dong; He, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has produced density maps of various resolutions. Although α-helices can be detected from density maps at 5-8 Å resolutions, β-strands are challenging to detect at such density maps due to close-spacing of β-strands. The variety of shapes of β-sheets adds the complexity of β-strands detection from density maps. We propose a new approach to model traces of β-strands for β-barrel density regions that are extracted from cryo-EM density maps. In the test containing eight β-barrels extracted from experimental cryo-EM density maps at 5.5 Å-8.25 Å resolution, StrandRoller detected about 74.26% of the amino acids in the β-strands with an overall 2.05 Å 2-way distance between the detected β-traces and the observed ones, if the best of the fifteen detection cases is considered.

  14. Stability analysis, modeling, simulation and experimental testing of an EMS Maglev system with structural flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Aravind M.

    Vehicle-guideway interaction studies of Magnetically Levitated (Maglev) vehicles indicate that structural flexibility can adversely affect the overall stability and performance of such systems. This is one of the reasons why guideways are generally made very rigid. This in turn leads to increased cost of the overall system since guideway construction forms a significant portion of the overall cost. In this dissertation, the influence of structural flexibility on the stability of Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev systems is studied. It is shown how inherently unstable and flexible structure EMS Maglev systems can achieve guaranteed stability by using collocated actuators and sensors, along with de-centralized Proportional plus Derivative (PD) controllers. These results are valid even in the presence of Track/Guideway flexibility. A detailed dynamic model is developed for the EMS Maglev demonstration system (Test Bogie) currently under research and development at Old Dominion University (ODU). This model incorporates structural dynamics with flexible modes of vibration, non-linear electrodynamics, feedback controllers, discrete time implementation, noise filters and disturbance inputs. This model is validated via real time experimental testing. The model thus validated is used for simulation case studies involving levitation and lateral disturbance, lateral control, and centralized control.

  15. In vitro susceptibilities in lymphocytes from mothers and cord blood to the monofunctional alkylating agent EMS.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, N P; Falque-Gonzalez, C; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Whitelaw, D; Knudsen, L E; Anderson, D

    2007-03-01

    It has been reported that children may experience different levels of chemical exposures than adults and that their sensitivities to chemical toxins may be increased or decreased when compared to adults. The perinatal period is one period in which these susceptibilities may be examined. Midwives at the Bradford Royal Infirmary collected venous blood samples from mothers at the time of birth and venous cord blood post-delivery. Lymphocytes were isolated from both blood types and examined in the alkaline comet assay using the monofunctional alkylating agent ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). There were no biologically significant differences when subjects were categorized into subgroups based on lifestyle habits and physical characteristics, and overall there were no statistically significant differences in levels of DNA damage in mothers (n=22) and babies (n=22), except at the basal level (P<0.05), but mean values in babies were always lower over the EMS dose range. Whole blood was used in the micronucleus (MN) assay, and there was a significantly (P<0.05) higher rate of MN in mothers (n=17), per 1000 binucleates, as compared with lymphocytes from their offspring (n=17) at the basal level. This may be accounted for by age and endogenous factors. Overall, this current study cannot provide statistically significant evidence that children have either increased or decreased levels of susceptibility to a chemical toxin in comparison to adults when EMS is examined in vitro.

  16. Cryo-EM: A Unique Tool for the Visualization of Macromolecular Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an expanding structural biology technique that has recently undergone a quantum leap progression in its achievable resolution and its applicability to the study of challenging biological systems. Because crystallization is not required, only small amounts of sample are needed, and, because images can be classified in a computer, the technique has the potential to deal with compositional and conformational mixtures. Therefore, cryo-EM can be used to investigate complete and fully functional macromolecular complexes in different functional states, providing a richness of biological insight. In this review we underlie some of the principles behind the cryo-EM methodology of single particle analysis and discuss some recent results of its application to challenging systems of paramount biological importance. We place special emphasis on new methodological developments that are leading to an explosion of new studies, many of which are reaching resolutions that could only be dreamed of only a couple of years ago. PMID:26000851

  17. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-03-01

    The 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart’s law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities.

  18. Fast approximate EM induction modeling of metallic and UXO targets using a permeable prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asten, Michael W.; Duncan, Andrew C.

    2007-03-01

    The time-domain EM induction response of non-magnetic and magnetic targets can be approximated using a conductive permeable prism composed of six faces of conductive plates, each face being composed of a set of conductive ribbons. The effect of magnetic permeability is included by the use of two "apparent flux gathering" coefficients, and two "effective magnetic permeability" coefficients, in the axial and transverse directions. These four magnetic property coefficients are a function of physical properties and geometry of the target, but are independent of prism orientation relative to a transmitter. The approximation algorithm is computationally fast, allowing inversions for target parameters to be achieved in seconds. The model is tested on profiles acquired with a Geonics EM63 time-domain EM metal detector over a non-magnetic copper pipe target, and a steel artillery shell in horizontal and vertical orientations. Results show that this approximation to a permeable prism has a capability of fitting geometric, conductivity and magnetic parameters at both early and late sample times. The magnetic parameters show strong change from early to late times on the EMI decay curve, indicating that the magnetic properties of the target have non-linear characteristics. It is proposed that these magnetic parameters and the nature of their non-linearity may carry additional discrimination information for distinguishing between intact munitions and scrap in UXO studies.

  19. Accelerated cryo-EM structure determination with parallelisation using GPUs in RELION-2

    PubMed Central

    Kimanius, Dari; Forsberg, Björn O; Scheres, Sjors HW; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    By reaching near-atomic resolution for a wide range of specimens, single-particle cryo-EM structure determination is transforming structural biology. However, the necessary calculations come at large computational costs, which has introduced a bottleneck that is currently limiting throughput and the development of new methods. Here, we present an implementation of the RELION image processing software that uses graphics processors (GPUs) to address the most computationally intensive steps of its cryo-EM structure determination workflow. Both image classification and high-resolution refinement have been accelerated more than an order-of-magnitude, and template-based particle selection has been accelerated well over two orders-of-magnitude on desktop hardware. Memory requirements on GPUs have been reduced to fit widely available hardware, and we show that the use of single precision arithmetic does not adversely affect results. This enables high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination in a matter of days on a single workstation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18722.001 PMID:27845625

  20. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart’s law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities. PMID:28322263