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Sample records for substance abuse findings

  1. Finding the common ground: contemporary psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Debra; Gellman, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment are healing long-standing rifts that had kept these two fields apart. This article elaborates the historical positions that contributed to the schism and describes how the harm reduction model of substance abuse treatment and the relational orientation in psychoanalysis can bring them together. Three clinical examples illustrate how integrating these methods can offer an approach that is effective and comprehensive.

  2. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  3. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  4. Volatile Substance Abuse: A Review of Findings in ESPAD 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Volatile substance abuse (VSA) is an under-recognized worldwide problem. Data, especially international comparisons, are limited. The 2005 ESPAD report published data on VSA from 35 countries, collected in 2003. Lifetime prevalence of VSA can be as high as 22%, with little difference between boys and girls in most countries. Perceived risk of VSA…

  5. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  6. Variables Associated with Therapy Attendance in Runaway Substance Abusing Youth: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    SLESNICK, NATASHA

    2008-01-01

    Service providers and researchers note that youth with substance abuse problems are difficult to engage in treatment and, when engaged, often drop out early. Estimates of the alcohol and drug abuse rate of runaway youth range from 70% to 95%. This study evaluated predictors of therapy attendance in a sample of substance abusing youth recruited through two southwestern runaway shelters. Runaway youth and their families (N = 36) were engaged into a 15-session ecologically-based family therapy (EBFT) intervention. Fewer days between the pretreatment assessment and the first therapy session, as well as less perceived parental care, predicted more therapy sessions attended. No relationship was found between level of substance use and treatment attendance. The findings highlight the importance of engaging families in therapy soon after the youth’s arrival to the shelter, as treatment motivation may decrease as the crisis lessens. PMID:18596885

  7. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  8. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  9. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse/Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Substance Abuse/Use How Are Alcohol and Drug Use Related ... or transmitting HIV is to stop using drugs . Substance abuse treatment programs can help you do this. Many ...

  10. Intervention for homeless, substance abusing mothers: findings from a non-randomized pilot.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Little empirically-based information is available regarding how best to intervene with substance-abusing homeless mothers. This study pilot-tested a comprehensive intervention with 15 homeless women and their 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from a local family shelter. All participants were offered integrated intervention with three major components. The first component was housing which included 3 months of rental and utility assistance, and these services were not contingent upon women's abstinence from drugs or alcohol. The second and third components included 6 months of case management services and an evidence-based substance abuse treatment (Community Reinforcement Approach; CRA). Analysis revealed that women showed reductions in substance use (F(2,22) = 3.63; p < .05), homelessness (F(2,24) = 25.31; p < .001), and mental health problems (F(2,20) = 8.5; p < .01). Further, women reported reduced internalizing (F(2,22) = 4.08; p < .05) and externalizing problems (F(2,24) = 7.7; p = .01) among their children. The findings suggest that the intervention is a promising approach to meet the multiple needs of this vulnerable population. These positive outcomes support the need for future research to replicate the findings with a larger sample using a randomized design.

  11. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  12. Finding the "Meaning" of Native American Substance Abuse: Implications for Community Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Jill

    1983-01-01

    Provides one possible meaning for Native American chemical use by exploring the factors that create its context. Explores the implications that follow for the area of substance abuse prevention. Outlines the appropriate components of a prevention program. (RC)

  13. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  14. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  15. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  16. Losing Faith and Finding Religion: Religiosity over the life course and substance use and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana

    2014-01-01

    Background Religion has only come into the light of scientific inquiry as a factor influencing health and behavior in the last few decades. While religiosity is a protective factor for contemporaneous substance misuse, the relationship between longitudinal changes in religiosity and substance use outcomes is understudied. Methods Using data from the National Comorbidity Study–Replication (N=6203), we examined how changes in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are related to use and abuse/dependence of licit (alcohol and tobacco) and illicit drugs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for potential confounders including demographic characteristics, familial disruption during childhood, and comorbid major depression. Results Religiosity was inversely associated with use and misuse of both licit and illicit substances, however this relationship varied by level of childhood religiosity. Relative to stable levels of religiosity from childhood to adulthood, a 2-unit decrease in religiosity from childhood was associated with increased likelihood of illicit drug use in the past year (Odds ratio (OR):2.43, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.39–4.25). However, a 2-unit increase in religiosity was also associated with past-year illicit drug use (OR:1.85, 95% CI:1.09–3.13). Comparable associations were found with a range of recent and lifetime measures of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. Conclusions Substantial gains or losses in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are associated with substance use and misuse. Findings support the use of a life course approach to understanding the relationship between religiosity and substance use outcomes. PMID:24457044

  17. Losing faith and finding religion: religiosity over the life course and substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Moscati, Arden; Mezuk, Briana

    2014-03-01

    Religion has only come into the light of scientific inquiry as a factor influencing health and behavior in the last few decades. While religiosity is a protective factor for contemporaneous substance misuse, the relationship between longitudinal changes in religiosity and substance use outcomes is understudied. Using data from the National Comorbidity Study - Replication (N=6203), we examined how changes in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are related to use and abuse/dependence of licit (alcohol and tobacco) and illicit drugs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for potential confounders including demographic characteristics, familial disruption during childhood, and comorbid major depression. Religiosity was inversely associated with use and misuse of both licit and illicit substances; however this relationship varied by level of childhood religiosity. Relative to stable levels of religiosity from childhood to adulthood, a 2-unit decrease in religiosity from childhood was associated with increased likelihood of illicit drug use in the past year (odds ratio (OR): 2.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-4.25). However, a 2-unit increase in religiosity was also associated with past-year illicit drug use (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.09-3.13). Comparable associations were found with a range of recent and lifetime measures of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. Substantial gains or losses in religiosity from childhood to adulthood are associated with substance use and misuse. Findings support the use of a life course approach to understanding the relationship between religiosity and substance use outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL...PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0074 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Lisa M...Board, Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2011-pres. Editorial Board, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2014-pres

  19. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    W81XWH1020074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Najavits, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...1 August 2011 – 31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10...months as we then dropped Fort Jackson as a site due 6 to a change in our site PI’s role there (no longer having oversight of the substance abuse

  20. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  1. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  2. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  3. Schizophrenia and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Hucker, S

    1994-07-01

    Recent research from North America has demonstrated higher than expected rates of drug and alcohol abuse among the seriously mentally ill. Schizophrenics appear to be particularly susceptible to the negative effects of substance abuse. These include psychiatric and social complications, with antisocial behaviour, particularly violence emerging as one of the most worrying features. This review examines the strength of the association and explores the possible explanations for the apparent link between schizophrenia, substance abuse and violence. The literature was searched using Medline, supplemented with a manual literature search. Very few articles specifically approached the problem of violence among substance abusing schizophrenics, but over 80 papers were identified which were helpful in exploring the link between dangerous behaviour and substance abuse by schizophrenics. While there is circumstantial evidence to support the hypothesis that schizophrenics who abuse drugs or alcohol are at an increased risk of behaving violently, longitudinal studies are required to facilitate a better understanding of the mediating mechanisms.

  4. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  7. Psychosocial Mediators of the Impact of Acculturation on Substance Abuse among Hispanic Youth: Findings from the Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Crandall, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate factors that are associated with differences in substance abuse between non-acculturated and acculturated Hispanic youth. We employed t-test and logistic regression to analyze self-reported survey data from 8,200 self-described Hispanic students. The outcome variable was past 30-day use of…

  8. Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Mary Ellen, Ed.; Straw, Richard S., Ed.

    This report presents methodology and findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, which surveyed about 7,600 adult and juvenile correctional facilities to identify those that provide on-site substance abuse treatment to their inmates or residents. The survey assesses substance abuse treatment provided…

  9. An HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment: pilot study findings.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Burlew, A Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-05-01

    We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele.

  10. A cross-sectional examination of medicinal substance abuse and use of nonmedicinal substances among Canadian youth: findings from the 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Leos-Toro, Cesar; Hammond, David; Manske, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal substance abuse is prevalent in Canada; however, little is known about patterns of abuse among young people. In this study, we sought to characterize the abuse of medicinal substances, such as prescription medications and selected over-the-counter substances, as well as that of licit and illicit nonmedicinal substances, using a nationally representative sample of young people. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data for children in grades 7-12 were obtained from Health Canada's 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n = 38 667). Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to examine subgroup differences in medicinal substance abuse and comorbid abuse of both medicinal and nonmedicinal substances. Results: About 5% of youth reported abusing medicinal substances in the previous year. Dextromethorphan, a substance found in many cough and cold syrups, was the most widely abused (2.9%), followed by pain medications (2.6%), sleeping medications (1.8%), stimulants (1.7%) and sedatives (1.0%). Abuse of nonmedicinal substances aside from tobacco and alcohol was reported by 21.3% of the population, and abuse of any substances was detected in 23.0% of the surveyed population. Girls at each grade level reported higher rates of abuse of medicinal substances than boys. Regional differences were seen with regard to the types of substances abused across Canada. Interpretation: A substantial minority of Canadian youth report abusing medicinal substances, including over-the-counter medications (e.g., cough syrup) and prescriptions medications (e.g., pain medication). In contrast to nonmedicinal substances, girls were more likely than boys to report abuse of medicinal substances. PMID:27570758

  11. THE MOTHERS AND TODDLERS PROGRAM: Preliminary Findings From an Attachment-Based Parenting Intervention for Substance-Abusing Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Suchman, Nancy; DeCoste, Cindy; Castiglioni, Nicole; Legow, Nancy; Mayes, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined pilot data from an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers of toddlers (ages 12–36 months). The Mothers and Toddlers Program (MTP) is a 20-week individual therapy intervention that aims to help mothers develop more balanced representations of their children and improve their capacity for reflective functioning (i.e., recognition of the intentional nature of children’s behavior). The authors hypothesized that improvement in maternal representational balance and maternal capacity for reflective functioning would correspond with improvements in maternal behavior with toddlers (e.g., sensitivity to cues, responsiveness to distress, and social–emotional growth fostering) and reduction in maternal psychiatric distress and substance abuse. Eight mothers who completed MTP showed moderate improvements in representational balance and reflective functioning, and these changes corresponded with significant improvements in maternal behaviors with toddlers. The authors also compared MTP completers and noncompleters on sociodemographic and psychosocial indexes and examined the validity of the intervention’s proposed mechanisms of change. Preliminary findings support the importance of attachment mechanisms and indicate that attachment-based interventions may strengthen substance-abusing mothers’ capacities to foster their toddlers’ socioemotional development. PMID:20057923

  12. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  13. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  15. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  16. Etiology of Substance Use Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Emerging Findings from the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E., Ed.; Vanyukov, Michael M., Ed.

    The mission of the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR) is to delineate the etiology of Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Biobehavioral processes and environmental factors are comprehensively assessed prior to first exposure to alcohol and drugs, and subsequently during the period of substance use behavior leading ultimately to a…

  17. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone number Apply Clear Cancel Show per page Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Emergency Mental Health Services All / ... Reverse   Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders   Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) ...

  18. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative.

    PubMed

    Myers, B; Petersen Williams, P; Johnson, K; Govender, R; Manderscheid, R; Koch, J R

    2017-01-30

    A performance measurement system - the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative - has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA)'s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63). In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df)=3.70), p=0.015), awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001), leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001), resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001), openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001), and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE) 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001) and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001) were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  19. Characteristics of Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare: Findings from the Evaluation of CASAWORKS for Families Pilot Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Marjorie A.; Ketterlinus, Robert D.; McLellan, A. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To describe and compare the characteristics and needs of substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) who enroll in a multi-service "welfare to work" program (n = 673) with two other relevant groups: (a) women from the general TANF population in the same locales (n = 157) and (b) a sample of…

  20. Preliminary findings on the association between clients' perceived helpfulness of substance abuse treatment and outcomes: does race matter?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Sanning, Blair; Litvak, Nicole; Peters, Erica N

    2014-06-01

    Few studies examine the helpfulness and effectiveness of substance abuse treatment from the clients' perspective. The current secondary analysis examined the perceived helpfulness of substance abuse treatment components and its relationship to treatment outcomes among 387 Black and White adults participating in a multisite randomized clinical trial (RCT) of Motivational Enhancement Therapy. Throughout the 16-week RCT, participants self-reported substance use. Upon completion of treatment, participants completed a self-report measure assessing the perceived helpfulness of treatment components. Black participants rated 9 out of 12 treatment components (e.g., "learning skills that will help me cope with my problems") as being more helpful than their White counterparts, even after controlling for age, gender, employment status, primary drug type, and treatment assignment. However, perceived helpfulness ratings were not associated with substance use outcomes among Black or White participants. Clients' perceived helpfulness of treatment components is an important factor to consider in improving the delivery of substance abuse treatment, especially for Black adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Findings on the Association Between Clients’ Perceived Helpfulness of Substance Abuse Treatment and Outcomes: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Sanning, Blair; Litvak, Nicole; Peters, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies examine the helpfulness and effectiveness of substance abuse treatment from the clients’ perspective. METHODS The current secondary analysis examined the perceived helpfulness of substance abuse treatment components and its relationship to treatment outcomes among 387 Black and White adults participating in a multisite randomized clinical trial (RCT) of Motivational Enhancement Therapy. Throughout the 16-week RCT, participants self-reported substance use. Upon completion of treatment, participants completed a self-report measure assessing the perceived helpfulness of treatment components. RESULTS Black participants rated 9 out of 12 treatment components (e.g., “learning skills that will help me cope with my problems”) as being more helpful than their White counterparts, even after controlling for age, gender, employment status, primary drug type, and treatment assignment. However, perceived helpfulness ratings were not associated with substance use outcomes among Black or White participants. CONCLUSIONS Clients’ perceived helpfulness of treatment components is an important factor to consider in improving the delivery of substance abuse treatment, especially for Black adults. PMID:24767892

  2. Trends in volatile substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substance abuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substance abuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substance abuse and population density, with volatile substance abuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substance abuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substance abuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases.

  3. Pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) decreases the risk for substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal follow-up of youths with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a previously published longitudinal follow-up of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reanalyzed to determine the extent to which pharmacotherapy for ADHD is associated with substance use disorders, including abuse and dependence. Using naturalistic data from 140 people with ADHD and 120 controls, researchers returned to previously accumulated data to determine whether exposure to stimulant therapy had increased rates of substance use disorder among ADHD patients. Findings included confirmation that, in fact, stimulant therapy protected medicated ADHD patients against substance use disorder, which occurred at rates that were 3 to 4 times greater among people with untreated ADHD.

  4. Intergenerational patterns of substance abuse among urban American Indian families.

    PubMed

    Myhra, Laurelle L; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a family problem in American Indian (AI) families. This article highlights findings from a two generation study on substance abuse among nine AI families. Five common themes shared by the parent and adult child groups included early onset of substance abuse, minimization of substance abuse (and a subtheme of efforts to control use), taking accountability for substance abuse (and a subtheme about perpetuated stereotypes), turning point moments in use (and a subtheme of negotiating and exploring sobriety), and perceptions of the abstinence only approach. Clinical implications are discussed in light of the findings.

  5. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  7. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  8. Partner violence and substance abuse are intertwined: women's perceptions of violence-substance connections.

    PubMed

    Macy, Rebecca J; Renz, Connie; Pelino, Emily

    2013-07-01

    Research shows that co-occurring partner violence and substance abuse are problems for many women. However, less is known about women's varied experiences with partner violence and substance abuse. This exploratory, qualitative study investigates these two issues among a sample of 15 women in substance abuse treatment who experienced partner violence. Overall, findings show participants' experience of violence-substance connections varied in important ways; complicating factors exacerbate both problems; and domestic violence services and substance abuse treatments should account for these variations and complications. We discuss directions for providers, researchers, and policymakers concerned with partner violence or substance abuse.

  9. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717

  10. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some people misuse ... cancer. It also makes many diseases, such as diabetes, more complicated and disabling. How Common are Drug ...

  11. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse. PMID:27867242

  12. Substance Abuse Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following substances have you ever used? (NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY) Tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants, inhalants, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens, opioids, and ¿ ...

  13. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932

  14. Issues in the Treatment of Antisocial Adolescent Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…

  15. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  16. Prenatal substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Gittler, J; McPherson, M

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, there was an alarming rise in the number of drug-exposed newborns that was directly attributable to the rise in the abuse of cocaine and its highly addictive smokeable derivative, known as crack, by pregnant women. "Crack babies" have now become a major national problem.

  17. Childhood abuse and harmful substance use among criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Conner, Kenneth R; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use. PMID:21872997

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment for Adolescents in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Van Gerpen, Shawn; Vik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In the state of South Dakota, there are 39 accredited substance abuse providers who service over 11,000 individuals each year. Knowledge of which substance abuse providers are accredited is important for families looking to find financially affordable substance abuse treatment/care for their loved ones. In order to begin the process of entry into a substance abuse treatment program, an adolescent must first complete a needs assessment with one of the accredited providers. The needs assessment will help to identify the severity of the substance use disorder as well as identify the appropriate level of treatment/care for the individual. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  20. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L.; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7–8 million people in the US with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID. PMID:22502840

  1. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.

  2. Substance abuse by men in partner abuse intervention programs: current issues and promising trends.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Larry W

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses key studies linking intervention for co-occurring substance abuse and partner abuse. Findings are grouped into three areas: (a) the effect of addictions treatment on partner violence; (b) application of transtheoretical, motivational, and culturally focused approaches to improve engagement and prevent attrition; and (c) assessment-based matching of services. Finally, the relative value of serial, coordinated, and integrated substance abuse programs and partner abuse intervention programs are considered. We reached three primary conclusions: (a) Addiction treatment alone reduces the risk for future domestic violence in a subset of men who batter, (b) screening and assessment for substance abuse by all men in partner abuse intervention programs is a standard of practice but needs to extend beyond "intake" and occur periodically, and (c) coordinated and integrated substance abuse and domestic violence programs probably offer more safety than traditional serial substance abuse treatment followed by partner abuse intervention.

  3. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...

  4. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  5. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  6. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  7. Breastfeeding and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding method for infants. The decision to allow women to breastfeed while consuming alcohol and other drugs postpartum presents a problem for the health care provider. This article discusses the biochemical properties of various drugs as they relate to breastfeeding. Women in a methadone treatment program should be allowed to breast feed; however, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of breastfeeding when women are receiving buprenorphine. Breastfeeding should not be recommended in women who abuse heroin recreationally until more information is known about the actual amount of morphine present in the breast milk.

  8. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…

  9. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ronald

    2010-03-05

    The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes. These findings call for more extensive

  10. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  11. Shoveling Up: The Impact of Substance Abuse on State Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents findings of a 3-year analysis conducted on the impact of substance abuse on state budgets. An advisory panel of public officials, researchers, and financial experts was convened to provide guidance. They conducted an extensive review of articles and publications linking substance abuse to public spending. Several studies were…

  12. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  13. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  14. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substance abuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substance abusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented. PMID:20532120

  15. TR's Role in Treating Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is important in treating substance abuse problems. It addresses attitudes and behaviors leading to substance abuse (inability to experience pleasure or control). It encourages participation in activities that help abusers cope and obtain enjoyable states, reducing reliance on drugs. The article discusses the theory of flow…

  16. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  17. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  18. Substance abuse and oral health: an overview.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially with new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abused drugs do have oral health complications. For this reason, it is important for dentists to have a thorough knowledge of the oral environment to be able to detect any abnormalities, regardless of what the underlying cause may be. Due to the nature of illicit substance abuse, reliable information and science is hard to come by. This overview will focus on the direct consequences for oral health, whilst acknowledging that substance abuse may also have direct and indirect influences on general health.

  19. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  20. Cognitive impairment in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vik, Peter W; Cellucci, Tony; Jarchow, Amy; Hedt, Jill

    2004-03-01

    Conventional wisdom, and even well-reasoned theoretical mechanisms, suggests that the chronic use of psychoactive substances would impair cognitive functioning of individuals. This article summarizes the research literature with regard to specific drugs of abuse. Undoubtedly, acute intoxication and immediate and protracted withdrawal produce transient alterations of cognitions that can persist for weeks to months. Some subtle residual effects remain for up to 1 year for certain drugs. Evidence of irreversible effects is less clear. Even subtle lingering effects can impact treatment efforts, yet they often go undetected or unaddressed.

  1. Early Maladaptive Schemas of Substance Abusers and their Intimate Partners

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple’s functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492

  2. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  3. Analytical aspects of volatile substance abuse (VSA).

    PubMed

    Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Tonnay, Véronique; Faict, Thierry; Sayer, Hervé; Marquet, Pierre; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2003-07-01

    Through a case report, the authors illustrate the volatile substance abuse (VSA) toxicological investigation difficulties mainly due to evaporation of the compounds from postmortem samples and to the lack of reference data for interpretation. A 17-year-old man, student in a chemistry institute, was found dead with a plastic bag placed over his head. Several chemical substances were found in his belongings. Autopsy findings included serious pulmonary lesions and hemorrhagic digestive ulcerations. A large screening of drugs and toxic compounds and selective analyses for several classes of drugs of abuse were carried out in the autopsy samples. In particular, a headspace (HS), -gas chromatography/-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to screen for volatile substances and metabolites in the biological samples and for residues of volatile substances on the surface of the plastic bag and in the chemicals found on the scene. The main analytical finding was the presence of alkanes (heptane, methyl-2-pentane, methyl-3-hexane, methylcyclohexane) in the gastric content. The literature data, VSA practices, long time-delay between death and autopsy, preservation conditions of the biological samples before analysis, and in-lab experiments on evaporation of volatile substances were considered to interpret this result. The present fatality was attributed to VSA with a gasoline-based stain remover like "eau écarlate," associated with a hypoxic recreation practice using a plastic bag.

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  5. Utilizing dissemination findings to help understand and bridge the research and practice gap in the treatment of substance abuse disorders in Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Santisteban, Daniel; Vega, Rodolfo R; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    This article focuses on the gap between research and practice in substance abuse treatment, identifies some of the key findings in the technology transfer literature, and discusses their relevance to the adoption of new technology among Hispanic serving agencies and counselors. In organizing the material we present information within the categories of: (1) evidence, (2) context, and (3) facilitation. When considering the "evidence" for empirically supported substance abuse treatments for Hispanics, there is great concern about the shortage of treatments that have been adequately tested with Hispanics. In this article, we analyze the strengths and weaknesses of strategies recommended to address this problem. In terms of the "context" in which evidence-based practices will be implemented, we consider counselor characteristics and organizational structures that may facilitate or hinder the adoption of these practices and discuss how these may impact Hispanic-serving agencies. Finally, the mechanisms necessary for "facilitation" of evidence-based practices in Hispanic-serving agencies are described. Given the dearth of dissemination research with Hispanics, as well as other minorities, each area described in this article presents unique challenges that can benefit from a field-wide discussion.

  6. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  7. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  8. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  9. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  10. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  11. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  12. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  13. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism"…

  14. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  15. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  16. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  17. Teacher Intervention for the Adolescent Substance Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn

    The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…

  18. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  19. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  20. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  1. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  2. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  3. Substance Abuse in Families: Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Rivka

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…

  4. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  5. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  6. Substance Abuse and the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Willard E.

    This guide introduces concerns and problems resulting from the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs among American Indian youth and addresses intergenerational substance abuse effects. Alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives is the most visible effect of their cultural disruption and disorganization. Alcoholism among Native Americans…

  7. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  8. Financing of substance abuse treatment services.

    PubMed

    Horgan, C M; Merrick, E L

    2001-01-01

    The financing of treatment for substance abuse problems has differed from the rest of financing of health care in part because of the dominant role of the public sector as the payer of services. Nonetheless, the rise of managed care has affected substance abuse treatment services as well as the rest of the health care system. Alternative payment mechanisms are one important component of some managed care approaches. Behavioral health carve-outs are another managed care development that has affected substance abuse services. In this chapter, salient features of financing for substance abuse treatment are reviewed within the conceptual framework of payers (purchasers and intermediaries), providers, and consumers. Existing literature on substance abuse treatment financing is summarized, while recognizing that much remains to be researched.

  9. Correlates of having never been HIV tested among entrants to substance abuse treatment clinics: empiric findings from real-world New England settings.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jeanne J; Andrade, Leonardo F; Altice, Frederick L; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Routine testing is the cornerstone to identifying HIV, but not all substance abuse treatment patients have been tested. This study is a real-world evaluation of predictors of having never been HIV tested among patients initiating substance abuse treatment. Participants (N = 614) from six New England clinics were asked whether they had ever been HIV tested. Eighty-five patients (13.8%) reported having never been tested and were compared to those who had undergone testing. Clinic, male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-3.41), and having fewer employment (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11-0.88) and medical problems (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.17-0.99) were independently correlated with having never been HIV tested. Thus, there is still considerable room for improved testing strategies as a clinically significant minority of substance abuse patients have never undergone HIV testing when they initiate treatment.

  10. Substance abuse among reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Brittany B; Rayburn, William F

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse poses significant health risks to reproductive age women in the United States and, for those who become pregnant, to their children. Substance abuse or dependence is defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use marked by recurrent and significant negative consequences related to the repeated use of substances. Alcohol is the most prevalent substance consumed by childbearing-aged women, followed by tobacco and various illicit drugs. Substance use in the preconception period predicts continued but often limited substance use during the prenatal period. Providers must be aware of reproductive age women's unique physiologic, psychological, and social needs and the related legal and ethical ramifications surrounding substance abuse before referral to a community-based multidisciplinary team for often long-term treatment.

  11. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  12. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  13. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  14. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud

    2017-02-01

    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Preventing Substance Abuse: Major Findings from the National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack

    This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…

  16. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W

    2014-05-01

    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  17. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Krim K.; Mouzon, Dawne M.; Govia, Ishtar O.; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M.; Jackson, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. Objectives We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. Methods We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Results Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. Conclusions The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested. PMID:27191862

  18. Identifying the substance abuser in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drugs are used regularly by 14.5 million Americans. By identifying patients who abuse substances, the nurse will be better able to provide for the treatment interventions needed and omit ineffective treatment interventions. The patient will benefit by receiving timely and appropriate care. To identify substance abusers, the nurse must know effects of commonly abused drugs, their routes of administration, withdrawal signs, and the physical assessments that should be performed. The most common drugs abused are narcotics, depressants, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.

  19. Effectiveness of Culturally Specific Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention: Findings from CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Winter, William; Sambrano, Soledad; Chipungu, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the degree to which culturally specific interventions enhance substance abuse prevention effectiveness for targeted cultural groups. A large and diverse (African American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian) sample of 10,500 youth across 48 programs was obtained. Youth participating in culturally specific programming showed…

  20. Pharmacotherapy of dual substance abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Nielsen, Darci M; Mello, Patricia; Schiesl, Alison; Swift, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The US FDA has approved a limited number of treatments for alcohol, nicotine and opioid dependence; however, no treatments for other abused drugs such as marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamine are approved. This review focuses on research into drug pharmacotherapies, particularly single-drug therapies, for substance abuse and dependence contributing to the most important dual substance use disorders (SUDs). Given the implications of poly-substance abuse, it is essential that clinicians and researchers be aware of potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of dual SUDs.A substantial number of patients abuse more than one drug concurrently, complicating the treatment of SUD and leaving clinicians with few FDA-approved drug options for their patients. In this era of evidence-based medicine, such patients are typically treated with therapeutically proven medications, but in ways that are outside the scope of a drug's original indication by the FDA. Such 'off-label' prescribing has become an important therapeutic strategy for practitioners seeking treatments for other diseases in subpopulations such as paediatrics and gerontology or for medical conditions such as oncology or mental illness. Similarly, the information that most clinicians use to make their decisions for treating patients abusing multiple drugs stems from trials treating a single SUD, anecdotal experiences from their own practice or that of their colleagues, or single-case studies reported in the literature. The existing evidence suggests there are few treatments for SUDs that confer significant reductions in substance use across a broad patient population. Moreover, even fewer clinical efficacy trials have been conducted that provide evidence of therapeutic benefit for these drugs. Recognising the difficulty in making the proper drug choice for facilitating maximum treatment success, this review highlights the single drugs or drug combinations that show some potential for treating dual SUDs. This

  1. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  2. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men.

  3. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  4. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  5. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  6. 75 FR 16488 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  7. Counseling Substance-Abusing Older Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, E. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    Substance-abuse problems among older adults, involving alcohol, medications, and illegal drugs may arise from such stress factors as unstructured time, relationships with friends, loss, side effects of medications, and irrational beliefs. (SK)

  8. Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

  9. Client outcomes from rural substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Matthew L; Leukefeld, Carl G; Garrity, Thomas F; Godlaski, Theodore; Schoeneberger, Marlies; Townsend, Michael; Hascal, Karyn

    2007-03-01

    Several national evaluations have been conducted since the late 1960s that have assessed the effectiveness of publicly-funded substance abuse treatment in the United States. These studies, however, have focused principally on urban-based treatment programs, and it is unclear whether findings from urban programs can be replicated in outcome studies of programs in rural areas. The current study, therefore, examined the treatment outcomes of clients admitted to one of several short-term inpatient or outpatient drug-free treatment agencies in rural Kentucky. Findings showed that treatment was associated with reductions in drug use and criminality during a six-month follow-up interval. Employment status also improved significantly, and health services utilization was reduced. The similarity between the current findings and findings from national outcome studies of urban-based treatment programs is discussed.

  10. Women and Substance Abuse. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substance abuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…

  11. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  12. A Community Education Approach to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Alcohol and drug abuse not only affect the individual, but the entire community. No single person or organization alone is capable of, nor responsible for solving the substance abuse problem. It is now important that schools establish partnerships with the community to develop and implement appropriate programs to foster healthy adolescent…

  13. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  14. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  15. Native women, violence, substance abuse and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2005-09-01

    Violence has become a critical public health issue in the United States. It has had a particularly devastating impact on the health and well being of Native American women and children. The relationship between aggression and substance use is an intrinsic one: Native women often bear the brunt of violence in drinking situations, which places them and their children at extremely high risk for physical and sexual abuse. In urban environments, many Native American women find themselves in adult relationships that mirror the abuse they experienced and witnessed as children or adolescents. Not only does violence often occur while substances are being used, but conversely, substance use is a frequent consequence of sexual abuse. Clearly, the mental health repercussions of physical or sexual abuse are often severe. Trauma is associated not only with psychological distress, but also with risky behavior and social role impairment. Traumatized women engaging in substance abuse and unsafe sex are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This article explores the intersection of substance abuse, sexual and physical abuse, and increased HIV risk among urban Native American women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  16. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  17. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  18. Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Schmidt, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…

  19. Substance Abuse and Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitch, Cara J.; Herman, Allen A.

    This bibliography, containing over 1,000 entries from the period 1968 to June, 1991, was compiled to assist in the development of a report to Congress on the impact (both maternal and fetal) of substance abuse on pregnancy. Topics include pregnancy outcome, child health issues, legal and political issues, epidemiological aspects of substance abuse…

  20. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  1. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  2. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine.

  3. Smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment: what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Baca, Catherine Theresa; Yahne, Carolina E

    2009-03-01

    Patients in substance abuse treatment frequently smoke cigarettes and often die of tobacco-related causes. Substance abuse treatment programs too often ignore tobacco use. Many patients have expressed interest in stopping smoking, although they may be ambivalent about smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment. This article provides a review of tobacco cessation literature and successful methods of intervention. Research supports two key findings: (a) smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment does not impair outcome of the presenting substance abuse problem and (b) smoking cessation may actually enhance outcome success. We will discuss how to incorporate smoking cessation.

  4. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  5. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  6. Substance-abusing women: false stereotypes and real needs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M E

    1995-11-01

    Substance-abusing women are a diverse group, but some of them are among the most disadvantaged individuals in the United States. This article reviews and interprets some recent literature on substance abuse problems and treatments among women. Contrary to popular stereotypes, alcohol and drug abuse among women occurs at similar rates among poor and nonpoor people and among white people and people of color. Major risk factors include childhood sexual or physical abuse, adult victimization by domestic violence, and a spouse or partner who abuses substances. Standard treatment programs are based on male processes of recovery, and there are enormous problems of access to treatment for women with minor children. Although most studies have found that white women and women of color use substances during pregnancy at similar rates, women of color are disproportionately tested for drug use and receive more child protective services interventions. The findings discussed in this article indicate that prevention of substance abuse-related problems among women requires more than just education.

  7. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses?

    PubMed

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education.

  8. Adolescents with insomnia and substance abuse: consequences and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Shibley, Heather L; Malcolm, Robert J; Veatch, Lynn M

    2008-05-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sleep disorders and substance abuse, both of which have been associated with deleterious effects on mood, attention, and behavior. This article reviews data on the prevalence of sleep disorders, substance abuse problems, and comorbid psychiatric conditions in the adolescent population. Studies have consistently demonstrated that the prevalence of sleep problems is under-reported in adolescents in both clinical and community samples. The bidirectional correlation between substance use and sleep disturbances is also discussed. Based on the findings presented here, the authors conclude that it is imperative to improve the detection and treatment of sleep problems in children and adolescents. By treating sleep disturbances and targeting poor sleepers with additional counseling and education regarding the risk of substance use, clinicians may be able to prevent or delay the adverse effects of addiction. At the very least, the presence of insomnia should alert clinicians to the need for further evaluation for drug and alcohol abuse.

  9. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  10. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  11. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  12. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  13. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.

  14. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  15. Treating substance abuse: partner and family approaches.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, alcohol and other substance use disorders were viewed as individual-based problems that were most effectively treated by focusing on the diagnosed individual. However, in response to numerous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy (and often superiority) of couple and family treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, this emphasis on treating the individual has slowly given way to a greater awareness of family members' crucial roles in the etiology, maintenance, and long-term course of substance use and addictive behavior. As a result, clinicians are increasingly interested in understanding substance misuse from a systemic perspective and exploring how partner- and family-involved interventions may be used to address individuals' substance abuse.

  16. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  17. Motivation and maltreatment history among youth entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Susan E; Henderson, Joanna L; Muller, Robert T; Goodman, Ilana R

    2012-03-01

    Research has established that maltreatment experiences are common in the life histories of youth with substance abuse problems, and efforts are now moving in the direction of enhancing our understanding of the unique clinical presentations and treatment needs of this population. The current study endeavored to contribute to this body of research by examining associations between experiences of maltreatment and levels of motivation among youth entering outpatient substance abuse treatment. Upon admission, 188 youth (131 males, 57 females) completed a package of self-report questionnaires including measures of motivation to change, motivation for treatment, and history of maltreatment experiences. Results indicated that youth with histories of all forms of maltreatment examined tended to be more aware of the problematic aspects of their substance use, more ready to engage in treatment, more motivated by feelings of shame, and more motivated by external influences. Emotional abuse was the form of maltreatment that predicted level of motivation most strongly. Emotional abuse was particularly strongly associated with the form of motivation reflecting shame regarding substance use, predicting this form of motivation over and above other factors previously reported to be associated with motivation, such as severity of substance abuse and age. While clinicians are increasingly attending to exposure to traumatic events among youth entering substance abuse treatment, these findings suggest that attending to experiences of emotional abuse is also important. Such experiences appear to be related to treatment motivation and may be important to treatment processes and outcomes for these vulnerable youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulant medications among adults in a substance abuse treatment population: early findings from the NAVIPPRO surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Theresa A; McNaughton, Emily C; Varughese, Sajan; Russo, Leo; Zulueta, Mirella; Butler, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    To examine nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription ADHD stimulants among adults evaluated for substance abuse treatment. 147,816 assessments from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) system (10/01/2009 through 03/31/2012) examined NMU prevalence, routes of administration (ROA), and diversion sources. Past 30-day NMU for prescription stimulants (1.29%) was significantly lower than that of prescription opioids (19.79%) or sedatives (10.62%). For stimulant products, NMU for Adderall was 0.62, followed by Adderall XR (0.42), Ritalin (0.16), Vyvanse (0.12), and Concerta (0.08); product differences likely have limited clinical relevance given the low estimates (<1%). Higher NMU per prescriptions was for Adderall (4.92), Ritalin (4.68), and Adderall XR (3.18) compared with newer formulations (Vyvanse 1.26, Concerta 0.89). Diversion source was mainly family/friends with no differences between products; swallowing whole was the most frequent ROA. Prescription stimulant NMU was low compared with other prescription medications among individuals assessed for substance abuse problems, with little difference among specific products. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  19. Schizoid phenomena in substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ralph H

    2002-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the spectrum of schizoid disorders, schizoid phenomena, and the underlying psychodynamics can often be found in the gamut of addictions and stand in the way of recovery. Features of schizoidness, the varieties of schizoid presentations, the etiology and pathogenesis of drug/alcohol abuse in the schizoid, and readily clinically apparent psychodynamic features are discussed. Schizoid phenomena can be dealt with effectively with an informed psychotherapy.

  20. Violence against Native women in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual behavior has rarely been studied in the female Native American population. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, trauma, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual behavior among urban Native women.

  1. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance abuse/addiction and/or mental health problems. PLEASE NOTE: ... and Spanish for individuals and family members facing substance abuse and mental health issues. 24 hours a day, ...

  2. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  3. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  4. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  5. Substance Abuse: The Role of Industrial Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Luther A.; Sexias, Frank A.

    1971-01-01

    This article touches upon industrial medicine's history and its start as primarily one of first aid and its development into a dynamic force for dealing with the entire individual and his wide range of problems. It discusses alcoholism programming and programs which may be developed for other substance abuse. (Author)

  6. Substance Abuse: A Guide for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

    This book is a collection of essays and information representing the experience, perspective, and insight of professionals whose careers have been closely associated with the problem of youthful substance abuse. The first chapter outlines those circumstances that might make it more likely that a young person would experience drug-related…

  7. Physician Substance Abuse: Prevention through Reeducation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kathleen O'Kane; Mazmanian, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    Physicians may be more likely to experience substance abuse problems because of drug availability, difficulty of detection, peer reluctance to address the problem, and lack of regulatory means in state licensing boards and hospitals. Effective identification and treatment require a major change in how the medical profession views and addresses…

  8. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  9. Preventing Substance Abuse: An Elementary School Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsup, Ben; Boundy, Donna; Brown, Jordan; Reisman, David; Rothbart, Betty

    This booklet is designed to be used by teachers in elementary schools with the Public Broadcasting Systems series "Moyers on Addiction: Close to Home." The series explores the science, treatment, prevention, and politics of addiction. This booklet discusses strategies for preventing substance abuse in elementary school. Also examined are…

  10. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  11. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  12. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  13. Substance Abuse among Native-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncher, Michael S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews social epidemiological data on substance abuse among Native American youth and discusses culturally relevant etiological factors. Highlights strategies for identification of high-risk youth, concentrating on theoretical and methodological aspects appropriate for Native American populations. Issues of sensitive technology transfer and…

  14. Counseling Latinos with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael P.; Phan, Loan T.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a combination of approaches based on multicultural interventions and sociopolitical themes that provide interventions for working with Latinos with substance abuse problems. The purpose of the article is to view multimodal interventions, multicultural approaches, and humanistic counseling from a genetic perspective. It is…

  15. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…

  16. Understanding Learning Disabilities and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander

    This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…

  17. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care.

  18. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  19. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  20. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  1. Cognitive Impairment and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Hunter; Ballard, Mary; Kirk, Alan; Montalbano, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive abilities of 24 males at an in-patient substance abuse facility were assessed using the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat). Findings suggested that there were significant changes in cognitive functioning during the 21-day in-patient treatment as measured by the Cognistat. Implications for mental health…

  2. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  3. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  4. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  5. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for... substance abuse expert. The NRC received one comment during the public comment period (ADAMS Accession...

  6. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  7. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  8. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  9. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  10. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...

  11. Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: A Health Maintenance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.

    Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…

  12. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  13. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  14. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  15. Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: A Health Maintenance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.

    Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…

  16. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  17. Restorative Justice and a New Criminal Law of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, John

    2001-01-01

    Case studies illustrate how a restorative approach to substance abuse can bring about the recognition of profound community injustices and how confronting injustices can help tackle substance abuse. Outlines the research and development needed to test the hypothesis that criminalization of the harm caused by substance abuse (e.g., burglary) may be…

  18. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)

  19. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.1,2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.3 PMID:24381821

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  1. Enhancing Substance Abuse Treatment Engagement in Incarcerated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L. A. R.; Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca; Miranda, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI), compared with an attention control condition (relaxation training [RT]) enhances substance abuse treatment engagement in incarcerated adolescents. At the start of incarceration, adolescents were randomly assigned to individually administered MI or RT. Subsequently, therapists and adolescents (N = 130) rated degree of adolescent participation in the facility's standard care group-based treatments targeting crime and substance use. All adolescents received the facility standard care treatment after their individual MI or RT session. MI statistically significantly mitigated negative substance abuse treatment engagement. Other indicators of treatment engagement were in the expected direction; however, effect sizes were small and nonsignificant. These findings are significant, given concerns regarding the deleterious effects of treating delinquent adolescents in groups and the potential for adolescents to reinforce each other's negative behavior, which in turn may lead to escalated substance use and other delinquent behaviors after release. PMID:20617117

  2. Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Arshad, Ahmed; Finkelstein, Yaron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-10-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  3. Just Say Know: An Examination of Substance Use Disorders among Older Adults in Gerontological and Substance Abuse Journals

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders. PMID:23731426

  4. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  5. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  6. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Holly E.; Shannon-Lewy, Colleen; McFarland, Bentson

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study assessed authenticity of SPs as substance abuse treatment clients. Twenty-one substance abuse counselors interviewed SP(s) with differing profiles. Counselors provided quantitative and qualitative ratings of SP authenticity. Counselor responses to the study procedures were analyzed as well. Quantitative results include high authenticity ratings for the SPs but counselors’ subjective responses varied. Counselor’s rated the experience of participating in the study positively and provided constructive comments for future applications of this methodology. Results support future work on SPs as teaching and evaluation tools in substance abuse counseling. Findings also illustrate the need to refine definitions of authenticity for SPs as substance abuse clients. PMID:19197781

  7. Risk and resilience for substance abuse among adolescents and adults with LD.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.

  8. Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1

  9. Children of substance abusers: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Deren, S

    1986-01-01

    The proportion of women in substance abuse treatment programs or in need of substance abuse treatment has been increasing. Concern with female substance abusers has led to increased attention on identifying the problems and needs of children of substance abusers, particularly on neonates. This literature review summarizes the contents of the research on children of substance abusers (COSAs) available through 1985. Areas requiring further research and methodological problems in the research are identified. The literature has been organized into several areas: estimates of the numbers of COSAs, and research on pregnant addicts, neonates, infants, older children, and parenting issues.

  10. Lifetime physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, depression, and suicide attempts among Native American women.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Diane K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is preliminary evidence that violence against women and children may be particularly prevalent in some Native American communities, associations between abuse and substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide attempts have rarely been studied in this population. This study examined lifetime and current physical and sexual abuse among 30 Native American women. Nearly half had experienced physical and/or sexual abuse as children, over half were sexually abused at some time in their lives, and over three-fourths were abused by a partner. All but four women (87%) had experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, substance abuse, and adult revictimization, and among cumulative lifetime abuse events, substance abuse, and depression. Further research is needed to examine abuse and relationships between abuse and health sequelae in Native American populations. An accelerated public health and community response is needed to address abuse issues in this community.

  11. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    PubMed

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV-1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point. PMID:22973853

  13. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2012-10-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.

  14. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    as family violence and substance abuse . This study advances existing research by using the Army’s unique data resources to simultaneously study...experiencing violence and/or substance abuse and establish best practices for coordinating multiple service delivery for these families. Researchers...hypothesize significant overlap of child abuse , spouse abuse , and/or substance abuse in Army families experiencing violence , and that Army and civilian

  15. Organizational Determinants of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Duration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2009-01-01

    Longer treatment duration has consistently been related to improved substance use outcomes. This study examined how tailored women's programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substance abuse treatment in women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substance abuse treatment unit survey (n=571 in 1999/2000, n=566 in 2005). Analyses were conducted separately for methadone and non-methadone programs. Negative binomial regressions tested associations between organizational determinants, tailored programming, and women's treatment duration. Of the tailored programming services, childcare was significantly related to longer duration in the non-methadone programs, but few other organizational factors were. Tailored programming was not associated to treatment duration in methadone programs, but ownership, affiliation, and accreditation were related to longer duration. Study findings suggest evidence for how external relationships related to resources, treatment constraints, and legitimacy may influence women's treatment duration. Methadone programs may be more vulnerable to external influences. PMID:19038526

  16. Examining the Role of Substance Abuse in Elder Mistreatment: Results From Mistreatment Investigations.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Liu, Pi-Ju; Iris, Madelyn

    2016-04-04

    Substance abuse has long been identified as a risk factor for elder mistreatment, yet research on the topic remains sparse. This study tested hypotheses whether perpetrator and victim substance use problems were associated with financial exploitation, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect versus no abuse. Cross-sectional data were collected on 948 cases with yes/no substantiation decisions where 357 cases had no abuse in elder mistreatment investigations. Hypotheses were tested using odds ratios, bivariate, and multiple linear regression analyses including a control for victim vulnerability. Of 948 alleged victims, 42 (4.4%) exhibited signs of substance use problems. Among the 323 alleged perpetrators, 87 (26.9%) were reported to have substance use problems. Substance use problems by alleged perpetrators were associated (p< .01) with financial exploitation, physical abuse, and emotional abuse but not neglect. Substance use problems by alleged victims were associated with neglect, but not the other types. Alleged perpetrators with substance use problems tended to commit multiple forms of abuse, were male and not caregivers. Except for the findings on neglect, the associations with elder mistreatment were stronger for alleged perpetrators with substance use problems, than for alleged victims. Clarification of the role of perpetrator risk factors such as substance abuse should improve risk identification and subsequent intervention.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  19. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  20. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  1. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Missed Opportunity: National Survey of Primary Care Physicians and Patients on Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    A national representative survey of primary care physicians (N=648) was conducted to determine how they deal with patients who have substance abuse problems. The survey revealed how physicians identify substance abuse in their patients, what efforts they make to help these patients, and what barriers they find to effective diagnosis and treatment.…

  4. Spending on substance abuse treatment: how much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that

  5. Screening for substance abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.

  6. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... 9033 of September 30, 2013 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the..., motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse prevention programs... abuse, we must lead by example, adopt positive behaviors, and talk to our kids about living...

  7. Modeling Treatment Motivation in Substance-Abusing Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Kamata, Akihito; Cash, Scottye J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Children are often considered a primary motivator for women seeking substance abuse treatment. This study tested a model predicting treatment motivation in substance-abusing mothers. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). It used structural equation modeling to describe factors…

  8. Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report follows an extensive survey of primary care physicians (N=400) about the problem of substance abuse in women over the age of 59. Research has shown that an individual who reaches the age of 21 without smoking, using drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually never at risk to abuse these substances. The only exception occurs with mature…

  9. Modeling Treatment Motivation in Substance-Abusing Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Kamata, Akihito; Cash, Scottye J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Children are often considered a primary motivator for women seeking substance abuse treatment. This study tested a model predicting treatment motivation in substance-abusing mothers. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). It used structural equation modeling to describe factors…

  10. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  11. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  12. [Is substance abuse among physicians a problem?].

    PubMed

    Akvardar, Yildiz; Türkcan, Ahmet; Cakmak, Duran

    2002-01-01

    In today's medical community, there is growing concern about substance use among physicians, not only because of their own health, but also because of the potential adverse effects on their clinical practices. Physicians affect public health both by treatment and preventive studies and as role models. Prevalence data concerning substance abuse are generally lacking. There is no consensus on the rates of substance abuse being higher among physicians than among the general public. Physicians are less likely to smoke cigarettes and use illicit substances (like marijuana, cocaine and heroin) and more likely to use alcohol and two types of prescription medications--benzodiazepines and minor opioids--compared with their age groups. Doctors are at special risk of developing addiction problems owing to the strain of medical practice, erosion of the taboo against injecting and using opiates, and particularly access to supplies. The most common precipitating factors mentioned are physical pain and illness, usually chronic, with family tragedy such as death of a wife or child next. The third most common factor is an addicted wife. Stress, overwork and marital problems are also mentioned. No data were found about physicians' substance use in Turkey. This article generally aims to review the knowledge on the prevalence of substance use among physicians, the drug of choice, the development of dependence, the treatment and prognosis and to discuss the importance of this issue by evaluating three cases treated at the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment and Research Center (AMATEM), Bakirköy State Hospital for Mental and Neurological Diseases.

  13. Negative Urgency, Distress Tolerance, and Substance Abuse Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Alison J.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Negative affect has been consistently linked with substance use/problems in prior research. The present study sought to build upon these findings by exploring how an individual’s characteristic responding to negative affect impacts substance abuse risk. Trait negative affect was examined in relation to substance abuse outcomes along with two variables tapping into response to negative affect: Distress Tolerance, an individual’s perceived ability to tolerate negative affect, and Negative Urgency, the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress. Method Participants were 525 first-year college students (48.1% male, 81.1% Caucasian), who completed self-report measures assessing personality traits and alcohol-related problems, and a structured interview assessing past and current substance use. Relations were tested using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial regression models, and each of the personality variables was tested in a model on its own, and in a model where all three traits were accounted for. Results Negative Urgency emerged as the best predictor, relating to every one of the substance use outcome variables even when trait negative affect and Distress Tolerance were accounted for. Conclusions These findings suggest that Negative Urgency is an important factor to consider in developing prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing substance use and problems. PMID:22698894

  14. CHILD WELFARE AGENCY TIES TO PROVIDERS AND SCHOOLS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT USE BY ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

  15. Child welfare agency ties to providers and schools and substance abuse treatment use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. This study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems and to improve service utilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between recreational gambling and substance abuse/dependence: Data from a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Timothy; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although recreational gambling is prevalent and co-occurs with substance abuse/dependence, few studies have investigated the relationship between the two. Methods Logistic regression analyses were performed on data from a nationally representative sample from the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. Results Substance-abusing recreational gamblers, as compared to non-substance-abusing ones, differed in gambling motivations, began gambling at earlier ages, reported heavier gambling, and preferred and performed strategic forms of gambling. Conclusions As compared with non-substance-abusing gamblers, substance-abusing gamblers demonstrated different gambling profiles including heavier gambling. These findings suggest the need for additional research on whether and how substance use might promote gambling and vice-versa. PMID:19022590

  17. Screening for childhood physical and sexual abuse among outpatient substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, T L; Westerberg, V S; Little, L M; Trujillo, M

    1994-01-01

    Research demonstrates that substance-abusing individuals report substantially higher rates of childhood sexual and physical abuse than the general population. This study sought to test a method of identifying substance-abusing clients with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and to explore the differences between those reporting childhood abuse and those not. Files of substance abusing clients from two distinct time periods were examined for reports of childhood abuse. At Time 1 (n = 399) clients were not systematically asked about experiences of childhood abuse, and at Time 2 (n = 305) clients were routinely asked about this issue. Results indicate that significantly more male and female clients disclosed childhood abuse at Time 2. Additionally, male clients reporting childhood abuse appeared more distressed than those not reporting abuse; female clients reporting childhood abuse did not appear more distressed than their counterparts.

  18. Network analysis of substance abuse and dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Fried, Eiko I; Aggen, Steven H; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kendler, Kenneth S; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-04-01

    The DSM uses one set of abuse and dependence criteria to assess multiple substance use disorders (SUDs). Most SUD research aggregates across these symptoms to study the behavior of SUD as a static construct. We use an alternative approach that conceptualizes symptoms as directly interacting variables in psychopathological networks. We apply network models to symptom-level data to investigate the unique roles of individual symptoms and their interactions in SUD. We analyzed 11 DSM III-R/IV abuse and dependence criteria in a sample of 2405 adult twins who reported use of at least one illicit substance six or more times from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). We estimated a symptom network for each substance class as well as a global network collapsed across all substance classes. We examined similarities and differences across the 6 networks in terms of symptom-to-symptom connections and symptom centrality. The global network model revealed several interesting symptom connections, such as a strong predictive relation between tolerance and more-than-planned substance use. The most central symptom was using a drug more than planned. In addition, several interesting differences across substances emerged, both in the strength of symptom connections as well as the centrality of symptoms to each network. When analyzed as networks, abuse and dependence symptoms do not function equivalently across illicit substance classes. These findings suggest the value of analyzing individual symptoms and their associations to gain new insight into the mechanisms of SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  20. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  1. Strategies for Preventing Substance Abuse with American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Suggests strategies for assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs with American Indian youth. Illustrates use of each strategy with examples from drug abuse prevention activities in Northwest Indian communities. (JHZ)

  2. Substance abuse in first-episode schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substance abuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substance abuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All the patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, at first admission to the Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment of Ospedale Maggiore of Milan during the years 1990 to 2004, have been included in our study. The clinical evaluation has been obtained considering the following items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): conceptual disorganization, depressed mood, hostility, hallucinations, unusual content of thought. The results showed that 34.7% of first-episode schizophrenic patients had a lifetime history of substance abuse. The age of onset of schizophrenia is significantly lower for drug abusers than for patients without any type of abuse and for alcohol abusers (p < 0.005). In multi drug abusers, cannabis resulted the most frequently used (49%), followed by alcohol (13%), and cocaine (4%). Substance abusers have obtained a significant higher score in "thought disturbance" item (p < 0.005) and in "hostility" item (p < 0.005) compared to non substance abusers. Non drug abusers showed lower mean scores of "hostility" item compared to cocaine abusers and multi drug abusers (p < 0.005). Our findings seem to indicate that substance abuse in the early course of illness determines an earlier onset of schizophrenia and increases severity of some psychotic symptoms like "hallucination" and "unusual content of thought". Therefore persons incurring a risk of schizophrenia may be warned of the possible relation between substances and psychosis and have to be counselled against the use of them. PMID:16556300

  3. Interdisciplinary research training in substance abuse and addictions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that the management of complex problems of and related to substance abuse and addictions require comprehensive approaches based on solid research. Nonetheless, timely and widespread dissemination of research findings remains uncommon, hindering nursing practice, impeding the health of individuals and families, and imposing untoward costs for society. Shifts in science paradigms underscore the need for efficient and effective interdisciplinary research teams to carry out innovative research within a translational science framework. This means that early career investigators will need the knowledge and skills to conduct research as part of an interdisciplinary team and to contribute systematically to translational research in the area of substance abuse and addictions. This brief report describes a nursing research training program sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evolved into an interdisciplinary program administrated within a school of nursing. Factors conducive to program development are described, along with the structure and elements of the program and examples of the scholars' projects and accomplishments. The common benefits of interdisciplinary research training for both predoctoral and postdoctoral research scholars include consistent exposure to new and alternative scientific models and methodological approaches as well as endurance of cross-discipline network connections. Benefits and challenges of this program carry implications for the design of future nursing research training programs in the field of substance abuse and addictions.

  4. Can you vaccinate against substance abuse?

    PubMed

    Kosten, Thomas R; Domingo, Coreen B

    2013-08-01

    Vaccines are being developed against substance abuse and most progress has been made with anti-cocaine, nicotine and opiate vaccines, but new ones are being developed for methamphetamine and may be in humans within 18 - 24 months. These haptenated vaccines share a common problem in that only about one-third of those vaccinated get a sufficiently robust antibody titer to enable them to effectively block drug use. This problem is being addressed with better carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. This review provides details about these developing vaccines that act through pharmacokinetic rather than pharmacodynamics blockade. Due to this pharmacokinetic mechanism of keeping abused drugs in the bloodstream and not allowing them entry into the brain or other organs, these vaccines have very few side effects compared to other blockers used in addictions treatment.

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Acculturation Stress Among Puerto Rican Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse. PMID:17543714

  6. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  7. Pharmacotherapy for substance abuse disorders in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel; Ivanov, Iliyan

    2011-02-01

    The public health effects of adolescent substance abuse disorders (SUD) reaches further than the immediate intoxicating effects. Medications play a limited role in the treatment of youth beyond addressing short-term symptoms but may improve longer-term outcomes for some patients. Given the potential devastating consequences of SUD, clinicians should become familiar with all available treatment options. This article reviews the pharmacotherapy for adolescent SUD to inform clinicians considering the use of this modality for selected groups of patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of substance abuse during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lester, Barry M; Twomey, Jean E

    2008-01-01

    Treatment programs for women who use drugs during pregnancy have developed out of a backdrop of punitive policies and the psychosocial complexities of this population, which include psychological comorbidities and consideration of the needs of their children. In this literature review, we examine evidence-based approaches to treatment for these women and some promising newer initiatives. We also discuss limitations of this research and issues that need to be addressed. The increasing understanding and acceptance of substance abuse as a treatable mental health disorder brings renewed optimism to this field.

  9. A theory of adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spotts, J V; Shontz, F C

    1985-01-01

    This report applies a theory of psychological individuation to inferences drawn from an 8-year series of clinical studies of men who practice heavy, chronic use of different drugs. Each man was studied intensively over a period of 4-5 months, using interviews and a comprehensive battery of dimensional and morphogenic assessment procedures. Users of barbiturates and sedative hypnotics were found to be least mature, followed by users of opiates, users of amphetamine, users of cocaine, and nonusers of drugs, who were found to be most mature. A theory is described which conceives adolescent substance abuse as rooted in dysfunctional relationships with parental figures which block or delay the normal individuation process. Comparable sets of representative case studies of heavy, chronic users of alcohol and marihuana are recommended to facilitate the development of treatment programs that take into account the special needs of persons who practice heavy, chronic use of different substances.

  10. Addiction and Substance Abuse in Anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304

  11. From the Individual to the Community: Perspectives about Substance Abuse Services

    PubMed Central

    WINDSOR, LILIANE CAMBRAIA; MURUGAN, VITHYA

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that substance abuse interventions in distressed African-American communities must be culturally-tailored and incorporate a framework targeting changes in both individual behavior and the community. The current study employed Concept Mapping in conjunction with Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) principles to involve 100 community members, substance users, and service providers to examine the role of alcohol and other drugs in distressed African-American communities. Findings reveal the way participants understand the role of drugs and alcohol in their community and their perceptions of substance abuse services. The paper describes a collaborative approach to engage the community in addressing substance abuse. PMID:23243393

  12. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  13. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  15. Is conventional wisdom wrong? Coverage for substance abuse treatment under Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Margaret; Ridgely, M Susan

    2006-06-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that coverage for substance abuse treatment under Medicaid is generally poor, and that access to care may be reduced when control over behavioral health services is given to private health plans, such as those under Medicaid managed care. To examine this premise, this study reports on a cross-sectional comparative survey of state Medicaid managed care programs conducted in the year 2000. Although not all states provided substance abuse benefits under their Medicaid programs, our findings suggest that a majority of states used managed care arrangements to provide substance abuse treatment, with most providing an array of covered services. Most Medicaid behavioral health plans were fully capitated. The number of comprehensive health plans providing substance abuse services was slightly higher than the number of behavioral health carveouts. About half of the waiver programs that covered substance abuse treatment covered methadone maintenance, but waiver programs employing comprehensive health plans were more likely to provide coverage for methadone maintenance.

  16. Oxford House: deaf-affirmative support for substance abuse recovery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M; Davidson, Michelle K; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse group of individuals in recovery. However, research has not addressed the experiences of Deaf Oxford House residents. The present study found no significant differences between Deaf and hearing men living in Oxford House in terms of sense of community and abstinence self-efficacy. However, while most of the hearing participants were employed, none of the Deaf Oxford House members were. The study's findings indicate that Oxford House may be a promising Deaf-affirmative alternative for individuals seeking recovery from substance abuse. However, since Oxford Houses are self-supporting, Oxford Houses designed for the Deaf community may face unique economic challenges.

  17. The organization of substance abuse managed care.

    PubMed

    Sosin, M R; D'Aunno, T

    2001-01-01

    Managed care came to dominate the delivery of substance abuse services during the 1990s. This paper uses literature and new data to describe and analyze the set of arrangements it implies. The description suggests that substance abuse managed care typically is "carved out" of the general health care plan and treatment is coordinated by a behavioral health managed care company that manages treatment access, length, type, and intensity. This administrative agent is provided financial incentives to keep costs low and otherwise faces such mandates as to ensure timely access to treatment and to deliver reports. A typical agent has some interest in improving the quality of decision-making, but has few incentives for controlling the treatment technology. In contrast, agents tend to control treatment providers through relatively rigid rules that substitute outpatient for inpatient care, regulate the length and intensity of services, provide limited social services, mandate accreditation, allow limited clinician discretion, administer an entire "network" of providers as an only slightly differentiated mass, and rarely shape the details of the treatment process. These patterns are analyzed in terms of transaction cost economics and institutional and resource dependency theories. In general, it is argued that managed care reflects an interest in controlling costs but also in ensuring access within an environment where there is uncertainty accompanying competing demands, varying conceptions of the client, and controversies over the efficacy of specific treatment technologies.

  18. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  19. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  20. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  1. Overview and epidemiology of substance abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wendell, Andria D

    2013-03-01

    The use of licit or illicit substances during pregnancy has the potential to produce adverse health effects for the maternal-fetal dyad. In the United States, it is estimated that >4.4% of pregnant women abuse 1 or more substances during pregnancy. Social and environmental factors contribute significantly to increases in the prevalence and complexity of substance abuse disorders. Fear of reprisal prevents many women from accurately reporting substance use patterns and receiving appropriate medical and psychological care. This chapter details the epidemiology and risk factors associated with substance abuse during pregnancy and subsequent complications for the neonate.

  2. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  3. Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Abuse: Parent and Peer Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halebsky, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…

  4. Substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients entering substance abuse treatment: Comparisons to heterosexual clients.

    PubMed

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p < .001), and used this substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p < .001). There were no differences between heterosexual and lesbian or bisexual women. There were unique patterns of substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the

  5. Examining the effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on residential substance abuse treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B

    2011-06-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time matched control condition, supportive counseling (SC), examining effects on depressed mood, substance abuse treatment retention, and behavioral activation outcomes. Fifty-eight adult substance users in residential substance abuse treatment presenting with depressive symptoms (BDI≥12) were randomly assigned to LETS ACT or SC. Assessments were administered at pre- and post-treatment and included assessment of DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, depression severity, treatment motivation, overall activation, environmental reward, and substance abuse treatment retention. Patients in LETS ACT had significantly higher rates of substance abuse treatment retention and significantly greater increases in activation on the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) compared to those in SC. Both groups had decreased depression severity at post-treatment, although the group by time interaction was not significant. This study was the first to compare LETS ACT to a contact-time matched control treatment to evaluate effects on substance abuse treatment retention and two distinct measures of behavioral activation: overall activation and environmental reward. Findings suggest preliminary support for the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation-based protocol that may be particularly useful to improve substance abuse treatment retention.

  6. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Holly Barrett; Turner, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substance abuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included 7 individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) replications (n = 367), 13 group CBT replications (n = 771), 17 family therapy replications (n = 850) and 9 minimal treatment control conditions (n = 319). The total sample was composed of approximately 75% males, and the ethnic/racial distribution was approximately 45% White, 25% Hispanic, 25% African American, and 5% other groups. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate within-group effect sizes as well as differences between active treatment conditions and the minimal treatment control conditions. Methodological rigor of studies was classified using Nathan and Gorman (2002) criteria, and treatments were classified using criteria for well-established and probably efficacious interventions based on Chambless et al. (1996). Three treatment approaches, multidimensional family therapy, functional family therapy, and group CBT emerged as well-established models for substance abuse treatment. However, a number of other models are probably efficacious, and none of the treatment approaches appeared to be clearly superior to any others in terms of treatment effectiveness for adolescent substance abuse.

  7. Total Quality Management and Performance in Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Dail; Roman, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of organizational characteristics of substance abuse treatment centers with their use of quality management practices (total quality management [TQM]) and the contribution of TQM use to a center's provision of comprehensive care and to use of evidence-based treatment practices. Data Sources Data were collected from a national sample of over 700 private and public substance abuse treatment centers in the National Treatment Center Study. Study Design The design was a cross-sectional field study. The key variables were three TQM practices, the provision of comprehensive treatment services, and the implementation of evidence-based treatment practices. Numerous organizational characteristics were controlled. Data Collection The data were obtained through interviews with administrative directors and clinical directors of the treatment centers in 2002–2004. Principal Findings In multivariate models, TQM practices were positively related to provision of comprehensive care and use of evidence-based practices. A limited set of organizational characteristics predicted the use of TQM practices. Conclusions Substance abuse treatment centers' implementation of TQM processes may be positively related to the quality and cost-effectiveness of care provided. PMID:20698897

  8. HIV/AIDS Services in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Amanda J.; O’Brien, Lauren A.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV infection among substance abusers is a growing concern in the United States. Little research, however, has examined the provision of HIV/AIDS services in substance abuse treatment programs. Methods This study examines the provision of onsite HIV/AIDS services in a nationally representative sample of 345 privately funded substance abuse treatment programs. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews with administrators and clinical directors of treatment programs in 2007–2008. Results Results show that larger programs and programs with a higher percentage of both African American and injection drug using (IDU) patients were more likely to offer onsite HIV/AIDS support groups and a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track. Multinomial logistic regression reveals that the odds of offering onsite HIV testing services were higher for hospital based programs, programs providing medical services onsite, and programs with higher percentages of African American patients, relative to the odds of offering no HIV testing or referring patients to an external provider for HIV testing services. The odds of providing onsite testing were lower for outpatient-only treatment programs, relative to the odds of offering no HIV testing or referring patients to an external provider for HIV testing services. Conclusions Our findings highlight critical barriers to the adoption of onsite HIV/AIDS services and suggest treatment programs are missing the opportunity to significantly impact HIV-related health outcomes. PMID:21145179

  9. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Faulkner, Monica

    2011-12-01

    In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

  10. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  11. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...

  12. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...

  13. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Luellen, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  14. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Cochrane, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  15. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...

  16. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...

  17. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  18. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  19. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...

  20. Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David C.; Faggett, Walter L.

    This report contains the recommendations of the Physician Consortium for significantly improving medical education and training to enhance the physician's role in early identification, treatment, and prevention of substance abuse. In addition, the consortium subcommittees report on their examination of substance abuse treatment needs of ethnic and…

  1. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  2. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  3. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  4. Why Are Recovering Substance Abuse Counselors Paid Less?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Roman, Paul M.; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine why recovering substance abuse counselors are paid less, on average and controlling for other factors, than nonrecovering substance abuse counselors. The data come from the 2002-2003 wave of the National Treatment Center Study and consist of 1,487 full-time counselors from nationally representative samples of…

  5. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez.…

  6. Substance Abuse Prevention Education. Special Topic Curriculum Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This curriculum resources packet provides the most current information available in substance abuse prevention education. Its stated purpose is to assist schools in combating the problem of substance abuse through effective prevention/education programs. These topic areas are discussed: (1) drugs and their effects; (2) continuum of drug use; (3)…

  7. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  8. Why Are Recovering Substance Abuse Counselors Paid Less?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Roman, Paul M.; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine why recovering substance abuse counselors are paid less, on average and controlling for other factors, than nonrecovering substance abuse counselors. The data come from the 2002-2003 wave of the National Treatment Center Study and consist of 1,487 full-time counselors from nationally representative samples of…

  9. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  10. Student Assistance Programs: New Approaches for Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…

  11. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Luellen, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  12. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  13. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Cochrane, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  14. Substance Abuse among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    Studies indicate that substance abuse is a growing problem among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Prevention and intervention efforts can be successful in working with sexual minority adolescents in jeopardy of developing substance abuse problems. School psychologists are uniquely poised to address this problem through…

  15. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  16. Student Assistance Programs: New Approaches for Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…

  17. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  18. Opioid analgesics in the substance abuser: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Ineck, Joseph R; Rule, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The pros and cons of using opioid analgesics to help manage pain in patient with a history of substance abuse are presented. Topics discussed include ethical constructs, efficacy, and safety relating to the use of opioids in patients with substance abuse histories.

  19. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  20. Clinical Supervision of Substance Abuse Counselors: Current and Preferred Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbreth, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national survey of substance abuse counselors (N=134) to learn their current and preferred supervision practices. Results suggests that substance abuse counselor are receiving supervision similar to other counselors. No preference was indicated for the sex of the supervisor, nor for the 12-step recovery experience. Counselors did…

  1. No Safe Haven: Children of Substance-Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report analyzes data from a 2-year study of connections between substance abuse and child maltreatment, exposing how child welfare agencies and family court systems handle child custody decisions when parents are substance abusers. The six chapters are: (1) "Introduction and Executive Summary"; (2) "No Safe Haven for Children" (new and…

  2. Substance Abuse and the Workplace. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    According to the United States Department of Labor, 73% of drug users in 1997 were employed. Numerous studies, reports, and surveys suggest that substance abuse is having a negative effect on the workplace in terms of decreased productivity; increased accidents; absenteeism; turnover; and medical costs. However, workplace substance abuse is a…

  3. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  4. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  5. Regional Collaboration To Combat Substance Abuse: A Local Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upperman, James E.

    This paper provides information on a substance abuse prevention effort called the Commonwealth Alliance for Drug Rehabilitation and Education (CADRE). After a discussion of the origins of CADRE, five steps taken by CADRE in its substance abuse prevention efforts are described, beginning with organizational establishment. The identification and…

  6. Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance Abuse Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher E.; Bang, Keeyeon

    2003-01-01

    Substance abuse counseling students must become familiar with an overview of the issues involved in counseling. A clear format is needed to present the overview. Unfortunately, there are a limited number of models addressing the unique aspects of substance abuse counseling. However, the Integrated Developmental Model (IDM) developed by…

  7. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  8. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  9. Process Evaluation in Corrections-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, James L.; Hartmann, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that process evaluation is needed to validate prison-based substance abuse treatment effectiveness. Five groups--inmates, treatment staff, prison staff, prison administration, and the parole board--should be a part of this process evaluation. Discusses these five groups relative to three stages of development of substance abuse treatment in…

  10. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  11. Parental Substance Abuse and the Nature of Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly selected juvenile court records (n=190) of cases of child maltreatment found that 67 percent involved parents who were substance abusers. Specific associations were found between (1) alcohol abuse and physical maltreatment, and (2) cocaine abuse and sexual maltreatment. (Author/DB)

  12. To Guard School Students against Narcotics and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakov, L.; Kolesov, D.

    1993-01-01

    Reports that a questionnaire of students and parents indicates most parents and teachers lack knowledge about drug use and abuse among Russian school students. Maintains that students in families with a history of alcoholism and substance abuse are at high risk of becoming drug abusers. Presents a series of classroom activities to help students…

  13. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N

    2005-06-01

    Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  14. The relationship between child abuse and negative outcomes among substance users: psychopathology, health, and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-10-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report higher rates of child abuse than adults without SUDs. Prior work suggests that this abuse is associated with higher rates of psychosis, posttraumatic stress disorder, physical health problems, alcohol dependence, and cannabis dependence among substance users. Little is known about other problems associated with child abuse experienced by substance users. We hypothesized that among adults with SUDs, child abuse would be associated with elevated rates of all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities assessed. We assessed 280 inpatients in substance use treatment with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-TR, the Diagnostic Instrument for Personality Disorders, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We used chi-square and regression analyses to establish whether rates of psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities differed as a function of child abuse. Consistent with our hypotheses, higher scores on the CTQ were associated with elevated rates of psychiatric disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders) and substance dependencies (alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence). Moreover, higher rates of all comorbidity patterns (e.g. comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety) were observed among individuals who reported experiencing child abuse. Across all substance dependencies examined, individuals who had been abused had significantly higher rates of all psychiatric disorders assessed. Individuals with substance use disorders who have been abused have particularly elevated rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders as a function of their abuse experiences. These findings have important treatment implications for individuals in residential substance use treatment settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship between Child Abuse and Negative Outcomes among Substance Users: Psychopathology, Health, and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Banducci, Anne N.; Hoffman, Elana; Lejuez, C.W.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report higher rates of child abuse than adults without SUDs. Prior work suggests this abuse is associated with higher rates of psychosis, posttraumatic stress disorder, physical health problems, alcohol dependence, and cannabis dependence among substance users. Little is known about other problems associated with child abuse experienced by substance users. We hypothesized among adults with SUDs, child abuse would be associated with elevated rates of all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities assessed. Method We assessed 280 inpatients in substance use treatment with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-TR, the Diagnostic Instrument for Personality Disorders, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We used chi-square and regression analyses to establish whether rates of psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities differed as a function of child abuse. Results Consistent with our hypotheses, higher scores on the CTQ were associated with elevated rates of psychiatric disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders) and substance dependencies (alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence). Moreover, higher rates of all comorbidity patterns (e.g. comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety) were observed among individuals who reported experiencing child abuse. Across all substance dependencies examined, individuals who had been abused had significantly higher rates of all psychiatric disorders assessed. Conclusions Individuals with substance use disorders who have been abused have particularly elevated rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders as a function of their abuse experiences. These findings have important treatment implications for individuals in residential substance use treatment settings. PMID:24976457

  16. 75 FR 44929 - Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...-AA41 Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy... issues related to workplace substance abuse programs for its contractor employees. Specifically, the... added to the substance abuse program; whether medical review officers should obtain and...

  17. Relationship of trauma exposure and substance abuse to self-reported violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Brendan; Reiland, Sarah; Thorne, Chris; Cropsey, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Past research showed a relationship between substance abuse and aggression and past trauma and aggression. The nature of the relationships between substance use, trauma, and aggression is inconclusive. The current research hypothesized greater aggression among those with a history of substance abuse and trauma compared with those without such a history and an additive relationship between substance abuse and trauma on aggression. Participants were 615 individuals in a substance abuse treatment program for individuals under criminal justice supervision. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and self-report measures. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relationships among substance use, trauma, and aggression. Participants with a history of trauma and regular substance use reported the highest rates of homicidal ideation, problem behaviors, and person offenses. Participants in this group also reported greater desire for help managing their stress and tension, dealing with problems in their intimate relationships, developing healthier relationships in general, and learning prosocial approaches to express their feelings. Substance abusing participants who experienced trauma reported more externalizing behaviors and a greater desire for coping- and social-skills training than participants who abused substances but did not report a history of trauma. This suggests that participants in substance abuse treatment programs may have improved outcomes with the addition of components to address these issues.

  18. Clinical fellowships in substance abuse: a new curriculum strategy.

    PubMed

    Keeley, K A; Galanter, M; Millman, R; Jackson, G

    1980-01-01

    Recognizing the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment is made easier when there is a steady supply of newly trained medical professionals who are competent in this specialty. University-based substance abuse treatment facilities have a clear obligation to educate such professionals. This article shows how three different medical colleges were able to establish new clinical fellowships in substance abuse so that teaching activities could be fostered at preexisting treatment sites. Fellowship activities varied from one place to the next, but at all three schools important momentum was generated on behalf of substance abuse education. These experiences provide models for those academicians and administrators who face the task of integrating educational and serivce delivery missions in the substance abuse field.

  19. An holistic approach to substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Kathy T; Reed, Maria R; Malone, Sandra B

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a model outpatient substance abuse treatment program. This program is designed to provide patients with not only traditional modalities of treatment such as individual, group, and family therapy, but also to provide an opportunity for patients to express thoughts and feelings through holistic modalities. These modalities include dance/movement therapy, Tai Chi, art therapy, leisure and recreational skills, spiritual growth and development, cultural awareness and appreciation, vocational services, psychiatric care and physical health. The authors describe features of this program that they believe to be unique and that focus on ways to help patients develop a stronger sense of self-identity, self-esteem and self-confidence.

  20. Management Practices in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, K. John; Hoffman, Kim A.; Quanbeck, Andrew; McCarty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to understand how to improve the delivery of substance abuse treatment have led to a recent call for studies on the “business of addiction treatment.” This study adapts an innovative survey tool to collect baseline management practice data from 147 addiction treatment programs enrolled in the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) 200 project. Measures of “good” management practice were strongly associated with days to treatment admission. Management practice scores were weakly associated with revenues-per-employee, but were not correlated with operating margins. Better management practices were more prevalent among programs with a higher number of competitors in their catchment area. PMID:19195813

  1. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  2. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  3. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  4. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  5. Integrated nested services: Delaware's experience treating minority substance abusers at risk for HIV or HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Dorothy; Bincsik, Arlene K; Zebley, Christopher; Mongare, Kefa; Harrison, James; Gerardi, Kimberly E; Parcher, David W

    2010-01-01

    Treating minority substance abusers at risk of HIV or HIV positive is a critical public health issue. Delaware has achieved success in treating this population through its integrated nested services approach. Through three Center for Substance Abuse funded projects, Delaware has synthesized a number of evidence-based and best practices from the HIV medical treatment, substance abuse treatment and mental health treatment. Evaluation findings show that Project HOPE and Meeting the Challenges are having a positive impact on clients in a number of areas, including medical compliance, physical health, sobriety, employment/income and living situations. Clearly, this approach benefits all stakeholders, including the State of Delaware, local communities, staff and clients.

  6. Indicators of substance abuse treatment demand in Cape Town, South Africa (1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Myers, B; Parry, C D H; Plüddemann, M A

    2004-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the demand for substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This article uses data collected from specialist substance abuse treatment centres to describe substance abuse treatment demand and patterns of service utilisation in Cape Town for the period January 1997 to December 2001. Findings suggest that although treatment demand for alcohol-related problems remains high, treatment demand for substances other than alcohol has increased over time. Patterns of treatment service utilisation suggest that women and black South Africans remain underserved. The need for comprehensive and accessible substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town is highlighted and recommendations are made for improving access to treatment services, and undertaking comprehensive evaluations of existing treatment facilities.

  7. Violence perpetration and childhood abuse among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Ilgen, Mark; Frayne, Susan M; Lucas, Emma; Mayo, Julia; Weitlauf, Julie C

    2008-09-01

    Despite an association between violence perpetration and substance use, the characteristics associated with violence among patients in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) are not well documented. Data were gathered from a national sample of men (n = 4,459) and women (n = 1,774) entering SUD treatment on history of violence perpetration, exposure to childhood physical abuse (CPA) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and reasons for entering treatment. Rates of violence perpetration were high (72% of men, 50% of women), and violence was associated with being referred by family members, prior SUD treatment, CPA, and CSA. In multivariate analyses, CPA was a significant correlate of violence perpetration across gender; however, CSA was only significant among women. Findings highlight the need for increased screening and treatment of violence perpetration among patients with SUD and suggest that CSA may be an important correlate of violence perpetration among women.

  8. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  9. The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively. In bivariate and multivariable analyses, PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences ( p < 0.001). For men, age ≤ 17 years at first PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences than an older age at first abuse, or no abuse ( p = 0.048). For women, the association of PhySexAbuse with substance use consequences was similar across all ages ( p = 0.59). Future research should develop interventions to lessen the substance abuse consequences of physical and sexual abuse. PMID:12039614

  10. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  11. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  12. Brief Family-Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that a lack of parental involvement in their children's activities predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring and supervision, parent-child communication including communication regarding beliefs and disapproval of substance use, positive parenting, and family management strategies, have been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and related problems. Family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance abuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief, family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PREDICTORS OF SUBSTANCE USE AND FAMILY THERAPY OUTCOME AMONG PHYSICALLY AND SEXUALLY ABUSED RUNAWAY ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashjmi

    2008-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as, compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. PMID:16933433

  14. Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances

    PubMed Central

    Saveland, Christine; Hawker, Leisha; Miedema, Baukje; MacDougall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine family physicians’ career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse by controlled substance prescription seekers. Design A 4-page cross-sectional survey. Setting A family medicine continuing medical education event in Halifax, NS. Participants The survey was distributed to 316 family physicians attending the continuing medical education event. Main outcome measures Career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse related to the act of prescribing controlled substances. Results Fifty-six percent (n = 178) of the 316 surveys were returned completed. Half the study participants were men (49%). Most study participants were in private practice and lived in Nova Scotia, and approximately half (51%) practised in urban settings. On average, the study participants had 20 years of practice experience. The career prevalence of abusive encounters related to controlled substance prescribing was divided into “minor,” “major,” and “severe” incidents. Overall, 95% of study participants reported having experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse; 48% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse; and 17% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse during their careers. Further, 30% reported having been abused in the past month; among those, the average number of abusive encounters was 3. Most (82%) of the abusers were male with a history of addiction (85%) and mental illness (39%). Opioids were the most frequently sought controlled substance. Conclusion Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances is substantial. Family physicians who prescribe controlled substances are at risk of being subjected to minor, major, or even severe abuse. Opioids were the most often sought controlled substance. A national discussion to deal with this issue is needed. PMID:24522691

  15. Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances.

    PubMed

    Saveland, Christine; Hawker, Leisha; Miedema, Baukje; Macdougall, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To examine family physicians' career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse by controlled substance prescription seekers. A 4-page cross-sectional survey. A family medicine continuing medical education event in Halifax, NS. The survey was distributed to 316 family physicians attending the continuing medical education event. Career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse related to the act of prescribing controlled substances. Fifty-six percent (n = 178) of the 316 surveys were returned completed. Half the study participants were men (49%). Most study participants were in private practice and lived in Nova Scotia, and approximately half (51%) practised in urban settings. On average, the study participants had 20 years of practice experience. The career prevalence of abusive encounters related to controlled substance prescribing was divided into "minor," "major," and "severe" incidents. Overall, 95% of study participants reported having experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse; 48% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse; and 17% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse during their careers. Further, 30% reported having been abused in the past month; among those, the average number of abusive encounters was 3. Most (82%) of the abusers were male with a history of addiction (85%) and mental illness (39%). Opioids were the most frequently sought controlled substance. Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances is substantial. Family physicians who prescribe controlled substances are at risk of being subjected to minor, major, or even severe abuse. Opioids were the most often sought controlled substance. A national discussion to deal with this issue is needed.

  16. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  17. Recurrent Syncope following Substance Abuse; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Forod; Hassanzadeh Taheri, Mohammad Mehdi; Riasi, HamidReza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias. Here we report a young boy who was admitted into the emergency department following three syncope attacks. All cardiac and neurologic assessments were normal; and finally ecstasy abuse was detected as the main etiology of syncopes. PMID:28286854

  18. Recurrent Syncope following Substance Abuse; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Forod; Hassanzadeh Taheri, Mohammad Mehdi; Riasi, HamidReza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias. Here we report a young boy who was admitted into the emergency department following three syncope attacks. All cardiac and neurologic assessments were normal; and finally ecstasy abuse was detected as the main etiology of syncopes.

  19. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span < 6 months), 23 (1.1%) spontaneously interrupted the protocol before its end, and 140 (6.8%) completed the assessment. Ineligibility to drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  20. Substance abuse among nurses--defining the issue.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Debra

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in the nurse population is believed to parallel that in the general population (i.e. approximately 10%). Nurses with substance abuse problems need help. They are in danger of harming patients, the facility's reputation, the nursing profession, and themselves. The consequences of not reporting concerns can be far worse than those of reporting the issue. Part one of this two-part series discusses how society views addiction and the nursing profession, signs and symptoms of substance abuse, reasons nurses should report an impaired colleague, the code of silence that exists among nurses, and board of nursing jurisdiction.

  1. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  2. Measuring principal substance of abuse in comorbid patients for clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Kolodziej, Monika E.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    Few individuals with substance use disorders limit their intake to one substance of abuse; however, many studies focus on a single substance. Unfortunately, the optimal method to determine the principal substance is unclear. In particular, this issue is problematic in patients with co-occurring psychiatric illness, who commonly use multiple substances. Hence we compared three methods for assessing the principal substance of abuse in 150 subjects with bipolar disorder and substance dependence: 1) the Addiction Severity Index interview, 2) a self-administered questionnaire, and 3) the most frequently used substance. While most subjects were concordant on the interview and the other two methods, we found substantial disagreement (9.3% between the interview and the questionnaire, and 12.7% between the interview and the most frequently used substance) and partial agreement (14.0%). These findings from a comorbid population demonstrate that different methods to assess principal substance of abuse could lead to different conclusions about treatment outcomes. Hence studies of comorbid patients may benefit from 1) using more than one method to assess principal substance and 2) reporting use of all substances as well as a targeted substance. PMID:19285810

  3. A review of substance abuse research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norliza, C; Norni, A; Anandjit, S; Mohd Fazli, M I

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of research done in the area of substance abuse in Malaysia. There were 109 articles related to substance abuse found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Only 39 articles were reviewed, and case series, case report, reviews and reports were excluded. Research reviewed include the epidemiology of substance abuse, genetics, treatment and its relation to health behaviour, and health management. Studies have shown that more males than females use drugs. There was also a high prevalence of blood-bourne virus diseases and sexually transmitted diseases among drug users. Two studies showed some genetic polymorphism (Cyp 3a4 gene and FAAH Pro129Thr) among heroin and amphetamine users respectively that may contribute to drug dependence. Study on pharmacological treatment for substance abuse were limited to methadone and it was shown to improve the quality of life of heroin dependant patients. Alternative treatments such as acupunture and spiritual approach play a role in the management of substance abuse. Data also showed that treatment centres for substance abuse are lacking facilities for screening, assessment and treatment for medical illness related to substance use, e.g. Hepatitis C and tuberculosis. Studies on the effectiveness of current drug rehabilitation centres were inconclusive.

  4. Aggression and recent substance abuse: absence of association in psychiatric emergency room patients.

    PubMed

    Dhossche, D M

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse has been linked to aggression in community and psychiatric samples. A retrospective chart review in 311 consecutive psychiatric emergency room patients was conducted to assess the association of substance abuse and aggression in an acute psychiatric setting. Various indices of substance abuse, including positive urine toxicology for alcohol, cocaine, and/or cannabis, were not associated with aggressive behavior. Patients with positive toxicology for cocaine were less frequently aggressive than cocaine-negative patients. Among aggressive patients, the presence of psychotic symptoms was the most important factor associated with admission. These findings suggest that aggression is not a common acute manifestation of recent substance abuse in psychiatric emergency room patients. Selection factors in this population and the specifics of an acute psychiatric setting may obscure the association, if any. Acute psychosis seems to have a more important role in this setting. Future studies should focus on the prevention and early treatment of aggression in psychotic emergency room patients.

  5. Healthy nations: reducing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    PubMed

    Noe, Tim; Fleming, Candace; Manson, Spero

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, 14 American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities have worked diligently to reduce the harm due to substance abuse in their communities. Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Healthy Nations Initiative I, these communities implemented creative strategies that span the continuum from community-wide prevention, early identification and treatment to aftercare. Drawing upon the unique strengths of their own cultural traditions to find solutions to local substance abuse problems, these efforts have identified important and useful lessons for not only other AIAN communities, but also for sponsors of substance abuse programming in Indian country and elsewhere. Described here are successful strategies for developing and sustaining substance abuse programs in AIAN communities and an assessment of their impacts and accomplishments.

  6. Ecologically based family therapy outcome with substance abusing runaway adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2005-04-01

    Runaway youth report a broader range and higher severity of substance-related, mental health and family problems relative to non-runaway youth. Most studies to date have collected self-report data on the family and social history; virtually no research has examined treatment effectiveness with this population. This study is a treatment development project in which 124 runaway youth were randomly assigned to (1) ecologically based family therapy (EBFT) or (2) service as usual (SAU) through a shelter. Youth completed an intake, posttreatment, 6 and 12 months follow-up assessment. Youth assigned to EBFT reported greater reductions in overall substance abuse compared to youth assigned to SAU while other problem areas improved in both conditions. Findings suggest that EBFT is an efficacious intervention for this relatively severe population of youth.

  7. Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?

    PubMed

    Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra

    2013-03-01

    A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.

  8. Nature and Utilization of Civil Commitment for Substance Abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Paul P; Pinals, Debra A; Stayton, Taylor; Sanders, Kellie; Blumberg, Lester

    2015-09-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although civil commitment has been used to address substance abuse for more than a century, little is known today about the nature and use of substance-related commitment laws in the United States. We examined statutes between July 2010 and October 2012 from all 50 states and the District of Columbia for provisions authorizing civil commitment of adults for substance abuse and recorded the criteria and evidentiary standard for commitment and the location and the maximum duration of commitment orders. High-level state representatives evaluated these data and provided information on the use of commitment. Thirty-three states have statutory provisions for the civil commitment of persons because of substance abuse. The application of these statutes ranged from a few commitment cases to thousands annually. Although dangerousness was the most common basis for commitment, many states permitted it in other contexts. The maximum duration of treatment ranged from less than 1 month to more than 1 year for both initial and subsequent civil commitment orders. These findings show wide variability in the nature and application of civil commitment statutes for substance abuse in the United States. Such diversity reflects a lack of consensus on the role that civil commitment should play in managing substance abuse and the problems associated with it.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  10. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  11. A Cross-Disciplinary Integrative Summary of Research on Workplace Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David A.

    This literature review surveys research on workplace substance abuse conducted in accordance with methodologically sound principles. It evaluates individual studies for the appropriateness of their designs, methods of substance detection, generalizability of findings, and the appropriateness of their conclusions. An attempt is made to determine…

  12. Does substance abuse fall exclusively along the externalizing spectrum?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-05-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that substance abuse has features of both an internalizing and externalizing disorder. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from 1,177 adjudicated delinquents supported a three-factor model (negative emotionality, fearlessness, and disinhibition) over alternate one- and two- (internalizing and externalizing) factor models; a second CFA indicated that self-reported offending and substance abuse formed separate dimensions rather than a single dimension. Correlating several temperament/personality indicators with measures of substance misuse and offending revealed that substance misuse was significantly more aligned with the internalizing dimension (i.e., negative emotionality) and significantly less aligned with the fearlessness externalizing dimension.

  13. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  15. Typewriter correction fluid inhalation: a new substance of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pointer, J

    1982-07-01

    The first known case of inhalation of liquid typewriter correction fluid (TCF) is reported. Respiratory exposure to TCF can produce coma and death. Treatment is mainly supportive. Clinicians should be alerted to this new form of substance abuse.

  16. Mobilizing communities to reduce substance abuse in Indian country.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bernard H

    2003-01-01

    The impact of substance abuse is notable on Indian reservations in the United States and in the border communities surrounding them. One Indian country community, McKinley County, New Mexico, developed and implemented a series of alcohol policy and programmatic reforms beginning in 1989 which have reduced the impact of substance abuse on this community. Learning from the McKinley County experience, Fremont County in Wyoming, home of the Wind River Indian Reservation, has implemented similar reforms. This article introduces the substance abuse reduction efforts and delineates specific innovations implemented in these communities. The influence that these two communities have had on changes in substance abuse policy and programming statewide in New Mexico and Wyoming is also reviewed.

  17. Using Administrative Data for Longitudinal Substance Abuse Research

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine E.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of administrative data in substance abuse research has become more widespread than ever. This selective review synthesizes recent extant research from 31 articles to consider what has been learned from using administrative data to conduct longitudinal substance abuse research in four overlapping areas: (1) service access and utilization, (2) underrepresented populations, (3) treatment outcomes, and (4) cost analysis. Despite several notable limitations, administrative data contribute valuable information, particularly in the investigation of service system interactions and outcomes among substance abusers as they unfold and influence each other over the long term. This critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of using existing administrative data within a longitudinal framework should stimulate innovative thinking regarding future applications of administrative data for longitudinal substance abuse research purposes. PMID:18679805

  18. Substance-Abuse and the Native American Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Susanna; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an overview of substance abuse, focusing on Native American students. Emphasizes school counselor intervention strategies and the counselor client relationship. Counselors must be aware of their own values and cultural attitudes in dealing with Indian students. (JAC)

  19. Substance Abuse and Hospitalization for Mood Disorder Among Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Akincigil, Ayse; Hoover, Donald R.; Walkup, James T.; Bilder, Scott; Crystal, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the influence of substance abuse with that of other comorbidities (e.g., anxiety, HIV) among people with mood disorder (N = 129 524) to explore risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization and early readmission within 3 months of discharge. Methods. After linking Medicaid claims data in 5 states (California, Florida, New Jersey, New York, and Texas) to community-level information, we used logistic and Cox regression to examine hospitalization risk factors. Results. Twenty-four percent of beneficiaries with mood disorder were hospitalized. Of these, 24% were rehospitalized after discharge. Those with comorbid substance abuse accounted for 36% of all baseline hospitalizations and half of all readmissions. Conclusions. Results highlight the need for increased and sustained funding for the treatment of comorbid substance abuse and mood disorder, and for enhanced partnership between mental health and substance abuse professionals. PMID:19008505

  20. Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kausch, Otto

    2003-12-01

    Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center. A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history of substance abuse or dependence was less common among gamblers aged 60 and above. In the year prior to admission, 58.1% of those with a history of substance abuse or dependence were actively using substances. Alcohol was the most commonly used substance, followed by marijuana and cocaine. In most gamblers with comorbid disorders, the onset of substance dependence preceded the onset of problem gambling. Pathological gamblers engaged in multiple impulsive and dysfunctional behaviors including suicide attempts, compulsive shopping and spending, and compulsive sexual behavior, and the presence of comorbid substance abuse disorders may influence the degree to which pathological gamblers engage in these additional problematic behaviors. These factors have important implications for treatment and prevention of relapse, as well as for theories of addictions.

  1. Substance abuse treatment participation and employment outcomes for public disability beneficiaries with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2007-07-01

    Quantitative research methods are used to examine the interaction among public disability benefit receipt, substance abuse, participation in substance abuse treatment, and employment among US adults. Using cross-sectional data from the 2002 and 2003 Survey on Drug Abuse and Health, the results demonstrate that disability beneficiaries who have substance use disorders are more likely to access treatment than persons with substance use disorders who are not beneficiaries. Results could not confirm, however, that those beneficiaries who access treatment are more likely to return to employment than those who do not access treatment.

  2. Substance abuse counselors' experiences with victims of incest.

    PubMed

    Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P

    2001-01-01

    Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.

  3. Estimating costs of mental health and substance abuse coverage.

    PubMed

    Frank, R G; McGuire, T G

    1995-01-01

    The cost of expanding mental health and substance abuse treatment coverage is a major impediment to reforming insurance coverage for these types of conditions. The recent experience with national health care reform offers a case study in cost estimation for mental health and substance abuse coverage. The impact of managed care and the cost of expanding coverage to currently uninsured persons introduced uncertainty into predictions. This paper critically reviews that experience and draws lessons for estimating future costs of policy initiatives.

  4. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  5. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  7. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  8. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  9. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  10. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  11. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  12. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  13. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  14. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  15. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment...

  16. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  17. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  18. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  19. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  20. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  2. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  3. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  4. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  5. 75 FR 47819 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment...

  6. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  7. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse... meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Testing...

  8. 75 FR 38112 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment...

  9. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  10. Substance Use Disorders and Adoption: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gihyun; Westermeyer, Joseph; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that adoptees have a higher rate of substance use disorders (SUDs) than nonadoptees. But these findings have not been verified with a population-based sample of adult adoptees in the United States. Also, no previous adoption study has measured the prevalence of each specific substance use disorder (SUD). We aimed to compare lifetime prevalence rates and odds ratios of SUDs in adopted and nonadopted adults. Methods and Findings The data come from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The main outcome measure was the prevalence of lifetime SUDs in adopted (n = 378) and nonadopted adults (n = 42503). Adoptees and nonadoptees were compared to estimate the odds of lifetime SUDs using logistic regression analysis. Adoptees had higher prevalence rates of lifetime SUDs than nonadoptees. Overall, adoptees had a 1.87-fold increase (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.51–2.31) in the odds of any lifetime SUD compared to nonadoptees. For each SUD, adoptees had higher odds for alcohol abuse/dependence (AOR 1.84), nicotine dependence (AOR 1.78), cannabis abuse/dependence (AOR 1.77), cocaine abuse/dependence (AOR 2.54), amphetamine abuse/dependence (AOR 3.14), hallucinogen abuse/dependence (AOR 2.85), opioid abuse/dependence (AOR 2.21), and other drug abuse/dependence (AOR 2.87) compared to nonadoptees. This study also identified two adoption-specific risk factors (Hispanic, never married) associated with any lifetime SUD. Conclusions This study demonstrated an increased risk of lifetime SUDs in adopted adults. The findings can be useful for clinicians and policy makers to provide education, prevention, and support for adoptees and their families. PMID:23166740

  11. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given.

  12. Gender Differences in Substance Dependence and Abuse. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…

  13. The use of SBIRT in substance abuse screening.

    PubMed

    Ladegast, Sherrie

    2016-10-20

    There are many barriers to screening for alcohol and drug abuse. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) principles can be used in identifying and helping patients with substance abuse problems. This article introduces SBIRT, discusses barriers to implementation, and reviews current practice recommendations.

  14. Gender Differences in Substance Dependence and Abuse. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…

  15. Substance Abuse, Clinical Needs, and Treatment Outcomes for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith A.; Peerson, Stacey

    Many women seek treatment for substance abuse problems during their child-bearing years. Evaluations of interventions for these women need to take into account other problems that women may have when they enter treatment. The effectiveness of residential treatment for women, some of whom reported a history of abuse and psychological problems, is…

  16. A Treatment Matching Model for Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chow S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation clients enter treatment for alcohol and other drug abuse at various stages of readiness to change. It is important that treatment should be congruent with clients' readiness for change. Describes a substance abuse treatment matching model based on the Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Theory. (Author)

  17. Deaths from abuse of volatile substances: a national epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H R; Macnair, R S; Ramsey, J D

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the United Kingdom detected 282 deaths from abuse of volatile substances during 1971-83. Deaths appeared to have increased in the most recent years, reaching 80 in 1983. Age at death ranged from 11 to 76 years but most deaths (72%) occurred under 20 years. Ninety five per cent of the subjects were male, and in 1983 deaths from volatile substance abuse accounted for 2% of all deaths in males aged 10-19. All areas of the United Kingdom were affected, the rates being highest in Scotland and urban areas. All social classes were affected, though rates were highest in social class V and the armed forces. The volatile substances abused were gas fuels (24%), mainly butane; aerosol sprays (17%); solvents in glues (27%); and other volatile substances, such as cleaning agents (31%). In 51% of cases death was attributed to the direct toxic effects of the substance abused, in 21% to plastic bag asphyxia, in 18% to inhalation of stomach contents, and in 11% to trauma. Deaths associated with the abuse of glues were more likely to be traumatic, but all substances appeared capable of killing directly by their toxic effects, probably by a cardiac mechanism. Only a small proportion of deaths (6%) were due to the abuse of glues among children under 16; hence current attempts to limit access of children to glues will probably have little impact on overall mortality. PMID:3917795

  18. An adolescent with a different substance abuse: case report.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Cicek

    2004-12-01

    From the beginning of history, it is a well known fact that some people admire to substances making them tipsy and stories about them were told and heard in everywhere and in every time. As shown in several studies, psychiatric disorders related to substance abuse especially in adolescents are becoming more prevalent in all countries including Turkey every year and this is another well-known reality of our time. There are many known psychoactive substances affecting the mental well being of young people and disturbing their social adaptation skills. Inhalants are the preferred psychoactive substances between the young people because of the factors making their abuse become widespread such as cheapness, ease of availability and frequent use in daily life. Here we report an adolescent with a different substance abuse.

  19. Fathers Entering Substance Abuse Treatment: An Examination of Substance Abuse, Trauma Symptoms and Parenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Hall, Chelsea; McMahon, Thomas J.; Easton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective The relationship between fatherhood and both psychiatric distress and severity of substance abuse (SA) among men entering SA treatment has not been well explored. This study was designed to (a) examine differences in symptoms of men presenting for SA assessment based on fatherhood status and (b) determine how PTSD symptoms and severity of SA were associated with parenting for men who were fathers. Methods PTSD symptoms, severity of SA and parenting data reported on structured questionnaires were collected from 126 men presenting for an SA evaluation at a forensic drug diversion clinic. Results There were no differences in severity of alcohol or drug use between fathers and non-fathers; however fathers with more PTSD symptoms reported greater severity of alcohol and drug use. Among the fathers, PTSD symptoms correlated significantly and positively with negative parenting behaviors, while SA did not. Fathers with more significant PTSD symptoms were more likely to want help with parenting. Conclusions Further exploration of the impact of trauma related symptoms on the parenting behaviors of substance-abusing men is warranted. PMID:22305235

  20. Mothers in substance abuse treatment: differences in characteristics based on involvement with child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse treatment. This paper compares the characteristics of mothers in substance abuse treatment who were and were not involved with child welfare services, and discusses the treatment implications of these differences. Data were obtained from a statewide treatment outcome monitoring project in California. Clients were assessed at treatment admission using the Addiction Severity Index. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were conducted comparing mothers who were (N=1,939) and were not (N=2,217) involved with child welfare. Mothers who were involved with child welfare were younger, had more children, and had more economic problems. They were more likely to be referred by the criminal justice system or other service providers, to have a history of physical abuse, and to be treated in outpatient programs. They had lower levels of alcohol severity, but did not differ with regard to psychiatric severity or criminal involvement. Primary users of methamphetamine were disproportionately represented among this group and had a distinct profile from primary alcohol- and opiate-users. Study findings suggest that mothers involved with child welfare enter substance abuse treatment through different avenues and present a clinical profile of treatment needs related to exposure to physical abuse, economic instability, and criminal justice involvement.

  1. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.

  2. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  3. Treatment of Substance Abusing Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological

  4. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  5. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  6. Substance abuse among adolescents in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Phagava, H; Bakashvili, I; Chanturishvili, T; Abashidze, G; Pagava, K

    2006-05-01

    To estimate the substance abuse and thus assess the basic indicators of health risk behavior of the adolescents in Georgia: frequencies of their tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was adapted from the Swiss Survey (SMASH2002), translated into Georgian and other languages mainly used in schools (Russian, Armenian and Azeri). It contained 87 questions. Two-stage cluster sampling was devised. Weight was adjusted. A total of 599 classes were selected. Field work took place in 2004. All questionnaires (n=9499; 56,8% filled out by girls, 39,6% - by boys; the mean age was 15,5+/-1,1 years) before being processed into the Epidata were edited. The final data were analysed by SPSS 11.0. 10,4% of adolescents have reported to smoke. The average age of starting to smoke is 13,4 years. 61,2% girls and 67.8% boys drink vine. 56,7% out of the total number of respondents claimed to have been never drunk, 30,0% - answered positively. 2,3% said that they had intravenous drug injection. The drug of preference is cannabis - 6,8%. 72,2% of those who have had intravenous drug injections answered positively to the question "Have you ever been really drunk?" Performed survey is a first one done among adolescents in Georgia. It gave us basic information for planning and implementation of necessary measures in order to improve the health of adolescents and raise awareness of professionals involved in health care and prevention settings for adolescents.

  7. Alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, and entry into substance abuse treatment among Alaska Native people.

    PubMed

    Running Bear, Ursula; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Tool for Assessing a Community's Capacity for Substance Abuse Care.

    PubMed

    Green, Brandn; Lyerla, Rob; Stroup, Donna F; Azofeifa, Alejandro; High, Patrick M

    2016-09-22

    Evidence-based programs for prevention and intervention in substance abuse are increasing. Community needs assessments and health rankings provide descriptions of local behavioral health needs but do not provide public health practitioners and policy makers with guidelines on the number of programs, health care practitioners, or interventions needed in the local substance abuse care system. This article presents a new framework for measuring and assessing the substance abuse care system in a community. The assessment can inform resource allocation across the continuum of care to more equitably and efficiently distribute interventions and care. We conducted 2 literature reviews and synthesized our findings to create a community assessment methodology and needs calculator, CAST (calculating for an adequate system tool). We reviewed 212 articles to produce an inventory of community and social correlates of behavioral health, components of a substance abuse care system, and numerical values for guidelines for estimating community needs. CAST produces community-specific assessments of the capacity of the components of a community substance abuse care system. CAST generates recommendations by the application of social and community determinants of health as risk coefficients to each estimate of component need. CAST can assist public health practitioners in evaluation and improvement of the capacity of community-based, substance abuse care systems. By using recommendations for component needs across the continuum of care, community leaders can use CAST to prioritize resource allocation more effectively and efficiently.

  9. A Tool for Assessing a Community’s Capacity for Substance Abuse Care

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, Rob; Stroup, Donna F.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; High, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for prevention and intervention in substance abuse are increasing. Community needs assessments and health rankings provide descriptions of local behavioral health needs but do not provide public health practitioners and policy makers with guidelines on the number of programs, health care practitioners, or interventions needed in the local substance abuse care system. This article presents a new framework for measuring and assessing the substance abuse care system in a community. The assessment can inform resource allocation across the continuum of care to more equitably and efficiently distribute interventions and care. We conducted 2 literature reviews and synthesized our findings to create a community assessment methodology and needs calculator, CAST (calculating for an adequate system tool). We reviewed 212 articles to produce an inventory of community and social correlates of behavioral health, components of a substance abuse care system, and numerical values for guidelines for estimating community needs. CAST produces community-specific assessments of the capacity of the components of a community substance abuse care system. CAST generates recommendations by the application of social and community determinants of health as risk coefficients to each estimate of component need. CAST can assist public health practitioners in evaluation and improvement of the capacity of community-based, substance abuse care systems. By using recommendations for component needs across the continuum of care, community leaders can use CAST to prioritize resource allocation more effectively and efficiently. PMID:27657505

  10. Identifying United States substance abuse treatment programs: a test in one mid-sized city.

    PubMed

    Carise, Deni; McLellan, A Thomas; Festinger, David S; Kleber, Herbert D

    2004-06-01

    An accurate national listing of substance abuse treatment programs is essential for reporting data about the nation's treatment system and the clients entering that system. The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (NSSATS) is thought to provide the most comprehensive list of treatment providers. Therefore, we report a partial test of the concurrent validity of the NSSATS in a single mid-sized city. Using operational definitions of "substance abuse treatment" and "substance abuse treatment programs" derived from prior work by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; and working within the defined geographic boundaries of a single, mid-sized city, we compared the NSSATS list with an independently developed compilation of programs from 5 sources: (1) the Yellow Pages; (2) the Internet Infospace Directory; (3) a State directory of licensed substance abuse treatment services; (4) the Office of Applied Studies Directory; (5) the National Master Facility Inventory. With all sources, including NSSATS, we identified 96 separate listings that met the operational definition of adult treatment within the geographic bounds of the city. The NSSATS identified 70 of those 96 programs (73%), the 5-source compilation identified a sample of 83 (86%). While these findings from a single city cannot be considered a full test of the validity of the NSSATS, the data presented offer at least one partial but promising indication that the NSSATS may be a valid national listing and may serve as satisfactory national frame.

  11. Experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance abuse puts a burden on the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals and their families, particularly parents. Parents of substance-abusing young people are in need of professional or informal support and information. Potential and easy accessible sources are support groups. We explored the experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups regarding several topics related to the substance-abuse of their son or daughter, the impact on their lives and their views on social support. Methods In this small-scale qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, we interviewed parents of substance-abusing young people focusing on their experiences concerning having a substance-abusing relative and attending the support group. Results All parents displayed feelings of stress and strain. They appeared to be highly satisfied with their participation in a support group. The expert status and knowledge of the facilitator and the provision of accurate information in the support group was also much appreciated. They were however dissatisfied by the attitude and knowledge of their GP. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parents benefit from joining support groups, particularly in terms of emotional and social support and the practical information they received. PMID:22958797

  12. Substance Abuse Prevention: Maine's 1997 Data Report. County Profiles on Risk and Protection for Substance Abuse Prevention Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Augusta.

    This document presents uniformly collected data for the State of Maine and each of its counties on selected known risk factors for alcohol and drug abuse and the prevalence of substance abuse-related problems. A "Read Me First" section presents the state's approach to prevention. Information is provided on risk and protective factors,…

  13. Depression and anxiety in young children of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P M; Greco-Vigorito, C; Coil, G; Moore-Russell, M; Avaltroni, J

    1997-06-01

    144 5- to 13-yr.-old children of substance abusers, enrolled in an expressive arts therapy program, were tested for depression on the Children's Depression Inventory and for anxiety on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale prior to treatment. Total scores for anxiety were significantly higher for girls than for boys; however, total depression scores did not differ between boys and girls. Analysis of subscale scores on each of the tests indicated several sex differences. Age was positively correlated with certain symptoms of depression for boys but not for girls. Conversely, age was negatively correlated with certain symptoms of anxiety for boys but not for girls. When compared to known norms for these assessments, girls scored significantly higher on total Depression but not differently than normals on total Anxiety. Boys, however, scored significantly lower on total Anxiety but did not score differently than normals on total Depression. We interpreted these findings as indicating that young children of substance abusers may be at risk for certain symptoms of anxiety and depression following their parents' addiction. Also, these symptoms may be manifest differently by boys and girls of various ages.

  14. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

  15. Early Adolescent Substance Use/Abuse in Rural Northern Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.

    Basic research and programs in substance abuse dealing directly with rural and small town populations lag far behind those aimed at urban groups, in both quality and quantity. A study was conducted to identify factors related to substance use by a preadolescent and early adolescent rural and small town population. Data were collected from 496…

  16. Building Collaboration in Substance Abuse Treatment and Vocational Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Moore, Lucas C.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the perceived external and internal issues that may have an effect on collaborative ventures designed to provide vocational rehabilitation services to persons with substance use disorders. Participants in the study were professionals from substance abuse (SA) treatment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies in 1 state…

  17. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Client Motivation among Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Richard C.; Li, Li; Siegal, Harvey A.; DeLiberty, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of motivation in substance abusers' acceptance of treatment and its relation to treatment outcomes. Better motivation was consistently associated with severity of substance use. Motivation was not related to alcohol and drug use severity six months later. Severity associated with motivation at entry was not related to clients'…

  18. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

  19. School/Community-Based Alcoholism/Substance Abuse Prevention Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken; And Others

    This report describes school and community efforts to prevent alcoholism and substance abuse among American Indian and Alaskan Native youth. In 1986, the Indian Health Service (IHS) surveyed Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, public schools with large Indian enrollments, and community groups involved in 225 IHS-funded alcohol and substance abuse…

  20. Psychometric modeling of abuse and dependence symptoms across six illicit substances indicates novel dimensions of misuse

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shaunna L.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explored the factor structure of DSM III-R/IV symptoms for substance abuse and dependence across six illicit substance categories in a population-based sample of males. Method DSM III-R/IV drug abuse and dependence symptoms for cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opioids and hallucinogens from 4179 males born 1940-1970 from the population-based Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses tested specific hypotheses regarding the latent structure of substance misuse for a comprehensive battery of 13 misuse symptoms measured across six illicit substance categories (78 items). Results Among the models fit, the latent structure of substance misuse was best represented by a combination of substance-specific factors and misuse symptom-specific factors. We found no support for a general liability factor to illicit substance misuse. Conclusions Results indicate that liability to misuse illicit substances is drug class specific, with little evidence for a general liability factor. Additionally, unique dimensions capturing propensity toward specific misuse symptoms (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) across substances were identified. While this finding requires independent replication, the possibility of symptom-specific misuse factors, present in multiple substances, raises the prospect of genetic, neurobiological and behavioral predispositions toward distinct, narrowly defined features of drug abuse and dependence. PMID:26517709

  1. Hispanic Youth, Substance Abuse, and Stress: Implications for Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Moncher, Michael S.; Palleja, Josephine; Zayas, Luis H.; Schilling, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents are the fastest growing ethnic-minority age group in America. They are also at high risk for drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. In this paper, the authors discuss the etiology of Hispanic adolescents’ substance abuse, as explained in part by psychological stress. Based on the authors’ research and on other data, a model for preventing substance abuse among Hispanic youths is presented. The model draws from coping, acculturation, social learning, and informal network theories. Concluding with a research agenda, the paper calls for descriptive, correlative, and intervention outcome studies to scientifically understand and prevent substance use among Hispanic adolescents. PMID:3066765

  2. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  3. Advances in genetic studies of substance abuse in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Meng, Shiqiu; Li, Jiali; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Summary The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China; these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described. PMID:24991158

  4. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  5. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  6. [Substance abuse and the emergency department: a current problem].

    PubMed

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, heroin, cocaine and benzodiazepines, in that order, are the most common substance addictions in Spain. The medical problems caused both by chronic medical pathologies associated with their consumption and by overdoses and withdrawal syndromes, are frequently seen in emergency departments. Knowledge of substance abuse and addiction--how it is caused, the behaviour and pathology it produces--are essential to enable nurses to determine the attitudes to adopt the skills necessary to manage patients with problems of substance.

  7. Substance Abuse Prevalence and Treatment Among Latinos and Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Josefina; Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Davis, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Substance abuse prevalence rates for Latinos/as generally mirror those of the general U.S. population; however, a number of indicators of assimilation to U.S. culture as well as sociodemographic variables predict substance use and abuse among this group. Latinos/as have poorer outcomes in substance abuse treatment programs. Yet there is little empirical evidence that explains the problems these individuals experience in treatment, and there are few studies on the use and effectiveness of mutual help groups among this population. New developments in the conceptualization and measurement of acculturation will lead to a greater understanding of the role of culture in the prevalence and treatment of substance-related problems. PMID:18192207

  8. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUD) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse – psychiatric medication interactions may be enhanced. Since this type of drug-drug interaction has received little attention in the scientific literature, we conducted a systematic literature search examining the potential interactive adverse effects between psychotropic medications and substances of abuse in youth. Regardless of the scarcity of psychotropic medications - substance of abuse interactions found, it is important to stay vigilant due to the continued introduction of new classes of medications as well as the ever-changing map of street drugs. PMID:20391270

  9. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  10. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This survey, monitoring levels of substance abuse in the United States, serves as a tool for researchers and policymakers to better understand and control substance abuse problems. It provides information on 25,500 participants' use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the civilian, noninstutionalized population. Trends for the years,…

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  12. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    PubMed

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  13. Frequency of Substance Abuse Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. Goals: To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. Results: To the question “How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days” about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Conclusion: Presented

  14. Criminally violent victimisation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the relationship to symptoms and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mairead C; Castle, David; McGregor, Kate

    2012-06-18

    Violent victimisation among people with major mental illness is well-documented but the risk factors for criminal violent victimisation are not well understood. We examined the relationship between illness-related variables, indices of substance abuse and previous history of violence in a sample of 23 male criminally violently victimized and 69 non-criminally violently victimized male patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder that were resident in the community and in contact with public mental health services in Victoria Australia. Data on criminal victimisation was acquired from the police database. Demographic, a history of violence or illness-related variables did not distinguish between those had been the victim of a violent crime and those who had not. Our data indicated that drug abuse was a key factor in distinguishing between the groups, but the age of onset of substance abuse was not a significant factor. Scores on measures of drug abuse were modest predictors of criminal victimisation status in our Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses. Overall, our findings suggest that substance abuse (particularly drug abuse) is a key predictor of violent victimisation based on criminal statistics. The latter has implications for mental health professions involved in the care planning and community management of patients with major mental illness and work points to the importance of substance abuse treatment in the prevention of victimisation as well as violence perpetration.

  15. The Administrative Control System of Substance Abuse Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    Objective This article searches for the dimensions of the administrative structures in outpatient substance abuse managed care that control the behavior of agency providers. It also ascertains how these dimensions, and several financial mechanisms, affect key aspects of the providers services: the average number of sessions of care that are delivered, the rate of completion of care, and the (estimated) rate at which clients control their substance use. Data Sources The data were collected in 1999 for this investigation. Study Design These data come from a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of individual contracts between outpatient drug treatment providers and the Behavioral Health Managed Care Organizations (BHMCOs) that are empowered to regulate the delivery of services. Provider responses are analyzed here. Data Collection Methods Factor analyses at a contract level examine the structural dimensions of the control system. Multivariate analyses at the same level rely on generalized linear models to predict the dependent variables by the structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. Findings The factor analyses suggest that there are six multiple variable structural dimensions. The multivariate analyses suggest that the dimension that mandates follow-up of discharged clients tends to relate to more sessions of care and perhaps a higher rate of service completion. Most other dimensions are found to relate to fewer sessions of care, lower rates of service completion, or lower rates of control of substance abuse. No structural dimension relates to all dependent variables. Financial mechanisms evince varying relations to the sessions of care. They rarely relate to the other dependent variables. Conclusion The results generally suggest that providers, payers, or policymakers might affect service provision by selecting BHMCOs that stress particular structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. However, managed care contracts most heavily rely on

  16. Patterns of organization and management in private and public substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Roman, Paul M; Ducharme, Lori J; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2006-10-01

    As an organizational field, substance abuse treatment clearly includes a remarkable range of organizations. Yet only in the past two decades has there been research interest in the organizational context in which treatment is delivered. The goal of this article is to promote the concept of organizational field by summarizing findings from an ongoing research program and by examining the organizational structure, service delivery, and patterns of innovation adoption in two large samples of substance abuse treatment programs in the United States. Among highlighted findings, there are notable differences between the public and private sectors in structural and staffing characteristics, as well as in the characteristics of clients receiving substance abuse treatment. With regard to the use of evidence-based practices, our findings suggest that pharmacotherapies are more likely to be adopted in private centers, whereas notably effective voucher approaches are more common in public centers. Future research directions are discussed.

  17. Intentions to quit smoking among youth in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Prochaska, Judith J.; Myers, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking cessation interventions for adolescents in substance abuse treatment have shown promise. However, a better understanding of the correlates of substance use disordered (SUD) youths' intentions toward smoking cessation will help tailor cessation interventions to this population. The current study examined tobacco use, smoking-related self-efficacy, substance use and intentions to quit using alcohol and illicit drugs as correlates of intentions to quit smoking among youth in SUD treatment. Methods: Participants were 178 adolescents who were in inpatient (n=90) or outpatient (n= 88) SUD treatment and had smoked at least once in the past 30 days. The sample was 44% female, 72% non-Hispanic Caucasian, with a mean age of 16.2 years (SD=1.2). Participants rated the likelihood that they would be nonsmokers in the next year (9-point scale). Results: SUD youth intention to quit smoking averaged 4.9 out of 10 (SD=3.2), comparable to intention to quit drinking (M=5.3, SD=3.6), but lower than their intention to quit using drugs (M=6.0, SD=3.4). Teens' intentions to quit smoking were associated with nicotine dependence (r=−.30, p<.01) and smoking-cessation related self-efficacy (r=.36, p<.01), but not with pretreatment substance use severity (r=−.15). Controlling for nicotine dependence, teens' intentions to quit smoking were positively related to smoking cessation self-efficacy (pr=.26, p<.01) and intention to quit using illicit drugs (pr=.15, p<.05), but unrelated to intention to quit drinking. Discussion: Findings highlight the appropriateness of addressing adolescent tobacco use during SUD treatment, but emphasize the importance of assessing intention and other cognitions for each substance, as they may differ markedly. PMID:19699041

  18. Community partnership to affect substance abuse among Native American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Liang, Huigang; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim; Elder, Tribal

    2012-09-01

    Substance abuse is one of the nation's primary health concerns. Native American youth experience higher rates of substance abuse than other youth. There is little empirical evidence that exists concerning the use of culturally-based interventions among Native American adolescents. This study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate an innovative school-based cultural intervention targeting substance abuse among a Native American adolescent population. A two-condition quasi-experimental study design was used to compare the Cherokee Talking Circle (CTC) culturally-based intervention condition (n = 92) with the Be A Winner Standard Education (SE) condition (n = 87). Data were collected at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 90-day post-intervention using the Cherokee Self-Reliance Questionnaire, Global Assessment of Individual Needs - Quick, and Written Stories of Stress measures. Significant improvements were found among all measurement outcomes for the CTC culturally-based intervention. The data provide evidence that a Native American adolescent culturally-based intervention was significantly more effective for the reduction of substance abuse and related problems than a noncultural-based intervention. This study suggests that cultural considerations may enhance the degree to which specific interventions address substance abuse problems among Native American adolescents.

  19. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE... abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites....

  20. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE... abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites....

  1. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE... abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites....

  2. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE... abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites....

  3. Treating Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…

  4. Newborn Patients of Mothers with Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Albersheim, Susan G.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to identify high-risk women abusing drugs in order to provide good care for them and their babies. These infants require close observation after birth for perinatal complications withdrawal, long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities (even with drug use only early in pregnancy), and sudden infant death syndrome. The degree of withdrawal is not an indicator of outcome. Early involvement of Child Protective Services is important for this group, at risk for abuse and neglect. PMID:21228966

  5. Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail.

  6. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment.

  7. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  8. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  9. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  10. Neuropsychological consequences of volatile substance abuse: a population based study of secondary school pupils.

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, O.; Anderson, R.; Bland, M.; Ramsey, J.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of volatile substance abuse on neuropsychological functioning. DESIGN--A sample of index children and matched controls were identified by a two stage procedure. Firstly, over 5000 secondary school pupils completed a screening questionnaire, and, secondly, a sample of those who acknowledged volatile substance abuse and a matched sample of those who denied the practice were assessed in detail by means of (a) individually conducted interviews and (b) toxicological examination of breath samples (to exclude those intoxicated at the time of testing). SETTING--16 Local education authority secondary schools in London. SUBJECTS--160 Pupils aged 13-16: 80 index children who had abused volatile substances to the point of intoxication at least once (confirmed by interview) and 80 controls (confirmed by interview) matched for school year, sex, and ethnic background. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Neuropsychological functioning tests provided 35 main outcome measures and were administered blind. Data on educational test performance before substance abuse began were obtained retrospectively. Information on potentially confounding social factors, such as number of siblings, tenure of housing, and parents' socioeconomic and employment state was also obtained. The index children performed significantly less well than the controls in tests of vocabulary, verbal intelligence quotient, full scale intelligence quotient, and a measure of impulsivity. When background social disadvantage was taken into account these differences were no longer significant. There were no significant associations between performance on psychological testing and frequency of abuse, and relations with other aspects of the children's history of abuse were generally weak or unsystematic. Comparisons between the results of these tests and of educational tests taken before substance abuse produced equivocal findings. CONCLUSION--Volatile substance abuse, as commonly practised by

  11. Psychiatric and anesthetic implications of substance abuse: Present scenario

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Neeru; Kaur, Gagandeep; Attri, Joginder Pal; Singh, Manjit; Thakur, Millind; Jain, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse has crossed all social, economic, and geographic borders and is spreading its fangs in each and every sphere of society irrespective of age, gender, caste, creed, and religion. These days, we encounter several patients of substance dependence who visit different hospitals for elective surgical procedures or in emergency (e.g., roadside accidents and with various complications associated with substance abuse). These patients at that time may be either addicted to them or are intoxicated by them or on de addiction treatment. Acute or chronic use of these drugs affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, renal, hematological, and hepatic system variably in individuals thus due to diverse clinical presentations a complete understanding of the path physiology and anesthetic implications of drug abuse is essential to tailor a safe anesthetic plan for these high-risk group of patients. PMID:26712964

  12. Substance abuse intervention for health care workers: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Chang, I; Gregory, C

    2000-05-01

    The Workplace Managed Care Cooperative Agreement project targets 3,300 health care professionals in hospital, specialty clinic, and primary care settings located in metropolitan New Mexico communities. This project will evaluate whether enhancements to existing substance abuse prevention/early intervention programs can prevent the onset of risky drinking, reduce prevalence of risky drinking, better identify employees who abuse alcohol and drugs, and improve employee wellness. This article describes one such enhancement (Project WISE [Workplace Initiative in Substance Education]), implemented at Lovelace Health Systems. Project WISE includes relatively low-cost elements such as substance abuse awareness training, information on how to reduce drinking, and brief motivational counseling. Evaluation will consist of baseline comparisons of the intervention and comparison sites, a process evaluation, a qualitative analysis using focus groups, and an outcome evaluation using health and work records. Methodological challenges, solutions, and implications for researchers undertaking similar projects are presented.

  13. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    PubMed

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  14. Screening for sexually transmitted infections in substance abuse treatment programs

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane M.; Finley, Erin P.; Braslins, Phillip G.; Christiansen, Demian; Horton, Nicholas J.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the prevalence of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia and gonorrhea in clients at a methadone maintenance program and a residential detoxification program. Methods We collected urine specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing and assessed sexual, substance abuse and STI histories. Results Of 700 subject assessments, 490 occurred among detoxification clients and 210 in methadone maintenance. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 5/700 (0.9, 95% CI = 0.1–1.8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in none. All chlamydia infected subjects were recruited from the detoxification program. Subjects reported high risk sexual behavior: 17% reported commercial sex exchange, and 22% reported inconsistent condom use with multiple sexual partners during the prior 2 months. Conclusion Based on prevalence in Boston, MA, universal screening for STI in substance abuse treatments programs is not warranted. However, routine screening for younger substance abusers and in communities with high prevalence should be considered. PMID:12681529

  15. [Treatment program for dual-diagnosis substance abusers].

    PubMed

    Kandel, Isack

    2007-01-01

    Dual-diagnosis mentally ill patients, i.e. those characterized with substance abuse problems combined with mental health problems, are a challenge both for systems treating substance abusers and for mental health services. These patients are not easily integrated in either of these healthcare systems and/or are treated only for one aspect of their problem by each of these systems. For such patients it is necessary to create a separate treatment model, combining care of the problem of substance abuse and attention to the patient's mental pathology, according to his individual personality traits. For purposes of this programme a treatment setting operating on the model of a therapeutic community is proposed. This setting will open an affiliated treatment programme for dual-diagnosed patients in a separate treatment programme that is not part of the therapeutic community but will be affiliated with it and will accept dual-diagnosis patients.

  16. Substance abuse integration in nursing education: an innovative collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Patricia D

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a 3-year faculty development project, the Nursing School Education Collaborative (NSEC), implemented in four baccalaureate schools of nursing. The focus of the NSEC was to strengthen educational programs through faculty development and curriculum integration in the area of substance abuse and addictions education. A comprehensive needs assessment process is outlined, and faculty development and curriculum integration activities are detailed. Faculty development has resulted in significant improvements in each school's substance abuse curriculum. Outcomes at each participating school have included continuing education activities, acquisition of additional teaching resources, the development of an integration model, and increased curriculum and clinical contact hours. With the increasing recognition of substance abuse as a number one public health problem and nursing as a major health workforce, this project serves as a model for replication.

  17. Psychiatric and anesthetic implications of substance abuse: Present scenario.

    PubMed

    Bala, Neeru; Kaur, Gagandeep; Attri, Joginder Pal; Singh, Manjit; Thakur, Millind; Jain, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse has crossed all social, economic, and geographic borders and is spreading its fangs in each and every sphere of society irrespective of age, gender, caste, creed, and religion. These days, we encounter several patients of substance dependence who visit different hospitals for elective surgical procedures or in emergency (e.g., roadside accidents and with various complications associated with substance abuse). These patients at that time may be either addicted to them or are intoxicated by them or on de addiction treatment. Acute or chronic use of these drugs affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, renal, hematological, and hepatic system variably in individuals thus due to diverse clinical presentations a complete understanding of the path physiology and anesthetic implications of drug abuse is essential to tailor a safe anesthetic plan for these high-risk group of patients.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Levy, Sharon

    2014-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders are inextricably intertwined. Children with ADHD are more likely than peers to develop substance use disorders. Treatment with stimulants may reduce the risk of substance use disorders, but stimulants are a class of medication with significant abuse and diversion potential. The objectives of this clinical report were to present practical strategies for reducing the risk of substance use disorders in patients with ADHD and suggestions for safe stimulant prescribing. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Comparing male and female juveniles charged with homicide: child maltreatment, substance abuse, and crime details.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-04-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.

  20. Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Smock, Sara A; Trepper, Terry S; Wetchler, Joseph L; McCollum, Eric E; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to determine therapeutic effectiveness. Clients in the solution-focused group significantly improved on both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire. The clients in the comparison group did not improve significantly on either measure. Therapist skill level and adherence to theoretical models were measured in each group to reduce confounding variables.

  1. Cultural Accommodation of Substance Abuse Treatment for Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Martinez, Charles; Hops, Hyman; Wrona, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Collaborating with community stakeholders is an often suggested step when integrating cultural variables into psychological treatments for members of ethnic minority groups. However, there is a dearth of literature describing how to accomplish this process within the context of substance abuse treatment studies. This paper describes a qualitative study conducted through a series of focus groups with stakeholders in the Latino community. Data from focus groups were used by researchers to guide the integration of cultural variables into an empirically-supported substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents currently being evaluated for efficacy. A model for culturally accommodating empirically-supported treatments for ethnic minority participants is also described. PMID:21888499

  2. Substance of abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse, which we previously reviewed, is updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse that are known to cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

  3. Substances of abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse which we previously reviewed are updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse which cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PMID:23030352

  4. Sexual abuse, parental bonding, social support, and program retention for women in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M; Cortez-Ison, E

    1999-03-01

    Residential programs that provide safe environments and child care can attract perinatal women into treatment. Other factors, however, may prevent some women from benefiting from these programs. Attachment theory suggests that one's early history determines the effectiveness with which one can utilize available social supports. Lower levels of program retention were predicted for women who had been sexually abused and for those who had poor early bonding. Eighty-four women in residential substance abuse treatment programs were studied. Clients who reported sexual abuse also reported lower parental care. Parental care and overprotection were inversely related, and related, in predicted directions, to perceptions of social supports. Sexual abuse alone was associated with time in treatment and the likelihood of graduation. Implications for developing effective counseling programs for women in substance abuse treatment are discussed.

  5. Behavioral couples and family therapy for substance abusers.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William

    2002-10-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) sees the substance-abusing patient with the spouse to arrange a daily "sobriety contract" in which the patient states his or her intent not to drink or use drugs, and the spouse expresses support for the patient's efforts to stay abstinent. For patients taking a recovery-related medication (eg, disulfiram, naltrexone), daily medication ingestion witnessed and verbally reinforced by the spouse also is part of the contract. Behavioral couples therapy also teaches communication and increases positive activities. Findings of the past few years have added considerably to the evidence base showing that BCT produces greater abstinence and better relationship functioning than typical individual-based treatment; BCT also reduces social costs and domestic violence. Noteworthy recent advances have extended the positive effects of BCT to women drug abusers, showed the indirect benefits of BCT for the couple's children, expanded BCT to include family members other than spouses, integrated BCT with pharmacotherapy, and started to address barriers to technology transfer.

  6. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  7. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

  8. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

  9. Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report takes a comprehensive look at the connections between alcohol, drug use, and sex. Two national data sets on more than 34,000 teenagers and two sets on arrested and incarcerated sex offenders were analyzed. A review of the literature, interviews with experts, and an examination of programs aimed at prevention of abuse were included in…

  10. Vocational Rehabilitation in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlan, Bonna; Brostrand, H. L.; Benshoff, John J.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that those who undergo treatment for alcohol and other drug abuse largely have poor work histories and low employment rates, regardless of their education. Relapse rates for individuals in recovery increase when unemployment remains a constant in their lives. Consequently, providing vocational services during treatment may be a…

  11. Meeting the substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women: implications from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT) women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1) examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2) make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.

  12. Substance abuse treatment readmission patterns of Asian Americans: comparisons with other ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.

  13. The need for evidence-based research ethics: a review of the substance abuse literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily E; DuBois, James M

    2007-01-12

    Participants in substance abuse research may be vulnerable for multiple reasons. International research ethics guidelines and policy statements require that researchers provide extra protections when conducting research with vulnerable subjects, but it is uncertain which measures best protect vulnerable individuals. Concerns about vulnerability have been translated into only the vaguest regulatory requirements, and very little empirical data exist to guide researchers and ethics review committee members who want to protect participants. This article reviews two bodies of substance abuse research ethics literature. First, "normative" articles, that is, articles that discuss ethical issues that may arise in substance abuse research, are discussed. The resulting taxonomy of ethical issues then guides a review of empirical studies on issues like the informed consent process and the use of financial incentives in substance abuse research. While the ethical issues in substance abuse research are numerous and well-documented, the evidentiary base for addressing these issues is inadequate. If any one major theme emerged from the existing studies, it is that many well-intentioned, protectionist concerns--about recruitment incentives, consent comprehension, and drug administration studies--are not supported by empirical data. While these findings are at best tentative, they suggest how research on research ethics might ultimately benefit participants.

  14. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, A James

    2010-07-05

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  15. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  16. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes.

  17. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Mustapić, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68) who worked in Centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18) in Croatia. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  18. Talking about friends, drugs, and change: meanings of friendship in substance abusers' change talk.

    PubMed

    Sarpavaara, Harri

    2014-05-01

    This article explores the meanings of substance-abusing clients attach to friendships during motivational treatment sessions in Probation Service. Sessions (98) were videotaped in 12 probation service offices in Finland in 2007 to 2009. By using semiotic framework, this qualitative study examines client's change talk utterance about friendships as a symbolic sign. The findings indicate that the friendships play an important role in the substance-abusing clients' motivation to change and in their treatment outcome. The study suggests that the personal meanings of clients' utterances in motivational treatment sessions could be seen as potential predictors of their future behavior.

  19. Barriers to substance abuse treatment in rural and urban communities: counselor perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare rural and urban substance abuse counselors' perceptions of barriers to providing effective treatment services. Data were collected from 28 substance abuse counselors in Kentucky during four focus group sessions in 2008. Line-by-line coding and memoing were used by two raters on the transcribed data to isolate findings. The results of this study suggest that, though rural and urban counselors encounter similar constraints that hamper successful treatment outcomes, rural counselors are subject to special circumstances within their communities that present unique challenges to treatment efficacy. Novel contributions, implications, and limitations are also discussed.

  20. Interagency collaboration: Strengthening substance abuse resources in child welfare.

    PubMed

    He, Amy S; Phillips, Jon

    2017-02-01

    Supporting child welfare (CW) workers' ability to accurately assess substance abuse needs and link families to appropriate services is critical given the high prevalence of parental substance use disorders (SUD) among CW-involved cases. Several barriers hinder this process, including CW workers' lack of expertise for identifying SUD needs and scarcity of treatment resources. Drawing from theories and emergent literature on interagency collaboration, this study examined the role of collaboration in increasing the availability of resources for identifying and treating SUDs in CW agencies. Using data from the second cohort of families from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, study findings highlight a lack of SUD resources available to CW workers. On the other hand, the availability of SUD resources was increased when CW agencies had a memorandum of understanding, co-location of staff, and more intense collaboration with drug and alcohol service (DAS) providers. These results provide evidence to support efforts to improve collaboration between CW and DAS providers and showcase specific collaboration strategies to implement in order to improve service delivery.

  1. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children's Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample.

    PubMed

    Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children's exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse.

  2. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421

  3. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substance abuse and cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R J; Wilson, W H

    1991-03-01

    This paper reviews acute and chronic effects of drugs of abuse on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism and their clinical significance. The most important source of information for the review is human research reports published in refereed journals. A few animal studies, book chapters, and abstracts that are especially relevant are also included. In humans, ethanol in small doses produces cerebral vasodilation; higher doses induce cerebral vasoconstriction. Chronic alcoholism is associated with reduced CBF and cerebral metabolism. Sedatives and antianxiety drugs lead to global reduction in CBF and cerebral metabolism. Caffeine, even in small doses, is a potent cerebral vasoconstrictor. Cerebral vasodilation is seen immediately after cigarette smoking, but chronic smokers show global reduction in CBF. Changes in CBF after marijuana smoking are variable; both increases and decreases are seen. Chronic marijuana smoking, however, seems to reduce CBF. Most inhalants and solvents are vasodilators; chronic abuse is accompanied by a decrease in CBF. A number of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine-phenylpropanolamine combinations, increase the risk for stroke. Reduction in CBF associated with chronic use of ethanol, nicotine, inhalants, and solvents is at least partially reversible upon abstinence. Topics for future research include regional brain function, which mediates drug-induced mood changes (euphoria); CBF concomitants of psychological and physiological characteristics that increase addiction potential; changes in CBF that accompany withdrawal syndromes; mechanisms responsible for drug-induced stroke; and effects of functional and organic complications on CBF.

  5. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment...

  6. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  7. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... to live in health and happiness. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... public health and safety reforms. We have invested in outreach programs that empower young Americans with... dangers of substance abuse. Alongside them, coalitions of teachers, faith-based groups, health...

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  9. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  10. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  11. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  12. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  13. Hope-Focused Interventions in Substance Abuse Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John

    2012-01-01

    Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…

  14. Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…

  15. Adolescent substance abuse treatment: Organizational change and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine; Henderson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues impacted treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement initiatives. PMID:23750096

  16. Adolescent substance abuse treatment: Organizational change and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues impacted treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement initiatives.

  17. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  18. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  19. Software for Substance Abuse Education: A Critical Review of Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Dave

    This document provides critical reviews of 18 computer software programs designed to provide some form of substance abuse education for students in elementary and secondary schools. Evaluation and review procedures used to create this publication are discussed in the introduction and the products which were evaluated are listed. Overall results of…

  20. Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…