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Sample records for substance exposure prevention

  1. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aims This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. Methods We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 × 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Results The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–0.93). Conclusion The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements

  2. Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Barbara C.; Stall, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the use of alcohol or drugs is related to sexual behavior that is high-risk for HIV infection. If substance use leads to unsafe sexual activity, understanding the dynamics of this relationship can contribute to research, preventive and education efforts to contain the spread of AIDS. In this paper, we review research on the relationship between substance use and high-risk sexual behavior. We then consider the inherent limitations of the research designs used to study this relationship, outline some methodological concerns including measurement and sampling issues, and comment on causal interpretations of correlational research findings. We end with a consideration of potential avenues for avenues for future research and a discussion of implications of these findings for current AIDS prevention policies. PMID:8256876

  3. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  4. Youths' Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages: 2003. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 whether they have talked with at least one of their parents during the past year about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Youths are also asked whether they have seen or heard any alcohol or drug prevention messages from sources such as posters, pamphlets,…

  5. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  6. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  7. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  8. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  9. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347

  10. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  11. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed. PMID:24753277

  12. Phytotechnologies – Preventing Exposures, Improving Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Heather F.; Burken, Joel G.; Maier, Raina M.; Newman, Lee A.; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have the potential to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of deleterious chemicals/agents, and thereby, prevent human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are a tool for primary prevention within the context of public health. Research advances demonstrate that phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention for a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, phytotechnologists have advanced the use of plants as sensors to delineate environmental contaminants and potential exposures. The applications presented in this paper are at various stages of development and are presented in a framework to reflect how phytotechnologies can help meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food resources. As plant-based technologies can often be integrated into communities at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, their use in improving environmental quality can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure. These natural treatment systems concurrently provide ecosystem services of notable value to communities and society. In the future, integration and coordination of phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development that focuses on prevention of environmental exposures. Such an approach will lead to an important role of phytotechnologies in providing sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges that improve public health and potentially reduce the burden of disease. PMID:23819283

  13. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  14. Phytotechnologies--preventing exposures, improving public health.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Burken, Joel G; Maier, Raina M; Newman, Lee A; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L; Suk, William A

    2013-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have potential to reduce the amount or toxicity of deleterious chemicals and agents, and thereby, can reduce human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are tools for primary prevention in public health. Recent research demonstrates phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention in a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, plants can be used as sensors to identify environmental contamination and potential exposures. In this paper, we have presented applications and research developments in a framework to illustrate how phytotechnologies can meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food. Because communities can often integrate plant-based technologies at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, the use of these technologies can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure and improve environmental quality. These natural treatment systems also provide valuable ecosystem services to communities and society. In the future, integrating and coordinating phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development focused on prevention of environmental exposures to toxic compounds. Hence, phytotechnologies may provide sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges, improving public health and potentially reducing the burden of disease.

  15. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  16. Reducing substance use during adolescence: a translational framework for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanis, Jessica J.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Most substance use is initiated during adolescence when substantial development of relevant brain circuitry is still rapidly maturing. Developmental differences in reward processing, behavioral flexibility, and self-regulation lead to changes in resilience or vulnerability to drugs of abuse depending on exposure to risk factors. Intervention and prevention approaches to reducing addiction in teens may be able to capitalize on malleable brain systems in a predictable manner. Objective To review what is known about how factors that increase vulnerability to addiction, including developmental stage, exposure to early life adversity (ranging from abuse, neglect, and bullying), drug exposure, and genetic predisposition, impact the development of relevant systems. Results and Conclusions Appropriate, early intervention may restore the normal course of an abnormal trajectory and reduce the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) later in life. A considerable amount is known about the functional neuroanatomy and/or pharmacology of risky behaviors based on clinical and preclinical studies, but relatively little has been directly translated to reduce their impact on addiction in high-risk children or teenagers. An opportunity exists to effectively intervene before adolescence when substance use is likely to emerge. PMID:24464527

  17. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  18. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  19. Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances--A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald A.; Sorensen, Alfred J.

    1980-01-01

    A broad spectrum of potentially hazardous chemicals offers serious exposure risks to members of college and university communities. A formal program is needed to minimize exposure to these substances and maintain a prevention oriented protective program. The University of Massachusetts has developed such a program. (JN)

  20. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  1. Substance Use and Its Prevention: A Survey of Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genaux, Melisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 109 teachers of students with behavioral disorders found little programming concerning prevention of substance abuse. Teachers differed in their priority assignment of substance abuse prevention and reported the absence of parental involvement in such efforts. Lack of time, curriculum materials, and adequate funding were…

  2. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  3. Exposure to Violence, Substance Use, and Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621

  4. Facilitating Visitation for Infants with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burry, Caroline Long; Wright, Lois

    2006-01-01

    Permanency planning for infants with prenatal substance exposure is challenging due to characteristics of the infants and the ongoing substance use or relapse of the parents. Visitation is a primary mechanism through which child welfare workers determine and support permanency planning. Productive use of visitation for permanency planning for…

  5. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  6. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  7. Workshop report: environmental exposures and cancer prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiger, Nancy; Ashbury, Fredrick D; Purdue, Mark P; Marrett, Loraine D

    2003-01-01

    The Workshop on Environmental Exposures and Cancer was held by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) 25-26 April 2001. An expert panel convened to achieve consensus on a list of important environmental exposures, priority environmental exposures in Ontario, and recommendations for CCO in the areas of surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address these environmental exposures. Panel members developed a working definition of environmental exposure and criteria to prioritize the identified exposures. The process followed in the workshop provided CCO with important direction for its surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address environmental exposures and cancer. It is hoped that the environmental exposures and the opportunities identified through this workshop process will guide policy makers, program personnel, and researchers interested in and struggling with the challenges associated with surveillance, research, and prevention of environmental exposures. PMID:12515687

  8. Substance Use and HIV Prevention for Youth in Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Watson, Donnie W.; McCuller, William J.; Reiber, Chris; Tsai, Winnie

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for substance use and HIV prevention (SUHIP) were adapted for high-risk juveniles detained at 24-hour secure correctional facilities. In this pilot study, comparisons were made between adolescents who received the SUHIP intervention and a control group on changes in: (1) knowledge of HIV prevention behaviors, (2) attitudes…

  9. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  10. Evidence-Based Prevention for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Erin; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-07-01

    Due to the significant consequences of adolescent substance use behaviors, researchers have increasingly focused on prevention approaches. The field of prevention science is based on the identification of predictors of problem behaviors, and the development and testing of prevention programs that seek to change these predictors. As the field of prevention science moves forward, there are many opportunities for growth, including the integration of prevention programs into service systems and primary care, an expansion of program adaptations to fit the needs of local populations, and a greater emphasis on the development of programs targeted at young adult populations.

  11. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  12. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  13. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  14. Youth-Initiated HIV Risk and Substance Use Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.

    This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…

  15. Measuring Quality of Delivery in a Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions,…

  16. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  17. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given.

  18. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers. PMID:19030993

  19. Development of computerized scenarios for wildlife exposure to priority substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brownlee, L.J.; McPherson, S.M.; Norton, M.R.; Ward, D.R.; Lloyd, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computerized model has been developed to estimate wildlife exposure in the Canadian environment to substances through inhalation and ingestion of food, water and soil. This Windows application was developed in Visual Basic using Microsoft Access databases and designed to make the evaluation process consistent, transparent and efficient. Bird, mammal, amphibian and reptile species were selected on the basis of food guild, body size, habitat and distribution in Canada. Intake rates were estimated using allometric equations or measured intake rates when available. Ingestion rates were estimated from free-living metabolic rates and dietary composition. With the information, the authors will develop the exposure scenarios required for assessments of risk to wildlife from priority substances listed in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.

  20. Exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne hazardous substances

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Oury, Véronique; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne irritants. This study describes exposure levels of apprentices to chemical products used in hairdressing salons in relation with their activity. Methods Following a two stages study design, a group of 300 students completed a questionnaire on their work activities and environment. Among these, a group of 28 subjects volunteered to undergo personal exposure and workplace concentrations measurements over a work shift, during a cold and a hot season, with the agreement of the salon owners. Three chemical substances were studied (ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and persulfates) because they are respiratory tract irritants and because their concentrations could be quantified within a 5 to 8 hour shift period. Results Personal exposure values for H2O2and NH3 (averages [standard deviations] are 0.05 [0.04] and 0.90 [0.76] mg.m-3, respectively) were greater than workplace ambient air concentrations (corresponding values of 0.04 [0.03] and 0.68 [0.42] mg.m-3) for H2O2 and NH3, with no significant seasonal variation. By contrast, workplace concentrations of persulfates (0.019 [0.018] mg.m-3) were greater than personal exposure (0.016 [0.021] mg.m-3, a finding that is consistent with the fact that bleaching is more often undertaken by senior hairdressers. However, all exposure values were lower than the current TLV TWA values. This study also shows that over half of technical spaces where chemical substances used for dying, permanenting or bleaching are manipulated, have no ventilation system, and not even a door or a window opening outside. Conclusion The study hairdressing salons, on average, were small, the most probable reason why occupational hygiene measures such as appropriate ventilation were too seldom implemented. As a consequence, young apprentices and senior hairdressers experience substantial exposure to known airways irritants. PMID:16893447

  1. Translation of Associative Learning Models into Extinction Reminders Delivered via Mobile Phones During Cue Exposure Interventions for Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Kutlu, Munir G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite experimental findings and some treatment research supporting the use of cues as a means to induce and extinguish cravings, interventions using cue exposure have not been well integrated into contemporary substance abuse treatments. A primary problem with exposure-based interventions for addiction is that after learning not to use substances in the presence of addiction cues inside the clinic (i.e., extinction), stimuli in the naturalistic setting outside the clinic may continue to elicit craving, drug use, or other maladaptive conditioned responses. For exposure-based substance use interventions to be efficacious, new approaches are needed that can prevent relapse by directly generalizing learning from the therapeutic setting into naturalistic settings associated with a high-risk for relapse. Basic research suggests that extinction reminders (ERs) can be paired with the context of learning new and more adaptive conditioned responses to substance abuse cues in exposure therapies for addiction. Using mobile phones and automated dialing and data collection software, ERs can be delivered in everyday high-risk settings to inhibit conditioned responses to substance use-related stimuli. In this review, we describe how associative learning mechanisms (e.g., conditioned inhibition) can inform how ERs are conceptualized, learned, and implemented to prevent substance use when delivered via mobile phones. This approach, exposure with portable reminders of extinction, is introduced as an adjunctive intervention that uses brief automated ERs between clinic visits when individuals are in high-risk settings for drug use. PMID:25134055

  2. BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES WITH PREVENTIVE EFFECT IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Mulero, Juana; Abellán, José; Zafrilla, Pilar; Amores, Diego; Hernández Sánchez, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of diet on cardiovascular disease prevention has been widely studied for many years. Numerous studies have confirmed that diets rich in fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet) are beneficial to the cardiovascular system and various bioactive food components have preventive effect on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this paper we review the effect of bioactive substances included in the group of flavonoids (catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavones), stilbenes such as resveratrol, bioactive peptides, plant sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega- 3 on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Preventing substance abuse: the state of the art.

    PubMed Central

    Durell, J; Bukoski, W

    1984-01-01

    While drug abuse among adolescents and young adults has begun to decline from the epidemic levels of the late 1970s, it remains a serious national health problem. Much information from research suggests that young people at the junior and senior high school levels are the most vulnerable to the social pressures that lead to experimental and then regular use of psychoactive substances. Well-designed prevention programs for youngsters in these age groups have the potential to prevent the onset and development of regular drug use. Primary prevention strategies developed over the past two decades--media campaigns, school drug education programs, and "generic" programs--are reviewed, and evaluative research is discussed. The authors describe two additional prevention approaches--the "macro" approach (creating a climate of nondrug use) and positive peer pressure strategies--for which early data suggest genuine promise for the future. PMID:6422491

  4. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  5. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse...

  6. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  7. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  8. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  9. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  10. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  11. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  12. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  13. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Health Services, Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, National Advisory Council....

  14. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: August...

  15. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... and Mental Health Services; Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National...

  16. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP... Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National Advisory Council. Date/Time/Type: June 9, 2010,...

  17. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: September...

  18. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  19. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  20. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  1. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  2. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  3. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA

  5. Evidence-Based Practice in School Substance Use Prevention: Fidelity of Implementation under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, S. T.; Haws, S.; Ringwalt, C. L.; Vincus, A. A.; Hanley, S.; Bowling, J. M.; Rohrbach, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant…

  6. Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

  7. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  8. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  9. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents.

  10. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents. PMID:24955668

  11. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... nationwide. Through the Affordable Care Act, we expanded substance use disorder and mental health benefits... from drug and alcohol abuse. I encourage parents, schools, health officials, law enforcement... limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety, and academic performance. Substance...

  12. Communicating Prevention: The Effects of the "Keepin' it REAL" Classroom Videotapes and Televised PSAs on Middle-School Students' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Wagstaff, David A.; Elek, Elvira; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Dustman, Patricia; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine if exposure to two communication-oriented activities, videotapes and public service announcements, accounts for changes in substance use among adolescents participating in the Drug Resistance Strategies Project's keepin it REAL adolescent substance use prevention curriculum. Middle-school students (4,734, 72% Latino)…

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  14. Developing Theory-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Blake, Susan M.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Integrates evidence on gender relevance for substance use prevention research and reviews trends in tobacco, alcohol and drug use, gender differences in risk factors, and relevant theoretical models of substance use prevention among adolescent girls. Recommends further research and prevention strategies focusing on gender, race, and ethnicity.…

  15. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  16. A substance use prevention framework: considering the social context for African American girls.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, B J; Low, L K

    2000-01-01

    Shifting patterns of substance use (that is, early initiation, increased marijuana use, narrowing differences in gender use) and the disproportionate socioeconomic obstacles that are related to substance use among ethnically diverse adolescent females create the need to develop ethnic and gender-specific substance use prevention frameworks. This article describes and applies a substance use prevention framework to African American females. Gender socialization and self-efficacy are presented as key concepts, along with the assertion that every substance use prevention framework should examine the influences of specific societal factors (such as racism, sexism, classism, and ageism) on substance use. Rationale and guidelines for designing ethnically sensitive and gender-specific research projects and intervention programs regarding substance use prevention are offered. Public health nurses (PHNs) are uniquely positioned to use this framework in their work with African American adolescent girls, specifically, and in general with other ethnically diverse groups.

  17. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  18. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which youth are at increased risk for using substances. An empirical focus on core competencies illustrates that youth are less likely to use substances when they have a positive future orientation, a belief in the ability to resist substances, emotional and behavioral control, sound decision-making…

  19. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance...

  20. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Ryan, Stacy R; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-03-01

    Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH- children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH-; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule before the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH- children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. In conclusion, FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  2. Factors Associated with Adoption of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in US School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based substance use prevention curricula (EBC) in a national sample of school districts. Substance abuse prevention coordinators in public school districts (n = 1593), which were affiliated with a random sample of schools that served students in Grades 5-8, completed a written…

  3. The Prevalence of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in the Nation's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Sean M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Haws, Susan W.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Current guidelines for school-based substance use prevention suggest that prevention efforts should begin in elementary grades, before students begin using substances. Previous research suggests, however, that the use of evidence-based curricula in these grades may be low. Using a 2005 survey of public school districts in the United States that…

  4. Technology-based Interventions for Preventing and Treating Substance Use Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Lisa A; Borodovsky, Jacob T

    2016-10-01

    Preventing or mitigating substance use among youth generally involves 3 different intervention frameworks: universal prevention, selective prevention, and treatment. Each of these levels of intervention poses unique therapeutic and implementation challenges. Technology-based interventions provide solutions to many of these problems by delivering evidence-based interventions in a consistent and cost-effective manner. This article summarizes the current state of the science of technology-based interventions for preventing substance use initiation and mitigating substance use and associated consequences among youth. PMID:27613350

  5. Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Abanto Alvarez, Jenny; Rezende, Karla Mayra P C; Marocho, Susana María Salazar; Alves, Fabiana B T; Celiberti, Paula; Ciamponi, Ana Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel, caused by successive exposures to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development, leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on when and for how long the overexposure to fluoride occurs, the individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutritional factors and bone growth. The risk period for esthetic changes in permanent teeth is between 20 and 30 months of age. The recommended level for daily fluoride intake is 0.05 - 0.07 mg F/Kg/day, which is considered of great help in preventing dental caries, acting in remineralization. A daily intake above this safe level leads to an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Currently recommended procedures for diagnosis of fluorosis should discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical and/or discrete patterns of opaque defects. Fluorosis can be prevented by having an adequate knowledge of the fluoride sources, knowing how to manage this issue and therefore, avoid overexposure.

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  7. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Oh, Se Young; Kim, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sang-Ah; Park, Jung-Duck; Hong, Young-Seoub; Sohn, Seok-Joon; Pyo, Heesoo; Park, Kyung Su; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Yong Dae; Jun, Sangil; Hwang, Myung Sil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union. PMID:26184046

  8. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research. PMID:27379884

  9. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse by Supporting Families' Efforts with Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Brenna H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, because the resources of most contemporary nuclear families for monitoring and providing alternative incentives are not sufficient to compete with the positive contingencies associated with substance use, communities must support parent's efforts by supplementing them. (LKS)

  11. Violence exposure as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems among children of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola; McKelvey, Lorraine; Kyzer, Angela; Swindle, Taren; Cheerla, Rajalakshmi; Kraleti, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    We explore the associations between exposure to conflict and crime in the home and community, and child anxiety and self-control problems among 60 children whose mothers were in treatment for substance abuse problems. Experiences with violence and crime were widespread, with many children exposed to multiple incidents. Approximately one-third (35.5%) of children exhibited clinically elevated anxiety. Controlling for other potential predictors, both children's exposure to violence and the number of years the mother had been using substances predicted higher anxiety in children, while only exposure to violence predicted problems in self-control. Results highlight the importance of screening for violence exposure. PMID:23261353

  12. Violence exposure as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems among children of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola; McKelvey, Lorraine; Kyzer, Angela; Swindle, Taren; Cheerla, Rajalakshmi; Kraleti, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    We explore the associations between exposure to conflict and crime in the home and community, and child anxiety and self-control problems among 60 children whose mothers were in treatment for substance abuse problems. Experiences with violence and crime were widespread, with many children exposed to multiple incidents. Approximately one-third (35.5%) of children exhibited clinically elevated anxiety. Controlling for other potential predictors, both children's exposure to violence and the number of years the mother had been using substances predicted higher anxiety in children, while only exposure to violence predicted problems in self-control. Results highlight the importance of screening for violence exposure.

  13. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  14. Effects of prenatal cocaine/polydrug exposure on substance use by age 15

    PubMed Central

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examined effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use by age 15. Methods Adolescent (n = 358; 183 PCE, 175 non-prenatally cocaine exposed; NCE) drug use was assessed using urine, hair, and/or blood spot samples and self-report (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System; YRBSS) at ages 12 and 15. Logistic regression assessed effects of PCE on drug use controlling for other drug exposures, environment and blood lead levels (BLL). Results Adjusted percentages of drug use (PCE vs. NCE) were: tobacco 35% vs. 26% (p < .04), marijuana 33% vs. 23% (p < .04), alcohol 40% vs. 35% (p < .01), and any drugs 59% vs. 50% (p < .005). PCE adolescents were twice as likely to use tobacco (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.05–3.90, p < .04), 2.2 times more likely to use alcohol (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.21–3.87, p < .01) and 1.8 times more likely to use marijuana (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.02–3.22, p < .04) than NCE adolescents. A race-by-cocaine-exposure interaction (p < .01) indicated PCE non-African American adolescents had greater probability of tobacco use (65%) than NCE non-African American youth (21%). PCE was associated with any drug use (OR = 2.16, CI = 1.26–3.69, p < .005), while higher BLL predicted alcohol use (p < .001). Violence exposure was a predictor of tobacco (p < .002), marijuana (p < .0007) and any drug (p < .04). Conclusions PCE and exposure to violence increased the likelihood of tobacco, marijuana or any drug use by age 15, while PCE and higher early BLL predicted alcohol use. Prevention efforts should target high risk groups prior to substance use initiation. PMID:24176200

  15. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  16. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the Web conference... Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB) on May 3 and 4, 2011. A portion of the... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  17. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  18. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  19. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-462, notice is hereby given of...

  20. Depression, Craving, and Substance Use Following a Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses…

  1. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  2. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ..., including specimen characteristics, collection, preparation, and stability; drug analytes, analyte stability... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... scientific ] supportability of the hair specimen for federal workplace drug testing, a historical...

  3. Implementing Research-Based Substance Abuse Prevention in Communities: Effects of a Coalition-Based Prevention Initiative in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Austin, David; Hale, Kelly; LaPlante, Marcia; Liebig, Melissa; Piasecki, Linda; Uerz, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity and perceived potential effectiveness of community-based coalitions in helping to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use, empirical evidence supporting this approach is sparse. Many reasons have been suggested for why coalition-based prevention initiatives, and community-level interventions in general, have not…

  4. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  5. Early Exposure to Toxic Substances Damages Brain Architecture. Working Paper #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    New science shows that exposure to toxins prenatally or early in life can have a devastating and lifelong effect on the developing architecture of the brain. Exposures to many chemicals have much more severe consequences for embryos, fetuses, and young children, whose brains are still developing, than for adults. Substances that can have a truly…

  6. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  7. Integrating HIV prevention into substance user treatment: current practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christopher G; Oltean, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Despite well-organized prevention efforts, HIV continues to spread in the United States. Injection drug users (IDUs) and other substance users who engage in high-risk behaviors are at particularly high risk for contracting HIV. Substance abuse(dagger) counselors therefore are in a unique position to present HIV prevention messages to their clients. This article reports the results of a study that surveyed counselors in an urban setting (n = 116) to assess their knowledge of HIV, their current HIV prevention practices, and their attitudes about integrating HIV prevention more fully into their work. The article concludes with a discussion of the survey's limitations and its implications for training.

  8. Substance Use, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain: Describing the Prevention and Treatment Needs of Incarcerated Women.

    PubMed

    Drach, Linda L; Maher, Julie E; Braun, Margaret J F; Murray, Stefanie L; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Weight-related concerns are associated with women's substance use and treatment relapse. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, disordered eating behavior, and substance abuse history was assessed among female inmates incarcerated for 6 to 24 months at an Oregon state prison, using a self-administered survey and physical measurements. Average weight gain was 20 pounds, 87% of women were overweight (39%) or obese (48%), and 24% reported using one or more unhealthy strategies to lose weight in the past 6 months. Women who used tobacco and illicit substances before incarceration gained more weight. Integrating nutrition and weight gain issues into substance abuse treatment could benefit incarcerated women--both soon after entering prison to prevent weight gain and close to release to prevent relapse into substance use. PMID:26984137

  9. Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.

    Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) is a school-based prevention program for seventh grade students in Richmond, Virginia. The project is a collaborative effort between the Department of Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University and the Richmond City Public Schools. The ACT program is directed at preventing and changing health-compromising…

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  11. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  12. [Meconium as a new biological material for detecting intrauterine exposure to toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Myjak, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    The use of licit and illicit drugs and exposure to other xenobiotic agents during pregnancy is common. These substances are known to have adverse effects on the pregnancy and fetus; however information on fetal exposure is sparse due to the lack of an appropriate measure of exposure. Meconium analysis is a new method for identifying in utero exposure of infants to a number of illicit and legal drugs, alcohol, nicotine, heavy metals, pesticides, congenital infections. It's testing is non-invasive, highly accurate and able to detect prior exposure in utero during 12-40 weeks of gestation. This has implications for toxicology to develop improved methods to identify exposed infants.

  13. [Meconium as a new biological material for detecting intrauterine exposure to toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Myjak, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    The use of licit and illicit drugs and exposure to other xenobiotic agents during pregnancy is common. These substances are known to have adverse effects on the pregnancy and fetus; however information on fetal exposure is sparse due to the lack of an appropriate measure of exposure. Meconium analysis is a new method for identifying in utero exposure of infants to a number of illicit and legal drugs, alcohol, nicotine, heavy metals, pesticides, congenital infections. It's testing is non-invasive, highly accurate and able to detect prior exposure in utero during 12-40 weeks of gestation. This has implications for toxicology to develop improved methods to identify exposed infants. PMID:16363385

  14. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  15. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  16. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  17. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  18. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  19. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: Challenges and opportunities regarding international utility

    PubMed Central

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This paper reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects. PMID:22676560

  20. Overview of Meta-Analyses of the Prevention of Mental Health, Substance Use and Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Cruden, Gracelyn; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Ahn, Soyeon; Brincks, Ahnalee; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an overview of meta-analyses of the effects of prevention and promotion programs to prevent mental health, substance use and conduct problems. The review of 48 meta-analyses found small but significant effects to reduce depression, anxiety, anti-social behavior and substance use. Further, the effects are sustained over time. Meta-analyses often found that the effects were heterogeneous. A conceptual model is proposed to guide the study of moderators of program effects in future meta-analyses and methodological issues in synthesizing findings across preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:24471372

  1. Role of entrained droplet oil on the bioavailability of petroleum substances in aqueous exposures.

    PubMed

    Redman, A D

    2015-08-15

    Bioavailability of petroleum substances is a complex issue that is affected by substance composition, the physicochemical properties of the individual constituents, and the exposure preparation system. The present study applies mechanistic fate and effects models to characterize the role of droplet oil on dissolved exposure and predicted effects from both neat and weathered crude oils, and refined fuel oils. The main effect from droplet oil is input of additional dissolved hydrocarbons to the exposure system following preparation of the initial stock solution. Toxicity was characterized using toxic units (TU) and shows that replenishment of bioavailable hydrocarbons by droplets in toxicity tests with low droplet content (e.g., <1mg/L) is negligible, consistent with typical exposure conditions following open ocean oil spills. Further, the use of volumetric exposure metrics (e.g., mg/L) introduces considerable variability and the bioavailability-based metrics (e.g., TUs) provide a more consistent basis for understanding oil toxicity data.

  2. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Hernandez, Aileen B; Livingston, Jonathan N; Dacons-Brock, Karen; Craft, Howard L; Cameron, Amura; Franklin, Steven O; Howlett, Allyn C

    2007-01-01

    Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing the play. It was found that the

  3. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France.

    PubMed

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-01

    The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8mg/m(3), 1504.3μg/m(3), 434.9μg/m(3), 576.3μg/m(3) and 2894.3μg/m(3) respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0mg/m(3), 848.2μg/m(3), 698.4μg/m(3), 549.3μg/m(3) and 3437.9μg/m(3) for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of "clean and safe" processes in emerging recycling channels.

  4. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence–substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence—direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)—independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences. PMID:23520836

  5. [A rare case of exposure to natural psychoactive substances, and difficulties with medicolegal assessment].

    PubMed

    Majdanik, Sławomir; Potocka-Banaś, Barbara; Borowiak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    An unusual case of exposure to natural psychoactive substances deriving from Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, thorn-apple) is presented in this article. It may be of interest in this case that a hallucinogenic substance was intentionally administered by a third party. An initial assessment in this criminal case was questionable, and resulted from a lack of consideration of toxicological exposure and its possible aftermath. The above-mentioned case demonstrates the necessity of considering all toxicological aspects of the case, even though initial findings seemed to indicate something else. PMID:24734336

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Guide for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    The focus of this book is on the identification of practical knowledge and skill needed and an action plan to implement prevention programming in schools. The text is written as a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling. It is designed to facilitate development of knowledge necessary to implement comprehensive…

  7. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  8. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  9. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  10. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  11. Neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2010-07-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period of development with neuronal maturation accompanied by increases in behavioral risk taking. Although risky behavior is a likely marker of normative adolescent development, there is an early emergence of substance use disorders in this population. Adolescence represents a distinct period of vulnerability to substance use initiation and transitions to substance abuse and dependence. Of recent interest is understanding the neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders, with adult studies being limited in their applicability to this developmentally sensitive maturation period and providing restricted insight into potential treatment and intervention. First, the authors review the neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders and, second, the authors consider the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.

  12. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses.

  13. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses. PMID:26524408

  14. Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Substantial progress has been made in developing prevention programs for adolescent drug abuse. The most effective interventions target salient risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and/or community levels and are guided by relevant psychosocial theories regarding the etiology of substance use and abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology, etiologic risk and protective factors, and evidence-based approaches that have been found to be most effective in preventing adolescent substance use and abuse. Exemplary school and family-based prevention programs for universal (everyone in population), selected (members of at-risk groups), and indicated (at-risk individuals) target populations are reviewed, along with model community-based prevention approaches. Challenges remain in widely disseminating evidence-based prevention programs into schools, families, and communities. PMID:20682218

  15. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful. PMID:21418643

  16. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    PubMed

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community.

  17. Epidemiology and Etiology of Substance Use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Risk, Protection, and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology and etiology of substance use and disorder in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities have received increasing attention over the past 25 years and accumulating evidence provides important insights into substance use patterns in these populations. Objectives and methods We provide a descriptive sketch of the AI/AN population in the United States today, present a brief review of the literature on the epidemiology and etiology of substance use within these populations, and discuss key implications of this literature for prevention efforts. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Patterns of alcohol use and abuse in AI/AN populations are complex and vary across cultural groups, but alcohol clearly impacts both physical health and mental health within these communities. Tobacco use – and associated health consequences – is typically higher in these populations than among other US groups, although significant variation across Native communities is apparent here as with alcohol. Evidence regarding drug use and disorder is less extensive and thus less conclusive, but evidence demonstrates higher rates of use as well. Etiological explanations for substance use and disorder cut across individual characteristics (e.g., genetics) or experiences (e.g., exposure to trauma), to social contexts (e.g., family disruption), and to cultural factors (e.g., historical trauma). Protective factors likely cut across these multiple levels as well and deserve more focused attention for informing prevention efforts. The development of effective prevention strategies, built through collaboration between researchers and Native communities, drawing from the wisdom of both, is a high priority. PMID:22931069

  18. The Zero Exposure Project: A Community Initiative Addressing Substance Abusing Women and Their Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colen, Lisa Price

    2007-01-01

    The Zero Exposure Project is a public awareness campaign in Hillsborough County, Florida, designed to educate the public on the dangers of combining substance use with pregnancy. The authors describe the process of building the campaign from its original conception and share the challenges and successes of their collaborations with community…

  19. EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may ...

  20. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  1. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  2. TDS exposure project: relevance of the total diet study approach for different groups of substances.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Cubadda, Francesco; Aureli, Federica; Oktay Basegmez, Hatice Imge; D'Amato, Marilena; De Coster, Sam; D'Evoli, Laura; López Esteban, María Teresa; Jurkovic, Martina; Lucarini, Massimo; Ozer, Hayrettin; Fernández San Juan, Pedro Mario; Sioen, Isabelle; Sokolic, Darja; Turrini, Aida; Sirot, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined.

  3. Guideline for the out-of-hospital management of human exposures to minimally toxic substances.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    All substances are capable of producing toxicity, so nothing is completely non-toxic. Minimally toxic substances are those which produce little toxicity, minor self-limited toxicity, or clinically insignificant effects at most doses. Examples include silica gel, A&D ointment, chalk, lipstick, and non-camphor lip balms, watercolors, hand dishwashing detergents, non-salicylate antacids (excluding magnesium or sodium bicarbonate containing products), calamine lotion, clay, crayons, diaper rash creams and ointments, fabric softeners/sheets, glow products, glue (white, arts, and crafts type), household plant food, oral contraceptives, pen ink, pencils, starch/sizing, throat lozenges without local anesthetics, topical antibiotics, topical antifungals, topical steroids, topical steroids with antibiotics, and water-based paints. Minimally toxic exposures have the following characteristics: (1) The information specialist has confidence in the accuracy of the history obtained and the ability to communicate effectively with the caller. (2) The information specialist has confidence in the identity of the product(s) or substance(s) and a reasonable estimation of the maximum amount involved in the exposure. (3) The risks of adverse reactions or expected effects are acceptable to both the information specialist and the caller based on available medical literature and clinical experience. (4) The exposure does not require a healthcare referral since the potential effects are benign and self-limited. However, decisions regarding patient disposition should take into account the patient's intent, symptoms, and social environment. In addition, individual patient circumstances (e.g., pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, therapeutic interventions) need to be considered. Minimally toxic exposures may vary in route (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, ocular), chronicity (acute, chronic), and substance composition (single or multi-ingredient, single or multiple product). Future

  4. Guideline for the out-of-hospital management of human exposures to minimally toxic substances.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    All substances are capable of producing toxicity, so nothing is completely non-toxic. Minimally toxic substances are those which produce little toxicity, minor self-limited toxicity, or clinically insignificant effects at most doses. Examples include silica gel, A&D ointment, chalk, lipstick, and non-camphor lip balms, watercolors, hand dishwashing detergents, non-salicylate antacids (excluding magnesium or sodium bicarbonate containing products), calamine lotion, clay, crayons, diaper rash creams and ointments, fabric softeners/sheets, glow products, glue (white, arts, and crafts type), household plant food, oral contraceptives, pen ink, pencils, starch/sizing, throat lozenges without local anesthetics, topical antibiotics, topical antifungals, topical steroids, topical steroids with antibiotics, and water-based paints. Minimally toxic exposures have the following characteristics: (1) The information specialist has confidence in the accuracy of the history obtained and the ability to communicate effectively with the caller. (2) The information specialist has confidence in the identity of the product(s) or substance(s) and a reasonable estimation of the maximum amount involved in the exposure. (3) The risks of adverse reactions or expected effects are acceptable to both the information specialist and the caller based on available medical literature and clinical experience. (4) The exposure does not require a healthcare referral since the potential effects are benign and self-limited. However, decisions regarding patient disposition should take into account the patient's intent, symptoms, and social environment. In addition, individual patient circumstances (e.g., pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, therapeutic interventions) need to be considered. Minimally toxic exposures may vary in route (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, ocular), chronicity (acute, chronic), and substance composition (single or multi-ingredient, single or multiple product). Future

  5. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    SciTech Connect

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  6. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and

  7. Parent-based interventions for preventing or reducing adolescent substance use - A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence.

  8. Negative Life Events and Substance Use Moderate Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors that amplify or mitigate the effects of an indicated cognitive behavioral depression prevention program for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Method Using data from a randomized trial (Registration No. NCT00183417; N = 173) in which adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) were assigned to a brief cognitive behavioral prevention program or an educational brochure control condition, we tested whether elevated motivation to reduce depression and initial depressive symptom severity amplified intervention effects and whether negative life events, social support deficits, and substance use attenuated intervention effects. Results Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated differential intervention effects for two of the five examined variables: negative life events and substance use. For adolescents at low and medium levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention produced declines in depressive symptoms relative to controls. However, at high levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention did not significantly reduce depressive symptoms in comparison to controls. Conclusions Results imply that high-risk adolescent with either high rates of major life stress or initial substance use may require specialized depression prevention efforts. PMID:22414236

  9. Parent-based interventions for preventing or reducing adolescent substance use - A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence. PMID:27111301

  10. Toxic substance exposure and multiple myeloma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morris, P D; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R; Taylor, J W; Lyon, J L; Swanson, G M; Child, M; Weiss, N S

    1986-06-01

    By means of a population-based, multicenter case-control investigation, certain toxic substances were evaluated as risk factors for multiple myeloma. Interviews were completed on 698 subjects with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and 1,683 controls were selected from the same geographic areas as those of the cases. Respondents were asked if they had ever been "highly" exposed" to one or more of a list of toxic substances or to other substances not on the list. With the aid of a toxicologist, responses were then categorized into 20 exposure groups. Those who reported past exposure to pesticides had an estimated relative risk of 2.6 for multiple myeloma [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-4.6]. Subjects exposed to a variety of compounds commonly used by painters had an estimated relative risk of 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.4). An increased risk also was found for those who were exposed to sources of carbon monoxide (relative risk = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2). Associations of borderline statistical significance were found for metals and organically high polymers (plastics and elastomers). No statistically significant associations were seen for exposure to fertilizers; dyes and inks; alkalies; acids; other caustic substances; chemical asphyxiants; aliphatic, chlorinated, or aromatic hydrocarbons; aldehydes and ketones; ethers; esters; oils; dusts; or asbestos.

  11. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  12. Substance Use: Determinants and Opportunities for Prevention in the Family and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, teenagers try a range of risk behaviors including smoking, drinking, and the use of soft drugs. Because substance use contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle of teenagers on the short term and can lead to serious health problems on the longer term, prevention in this target group is important. This chapter provides an overview of…

  13. One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

  14. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  15. The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

  16. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  17. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  18. Preventive Interventions under Managed Care: Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Sharon L.

    Programs and services that prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders have the potential to lessen an enormous burden of suffering and to reduce both the cost of future treatment and lost productivity at work and home. The availability and accessibility of these interventions to Americans whose health care is provided by managed care…

  19. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  20. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  1. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  2. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  3. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  4. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  5. The Life Skills Program IPSY: Positive Influences on School Bonding and Prevention of Substance Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…

  6. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Baan, Robert; Straif, Kurt; Grosse, Yann; Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Freeman, Crystal; Galichet, Laurent; Wild, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the causes of cancer at specific sites is important to cancer control planners, cancer researchers, cancer patients, and the general public. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph series, which has classified human carcinogens for more than 40 years, recently completed a review to provide up-to-date information on the cancer sites associated with more than 100 carcinogenic agents. Based on IARC’s review, we listed the cancer sites associated with each agent and then rearranged this information to list the known and suspected causes of cancer at each site. We also summarized the rationale for classifications that were based on mechanistic data. This information, based on the forthcoming IARC Monographs Volume 100, offers insights into the current state-of-the-science of carcinogen identification. Use of mechanistic data to identify carcinogens is increasing, and epidemiological research is identifying additional carcinogens and cancer sites or confirming carcinogenic potential under conditions of lower exposure. Nevertheless, some common human cancers still have few (or no) identified causal agents. PMID:22158127

  7. Relative Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Standard Relapse Prevention, and Treatment as Usual for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Sarah; Witkiewitz, Katie; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Grow, Joel; Chawla, Neharika; Hsu, Sharon H.; Carroll, Haley A.; Harrop, Erin; Collins, Susan E.; Lustyk, M. Kathleen; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Relapse is highly prevalent following substance abuse treatments, highlighting the need for improved aftercare interventions. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), a group-based psychosocial aftercare, integrates evidence-based practices from mindfulness-based interventions and cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP) approaches. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term efficacy of MBRP in reducing relapse compared with RP and treatment as usual (TAU [12-step programming and psychoeducation]) during a 12-month follow-up period. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Between October 2009 and July 2012, a total of 286 eligible individuals who successfully completed initial treatment for substance use disorders at a private, nonprofit treatment facility were randomized to MBRP, RP, or TAU aftercare and monitored for 12 months. Participants medically cleared for continuing care were aged 18 to 70 years; 71.5% were male and 42.1% were of ethnic/racial minority. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomly assigned to 8 weekly group sessions of MBRP, cognitive-behavioral RP, or TAU. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes included relapse to drug use and heavy drinking as well as frequency of substance use in the past 90 days. Variables were assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up points. Measures used included self-report of relapse and urinalysis drug and alcohol screenings. RESULTS Compared with TAU, participants assigned to MBRP and RP reported significantly lower risk of relapse to substance use and heavy drinking and, among those who used substances, significantly fewer days of substance use and heavy drinking at the 6-month follow-up. Cognitive-behavioral RP showed an advantage over MBRP in time to first drug use. At the 12-month follow-up, MBRP participants reported significantly fewer days of substance use and significantly decreased heavy drinking compared with RP and TAU. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For individuals in aftercare

  8. Emotional exposure in the treatment of substance use disorders: conceptual model, evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Powers, Mark B; Fischmann, Diana

    2005-09-01

    In this article, we review research on the nature and treatment of panic disorder, and apply these findings to a discussion of the role of internal cue exposure in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). Two features of panic treatment were used as a model for interventions for SUDs: exposure to internal (interoceptive) cues rather than reliance on external (environmental) exposure alone, and use of cue exposure to try to inoculate individuals against future maladaptive patterns. Specifically, we emphasized the role of exposure to internal, largely emotional cues, as a way to enhance resilience to cues for relapse in individuals with SUDs. Hypothesized moderators and mediators of this treatment approach were discussed, as were similarities between this research agenda and an increasing focus on the role of emotional acceptance/tolerance in cognitive-behavioral treatments.

  9. Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.

    PubMed

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R; Roff, M; Delgado, P; Eriksson, K; Fransman, W; Gijsbers, J H J; Hughson, G; Mäkinen, M; van Hemmen, J J

    2004-04-01

    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion.

  10. Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.

    PubMed

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R; Roff, M; Delgado, P; Eriksson, K; Fransman, W; Gijsbers, J H J; Hughson, G; Mäkinen, M; van Hemmen, J J

    2004-04-01

    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion. PMID:15059805

  11. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  12. General preventive measures against carcinogenic exposure in the external environment.

    PubMed

    Keiding, L M

    1993-01-01

    Different measures are used to prevent unacceptable carcinogenic exposure from different sources in the external environment, be it accumulated carcinogens from previous pollution, exposure related to life-style, and exposure related to living standards and the organization of the community as a whole. A precondition for goal-directed prevention is knowledge of exposures to carcinogens and measures to minimize or substitute carcinogens in products and in emissions. One of the most significant sources of carcinogens in the outdoor air in many Western countries is the traffic, especially diesel-powered vehicles. Necessary preventive measures include restriction of carcinogenic exhaust from the individual vehicle, plans for the community to diminish transportation needs, as well as to changing the usual behaviour of the individual. Unlike exposure to carcinogens in the surrounding air, exposure to accumulated carcinogens in ground-water and in soil at polluted sites may be diminished by the pattern of use. International aspects are involved in for instance minimizing the risk of getting skin cancer from sunlight. Besides protecting vulnerable individuals there should be a global preservation of the ozone layer. Lowering the risk of long transported air pollution, like radioactivity from accidents at nuclear power stations, demands international efforts to increase safety measures and information about accidents.

  13. Culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban Native youth.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Solis; Plasencia, Ana Vanesa

    2005-09-01

    This article will examine HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention for urban Native youth in Oakland, California. It will highlight the Native American Health Center's Youth Services programs. These programs incorporate solutions based on a traditional value system rooted in Native culture and consisting of youth empowerment, leadership training, prevention activities, traditional cultural activities and wellness and life skills education. They aim to reduce HIV/AIDS and substance abuse risk for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth through structured, community-based interventions. The Youth Services Program's events, such as the Seventh Native American Generation and the Gathering of Native Americans, offer effective and culturally relevant ways of teaching youth about American Indian/Alaska Native history, intergenerational trauma, and traditional Native culture. Satisfaction surveys gathered from these youth provide invaluable data on the positive effects of these prevention efforts. The need for culturally relevant and culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is apparent. These prevention efforts must be creatively integrated into the multidimensional and complex social structures of Native American youth.

  14. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  15. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  16. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  17. Adolescent Substance Use Following Participation in a Universal Drug Prevention Program: Examining Relationships with Program Recall and Baseline Use Status

    PubMed Central

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M.; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school-based, drug-prevention program in grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post-program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. Methods We analyzed data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug-prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (pre-intervention) and program recall (post-intervention) at Grade 7. We first examined characteristics of each of the four profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use. Using multilevel logistic regression analyses, we examined differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the six additional study waves (Time 2 (Grade 7) through Time 7 (Grade 11)). Results Pearson’s chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared to students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining three profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post-hoc analyses showed that for the two sub-profiles of baseline substance users, there were only two observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Conclusions Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug

  18. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Martha L.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Jansson, Lauren M.; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40.9% for emotional abuse to 20.0% for physical abuse to 7.1% for sexual abuse. Nearly one third of the women reported having physical fights with their current partner (lifetime), and 25% of these women reported that children were present during those physical fights. A total of 30% of the women perceived a need for counseling regarding exposure to violence for themselves and 15% perceived a need for counseling for their children. Study findings confirm previous reports of high rates of abuse and violence exposure among substance-abusing pregnant women and their strong need for counseling for psychosocial sequelae. This study affirmed the value of routine screening for violence exposure in this at-risk population as well as the need to train therapists in specific strategies for helping such women address this complex array of problems. PMID:16377450

  19. Work Environments and Exposure to Hazardous Substances in Korean Tire Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Methods Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Results Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m3, the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Conclusion To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended. PMID:22993718

  20. The Role of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807

  1. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot efficacy trial.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Sarah; Chawla, Neharika; Collins, Susan E; Witkiewitz, Katie; Hsu, Sharon; Grow, Joel; Clifasefi, Seema; Garner, Michelle; Douglass, Anne; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is the first randomized-controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and initial efficacy of an 8-week outpatient Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) program as compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were 168 adults with substance use disorders who had recently completed intensive inpatient or outpatient treatment. Assessments were administered pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2 and 4 months post-intervention. Feasibility of MBRP was demonstrated by consistent homework compliance, attendance, and participant satisfaction. Initial efficacy was supported by significantly lower rates of substance use in those who received MBRP as compared to those in TAU over the 4-month post-intervention period. Additionally, MBRP participants demonstrated greater decreases in craving, and increases in acceptance and acting with awareness as compared to TAU. Results from this initial trial support the feasibility and initial efficacy of MBRP as an aftercare approach for individuals who have recently completed an intensive treatment for substance use disorders.

  2. Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  3. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  4. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; West, Brooke S; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazen, Babak; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  5. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; West, Brooke S.; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  6. Community epidemiology of risk and adolescent substance use: practical questions for enhancing prevention.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor-problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect.

  7. Exposure to hazardous substances and male reproductive health: a research framework.

    PubMed Central

    Moline, J M; Golden, A L; Bar-Chama, N; Smith, E; Rauch, M E; Chapin, R E; Perreault, S D; Schrader, S M; Suk, W A; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may have declined worldwide, that the incidence of testicular cancer has progressively increased in many countries, and that other disorders of the male reproductive tract such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism may have also increased. There is growing concern that occupational factors and environmental chemical exposures, including in utero and childhood exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity, may be correlated with these observed changes in male reproductive health and fertility. We review the evidence and methodologies that have contributed to our current understanding of environmental effects on male reproductive health and fertility and discuss the methodologic issues which confront investigators in this area. One of the greatest challenges confronting researchers in this area is assessing and comparing results from existing studies. We elaborate recommendations for future research. Researchers in the field of male reproductive health should continue working to prioritize hazardous substances; elucidate the magnitude of male reproductive health effects, particularly in the areas of testicular cancer, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism; develop biomarkers of exposure to reproductive toxins and of reproductive health effects for research and clinical use; foster collaborative interdisciplinary research; and recognize the importance of standardized laboratory methods and sample archiving. PMID:11017884

  8. [Use of biologically active substances in preventing the toxic action of some heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Degtiareva, T D; Katsnel'son, B A; Pirvalova, L I; Beresneva, O Iu; Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Malykh, O L

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents experimental and theoretical rationales for some methods and means of biological prevention of the toxic effects of a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium) that pollute the environment. Subchronic experiments were made on laboratory animals exposed to the above substances in combination with various biological agents (sodium glutaminate, the adaptogen saparal, pectin-containing enterosorbent, calcium, the multivitamin-multimineral preparation Pikovit, etc.). They have indicated that the complex use of preparations is more beneficial than they are used alone. The results of controlled trials of biologically preventive preparations on children residing in an area exposed to industrial pollution are presented.

  9. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and <1% (PFOS in adults, and PFOA in both toddlers and adults) of the overall-EDIs. In conclusion, house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the

  10. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  11. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  12. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  13. Mediation effects of a culturally generic substance use prevention program for Asian American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939

  14. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  15. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  16. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  17. Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.

    PubMed

    Stockings, Emily; Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael; Morley, Katherine I; Reavley, Nicola; Strang, John; Patton, George; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-03-01

    We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision-which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted efforts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people. PMID:26905481

  18. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: an overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

  19. Does Successful School-Based Prevention of Bullying Influence Substance Use among 13- To 16-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundsen, Ellen J.; Ravndal, Edle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To test whether the school-based Olweus prevention programme against bullying may have lasting effects on substance use, a hypothesis based on the characteristics of bullies having misconduct behaviour associated with substance use. Methods: The Olweus programme was introduced from grades 7 through 9 in four schools and monitored up to grade…

  20. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances;...

  1. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances;...

  2. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances;...

  3. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances;...

  4. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances;...

  5. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  6. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  7. Shared Responsibility: Massachusetts Legislators, Physicians, and An Act Relative to Substance Use Treatment, Education, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rudder, Meghan; Tsao, Lulu; Jack, Helen E

    2016-01-01

    Recent passage of the Massachusetts law, An Act Relative to Substance Use, Treatment, Education, and Prevention, represents an admirable public health approach to substance use disorder (SUD), a stigmatized chronic disease that affects some of society's most vulnerable people. With its seven-day supply limit on first-time opioid prescriptions, this legislation takes an unusual approach to state government involvement in health care. By intervening in individual physicians' practices, state legislators have entered a space traditionally reserved for clinical teams. The seven-day supply limit and the process through which it was developed highlight competing priorities and dialogue between physicians and legislators, limits of physician self-regulation, and standards of evidence in policy making and health care. Addressing these issues requires both physicians and legislators to recognize and fulfill new responsibilities in order to better assist the populations they serve. PMID:27669141

  8. Shared Responsibility: Massachusetts Legislators, Physicians, and An Act Relative to Substance Use Treatment, Education, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rudder, Meghan; Tsao, Lulu; Jack, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Recent passage of the Massachusetts law, An Act Relative to Substance Use, Treatment, Education, and Prevention, represents an admirable public health approach to substance use disorder (SUD), a stigmatized chronic disease that affects some of society's most vulnerable people. With its seven-day supply limit on first-time opioid prescriptions, this legislation takes an unusual approach to state government involvement in health care. By intervening in individual physicians' practices, state legislators have entered a space traditionally reserved for clinical teams. The seven-day supply limit and the process through which it was developed highlight competing priorities and dialogue between physicians and legislators, limits of physician self-regulation, and standards of evidence in policy making and health care. Addressing these issues requires both physicians and legislators to recognize and fulfill new responsibilities in order to better assist the populations they serve.

  9. Aquatic toxicity of forty industrial chemicals: Testing in support of hazardous substance spill prevention regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, M. W.; Ward, C. H.

    1981-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is presently developing hazardous substance spill regulations to help prevent water pollution. Aquatic animal toxicity data are used as criteria for the designation and categorization of substances as hazardous, even though this type of data is not available for many industrial chemicals. Static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 such chemicals to provide basic toxicity data for regulatory decision making. Thirty-two of the 40 chemicals tested were hazardous to aquatic life as determined by 96-hr. LC 50's less than or equal to 500 mg/l. All 40 chemicals were tested with the fresh-water fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and ten chemicals were also tested with the salt-water grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

  10. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  11. Updating versus Exposure to Prevent Consolidation of Conditioned Fear.

    PubMed

    Pile, Victoria; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Wild, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the consolidation of fear memories following trauma may offer a promising method for preventing the development of flashbacks and other unwanted re-experiencing symptoms that characterise Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Research has demonstrated that performing visuo-spatial tasks after analogue trauma can block the consolidation of fear memory and reduce the frequency of flashbacks. However, no research has yet used verbal techniques to alter memories during the consolidation window. This is surprising given that the most effective treatments for PTSD are verbally-based with exposure therapy and trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy gaining the most evidence of efficacy. Psychological therapies aim to reduce the conditioned fear response, which is in keeping with the preliminary finding that an increased propensity for fear conditioning may be a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Our research had two aims. We investigated the degree to which individual differences in fear conditioning predict the development of PTSD symptoms. We also compared the preventative effects of two clinically informed psychological techniques administered during the consolidation window: exposure to the trauma memory and updating the meaning of the trauma. 115 healthy participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm in which traumatic film stimuli (unconditioned stimuli) were paired with neutral stimuli (conditioned stimuli). Participants were randomly allocated to an updating, exposure or control group to compare the effects on the conditioned fear response and on PTSD symptomatology. The results showed that stronger conditioned responses at acquisition significantly predicted the development of PTSD symptoms. The updating group, who verbally devalued the unconditioned stimulus within the consolidation window, experienced significantly lower levels of PTSD symptoms during follow-up than the exposure and control groups. These findings are consistent with clinical

  12. Circumstances surrounding occupational blood exposure events in the National Study to Prevent Blood Exposure in Paramedics.

    PubMed

    Leiss, Jack K; Sousa, Sara; Boal, Winifred L

    2009-04-01

    More than 20% of U.S. paramedics are exposed to blood each year. Little is known about the circumstances that lead to these exposures. The objective of this study was to describe blood exposure events among U.S. paramedics. A mail survey was conducted in 2002-2003 among a nationally representative sample of licensed paramedics. Eighty percent of needle/lancet sticks involved non-safety devices. A third of mucous membrane exposures occurred even though the paramedic was wearing eye or face protection; in half of the events, the exposures were caused by the patient vomiting, spitting, or coughing up blood; in a third of the events, the patient was being uncooperative or combative. In 83% of the non-intact skin exposures, the paramedic was wearing disposable gloves; the non-intact skin was covered before the call in a third of the events, but the cover did not prevent exposure; 40% of the events occurred when the patient was being uncooperative or combative. These results suggest that blood exposure among paramedics could be reduced through increased use of safety devices and personal protective equipment, improved engineering and design, and increased compliance with Universal Precautions, and that paramedics need techniques for avoiding blood exposure while treating uncooperative or combative patients.

  13. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6), one community-based intervention (study 7–8), and four family-based interventions (study 9–13). Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found, all conclusions must

  14. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Kumpfer, Karol; Kruse, Katja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Ruths, Sylvia; Moesgen, Diana; Pflug, Ellen; Klein, Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1-6), one community-based intervention (study 7-8), and four family-based interventions (study 9-13). Studies' levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT's, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children's, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found, all conclusions must remain

  15. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  16. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  17. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Andrea N; Myers, Bronwyn; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine qualitatively how women’s social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change) influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women’s Health CoOp) were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women’s CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women’s social action (eg, educating peers or family members) in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women’s descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women’s substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants) and social action (eg, engaging others in the community on issues relevant to substance use prevention or other health topics) promoted within the program, as well as outside social influences within women’s life contexts (eg, support from non-substance using family or male partners, leaving male partners or other peer relationships characterized by drug use, or finding employment) were key factors reported by women in terms of facilitating their substance use abstinence and in reducing women’s exposures to victimization. Conclusion Findings highlight the potential for group-delivered interventions that include mobilizing women to take social action in the larger community to be effective approaches for facilitating substance use abstinence, reductions

  18. Reduced substance use as a secondary benefit of an indicated cognitive-behavioral adolescent depression prevention program.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Marti, C Nathan

    2012-09-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression because of the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a Group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive group intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in Group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared with brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to posttest accounted for changes in substance use over 2 years for participants in Group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a nonactive comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of Group CB prevention on substance use escalation.

  19. Reduced Substance Use as a Secondary Benefit of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Our first aim was to test whether a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program reduces substance use escalation over 2-year follow-up relative to two active comparison interventions and a brochure assessment control. Our second aim examined whether reductions in depressive symptoms mediate intervention effects, as posited by the affect-regulation model of substance use. In this indicated prevention trial, 341 high school adolescents at risk for depression due to the presence of elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition. Participants in group CB had significantly lower rates of substance use compared to brochure control participants at both 1- and 2-year follow-up and lower substance use at 2-year follow-up relative to bibliotherapy participants; no other condition differences were significant. Mediational analyses suggested that reductions in depressive symptoms from baseline to post-test accounted for changes in substance use over two years for participants in group CB relative to brochure control participants but did not mediate effects relative to those receiving bibliotherapy. Results suggest that a secondary benefit of this CB group indicated depression prevention program is lower rates of long-term substance use. Findings supported the hypothesis that, relative to a non-active comparison condition, reductions in depressive symptoms mediated the effects of group CB prevention on substance use escalation. PMID:22564206

  20. Substance flow analysis and assessment of environmental exposure potential for triclosan in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Long; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-11-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and trends in environmental exposure potential through different pathways. TCS discharged in wastewater mainly flowed into surface water sediment, ocean, and soil, where it accumulates in aquatic and agricultural products that may pose a higher risk to human health than brief exposure during consumption. Only 22% of TCS discharged was removed in the built environment with the remainder discharged into the natural environment, indicating that anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China is unsustainable. Per capita TCS consumption increased 209% from 2003 to 2012, resulting in increased discharge and accumulation in the environment. If current trends continue, it will increase to 713 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2015 and 957 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2020. Accordingly, annual environmental exposure potential will increase from 388 mg capita(-1) in 2008 to 557 mg capita(-1) in 2015 and 747 mg capita(-1) in 2020, indicating an increasing trend of exposure to environmental TCS. Results of Pearson correlation analysis suggested that feasible countermeasures to reduce environmental exposure potential for triclosan would include encouraging the development of small cities, raising awareness of health risks, nurturing environmentally-friendly consumer values, and improving the environmental performance of TCS-containing products.

  1. Can skin exposure to sunlight prevent liver inflammation?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Black, Lucinda J; Feelisch, Martin; Hart, Prue H; Weller, Richard

    2015-05-05

    Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  2. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  3. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  4. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  5. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  6. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  7. The Potential of Coaching as a Strategy to Improve the Effectiveness of School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Brodish, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use…

  8. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection: a new prevention paradigm?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández, Javier; Martínez Sesmero, José Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis" (PrEP) has been recently developed as a prevention strategy which involves the administration of drugs to non-infected individuals who present high exposure or susceptibility to HIV. Although this use is not approved in our country, several guidelines recommend PrEP as a prevention option in adult MSM, heterosexual men and women, and users of parenteral drugs at risk of acquiring the infection. This article presents the characteristics that an ideal agent to be used as PrEP should meet, recent efficacy published data and barriers for the implementation of this new strategy. On the other hand, the role of hospital pharmacists will be discussed.

  9. Fish meal in animal feed and human exposure to persistent bioaccumulative and toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G

    2006-11-01

    Persistent and bioaccumulative toxic substances (PBTSs) that end up in fish are health hazards and the object of fish-consumption advisories. Some of these substances are present as extraneous contaminants, e.g., man-made lipophilic pollutants such as organohalogen pollutants, and others such as monomethyl mercury can be considered naturally occurring. Omnivores (e.g., poultry and swine) and especially ruminants that are fed contaminated fish meal can pass monomethyl mercury and organohalogen pollutants to eggs, meat, and dairy products. Differences in fish meal PBTS profiles and farm animal (e.g., poultry, swine, cattle, and farmed fish) physiology modulate PBTSs in animal products. Fish-consumption advisories issued to protect human health do not extend to fish by-products fed to farmed animals. Animals (especially farmed fish) that are fed fish meal can bioconcentrate monomethyl mercury in protein matrices, and organohalogen pollutants can be passed on in the fat components of derived foods. Policies to decrease exposure to monomethyl mercury and organohalogen pollutants must consider farming practices that use fish by-products. A risk assessment of toxic contaminants in fish meal may indicate that food safety objectives must consider the human health impact of foods derived from animals fed contaminated meal.

  10. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  11. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.

    PubMed

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥1 AS and 67% to ≥2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April-June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TERlt) <5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TERlt <5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1-4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed.

  12. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Making Prevention Effective for Adolescent Boys and Girls: Gender Differences in Substance Use and Prevention. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Results indicate that overall, boys and girls respond to prevention differently. Boys…

  13. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  14. Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural versus Urban Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin; Harp, Kathi LH

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are vulnerable to burnout, which has negative repercussions for the counselor, employing organization, and clients. However, little is known about differences in counselor burnout from the counselors’ perspective in rural versus urban treatment centers. In 2008, focus group data from 28 rural and urban counselors in a southern state was analyzed, revealing three burnout themes across all counselors: causes, consequences, and prevention. However, there were various differences between rural and urban counselors in sub-themes with only rural counselors citing office politics and low occupational prestige as causes of burnout. Only urban counselors reported responses endorsing the sub-themes of role reversal, clients trying to choose their counselors, and changing jobs as consequences of burnout. All counselors cited co-worker support, clinical supervision, and self-care as important strategies for managing burnout. In sum, context clearly matters as rural counselors cited more causes of burnout; yet, the implications of burnout are universal in that they often lead to poor quality clinical care. There is a continued need for greater understanding of addiction as a disease, which would reduce stigma, especially in rural areas, as well as increase the prestige and earning potential of the substance abuse counseling occupation. PMID:23662328

  15. Increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2003-07-01

    Theoretically, cue exposure treatment should be able to prevent relapse by extinguishing conditioned drug responding (e.g. cue-elicited craving). According to contemporary learning theory, though, extinction does not eliminate conditioned responding. Analogous cue exposure with response prevention (CERP) as a treatment of addictive behavior might not eliminate the learned relation between drug-related cues and drug use. This does not necessarily mean that cue exposure cannot successfully prevent relapse. Various suggestions for increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment are being discussed from a contemporary learning theory perspective. It is suggested that cue exposure treatment incorporating retrieval cues can be a beneficial treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

  16. Measuring fidelity to a culturally adapted HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Burlew, A. Kathleen; Turnbull, Sharriann; Robinson, Michael; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    A fidelity measure was developed for use with Real Men Are Safe-Culturally Adapted (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment. The aims of this analysis were to: 1) assess the reliability of the Fidelity Rating and Skill Evaluation (FRASE); 2) measure improvement in therapist competence and adherence over time while delivering REMAS-CA; and 3) identify which modules of REMAS-CA were most difficult to deliver. Results showed that, 1) the FRASE was a reliable instrument; 2) therapists achieved adequate adherence and competence after training and demonstrated significant improvement over time in Global Empathy; and 3) Sessions 4 and 5 of REMAS-CA contained the most challenging modules for therapists to deliver. Recommendations for future REMAS-CA therapist trainings and fidelity monitoring are made. PMID:23810229

  17. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Gelderloos, P; Walton, K G; Orme-Johnson, D W; Alexander, C N

    1991-03-01

    This article reviews 24 studies on the benefits of Transcendental Meditation (TM) in treating and preventing misuse of chemical substances. Studies cover noninstitutionalized users, participants in treatment programs, and prisoners with histories of heavy use. All the studies showed positive effects of the TM program. Some of the survey-type studies were unable to exclude the possibility of self-selection or responder biases. However, longitudinal, random-assignment studies with objective measures also showed positive results. Taken together, these and other studies indicate the program simultaneously addresses several factors underlying chemical dependence, providing not only immediate relief from distress but also long-range improvements in well-being, self-esteem, personal empowerment, and other areas of psychophysiological health.

  18. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of congenital cerebral palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Streja, Elani; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early or midpregnancy, and 6 PFASs were quantifiable in more than 90% of the samples. We found a higher risk of CP in boys with higher maternal PFAS levels; per 1-unit (natural-log ng/mL) increase, the risk ratios were 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.8) for perfluorooctane sulfonate and 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.6) for perfluorooctanoic acid. We also observed a dose-response pattern of CP risk in boys per quartile of maternal level of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid (P for trend < 0.01). PFASs were associated with both unilateral and bilateral spastic CP subphenotypes. No association between PFASs and CP was found in girls. Prenatal exposures to PFASs may increase the risk of CP in boys, but the finding is novel and replication is needed.

  19. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Etterson, Matthew A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150–200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed.

  20. Substance use and HIV disease progression in the HAART era: implications for the primary prevention of HIV.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Adam W

    2011-05-23

    Prior to the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cohort studies provided equivocal evidence to support the hypothesis that substance use predicts more rapid HIV disease progression. The present review examined the effects of substance use on HIV disease progression in cohort studies with follow-up that continued into the HAART era. Of the 20 studies included in this review, 16 observed that substance use predicted at least one indicator of HIV disease progression. Ten of the 11 studies that followed participants exclusively in the HAART era observed an effect of substance use on HIV disease progression. Findings across studies indicate that stimulant use promotes more rapid HIV disease progression and the effects of substance use on HIV disease progression can persist after controlling for self-reported HAART non-adherence. Future investigations that examine the bio-behavioral pathways whereby substance use promotes HIV disease progression should include: measures of HIV genotypic and phenotypic resistance, multi-method assessment of adherence, and assessment of co-morbid infections that are more prevalent among substance users. Although further mechanistic research is needed, findings from existing cohort studies have clear clinical implications. Implementing screening, brief intervention and referral to substance abuse treatment in HIV medical care could optimize health outcomes and decrease HIV transmission rates by boosting the effectiveness of "Test and Treat" approaches to HIV prevention.

  1. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  2. Exposure of Norwegian toddlers to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): The association with breastfeeding and maternal PFAS concentrations.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Granum, Berit; Haug, Line S

    2016-09-01

    High exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in children. PFASs exposure pathways of toddlers might differ from those of infants and adults, and the investigations on determinants of PFASs exposure in early childhood are scarce. Our aims were to examine the PFAS blood concentrations in Norwegian toddlers and to assess their relationship with maternal PFAS concentrations in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. We determined PFAS concentrations in 112 plasma samples of 3-year-old children collected at 2010-2011 and 99 maternal serum samples collected around delivery at 2007-2008. PFAS concentrations in children were regressed on duration of breastfeeding, and the effect modification by maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations was examined in 55 mother-child pairs. Six PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of both maternal and children samples. Positive and significant correlations ranging between 0.50 and 0.66 were found between maternal and child concentrations of the same PFAS congeners. Nevertheless, toddlers had higher total PFAS blood concentrations than their mothers, due to higher concentrations of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS. Every month of breastfeeding was associated with an increase of 3.3% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.8-5.8) for PFOS, 4.7% (95%CI: 2.8-6.6) for PFOA and 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6-9.7) for PFHpS in toddlers' plasma and a dose-response association was found, after adjustment for confounders. However, PFNA and PFUnDA concentrations in children were not associated with either maternal concentrations or breastfeeding duration. Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer, prenatally, and breastfeeding, postanatally, are among the main determinants of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS concentrations in toddlers, while that was not the case for PFNA and PFUnDA. Nevertheless, due to the small number of mother child-pairs in our study, our results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27453094

  3. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  4. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  5. The Treatment of Co-Occurring PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Trauma-Focused Exposure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschnagel, Joseph S.; Coffey, Scott F.; Rash, Carla J.

    2006-01-01

    Co-morbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is high and there is a need for empirically validated treatments designed to address PTSD among SUD patients. One effective PTSD treatment that may be useful in treating PTSD-SUD is exposure therapy. This paper reviews the relationship between comorbid PTSD…

  6. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  7. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  8. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  9. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls.

  10. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  11. Physiological Correlates of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition that Relate to Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline Cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and Cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline Cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and Cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and Cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and Cortisol (high RSA and low Cortisol or low RSA and high Cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  12. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children.

  13. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761

  14. HIV Prevention Among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, M Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants' HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N = 3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57-75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14-25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57-63%, p < .001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum.

  15. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  16. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  17. Efficacy of a Self-Administered Home-Based Parent Intervention on Parenting Behaviors for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…

  18. Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

  19. Prevention of Substance Abuse and AIDS Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: Is any Real Progress Being Made? Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    Although a great deal of effort has been devoted to the prevention of substance abuse and AIDS risk behaviors in adolescents, the success of such programs can be difficult to measure. This study, in Northeast Houston-Harris County, Texas, examines adolescent attitudes and behaviors toward sexual activity and AIDS and discusses barriers facing…

  20. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  1. "SPECDA"-A Comprehensive Approach to the Delivery of Substance Abuse Prevention Services in the New York City School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Lilly, Levander

    1986-01-01

    Evaluates SPECDA (School Program to Educate and Control Drug Abuse) a comprehensive substance abuse prevention program which links drug counselors and police officers in teams to provide drug education. Results indicated significant positive changes in children's knowledge about drugs, attitudes toward drugs, and attitudes toward polic officers…

  2. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  3. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  4. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  5. Drug Testing for Newborn Exposure to Illicit Substances in Pregnancy: Pitfalls and Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Farst, Karen J.; Valentine, Jimmie L.; Hall, R. Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  6. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  7. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = −0.261 to −0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = −0.229 to −0.165 for T3; r = −0.293 to −0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  8. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = ‑0.261 to ‑0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = ‑0.229 to ‑0.165 for T3; r = ‑0.293 to ‑0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  9. Liquid chromatography of urinary porphyrins for the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to porphyrinogenic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Colombi, A.; Maroni, M.; Ferioli, A.; Valla, C.; Coletti, G.; Foa, V.

    1983-01-01

    Very sensitive and precise analytical methods for measuring total porphyrin excretion and the relative amounts of different porphyrins in urine are required in order to monitor the biological effects of porphyrinogenic substances in workers and the general population. Many analytical steps of a HPLC method for measuring porphyrins as methyl esters in urine have been perfected. Sensitivity is 0.1 microgram/1 for each type of porphyrin, and average recovery is 92% in the range of 50-450 micrograms/liter porphyrins. The coefficient of variation is 3.4% within a series and 12.5% between series. Chemical oxidation before analysis and appropriate storing of the samples are the key points in achieving high quality results. The urinary excretion of porphyrins in healthy male workers varies within the range 21 to 161 micrograms/liter (95% limits of a group of 78 subjects). Concomitant factors, like drug use or liver disorders, were found to alter urinary porphyrin excretion. The proposed method permits the detection of extremely small alterations in porphyrin excretion resulting from occupational exposure to industrial chemicals such as, for example, mild coproporphyrinuria or early stages of chemical porphyria induced by polyhalogenated arylhydrocarbons.

  10. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m−3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m−3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

  11. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  12. Maternal exposures in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study: time trends of selected exposures

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, April L.; Razzaghi, Hilda; Arth, Annelise; Canfield, Mark A.; Parker, Samantha E.; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to describe time trends in selected pregnancy exposures in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from the NBDPS, a multi-site case-control study of major birth defects, for mothers of live-born infants without birth defects (controls), with an expected date of delivery (EDD) from 1998 –2011. Mothers from the 10 participating centers across the United States were interviewed by phone between six weeks and two years after the EDD. We focused on maternal race/ethnicity and five maternal risk factors: obesity, use of folic acid-containing multivitamins, opioid analgesics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and loratadine because of their prevalence of use and some reports of associations with major birth defects. Prevalence time trends were examined using the Kendall’s τβ test statistic. Results The exposure trend analysis included 11,724 control mothers with EDDs from 1998–2011. We observed a significant increase in obesity prevalence among control mothers, as well as use of SSRIs and loratadine. We also observed an increase in periconceptional use of folic acid-containing multivitamins. Some of the time trends varied by race/ethnicity. No remarkable trend in the overall use of opioid analgesics was observed. The racial/ethnic distribution of mothers changed slightly during the study period. Conclusions Long-term, population-based case-control studies continue to be an effective way to assess exposure-birth defects associations and provide guidance to health care providers. However, investigators examining rare outcomes covering many years of data collection need to be cognizant of time trends in exposures. PMID:25884728

  13. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Preventing Substance Abuse: Major Findings from the National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack

    This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…

  14. Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention programs for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.

  15. From Brochures to Videos to Counseling: Exposure to HIV-Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Leeper, Joshua; Earl, Allison; Durantini, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    This research tested the prediction that reading a preventive brochure leads people to watch a preventive video, and that watching this video in turn leads to an increase in the likelihood of participating in a preventive counseling session. A sample of men and women from a southeastern community in the United States was recruited for a general health survey with the objective of examining participation in HIV-prevention interventions. Unobtrusive measures of exposure to HIV-prevention brochures, an HIV-prevention video, and an HIV-prevention counseling session were obtained. Findings indicated that reading the brochures increased watching the video and that watching the video increased participation in the counseling session. The association between exposure to the video and exposure to the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling would be useful. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to ensure exposure to interventions to achieve intervention effectiveness. PMID:17985230

  16. From brochures to videos to counseling: exposure to HIV-prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Dolores; Leeper, Joshua; Earl, Allison; Durantini, Marta R

    2008-05-01

    This research tested the prediction that reading a preventive brochure leads people to watch a preventive video, and that watching this video in turn leads to an increase in the likelihood of participating in a preventive counseling session. A sample of men and women from a southeastern community in the United States was recruited for a general health survey with the objective of examining participation in HIV-prevention interventions. Unobtrusive measures of exposure to HIV-prevention brochures, an HIV-prevention video, and an HIV-prevention counseling session were obtained. Findings indicated that reading the brochures increased watching the video and that watching the video increased participation in the counseling session. The association between exposure to the video and exposure to the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling would be useful. Findings are discussed in terms of the need to ensure exposure to interventions to achieve intervention effectiveness.

  17. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35% versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24% versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16% versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact. PMID:25352527

  18. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  19. Evidence for Site-Specific, Systematic Adaptation of Substance Prevention Curriculum with High-Risk Youths in Community and Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran Steiker, Lori K.; Hopson, Laura M.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Robinson, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of substance use among older youths is often disregarded in prevention research. The prevailing perception has been that prevention programming is developmentally inappropriate for those who are actively experimenting with substances. This project examines the differential effectiveness of youth-driven adaptations of the evidence-based…

  20. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors. PMID:25536944

  1. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors.

  2. Compensation for exposure to hazardous substances. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, August 12, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Victims of brown lung and exposure to brominated aromatic hydrocarbons (PBBS), attorneys, insurors, and respresentatives of environmental medicine testified on environmentally-related disease. The witnesses described the uncertainties in detecting and linking substances with adverse health effects and the problems of determining appropriate compensation for the victim. They also explored the social and economic costs and benefits of using environmental and occupational health laws to prevent disease. An appendix with additional material for the record follows the testimony of 12 witnesses. (DCK)

  3. Evaluation of the HSE COSHH Essentials exposure predictive model on the basis of BAuA field studies and existing substances exposure data.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Bredendiek-Kämper, S; Poppek, U

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents an in-house BAuA study on the evaluation of the COSHH Essentials exposure predictive model. External validation is based on measurement data obtained in BAuA field studies performed in various industries, e.g. printing industry and textile industry. In addition, measurement data and information on industrial hygiene provided by the chemical industry within the framework of the Existing Substances Risk Assessment programme are used. Although the evaluated exposure data cover a wide variety of activities and workplace scenarios, there is still a considerable lack of appropriate exposure data, especially for the more stringent control strategies. It was found that the level of agreement between the measurements for solid substances (powders, dusts) and the predicted ranges is reasonably good. The situation is in part different for liquids. In workplaces where organic solvents are used in litre quantities, exposure levels are within the predicted ranges or are often lower. For small-scale uses of liquids (millilitre scale), e.g. in carpenters' workshops, there were indications that the exposure levels can exceed the predicted ranges. However, it must be noted that the database is rather small.

  4. Mental Health Disorders among Children within Child Welfare who have Prenatal Substance Exposure: Rural vs. Urban Populations.

    PubMed

    Chasnoff, Ira J; Telford, Erin; Wells, Anne M; King, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed differences in mental health diagnoses among Illinois child welfare-involved youth who have had prenatal substance exposure. Results indicate that youth from the rural area had a significantly higher rate of co-occurring mental health disorders. A multiple regression analysis revealed five significant predictors: living in a rural area, a history of neglect, having Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or an alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and age. These results have implications for adapting existing treatment models. PMID:26827476

  5. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  6. Exposure Therapy for Substance Abusers with PTSD: Translating Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Brimo, Marcella L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological research indicates that there is substantial comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Moreover, there is growing evidence that having a comorbid PTSD diagnosis is associated with greater substance use problem severity and poorer outcomes from SUD treatment. In an attempt to improve…

  7. Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities.

    PubMed

    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika; Tornevi, Andreas; Andersson, Eva M; Johannesson, Sandra; Bellander, Tom; Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Westberg, Håkan; Forsberg, Bertil; Sallsten, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  8. Multidimensionality Matters: An Effective HIV, Hepatitis C, and Substance-Use Prevention Program for Minority Parolees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jennifer L.; Fandel, Johnna; Esposito, Rashaun; Pace, Elizabeth; Banks, Mekka; Denious, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than Whites to be incarcerated, and are also disparately affected by HIV, hepatitis C, and substance use. Reaching these populations as they leave prison is important given high rates of substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors among U.S. prisoners. A 12-session, culturally appropriate,…

  9. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities. PMID:27383095

  10. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further

  11. The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on adolescent substance use and violence following exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2014-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661 to 1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range 8-16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  12. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride monomer (VC), we analyzed mortality from all cancers combined, respiratory system (RSC) and liver cancer in relation to CD and VC exposures. Subjects were 12,430 workers ever employed at one of two U.S. sites (Louisville, KY (n=5507) and Pontchartrain, LA (n=1357)) or two European sites (Maydown, Northern Ireland (n=4849) and Grenoble, France (n=717)). Historical exposures for individual workers were estimated quantitatively for CD and VC. For sites L, M, P and G, respectively, average intensity of CD exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) were 5.23, 0.16, 0.028 and 0.149 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 18.35, 0.084, 0.133 and 1.01. For sites L and M, respectively, average intensity of VC exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) was 1.54 and 0.03 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 1.54 and 0.094. We performed relative risk (RR) regression modeling to investigate the dependence of the internal cohort rates for all cancers combined, RSC and liver cancer on combinations of the categorical CD or VC exposure measures with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We categorized exposure measures into approximate quartiles based on the distribution of deaths from all cancers combined. We also considered 5- and 15-year lagged exposure measures and adjusted some RR models for worker pay type (white/blue collar) as a rough surrogate for lifetime smoking history. All modeling was site-specific to account for exposure heterogeneity. We also computed exposure category-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to assess absolute mortality rates. With the exception of a one statistically significant association with duration of exposure to CD and all cancers combined in plant M, we observed no evidence of a positive association with all cancers

  13. Hip-hop to prevent substance use and HIV among African-American youth: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.

  14. Validation of an aggregate exposure model for substances in consumer products: a case study of diethyl phthalate in personal care products

    PubMed Central

    Delmaar, Christiaan; Bokkers, Bas; ter Burg, Wouter; Schuur, Gerlienke

    2015-01-01

    As personal care products (PCPs) are used in close contact with a person, they are a major source of consumer exposure to chemical substances contained in these products. The estimation of realistic consumer exposure to substances in PCPs is currently hampered by the lack of appropriate data and methods. To estimate aggregate exposure of consumers to substances contained in PCPs, a person-oriented consumer exposure model has been developed (the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, PACEM). The model simulates daily exposure in a population based on product use data collected from a survey among the Dutch population. The model is validated by comparing diethyl phthalate (DEP) dose estimates to dose estimates based on biomonitoring data. It was found that the model's estimates compared well with the estimates based on biomonitoring data. This suggests that the person-oriented PACEM model is a practical tool for assessing realistic aggregate exposures to substances in PCPs. In the future, PACEM will be extended with use pattern data on other product groups. This will allow for assessing aggregate exposure to substances in consumer products across different product groups. PMID:25352161

  15. [Family health and family physician's influence on prevention psychoactive substances abuse].

    PubMed

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for help to the chosen

  16. Substance Use following Residential Treatment among Individuals with Co-occurring Disorders: The Role of Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms and Trauma Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Prause, JoAnn; Grella, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of anxiety/depressive symptoms and lifetime and recent trauma exposure to substance use following residential substance abuse treatment among individuals with co-occurring disorders. Data were collected from adults at treatment entry, 6- and 12-months later. At treatment entry nearly all of the participants reported lifetime trauma exposure and over one third met criteria for PTSD. Over the follow-up, nearly one third of the participants were exposed to trauma. Lifetime trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD at treatment entry were not associated with substance use over the follow-up. Trauma exposure and anxiety/depressive symptoms over the follow-up were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use. Gender did not moderate the association between trauma exposure and anxiety/depressive symptoms and substance use. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring for trauma exposure and symptoms of anxiety/depression to better target interventions and continuing care approaches to reduce the likelihood of post-treatment substance use in this population. PMID:19586147

  17. Applications of nanoporous cyclodextrin polymers to prevent exposure to mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a continued effort to maintain a safe food supply, new strategies and technologies are developed in order to reduce human and animal exposure to contaminants. Agricultural commodities are occasionally contaminated by certain species of fungi that produce mycotoxins at levels that are health risks...

  18. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  19. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  20. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  1. Schools Meet the Challenge: Educational Needs of Children at Risk Due to Prenatal Substance Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    This report is intended to serve as a reference for educators and service providers providing early intervention services and family support to children who have been prenatally substance exposed. The first two sections present information on the extent of the problem noting that 1,200,000 American women of reproductive age use cocaine, alcohol,…

  2. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  3. Correlates of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among individuals with a history of substance use and/or psychiatric disorders participating in a tobacco treatment program in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Khara, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with substance use (SUD) and/or psychiatric disorders (PD) are disproportionately affected by tobacco use; yet, little is known about secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure in these populations. An analysis of existing data examined SHS exposure among 497 smokers in community clinics in Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-percent of the participants reported SHS exposure. In sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses correlates of SHS exposure among women were not having a history of using evidence-based smoking cessation treatment and using a single substance (as compared to a polysubstance use history); whereas among men, a history of a respiratory illness and higher nicotine dependence were associated with SHS exposure. Despite limitations about the measures of SHS exposure used in the study, these findings suggest a need to further determine the risks associated with SHS exposure and tobacco use among individuals with SUD and/or PD within mental health and addictions treatment settings.

  4. Validating measures of scanned information exposure in the context of cancer prevention and screening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget J; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Hornik, Robert C

    2009-12-01

    Individuals may obtain health information, particularly from the mass media, without engaging in purposeful information searches (called scanning). This study used the Seeking and Scanning Behavior Survey of the General Population (SSBG), a nationally representative survey of adults aged 40-70 years (n = 2,489), to validate measures of scanned information exposure about cancer prevention and screening behaviors. Scanned exposure measures concerning specific behaviors (exercise; fruit and vegetable consumption; dieting; and mammogram, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) text, and colonoscopy screening) have good face validity and are convergent across behaviors (mean correlation across six preventive behaviors = 0.50, sd = 0.09). These measures can be discriminated from measures of general media exposure (mean r = 0.23, sd = 0.02) and seeking exposure for the same behaviors (mean r = 0.25, sd = 0.06). Scanned information exposure was associated with weekly volume of newspaper coverage for two of six behaviors, providing additional evidence of nomological validity. Scanned information exposure at the first round of measurement was associated with identical exposure 1 year later (mean r = .41, sd = .04). Scanned exposure measures also were significantly associated with five of the six preventive behaviors. These results provide evidence that scanned information exposure measures are valid indicators of the construct. Researchers might consider their use to capture scanned media influence on cognitions and behaviors. PMID:20029707

  5. Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control. PMID:21614335

  6. Fetal Substance Exposure and Cumulative Environmental Risk in an African American Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Chie; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Two models of vulnerability to socioenvironmental risk were examined in 337 African American children (M = 7.8 years) recruited to overrepresent prenatal alcohol or cocaine exposure: The cumulative risk model predicted synergistic effects from exposure to multiple risk factors, and the fetal patterning of disease model predicted that prenatal…

  7. Styles of Adaptation: The Impact of Frequency and Valence of Adaptation on Preventing Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Dusenbury, Linda; Giles, Steven M.; Bishop, Dana C.; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren P.; Strack, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To be effective, evidence-based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's effectiveness. This study aims to examine the impact that number and quality of adaptations have on substance use outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: The authors…

  8. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and by talking with our children about the dangers of alcohol and other drugs, we can increase their... shattered. Substance abuse touches every sector of our society, straining our health care and criminal... deterrent to alcohol and other drug use and the strongest influence for making health choices....

  9. Research in Substance Abuse and Disabilities: The Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis

    This paper reviews literature related to substance abuse and persons with disabilities. The paper distinguishes between congenital disability and trauma-generated conditions and the impact on drug use. Drug use patterns are also differentiated by type and severity of disability categories including mental illness, orthopedic and physical…

  10. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  11. Alabama Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program for Educational Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Education.

    Quality substance abuse training for 279 educational personnel (school counselors, school nurses, and school psychologists) across the state of Alabama was provided in a series of two-day training sessions through a federal grant. Although the original grant proposed 7 training sessions, 9 training sessions were ultimately offered over the course…

  12. Engaging Ethnically Diverse Teens in a Substance Use Prevention Advocacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Feighery, Ellen C.; Altman, David A.; Kole, Sara; Tencati, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    Engaged low-income adolescents in community advocacy efforts to transform their schools and communities to reduce substance use. The intervention involved social cognitive constructs (sense of community, perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, incentive value, policy control, and leadership competence). Though there were no changes in…

  13. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Kate; Bright, Vicki; Allinott, Shari; Alexson, Debbie; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex) have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting. PMID:18067670

  14. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  15. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  16. A Review of Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Amaro, Hortensia; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the effectiveness of traditional alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention approaches with girls and with boys, as well as available evidence from gender-specific or gender-informed interventions focused specifically on girls. Recommends needed research and prevention strategies that take gender into account. (Author/DLH)

  17. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Four. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This revised curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' affective and cognitive skills. The introductory section presents the rationale for the school-community drug abuse prevention program…

  18. The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M; Brodish, Paul H

    2009-08-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use was noted, this finding may be attributed to marked baseline differences on this variable across the intervention and control groups. No effects were found on students' alcohol or marijuana use or on any of several variables thought to mediate curriculum effects. The effects of coaching on teachers may not become evident until future years, when they have moved beyond an initial mechanical delivery of the curriculum. PMID:17652615

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  20. The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M; Brodish, Paul H

    2009-08-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use was noted, this finding may be attributed to marked baseline differences on this variable across the intervention and control groups. No effects were found on students' alcohol or marijuana use or on any of several variables thought to mediate curriculum effects. The effects of coaching on teachers may not become evident until future years, when they have moved beyond an initial mechanical delivery of the curriculum.

  1. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A prevention-effective adherence paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095

  2. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  3. Vicarious exposure to terrorist attacks and substance use: results from an urban household survey.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Adam M; Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of the 9/11 attacks on substance use in Chicago, Illinois. The study design was a cross-sectional, audio-computer-assisted self-interview survey conducted in 2001 and 2002. Biological samples were also collected for toxicological analyses. Using a multistage area probability design, residents between the ages of 18 and 40 years were randomly selected. Compared to pre-9/11 interviewees, post-9/11 interviewees showed significantly less self-reported marijuana use, marijuana use per test results, and cocaine use per test results. Law enforcement and social-structural explanations for the findings are discussed.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent-Centered Intervention in Preventing Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda; Briones, Ervin; Schwartz, Seth J.; Feaster, Daniel; Huang, Shi; Sullivan, Summer; Tapia, Maria I.; Sabillon, Eduardo; Lopez, Barbara; Szapocznik, Jose

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of Familias Unidas + Parent-Preadolescent Training for HIV Prevention (PATH), a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, in preventing adolescent substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. Two hundred sixty-six 8th-grade Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of…

  5. School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of Program Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Classifies school-based prevention activities into the following five educational domains: (1) cognitive; (2) affective/interpersonal; (3) behavioral; (4) environmental; and (5) therapeutic. Discusses research findings for each domain. (Author/LHW)

  6. Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

  7. Batter up! Relapse prevention for homeless veteran substance abusers via softball team participation.

    PubMed

    Burling, T A; Seidner, A L; Robbins-Sisco, D; Krinsky, A; Hanser, S B

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four veterans of a residential rehabilitation program for homelessness and substance abuse participated on a community-based softball team. Compared to nonparticipants, participants stayed in treatment longer and were more likely to complete all aspects of the program (inpatient and outpatient). They also were more likely to be abstinent from drugs/alcohol, employed, and housed 3 months postdischarge. Participation appeared to enhance outcomes by providing in vivo opportunities for practicing coping skills and developing supportive relationships. A softball program may be a viable adjunct treatment in which formally taught cognitive-behavioral skills can be applied in a natural, but semistructured setting.

  8. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees. PMID:26443295

  9. An Exposure Prevention Plan for an Anhydrous Ammonia Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padolewski, Cathy L.; Bower, Amy; Ponikvar, Gary; Mellott, Ken

    1997-01-01

    In July of 1996, the Industrial Hygiene Team of the Environmental Management Office at NASA Lewis Research Center was contacted by the Space Station Program Office to conduct ammonia awareness training for a team of engineers and technicians. The team was tasked with assembling and operating an ammonia handling system for testing of a photovoltaic radiator at the NASA Plum Brook Station Space Power Facility. The ammonia handling system supports a radiator designed to radiate excess heat from a photovoltaic array module used to provide power to the International Space Station. The system would consist of a hazardous materials trailer equipped with an anhydrous ammonia tank, heater, accumulator, chiller, and flow bench. Meetings were held with representatives from the Space Station Program Office, the engineers and Plum Brook safety personnel. Guidance was also provided by representatives from Kennedy Space Center. Determinations were made concerning the locations and types of potential exposures and a plan was developed which included training, personal protective equipment, engineering controls and emergency response. Various organizations including the Plum Brook Safety Committee, the Lewis Environmental Management Office, the Test Readiness Review Board and the Program Office all had requirements that had to be met in order to satisfy themselves that all personnel involved in the operation of the system would be safe. What resulted was a comprehensive plan that provided more than adequate safety measures and succeeded in protecting all personnel from the hazards of the ammonia system. Testing of the photovoltaic radiator was successful and although ammonia leaks were detected and maintenance of the system was ongoing, no one was injured. It was felt that the training and controls in place allowed for a comfort level that did not interfere with the operations.

  10. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  11. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  12. Effects of a Television Drama about Environmental Exposure to Toxic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, May G.; Eustis Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Wells, Kristen; Huang, Grace C.; Beck, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed short-term outcomes of viewing an episode of a prime-time television drama in which a child developed cancer after environmental exposure to an illegal pesticide. The study explored the effects among viewers of feeling transported into a narrative world. Methods. Respondents (n=2,139) to a post-episode Internet panel survey were asked if they had seen the show and asked questions about their demographic information, their frequency of viewing the television show, the degree to which they had felt transported into a narrative world created by the drama, and their knowledge and beliefs about the health effects of environmental exposure. Conversations with key informants from federal agencies and advocacy groups were also held. Results. Episode viewing and narrative transportation were positively associated with knowledge of toxic exposure effects, and transported viewers reported being more likely to report an unusually high number of cancer cases to authorities. The show also appeared to have prompted a clarification of federal pesticide-testing policy. Conclusions. Entertainment Education is a promising strategy for disseminating key points of information about environmental health. PMID:21563723

  13. Ginger-derived phenolic substances with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Besides its food-additive functions, ginger has a long history of medicinal use for the treatment of a variety of human ailments including common colds, fever, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal complications, motion sickness, diabetes, cancer, etc. Ginger contains several nonvolatile pungent principles viz. gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone, which account for many of its health beneficial effects. Studies conducted in cultured cells as well as in experimental animals revealed that these pungent phenolics possess anticarcinogenic properties. This chapter summarizes updated information on chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of ginger-derived phenolic substances and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:19367122

  14. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  15. Toxic Environmental Chemicals: The Role of Reproductive Health Professionals In Preventing Harmful Exposures

    PubMed Central

    SUTTON, Patrice; WOODRUFF, Tracey J.; PERRON, Joanne; STOTLAND, Naomi; CONRY, Jeanne A.; MILLER, Mark D.; GIUDICE, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Every pregnant woman in the U.S. is exposed to many and varied environmental chemicals. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence documents that widespread exposure to environmental chemicals at levels encountered in daily life can adversely impact reproductive and developmental health. Preconception and prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals are of particular import because they may have a profound and lasting impact on health across the life course. Thus, preventing developmental exposures to environmental chemicals would benefit greatly from the active participation of reproductive health professionals in clinical and policy arenas. PMID:22405527

  16. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  17. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  18. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Elementary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This elementary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The lessons are divided into two groups, one for grades K-3 and the other grades 4-6. The primary…

  19. The Cultural Tailoring of a Substance Use Prevention Curriculum for American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Chris; Bliss, Kappie

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss the importance of the cultural tailoring (CT) of classroom-based prevention curricula to ensure their relevance to, and increase their receptivity by, racial and ethnic minority adolescent populations. Following a review of the pertinent literature, we develop an integrated model of CT that conceptualizes such…

  20. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Secondary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This secondary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The guide covers the facts about crack, the reasons given for using crack, strategies for saying no to…

  1. Trajectories of Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Early Substance Use in the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51 % African American; 47 % European American; 69 % boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23417666

  2. Preventive measures reduce exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a graphite electrode plant

    PubMed Central

    dell'Omo, M.; Muzi, G.; Marchionna, G.; Latini, L.; Carrieri, P.; Paolemili, P.; Abbritti, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the efficacy of preventive measures in a graphite electrode plant aimed at reducing occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: Electrode workers (n = 146) answered a questionnaire and provided an end of shift urine sample. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-hpur), a biological marker of exposure to PAHs, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with: (a) fluorescence detection. 1- Hydroxypyrene concentrations were compared with the concentrations measured before implementing the preventive measures; and (b) those of a control group of 54 men not occupationally exposed to PAHs. RESULTS: After implementation of preventive measures, median concentrations 1- hpur were significantly reduced in some groups of workers: by -24%, - 37% and -30% in workers at the green electrode unit, one baking impregnation unit, and the laboratory, respectively. In workers at a second baking impregnation unit, in end product finishing and in the power station 1-hpur concentrations were unchanged. Urinary 1-hp concentrations were still significantly higher in each group of workers than in the control group (p < 0.001 for any comparison). Concentrations in the workers varied with the type of job, the highest values being found in workers engaged in the power station, in the two baking impregnation units and in the green electrode unit. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing preventive measures significantly reduced exposure to PAHs at a graphite electrode plant. The reduction in median and peak concentrations of 1-hpur, which reflects total exposure to, and internal dose of PAHs, was most evident in workers employed in the units where preventive measures had been taken. Despite an overall reduction, further preventive measures are needed to minimise exposure to PAHs and consequently the risk of adverse health effects.   PMID:9764100

  3. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410.

  4. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410. PMID:27364113

  5. Risk factors associated with Hepatitis C among female substance users enrolled in community-based HIV prevention studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most frequent chronic blood-borne infections in the United States. The epidemiology of HCV transmission is not completely understood, particularly in women and minorities. Findings We examined the HCV associated risk factors in substance abusing females involved in National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded HIV prevention studies of street recruited women. As a part of the 12 month follow-up, participants were interviewed about substance use and sexual risk behaviors, including drug implement sharing practices, tattoos, body piercing and blood transfusions and the sharing of personal hygiene equipment including tweezers, toothbrushes and razors. Urine and blood testing for HCV antibody (Ab), HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was conducted at the time of assessment. Among 782 predominantly African American women, 162 (21%) tested positive for HCV Ab. Older age (p < 0.001), history of injection drug use (p < 0.001), lifetime crack cocaine use (p = 0.004) and having a tattoo (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with HCV Ab positivity. Other risk factors previously reported in association with HCV Ab positivity such as sexual risk behaviors were not significantly associated with the presence of a positive HCV Ab. Conclusions This large community based sample of predominantly African American substance abusing women showed high prevalence of HCV Ab positivity and low awareness of their HCV serostatus. Our study demonstrated that in addition to intravenous drug use (IDU), other factors were significantly associated with HCV Ab positivity such as having a tattoo and a lifetime history of crack use. Other potential routes of HCV transmission should be further studied among high risk female populations. PMID:21492467

  6. Feasibility of a Parenting Program to Prevent Substance Use Among Latino Youth: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michele L.; Hurtado, Ghaffar A.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Okuyemi, Kola S.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Marczak, Mary S.; Stoppa, Patricia; Svetaz, Veronica M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Family-skills training programs prevent adolescent substance use, but few exist for immigrant Latino families. This study assesses the feasibility of a family-skills training intervention developed using a community-based participatory research framework, and explores parental traditional values as a modifier of preliminary effects. Design One-group pretest-posttest. Setting Four Latino youth–serving sites (school, clinic, church, social-service agency). Subjects Immigrant Latino parents of adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (N = 83). Intervention Eight-session program in Spanish to improve parenting practices and parent-youth interpersonal relations designed with Latino parents and staff from collaborating organizations. Measures Feasibility was assessed through retention, program appropriateness, and group interaction quality. Preliminary outcomes evaluated were (1) parenting self-efficacy, discipline, harsh parenting, monitoring, conflict, attachment, acceptance, and involvement, and (2) parent perception of adolescent internalizing, externalizing, and substance use behaviors. Covariates included sociodemographics and parental endorsement of traditional values. Analysis Feasibility outcomes were assessed with descriptive statistics. Paired t-tests measured changes in parenting outcomes. Adjusted multiple regression models were conducted for change in each outcome, and t-tests compared mean changes in outcomes between parents with high and low traditional values scores. Results Program appropriateness and group interaction scores were positive. Improvement was noted for eight parenting outcomes. Parents perceived that adolescent internalizing behaviors decreased. Parents with lower endorsement of traditional values showed greater pretest-posttest change in attachment, acceptance, and involvement. Conclusion This intervention is feasible and may influence parenting contributors to adolescent substance use. (Am J Health Promot 2013;27[4]:240–244.) PMID

  7. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure.

    PubMed

    D'Hollander, Wendy; de Voogt, Pim; De Coen, Wim; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The widespread distribution and degradation of PFCs in the environment results in a very complex exposure pattern, which makes it difficult to define the relative contribution to human exposure from different exposure pathways. The present review is designed to provide an overview of the existing data on levels of PFCs measured in the human diet and in drinking water. Data on levels of PFCs in the human diet are rather scarce, but the level in the fish appear to be well documented. Among PFCs, PFOS and PFOA are the best studied compounds in fish from both experimental and monitoring studies. Recently, the number of publications that address other PFCs has increased, but the total number available is still limited. In general, we discovered that care should be exercised when using the reviewed data, because, in the majority of publications, quality control and/or details on analysis are, at least partly, lacking. It has been well documented that PFOA and PFOS have the potential to accumulate in fish and concentrations up to 7 and 170 ng/g wwt, respectively in edible fish species have been found. PFOS is the most crucial and prominent compound identified, followed by the PFOA. Also, in aquatic invertebrate such as shrimps, mussels, clams, and oysters, high PFOS levels have been reported (up to 387 ng/g wwt). However in most publications PFC level reported in molluscs were less than 1 ng/g wwt. Positive correlations were found between PFC body burden and self reported fish consumption. In recognition of the potential for human exposure to PFCs via fish consumption, the Minnesota Department of Health has recently issued fish consumption advisories for contaminated sections of the Mississippi River. It is interesting to note that 79% of the reviewed publications on PFCs in the whole fish homogenates exceed the that threshold. Moreover, five of the PFC concentration reported in muscles tissue exceeded the advisory level of 38 ng/g wwt. Even though several authors

  8. A meta-analysis of direct and mediating effects of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance abuse prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of the effects of a set of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance use prevention interventions as part of a State Incentive Grant (SIG) in Kentucky. The analysis included assessment of direct effects on prevalence of substance use among adolescents as well as assessment of what "risk" and "protective" factors mediated the coalition effects. In addition, we tested whether multiple science-based prevention interventions enhanced the effects of coalitions on youth substance use. Short-term results (using 8th-grade data) showed no significant decreases in six prevalence of substance use outcomes -- and, in fact, a significant though small increase in prevalence of use of one substance (inhalants). Sustained results (using 10th-grade data), however, showed significant, though small decreases in three of six substance use outcomes -- past month prevalence of cigarette use, alcohol use, and binge drinking. We found evidence that the sustained effects on these three prevalence outcomes were mediated by two posited risk factors: friends' drug use and perceived availability of drugs. Finally, we found that the number of science-based prevention interventions implemented in schools within the coalitions did not moderate the effects of the coalitions on the prevalence of drug use. Study limitations are noted.

  9. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases.

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU.

  11. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants. PMID:26037110

  12. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  13. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  14. The role of teacher communicator style in the delivery of a middle school substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers. PMID:25905120

  15. HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore: in their own words.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeannette L; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A

    2007-12-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service needs. Community stakeholders and key informants embedded in the local Native American population were consulted at each stage of the research planning process. Two complementary methodologies (focus groups and surveys) produced a holistic assessment of the population's needs, risks, and strengths and uncovered the social and cultural contexts in which health risk behaviors unfold. The use of these methods within a participatory framework produced a more complete portrait of the service needs of the Native American population in Baltimore. Findings from this study support the necessity for future HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention programming for urban Native Americans. PMID:18190277

  16. Enhancing Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD: A Couple-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Boeding, Sara; Fabricant, Laura E.; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of individual therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is well established, yet not all patients respond well, and some show relapse on discontinuation. This article begins by providing an overview of the personal and interpersonal experiences of OCD, focusing on interpersonal…

  17. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  18. Occupational exposure to harmful chemical substances while processing phenol-formaldehyde resins.

    PubMed

    Pośniak, M; Kozieł, E; Jezewska, A

    2001-01-01

    Air pollutants emitted while processing phenol-formaldehyde resins have been investigated. Gas chromatography-mass-selective detection was used to separate and identify chemical compounds. It was determined that workers were exposed to formaldehyde in all workplaces. Besides, phenol, acetaldehyde, acrylaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, xylene, ethylbenzene, toluene, tetrachlorethene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate were found during the production of frictional materials; and 2-furaldehyde, phenol, naphthalene, 2-furanmethanol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the production of abrasive materials. Quantitative analyses were performed with gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Assessment of occupational exposure indicated that chemical compounds emitted during the investigated processes might be dangerous for human health, mainly because of suspected carcinogenic compounds: formaldehyde and PAHs.

  19. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) inferred from multigenerational exposure: a case study with Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L

    2014-11-01

    A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size.

  20. Neonatal exposure to constant light prevents anhedonia-like behavior induced by constant light exposure in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Martynhak, Bruno J; Correia, Diego; Morais, Lívia H; Araujo, Paula; Andersen, Monica L; Lima, Marcelo M S; Louzada, Fernando M; Andreatini, Roberto

    2011-09-12

    Depressive episodes are associated with disturbances in circadian rhythms, and constant illumination has been reported to induce depressive-like behavior in rodents. Rats kept in constant darkness express the endogenous circadian rhythm, and most animals under constant light conditions lose circadian locomotor rhythmicity. Exposure to constant light in rats during lactation was reported to prevent this loss of circadian rhythm in adulthood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify whether exposure to constant light during lactation prevents anhedonia-like behavior induced by constant light in adult rats. In experiment 1, we replicated the anhedonia-like effects of constant light in adult male rats. We showed that this effect is reversed by imipramine treatment in the drinking water. In experiment 2, we subjected rats to constant darkness (neonatal-DD), constant light (neonatal-LL) or to normal light/dark cycle (neonatal-LD) during the neonatal phase and evaluated them after constant light exposure in adulthood. The group exposed to constant light during the neonatal phase did not reduce their sucrose preference and exhibited greater locomotor activity than the other groups. The neonatal-DD group exhibited decreased sucrose preference earlier than controls and had higher serum corticosterone concentrations. Prevention of arrhythymicity might protect neonatal-LL rats from anhedonia-like behavior induced by constant light, whereas constant darkness during the neonatal phase rendered the neonatal-DD group more susceptible to depressive-like behavior. These results corroborate with the literature data indicating that circadian disruption may contribute in mood disorders and that early life stress can influence stress responsivity in adulthood.

  1. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries.

  2. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. PMID:25086205

  3. Ectoin: an effective natural substance to prevent UVA-induced premature photoaging.

    PubMed

    Buenger, J; Driller, H

    2004-01-01

    With the help of a new 'UVA stress model', it was shown that Ectoin protects the skin from the effects of UVA-induced cell damage in a number of different ways. Using cell cultures, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, gel electrophoresis mobility shift assays, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, ion exchange chromatography and UV spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the UVA-induced second messenger release, transcription factor AP-2 activation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and mitochondrial DNA mutation could be prevented. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that Ectoin counteracts the effects of UVA-induced and accelerated skin aging at different cell levels.

  4. Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E.; Jacobs, David E.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R.; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children’s blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. Data sources National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Data extraction and synthesis Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children’s later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that ≥30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Conclusions Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention. PMID:18941567

  5. Prenatal Substance Exposure and Child Self-Regulation: Pathways to Risk and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation, such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting. PMID:25913650

  6. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products.

  7. Human contamination by persistent toxic substances: the rationale to improve exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    We know quite a lot about the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents; this statement is fully compatible with the view that most countries lack the necessary monitoring systems. We also know quite a lot about the toxic effects of environmental pollutants; this statement is fully compatible with the proposal that we need both more research and more energetic policies to decrease human contamination by such pollutants. Unsurprisingly, we know too little about the (environmental and social) causes and the etiopathogenesis (mechanisms) of the most prevalent diseases, and we will continue to miss relevant causes and mechanisms if we neglect the toxic chemicals that commonly contaminate humans, worldwide. Basic, clinical end environmental-epidemiological research on human health should more often consider integrating biomarkers of internal dose of environmental chemical pollutants. When we act in more responsible, rational, and scientific ways; when we become less dismissive towards environmental hazards; and when we thus neglect less the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents and their toxic effects, we will expand mechanistic biologic knowledge, and we shall as well increase the effectiveness of interventions and policies that enable the primary prevention of human diseases which cause huge amounts of economic burden and human suffering.

  8. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  9. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of 'Farm to Market' covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true 'Farm to Fork' scope is urgently needed and should include 'total diet' of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, 'Total Diet Study (TDS)' which provides 'closer-to-real' estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  10. Consensus document on the prevention of methylmercury exposure in Spain: Study group for the prevention of Me-Hg exposure in Spain (GEPREM-Hg).

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Fuentes, María Blanco; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martín, Bernardino Barceló; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.

  11. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318.

  12. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318. PMID:26882500

  13. Does adolescent's exposure to parental intimate partner conflict and violence predict psychological distress and substance use in young adulthood? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Plotnikova, Maria; Dingle, Kaeleen; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the extent to which parental conflict and violence differentially impact on offspring mental health and substance use. Using data from a longitudinal birth cohort study this paper examines: whether offspring exposure to parental intimate partner violence (involving physical violence which may include conflicts and/or disagreements) or parental intimate partner conflict (conflicting interactions and disagreements only) are associated with offspring depression, anxiety and substance use in early adulthood (at age 21); and whether these associations are independent of maternal background, depression and anxiety and substance use. Data (n=2,126 women and children) were taken from a large-scale Australian birth-cohort study, the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). IPC and IPV were measured at the 14-year follow-up. Offspring mental health outcomes--depression, anxiety and substance use--were assessed at the 21-year follow-up using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Offspring of women experiencing IPV at the 14-year follow-up were more likely to manifest anxiety, nicotine, alcohol and cannabis disorders by the 21-year follow-up. These associations remained after adjustment for maternal anxiety, depression, and other potential confounders. Unlike males who experience anxiety disorders after exposure to IPV, females experience depressive and alcohol use disorders. IPV predicts offspring increased levels of substance abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Gender differences suggest differential impact. PMID:25082429

  14. A multihealth behavior intervention integrating physical activity and substance use prevention for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werch, Chudley Chad; Moore, Michele J; DiClemente, Carlo C; Bledsoe, Rhonda; Jobli, Edessa

    2005-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief, multi-health behavior intervention integrating physical activity and alcohol use prevention messages for high school-aged adolescents. A total of 604 participants, 335 9th and 269 11th grade students from a suburban high school in northeast Florida participated in this study. A randomized control trial was conducted with participants randomly assigned within grade levels to receive either a brief consultation and prescription with a mailed reinforcing follow-up flyer (Project SPORT) or a minimal intervention control consisting of a wellness brochure provided in school and a pamphlet about teen health and fitness mailed to the home. Differences between intervention groups were evaluated with a series of MANCOVA tests. Project SPORT participants demonstrated significant positive effects at 3-months postintervention for alcohol consumption, alcohol initiation behaviors, alcohol use risk and protective factors, drug use behaviors, and exercise habits, and at 12-months for alcohol use risk and protective factors, cigarette use, and cigarette initiation (p's < 0.05). A post hoc analysis examining interactions between past 30-day use of marijuana and/or cigarettes by treatment group indicates significant positive effects for drug using adolescents who received Project SPORT on alcohol consumption, drug use behaviors, and drug use initiation at 3-months, and for drug use behaviors and exercise habits at 12-months (p's < 0.05). A brief, 12-min one-on-one consultation integrating alcohol avoidance messages within those promoting fitness and other positive health behaviors holds promise for influencing adolescent alcohol and cigarette use and other health behaviors at posttreatment and 1 year later. Long-term sustained effects for cigarette and marijuana use, and both vigorous and moderate physical activity, were found among adolescents using marijuana and/or cigarettes prior to intervention.

  15. Effectiveness of Culturally Specific Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention: Findings from CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Winter, William; Sambrano, Soledad; Chipungu, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the degree to which culturally specific interventions enhance substance abuse prevention effectiveness for targeted cultural groups. A large and diverse (African American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian) sample of 10,500 youth across 48 programs was obtained. Youth participating in culturally specific programming showed…

  16. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  17. Long-Term Impact of a District-Wide School/Community-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative on Gateway Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.; Alter, Randi J.; Greene, Robert; Younoszai, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined long-term effects of a school/family/community substance abuse prevention partnership intervention lead by a Midwestern school district. Previous findings suggested that the program contributed to decreased tobacco and marijuana, but not alcohol, use prior to and after implementation between 1987 and 1991. The current study…

  18. Exposure and Response Prevention Process Predicts Treatment Outcome in Youth with OCD

    PubMed Central

    Kircanski, Katharina; Peris, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the treatment of adults with anxiety disorders suggests that aspects of the in-session exposure therapy process are relevant to clinical outcomes. However, few comprehensive studies have been conducted with children and adolescents. In the present study, 35 youth diagnosed with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age=12.9 years, 49% male, 63% Caucasian) completed 12 sessions of exposure and response prevention (ERP) in one of two treatment conditions as part of a pilot randomized controlled testing of a family focused intervention for OCD. Key exposure process variables, including youth self-reported distress during ERP and the quantity and quality of ERP completed, were computed. These variables were examined as predictors of treatment outcomes assessed at mid-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up, partialing treatment condition. In general, greater variability of distress during ERP and completing a greater proportion of combined exposures (i.e., exposures targeting more than one OC symptom at once) were predictive of better outcomes. Conversely, greater distress at the end of treatment was generally predictive of poorer outcomes. Finally, several variables, including within- and between-session decreases in distress during ERP, were not consistently predictive of outcomes. Findings signal potentially important facets of exposure for youth with OCD and have implications for treatment. A number of results also parallel recent findings in the adult literature, suggesting that there may be some continuity in exposure processes from child to adult development. Future work should examine additional measures of exposure process, such as psychophysiological arousal during exposure, in youth. PMID:25052626

  19. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  20. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B.

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to approach the most distressing situations, doing imaginal exposure when in vivo is called for (and vice versa), encouraging distraction during exposure, providing reassurance, failing to address the core fear, ineffective handling of mental compulsions, and difficulty working with close others in the patient’s life. In the current article we describe these common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22924159

  1. Opportunity costs and financial incentives for Hispanic youth participating in a family-based HIV and substance use preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; Freitas, Derek M; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study of the synergies between the opportunity costs incurred by research participants, participant compensation, and program attendance in a family-based substance use and HIV preventive intervention for Hispanic adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida. To estimate parent/caretaker cost per session and cost for the duration of the intervention, we administered the Caretaker Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program to a random sample of 34 families who participated in a recent clinical trial of Familias Unidas. The total opportunity cost per parent/caretaker was under $40 per group session, under $30 per family session, and just over $570 for the duration of the intervention. Participants were compensated between $40 and $50 per session and attended more than 79% of family and group sessions. Parents and caretakers incurred a cost of approximately $30-40 per intervention session for which they were adequately compensated. Attendance was very good overall for this group (>79%) and significantly higher than attendance in a comparable uncompensated study group from another recent Familias Unidas trial that targeted similar youth. Findings suggest that incentives should be considered important for future implementations of Familias Unidas and similar family-based interventions that target minority and low-SES populations. PMID:24162106

  2. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Suzanne; Gower, Stephanie; Rinner, Claus; Campbell, Monica

    2013-05-01

    Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI), we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP) scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107) = 0.3, P = 0.735). However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522) = 6.0, P <0.001) in host tracts, while the indicator for "racialized" communities ("visible minority") was 16.1% greater (t(521) = 7.2, P <0.001) within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352) = 3.5, P = 0.001) than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  3. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at Me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; Chalela, P

    1999-01-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican-American youth aged 9-13 years. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-min videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  4. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; McAlister, A; Chalela, P

    1997-10-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican American youth 9 to 13 years of age. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-minute videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  5. Sexual Partnerships and Considerations for HIV Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Utilization Among High-Risk Substance Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate ofHIV infectionamongMSM isuse of“recreational”drugsthat are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis(PrEP)isanovelbiomedicalHIVprevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships. PMID:24243002

  6. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Perceptions and Preventive Practices of Indian Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses have a frontier caring role that brings them in close contact with patients' blood and body fluids. An understanding of their professional behavior is essential to assess and minimize the occupational exposure to HIV among them. Objectives. (1) To appraise the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices of nursing students pertaining to occupational exposure to HIV. (2) To quantify the risk and correlates of exposure to HIV among them. Methodology. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing college of Varanasi, India. A semistructured and pretested pro forma consisting of questions pertaining to modes of HIV transmission, universal precaution practices, and various aspects of nursing HIV patients was utilized. Independent sample t- and z-tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with the knowledge and risk of HIV. Results. The study sample consisted of 87 female and 16 male nurses. Participants' knowledge of HIV transmission was satisfactory. More than 80% of them had an exposure to blood/body fluid in the last year. Exposure rates for blood/body fluid did not show a significant association (P > 0.05) with study variables. Conclusion. There were serious lacunae in implementation of the universal precautions despite satisfactory knowledge. Reinforcement of universal precautions is required. PMID:24987531

  7. A simple and rapid extraction method for sensitive determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood serum suitable for exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; van Leeuwen, Stefan; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-04-27

    In this work, we propose a microextraction method based on a new supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of reverse aggregates of hexanoic acid, combined with liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QQQ MS-MS) for the determination of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in blood serum. A SUPRAS is a nano-structured liquid made up of surfactant aggregates synthesized through a self-assembly process. The method involved the acidification of 765 μL of blood serum (600 μmol of hydrochloric acid per mL of serum) followed by the addition of hexanoic acid (97 μL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (600 μL), conditions under which the supramolecular solvent (∼360 μL) formed in situ after vortex-shaking and centrifugation. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency and concentration factors were studied. The overall sample treatment took only 20 min and several samples (20-30) can be simultaneously analyzed using conventional lab equipments, making additional investments unnecessary. Recoveries for the internal standards in samples ranged from 75 to 89% with relative standard deviations between 1 and 15%. Calibration was based on the use of internal standards. The method was very sensitive with detection limits ranging from 2 to 20 pg mL(-1) for PFASs. The approach developed was successfully applied to the determination of PFASs in different blood serum samples. The concentration of PFASs found in samples of animal origin ranged between 17 and 197.3 pg mL(-1) and between 84 and 5168 pg mL(-1) in samples of human origin. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it suitable for the evaluation of exposure to PFASs. PMID:22420956

  8. TDS exposure project: application of the analytic hierarchy process for the prioritization of substances to be analyzed in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Sioen, I; Cubadda, F; Ozer, H; Basegmez, H I Oktay; Turrini, A; Lopez Esteban, M T; Fernandez San Juan, P M; Sokolić-Mihalak, D; Jurkovic, M; De Henauw, S; Aureli, F; Vin, K; Sirot, V

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values). PMID:25478735

  9. TDS exposure project: application of the analytic hierarchy process for the prioritization of substances to be analyzed in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Sioen, I; Cubadda, F; Ozer, H; Basegmez, H I Oktay; Turrini, A; Lopez Esteban, M T; Fernandez San Juan, P M; Sokolić-Mihalak, D; Jurkovic, M; De Henauw, S; Aureli, F; Vin, K; Sirot, V

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values).

  10. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: a dual design to test reduction of risk for conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure in childhood.

    PubMed

    Prinz, R J; Dumas, J E; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J E

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes a preventive intervention trial called EARLY ALLIANCE which is aimed at reducing risk for three adverse outcomes in childhood and adolescence: conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure. The structure of the prevention trial is unique because two linked designs are being implemented concurrently. The primary design focuses on children at elevated risk for adverse outcomes, and compares a targeted, multicontextual preventive intervention with family, classroom, peer relational, and academic components to a universal, schoolwide preventive intervention that emphasizes peaceful conflict management and serves as a "usual care" control condition. The secondary design focuses on children at lower risk for adverse outcomes and compares a universally administered classroom program to the control condition. The paper describes the theoretical foundation for EARLY ALLIANCE, the goals of the prevention trial, the rationale for design choices, and the methods employed. PMID:10822124

  11. Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Marylou; Smith, Vincent C

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

  12. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  13. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  14. Siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from plutonium inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S A; Low, J O

    1998-12-01

    Siting criteria are established by regulatory authorities to evaluate potential accident scenarios associated with proposed nuclear facilities. The 0.25 Sv (25 rem) siting criteria adopted in the United States has been historically based on the prevention of deterministic effects from acute, whole-body exposures. The Department of Energy has extended the applicability of this criterion to radionuclides that deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation through the specification of a 0.25 Sv (25 rem) committed effective dose equivalent siting criterion. A methodology is developed to determine siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from inhalation intakes of radionuclides which deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation. Revised siting criteria, expressed in terms of committed effective dose equivalent, are proposed for nuclear facilities that handle primarily plutonium compounds. The analysis determined that a siting criterion of 1.2 Sv (120 rem) committed effective dose equivalent for inhalation exposures to weapons-grade plutonium meets the historical goal of preventing deterministic effects during a facility accident scenario. The criterion also meets the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Goals provided that the frequency of the accident is sufficiently low.

  15. What Adolescents Need to Prevent Relapse after Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Comparison of Youth, Parent, and Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…

  16. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases.

  17. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases. PMID:25831946

  18. Occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus: risk, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Cardo, Denise M

    2003-10-01

    Current data indicate that the risk for transmitting bloodborne pathogens in dental health care settings is low. Pre-exposure hepatitis B vaccination and the use of standard precautions to prevent exposure to blood are the most effective strategies for preventing DHCP from occupational infection with HIV, HBV or HCV. Each dental health care facility should develop a comprehensive written program for preventing and managing occupational exposures to blood that: (1) describes the types of blood exposures that may place DHCP at risk for infection; (2) outlines procedures for promptly reporting and evaluating such exposures; and (3) identifies a health care professional who is qualified to provide counseling and perform all medical evaluations and procedures in accordance with the most current USPHS recommendations. Finally, resources should be available that permit rapid access to clinical care, testing, counseling, and PEP for exposed DHCP and the testing and counseling of source patients. PMID:14664459

  19. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  20. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  1. Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Austin, C K; Cabrera, L F

    2001-04-01

    Pesticide exposure is an occupational health hazard for migrant farmworkers. The US-EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) mandates training programs to prevent or reduce exposure. WPS implementation in a local context requires understanding individual, workplace, and community environmental factors that lead to exposure and influence intervention effectiveness. Participatory research within the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning framework was used to design a WPS training program for Mexican farmworkers in North Carolina cucumber and tobacco production. Research with farmworkers, farmers, health care providers, and Cooperative Extension agents identified modifiable behaviors and environmental factors, as well as structural and regulatory barriers requiring intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed through individual and group interviews, community forums, an advisory board, and a partnership between academic researchers and a community-based organization. The intervention's dominant features are (a) focus on key health behaviors, (b) relevance to local conditions, and (c) attention to issues of control in the workplace. Participatory research is effective for designing a health intervention where diverse social, cultural, political, and regulatory issues affect farmworkers' risk of exposure. PMID:16228792

  2. Hypnotically facilitated exposure response prevention therapy for an OIF veteran with OCD.

    PubMed

    Proescher, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    The highly stressful conditions of a war zone may exacerbate or trigger a wide variety of symptoms including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) once a service member returns home. Service members and new veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars present to treatment with multiple psychosocial concerns and co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Evidence-based treatments including exposure based therapies are commonly recommended for use with returning veterans. Although studies support the efficacy of Exposure Response Prevention (ERP) therapy for treating OCD, eligibility for these studies limits participation to subjects who self-report a well-defined, circumscribed complaint. This approach is not typical of clinic clients who, more often than not, report multiple psychological issues. The following individual case study demonstrates how integrating hypnosis facilitated the cognitive-behavioral ERP therapy and treatment for a patient suffering from OCD.

  3. [Establishment of standards and specifications for chemical substances in foods and evaluation of exposure to maintain food safety].

    PubMed

    Maitani, Tamio

    2005-01-01

    Currently, consumers are very anxious about many chemical substances contained in foods. To maintain food safety, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan establishes standards and specifications on toxic chemical substances in foods, establishes analytical methods for surveillance, and investigates the daily dietary intake of food contaminants every year. This paper describes what sorts of standards and specifications for toxic chemical substances in foods have been established and what kinds of research on daily dietary intake have been performed. As the subjects for description, pesticide residues, toxic metals, dioxins, acrylamide, food additives, genetically modified food products, so-called health foods, and food allergens are included.

  4. Behavioural treatment of tics: habit reversal and exposure with response prevention.

    PubMed

    van de Griendt, J M T M; Verdellen, C W J; van Dijk, M K; Verbraak, M J P M

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER. In addition, treatment manuals for HR and ER are described. Despite the evidence and availability of treatment manuals, many patients do not receive a first-line psychological intervention for tics. Barriers to the acceptance and dissemination of behaviour therapy are discussed as are ways to overcome these barriers, such as the use of E-health and E-learning.

  5. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  6. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Mayer, Joni A

    2005-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and is also one of the most preventable. This paper builds on an evidence review of skin cancer prevention interventions that was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (n=85 studies), and summarizes the state of knowledge about research methodology and measurement in studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. As this field advances, researchers should strive to minimize threats to validity in their study designs, as well as to consider the balance between internal and external validity. There is a need for more longer-duration interventions, and follow-up periods that make possible conclusions about the potential of these interventions to affect intermediate markers of skin cancer or at least sustained behavior change. Also, more work is needed to minimize attrition and characterize nonresponders and study dropouts. Verbal report measures of behavior are the most widely used measures of solar protection behavior. Given their limitations, investigators should routinely collect data about reliability and validity of those measures. They should also increase efforts to complement verbal data with objective measures including observations, skin reflectance, personal dosimetry, skin swabbing, and inspection of moles. Measures of environments and policies should incorporate observations, documentation, and direct measures of ambient UVR and shade. This article places the data derived from the evidence review in the context of needs and recommendations for future research in skin cancer prevention. PMID:16005810

  7. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial

  8. Evidence for Site-Specific, Systematic Adaptation of Substance Prevention Curriculum With High Risk Youth in Community and Alternative School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Holleran Steiker, Lori K.; Hopson, Laura M.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Robinson, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of substance use among older youth is of great concern, but has received little attention in prevention research. This may be due to the perception that prevention programming is developmentally inappropriate for older youth who are actively experimenting with substances. This project examined the differential effectiveness of youth-driven adaptations of the evidence-based prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (KiR). The participating sites included a juvenile justice day program, a homeless shelter, four alternative high schools, low-income housing programs, an LGBTQ youth center, and a youth group on the Texas-Mexico border. In the project’s first phase, high risk youth in community settings tailored KiR workbooks and videos to increase the relevance for their peers, older adolescents who are likely to have already initiated drug use. The second phase of the study, discussed here in detail, evaluates the effectiveness of the adapted versions of KiR compared with the original version and a comparison condition. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design with a 6-week follow-up. Youth also participated in focus groups. Both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that participants receiving the adapted version of the curriculum experienced greater improvement in acceptance and use of substances than youth in the other two groups. PMID:25221419

  9. Multiplexing Effect Due to Exposure of the Working Substance of a Spin Echo Processor to Magnetic Field Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshakov, I. V.; Popov, P. S.; Kuzmin, Yu. I.; Dudkin, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a spin echo processor that uses a magnetically ordered material (ferrite) as a working substance. It is shown that it is possible to achieve suppression of the crosstalk (spurious signals) excited by radio-frequency pulses from different chains arriving at the system if the working substance is affected by sufficiently long magnetic field pulses. Thus, time-division multiplexing of the information processes can be carried out.

  10. Adapting School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curriculum Through Cultural Grounding: A Review and Exemplar of Adaptation Processes for Rural Schools

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Graham, John W.; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin’ it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions. PMID:22961604

  11. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups.

  12. Poisonings Associated with Intubation: US National Poison Data System Exposures 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G A; Giffin, S L; Horowitz, B Z; Laurie, A L; Fu, R; Hendrickson, R G

    2016-06-01

    Patients may be intubated after exposure to a variety of substances because of respiratory failure, CNS sedation, pulmonary pathology, or cardiovascular instability. However, there is little data describing the types of substances that are associated with endotracheal intubation or the rates of intubation after these exposures. Evaluation of this association may inform future research on intubation after exposures to specific substances and guide poison prevention education. Our objective was to determine which exposures were commonly associated with intubation using the data from National Poison Data System (NPDS). The NPDS tracks data from potential exposures to substances reported to all American Association of Poison Control Centers. We performed a retrospective analysis of NPDS data from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2013 to identify human exposures to substances that were associated with endotracheal intubation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. There were 93,474 single substance exposures and 228,507 multiple substance exposures that were associated with intubation. The most common exposures to substances that were associated with intubation were atypical antipsychotics (7.4 %) for single exposures and benzodiazepines (27.4 %) for multiple exposures. Within each age group, the most common known exposures to substances were for patients under 6 years, clonidine for single and multiple exposures; for patients aged 6-12 years, clonidine for single exposures and atypical antipsychotics for multiple exposures; for patients aged 13-19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single and multiple exposures; and for patients over 19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single exposures and benzodiazepines for multiple exposures. From 2000-2013, the exposures to substances most commonly associated with intubation varied by single versus multiple exposures and by age. This study helps clarify the exposures to substances that are associated with

  13. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption.

  14. The ‘Eigenständig werden’ prevention trial: a cluster randomised controlled study on a school-based life skills programme to prevent substance use onset

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate ‘Eigenständig werden 5+6’ (‘Becoming Independent 5+6’), a school-based curriculum for grades 5 and 6 developed on the basis of evidence-based criteria for effective drug prevention curricula in schools. Evaluation of the programme includes efficacy, feasibility and practicability in daily school routine. Methods and results The intervention ‘Eigenständig werden 5+6’ consists of 14 teaching units evenly distributed over grades 5 and 6 which are interactively delivered, and a parent component. Programme effects are studied in a four wave cluster randomised controlled trial with two arms, an intervention and a control group. Self-completed questionnaires from students and teachers are collected by trained research staff. 45 schools, 172 classes and 3444 students with a mean age of 10.37 years (SD=0.59) and 47.9% girls from four federal states in Germany were assessed at baseline. 1685 students in 81 classes were assigned to intervention classes, 1759 students in 91 classes to the control arm. No differences between conditions were found for age, gender, immigration background, socioeconomic status, substance use or life skills at baseline. Exceptions were higher self-efficacy (t(3438)=2.34, p=0.02, d=0.08) and empathy (t(3302)=2.4, p=0.02, d=0.09) in the control group, whereas class climate seemed better in the intervention group (t(3037)=2.01, p=0.05, d=0.07), but effect sizes state marginal differences. Conclusion Baseline data suggest that the initial conditions are favourable for testing programme efficacy since distribution of baseline levels of the outcomes did not differ in the intervention and control groups, except for negligible differences between self-efficacy and empathy, which were higher in the control group, and class climate, which was higher in the intervention group. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN99442407. PMID:22080541

  15. [Consensus document on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Blanco Fuentes, María; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Barceló Martín, Bernardino; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-21

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.

  16. [Consensus document on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Blanco Fuentes, María; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Barceló Martín, Bernardino; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet. PMID:25561095

  17. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Glaubius, Robert L.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Hood, Greg; Penrose, Kerri J.; Bendavid, Eran; Mellors, John W.; Abbas, Ume L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods. We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results. Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay between PrEP factors (coverage, efficacy, delivery reliability, and scale-up strategy) and the level of cross-resistance between PrEP and ART. An optimistic scenario of 70% effective RPV PrEP (90% efficacious and 80% reliable delivery), among women aged 20–29 years, prevents 17% of cumulative infections over 10 years while decreasing prevalent resistance; however, prevention decreases and resistance increases with more conservative assumptions. Uncertainty analysis assuming 40%–70% cross-resistance prevalence predicts an increase in prevalent resistance unless PrEP's effectiveness exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Prioritized scale-up of injectable PrEP among women in KwaZulu-Natal could reduce HIV infections, but suboptimal effectiveness could promote the spread of drug resistance. PMID:27703992

  18. Occupational exposures to body fluids and behaviors regarding their prevention and post-exposure among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university.

    PubMed

    Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in "standard precautions" to prevent such exposures.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO BODY FLUIDS AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING THEIR PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING STUDENTS AT A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures. PMID:24626419

  20. Pre-administration of curcumin prevents neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Qiu, Li-Li; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhu, Si-Hai; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, can induce neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain and correlate with functional neurological impairment later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of sevoflurane remain unclear and no effective treatment is currently available. Herein, the authors investigated whether curcumin can prevent the sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane 2h daily for 3 consecutive days and were treated with curcumin at the dose of 20 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before the sevoflurane anesthesia from postnatal days 6 (P6) to P8. Cognitive functions were evaluated by open field, Morris water maze, and fear conditioning tests on P61, P63-69, and P77-78, respectively. In another separate experiment, mice were killed on day P8 or P78, and the brain tissues were harvested and then subjected to biochemistry studies. Our results showed that repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure led to significant cognitive impairment later in life, which was associated with increased neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, and decreased memory related proteins. By contrast, pre-administration of curcumin ameliorated early neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, memory related proteins, and later cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, our data suggested that curcumin pre-administration can prevent the sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairment later in life, which may be partly attributed to its ability to attenuate the neural apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative nitrosative stress in mouse brain. PMID:25447320

  1. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  2. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley; Haller, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group. PMID:24474853

  3. A Pragmatic Strategy for Monitoring Substance Use and Potential Impacts of Prevention Programming for Local School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feemster, Kristen G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Hoffmann, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified peak periods of the onset, prevalence, and correlates of early adolescent substance use, and evaluated the feasibility of implementing a brief student survey at a high school in the southeastern United States. A brief survey was self-administered and 791 students with a mean age of 16.2 years (SD = 1.24) provided complete…

  4. Modulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Neuropeptide Y, Glutamate, and Substance P in Ganglia and Brain Areas Involved in Cardiovascular Control after Chronic Exposure to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Merari F. R.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Farizatto, Karen L. G.; Chadi, Gerson; Fior-Chadi, Debora R.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that nicotine instantly interacts with central and peripheral nervous systems promoting cardiovascular effects after tobacco smoking, we evaluated the modulation of glutamate, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P (SP) in nodose/petrosal and superior cervical ganglia, as well as TH and NPY in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 8 weeks of nicotine exposure. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization data demonstrated increased expression of TH in brain and ganglia related to blood pressure control, preferentially in SHR, after nicotine exposure. The alkaloid also increased NPY immunoreactivity in ganglia, NTS, and PVN of SHR, in spite of decreasing its receptor (NPY1R) binding in NTS of both strains. Nicotine increased SP and glutamate in ganglia. In summary, nicotine positively modulated the studied variables in ganglia while its central effects were mainly constrained to SHR. PMID:21822476

  5. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  6. Peripubertal exposure to environmental enrichment prevents schizophrenia-like behaviors in the SHR strain animal model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila Mauricio; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Diana, Mariana Cepollaro; Justi, Veronica; Suiama, Mayra Akimi; Santana, Marcela Gonçalves; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling mental disorder, in which genetics and environmental factors interact culminating in the disease. The treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits with antipsychotics is currently inefficient and is an important field of research. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been suggested to improve some cognitive deficits in animal models of various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a possible beneficial effect of early and long-term exposure to EE on an animal model of schizophrenia, the SHR strain. Young male Wistar rats (control strain) and SHRs (21 post-natal days) were housed for 6weeks in two different conditions: in large cages (10 animals per cage) containing objects of different textures, forms, colors and materials that were changed 3 times/week (EE condition) or in standard cages (5 animals per cage - Control condition). Behavioral evaluations - social interaction (SI), locomotion, prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) and spontaneous alternation (SA) - were performed 6weeks after the end of EE. SHRs presented deficits in PPI (a sensorimotor impairment), SI (mimicking the negative symptoms) and SA (a working memory deficit), and also hyperlocomotion (modeling the positive symptoms). EE was able to reduce locomotion and increase PPI in both strains, and to prevent the working memory deficit in SHRs. EE also increased the number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. In conclusion, EE can be a potential nonpharmacological strategy to prevent some behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia.

  7. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jaime M.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L.; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin' it REAL(Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a bi-national team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and post-test survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin' it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin' it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use, however the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin' it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  8. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it real pilot prevention program: linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Ayers, Stephanie L; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin'it REAL (Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a binational team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and posttest survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin'it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin'it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use; however, the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective, but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin'it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted.

  9. Thyroxine administration prevents matrilineal intergenerational consequences of in utero ethanol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Harper, Kathryn M; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2016-06-01

    The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it. Sprague-Dawley (S) dams received control diets (ad libitum and nutritional control) or ethanol containing liquid diet with and without simultaneous T4 (0.3mg/L diet) administration. Their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naive Brown Norway (B) males and females generating the SB F2 and BS F2 progeny. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampal expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated type 3 deiodinase, (Dio3) and neurogranin (Nrgn) were assessed. SS F1 PE-exposed females and their SB F2 progeny exhibited fear memory deficits. T4 administration to the mothers of F1 females reversed these deficits. Although SS F1 PE-exposed males also experienced fear memory deficit, this was neither transmitted to their BS F2 offspring nor reversed by prenatal T4 treatment. Hippocampal Dio3 and Nrgn expression showed similar pattern of changes. Grandmaternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy affects fear memory of the matrilineal second-generation progeny. Low dose T4 supplementation prevents this process likely via altering allele-specific and total expression of Dio3 in the hippocampus. PMID:27090562

  10. Thyroxine administration prevents matrilineal intergenerational consequences of in utero ethanol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Harper, Kathryn M; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2016-06-01

    The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it. Sprague-Dawley (S) dams received control diets (ad libitum and nutritional control) or ethanol containing liquid diet with and without simultaneous T4 (0.3mg/L diet) administration. Their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naive Brown Norway (B) males and females generating the SB F2 and BS F2 progeny. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampal expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated type 3 deiodinase, (Dio3) and neurogranin (Nrgn) were assessed. SS F1 PE-exposed females and their SB F2 progeny exhibited fear memory deficits. T4 administration to the mothers of F1 females reversed these deficits. Although SS F1 PE-exposed males also experienced fear memory deficit, this was neither transmitted to their BS F2 offspring nor reversed by prenatal T4 treatment. Hippocampal Dio3 and Nrgn expression showed similar pattern of changes. Grandmaternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy affects fear memory of the matrilineal second-generation progeny. Low dose T4 supplementation prevents this process likely via altering allele-specific and total expression of Dio3 in the hippocampus.

  11. Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention in clinic settings: Higher alcohol use and more sex partners predict decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kristina; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Understanding barriers to accepting HIV-prevention counseling among vulnerable populations is of critical importance, as prevention efforts can only have a public health impact if high-risk populations are willing to enroll. A correlational field study was conducted in a health care setting with a high-risk community sample (N = 350) to determine if number of sex partners and alcohol consumption predict acceptance of an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. Findings indicated that participants engaging in the least risky behavior (i.e. individuals reporting no alcohol consumption and few sex partners) were more likely to accept an offer to receive HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, heavy drinking was associated with decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling, regardless of the number of sex partners reported (b = .12, p > .05). Given associations between heavy drinking and sexual risk taking, finding ways to increase exposure to HIV-prevention counseling programs among heavy drinkers could serve a vital public health function. PMID:24684497

  12. Opioid and Other Substance Misuse, Overdose Risk, and the Potential for Prevention Among a Sample of OEF/OIF Veterans in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes veterans' overdose risks and specific vulnerabilities through an analysis of qualitative data collected from a sample of recently separated, formerly enlisted OEF/OIF veterans in the New York City area. We illustrate how challenges to the civilian readjustment process such as homelessness, unemployment, and posttraumatic stress disorder can render veterans at increased risk for negative health consequences and then present veterans' perspectives as they outline several innovative solutions to these obstacles. We conclude by discussing several overdose prevention efforts currently underway and how they might be adapted to meet the opioid and substance misuse challenges veterans face. PMID:23869461

  13. Opioid and other substance misuse, overdose risk, and the potential for prevention among a sample of OEF/OIF veterans in New York City.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes veterans' overdose risks and specific vulnerabilities through an analysis of qualitative data collected from a sample of recently separated, formerly enlisted OEF/OIF veterans in the New York City area. We illustrate how challenges to the civilian readjustment process such as homelessness, unemployment, and posttraumatic stress disorder can render veterans at increased risk for negative health consequences and then present veterans' perspectives as they outline several innovative solutions to these obstacles. We conclude by discussing several overdose prevention efforts currently underway and how they might be adapted to meet the opioid and substance misuse challenges veterans face. PMID:23869461

  14. New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Brody, Julia Green

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemicals that cause rodent mammary gland tumors is common, but few studies have evaluated potential breast cancer risks of these chemicals in humans. Objective: The goal of this review was to identify and bring together the needed tools to facilitate the measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring. Methods: We conducted a structured literature search to identify measurement methods for exposure biomarkers for 102 chemicals that cause rodent mammary tumors. To evaluate concordance, we compared human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews. To facilitate future application of exposure biomarkers, we compiled information about relevant cohort studies. Results: Exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens. Analytical methods have been published for 73 of the chemicals. Some of the remaining chemicals could be measured using modified versions of existing methods for related chemicals. In humans, biomarkers of exposure have been measured for 62 chemicals, and for 45 in a nonoccupationally exposed population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has measured 23 in the U.S. population. Seventy-five of the rodent mammary carcinogens fall into 17 groups, based on exposure potential, carcinogenicity, and structural similarity. Carcinogenicity in humans and rodents is generally consistent, although comparisons are limited because few agents have been studied in humans. We identified 44 cohort studies, with a total of > 3.5 million women enrolled, that have recorded breast cancer incidence and stored biological samples. Conclusions: Exposure measurement methods and cohort study resources are available to expand biomonitoring and epidemiology related to breast cancer etiology and prevention. Citation: Rudel RA, Ackerman JM, Attfield KR, Brody JG. 2014. New exposure

  15. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  16. Anthropometry in 5- to 9-Year-Old Greenlandic and Ukrainian Children in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Vrijheid, Martine; Valvi, Damaskini; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. Objective We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5–9 years of age. Methods Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002–2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010–2012) using generalized linear models. Results Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2–5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8–73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1–ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. Conclusions The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight. Citation Høyer BB, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Vrijheid M, Valvi D, Pedersen HS, Zviezdai V, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Bonde JP, Toft G. 2015. Anthropometry

  17. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  18. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  19. Effects of chronic normobaric hypoxic and hypercapnic exposure in rats: Prevention of experimental chronic mountain sickness by hypercapnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, B.; Bonkovsky, H. L.; Ou, Lo-Chang

    1987-09-01

    A syndrome of experimental chronic mountain sickness can be produced in the Hilltop strain of Sprague-Dawley rats by chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure. This syndrome is characterized by polycythemia, plasma hemoglobinemia, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy with eventual failure and death. It has generally been assumed that these changes are caused by chronic hypoxemia, not by hypobaric exposure per se. We have now confirmed this directly by showing that chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure (10.5% O2) produces similar hematologic and hemodynamic changes. Further, the addition of hypercapnic exposure to the hypoxic exposure blunted or prevented the effects of the hypoxic exposure probably by stimulating respiration, thus increasing the rate of oxygen delivery to the cells. Changes in the rate-controlling enzymes of hepatic heme metabolism, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and in cytochrome(s) P-450, the major hepatic hemoprotein(s), were also measured in hypoxic and hypercapnic rats. Hypoxia decreased 5-aminolevulinate synthase and increased cytochrome(s) P-450, probably by increasing the size of a “regulatory” heme pool within hepatocytes. These changes were also prevented by the addition of hypercapnic to hypoxic exposure.

  20. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research

    PubMed Central

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J.; Mason, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  1. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research.

    PubMed

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J; Mason, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  2. Preventing substance misuse: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 UK (SFP 10–14 UK)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevention of alcohol, drug and tobacco misuse by young people is a key public health priority. There is a need to develop the evidence base through rigorous evaluations of innovative approaches to substance misuse prevention. The Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 is a universal family-based alcohol, drugs and tobacco prevention programme, which has achieved promising results in US trials, and which now requires cross-cultural assessment. This paper therefore describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the UK version of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 (SFP 10–14 UK). Methods/Design The trial comprises a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial with families as the unit of randomisation, with embedded process and economic evaluations. Participating families will be randomised to one of two treatment groups - usual care with full access to existing services (control group), or usual care plus SFP 10–14 UK (intervention group). The trial has two primary outcomes - the number of occasions that young people report having drunk alcohol in the last 30 days, and drunkenness during the last 30 days, both dichotomised as ‘never’ and ‘1-2 times or more’. The main follow-up is at 2 years past baseline, and short-term and intermediate outcomes are also measured at 9 and 15 months. Discussion The results from this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an innovative universal family-based substance misuse prevention programme in a UK context. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63550893. PMID:24438460

  3. Social justice and HIV vaccine research in the age of pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials.

  4. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  5. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  6. Perinatal Substance Abuse: A Coordinated Public Health and Child Welfare Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at prevention, identification, and treatment of prenatal exposure to controlled substances and the consequences of such exposure. Coercive state intervention can include involuntary civil commitment, child protection; and criminal prosecution. Such intervention raises constitutional issues of privacy and…

  7. Prevention of and response to inadvertent exposure of embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation, due to medical exposure of the mother. The Greek regulatory authority initiatives.

    PubMed

    Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed.

  8. Preliminary Predictors of within-Session Adherence to Exposure and Response Prevention in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Caporino, Nicole E.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Truax, Tatyana; Lewin, Adam B.; Jung, Leah; Park, Jennifer M.; Khan, Yasmeen Ali; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for pediatric OCD; however, up to 30 % of children are treatment non-responders and as many as 40% are partial responders. Although poor treatment adherence has been linked to attenuated response in adults with OCD, little research has…

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  10. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  11. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  12. Exposure to physical and sexual violence prior to imprisonment predicts mental health and substance use treatments in prison populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Francisco Caravaca; Luna, Aurelio; Mundt, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to establish rates of exposure to physical or sexual violence (PSV) prior to imprisonment for prisoners in Spain and to explore whether people exposed to PSV access mental health treatment during imprisonment. In a sample of 2484 male and 225 female prisoners, socio-demographic variables, exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment and mental health treatments during imprisonment were assessed. Frequencies were calculated as per cent values with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Risk Ratio (RR) of PSV and other socio-demographic variables to associate with mental health treatment during imprisonment was established. History of PSV was present in 35.2% (95% CI: 33.3-37.0) of the male and 40.0% (95% CI: 33.9-46.8) of the female prisoners. 70.7% (95% CI: 67.8-73.9) of the male and 76.9% (95% CI: 67.7-86.0) of the female prisoners with prior exposure to PSV were in mental health treatment during imprisonment. PSV was a significant predictor of mental health treatment during imprisonment in male (RR: 2.79; 95% CI 2.44-2.92) and female (RR: 1.94; 95% CI 1.76-2.23) prisoners. Most people with exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment access mental health treatment during imprisonment. Treatments may have to focus more on traumatic experiences. PMID:27262089

  13. Exposure to physical and sexual violence prior to imprisonment predicts mental health and substance use treatments in prison populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Francisco Caravaca; Luna, Aurelio; Mundt, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to establish rates of exposure to physical or sexual violence (PSV) prior to imprisonment for prisoners in Spain and to explore whether people exposed to PSV access mental health treatment during imprisonment. In a sample of 2484 male and 225 female prisoners, socio-demographic variables, exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment and mental health treatments during imprisonment were assessed. Frequencies were calculated as per cent values with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Risk Ratio (RR) of PSV and other socio-demographic variables to associate with mental health treatment during imprisonment was established. History of PSV was present in 35.2% (95% CI: 33.3-37.0) of the male and 40.0% (95% CI: 33.9-46.8) of the female prisoners. 70.7% (95% CI: 67.8-73.9) of the male and 76.9% (95% CI: 67.7-86.0) of the female prisoners with prior exposure to PSV were in mental health treatment during imprisonment. PSV was a significant predictor of mental health treatment during imprisonment in male (RR: 2.79; 95% CI 2.44-2.92) and female (RR: 1.94; 95% CI 1.76-2.23) prisoners. Most people with exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment access mental health treatment during imprisonment. Treatments may have to focus more on traumatic experiences.

  14. [Effective interventions to prevent health damage related to ultraviolet exposure: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Haroutunian, Laetitia; Léon, Christophe; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on health promotion interventions designed to prevent health damage caused by natural ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed using a specific method including a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified using scientific databases. We found a large number of promising programmes. Briefly, some interventions based on environmental changes and provision of shade were considered to be promising. Health education programmes delivered at school have been proven to be effective in various settings, from nursery school to college. Some parentbased interventions designed to promote children's sun protection behaviours have been shown to be relevant. Appearance-based actions, using for instance photoaging information, may be effective. Finally, some multi-component interventions in community settings appear to be promising. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of outcome measures and the general quality of the documents reviewed. Furthermore, most interventions are poorly described in the reviews. The present study should therefore be considered to be a first step that needs to be completed by a more detailed description of the promising interventions and of their transposition to the French context. PMID:26751922

  15. An open trial of videoconference-mediated exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goetter, Elizabeth M; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M; Yuen, Erica K; Thomas, J Graham

    2014-06-01

    The gold-standard treatment for OCD is exposure and ritual prevention (ERP), yet despite its well-established efficacy, only a small percentage of OCD patients have access to this treatment. Remote treatments (e.g., videoconferencing) are becoming increasingly popular avenues for treatment delivery and show promise in increasing patient access to evidence-based mental health care. The current pilot study utilized an open trial to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of videoconference-mediated, twice weekly, ERP for adults (n=15) with OCD. Results revealed that ERP was associated with significant improvements in OCD symptoms and large within-group effect sizes. Among the 10 individuals who completed a 3-month follow-up assessment, 30% of participants no longer met DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD and 80% of participants were rated as very much or much improved on the CGI. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that videoconference-based interventions are viable alternatives to face-to-face treatment.

  16. Cognitive Mediation of Symptom Change in Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Jen; Carpenter, Joseph K; Zandberg, Laurie J; Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2016-07-01

    This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i.e., responsibility/threat of harm, importance/control of thoughts, and perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty) were administered during acute (Weeks 0, 4 and 8) and maintenance treatment (Weeks 12 and 24). Study hypotheses were examined using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Contrary to predictions, the obsessive beliefs domains investigated did not mediate subsequent OCD symptom reduction. In addition, OCD symptoms did not significantly mediate subsequent change in obsessive beliefs. The present study did not find evidence of cognitive mediation during EX/RP for OCD, highlighting the need to investigate other plausible mediators of symptom improvement.

  17. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a Group of turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ekerbicer, Hasan C; Celik, Mustafa; Guler, Ekrem; Davutoglu, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2007-01-01

    Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347) were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P < 0.001). Two different intervention methods were applied to parents of the exposed children. Control tests suggested a remarkable reduction in the proportion of those children demonstrating a recent exposure to ETS in both groups. Proportions of children with urinary cotinine concentrations 10 ng/ml or lower were 79.5% in Group I and 74.2% in Group II (P > 0.05). Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS. PMID:17692111

  18. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  19. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  20. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  1. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  2. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  3. Substance Use Prevention Program for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities on Special Education Schools: A Cluster Randomised Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiewik, M.; VanDerNagel, J. E.?L.; Kemna, L. E.?M.; Engels, R. C.?M.?E.; DeJong, C. A.?J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students without intellectual disability (ID) start experimenting with tobacco and alcohol between 12 and 15?years of age. However, data for 12- to 15-year old students with ID are unavailable. Prevention programs, like "prepared on time" (based on the attitude-social influence-efficacy model), are successful, but their…

  4. Classroom Drug Prevention Works: But Left Unchecked, Early Substance Use Haunts Older Teens and Young Adults. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are in the nation's schools, sidetracking kids from getting a good education and from building a solid foundation for a productive, healthy life. The good news is that a large-scale evaluation of Project ALERT, the widely used middle-school drug prevention program developed by the RAND Corporation, shows that it…

  5. Reduction in diarrheal rates through interventions that prevent unnecessary antibiotic exposure early in life in an observational birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep; Westreich, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment early in life is often not needed and has been associated with increased rates of subsequent diarrhea. We estimated the impact of realistic interventions, which would prevent unnecessary antibiotic exposures before 6 months of age, on reducing childhood diarrheal rates. Methods In data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted in Vellore, India, we used the parametric g-formula to model diarrheal incidence rate differences contrasting the observed incidence of diarrhea to the incidence expected under hypothetical interventions. The interventions prevented unnecessary antibiotic treatments for non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and upper respiratory infections before 6 months of age. We also modeled targeted interventions, in which unnecessary antibiotic use was prevented only among children who had already stopped exclusive breastfeeding. Results More than half of all antibiotic exposures before 6 months (58.9%) were likely unnecessary. The incidence rate difference associated with removing unnecessary antibiotic use before 6 months of age was -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.46, -0.08) episodes per 30 child-months. This implies that preventing unnecessary antibiotic exposures in just 4 children would reduce the incidence of diarrhea by one from 6 months to 3 years of age. Conclusions Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use among young children could result in an important reduction in diarrheal rates. This work provides an example application of statistical methods which can further the aim of presenting epidemiologic findings that are relevant to public health practice. PMID:26621194

  6. Utilization of the serosal scarification model of postoperative intestinal adhesion formation to investigate potential adhesion-preventing substances in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, E R; Livesey, M A; Barker, I K; Hurtig, M B; Conlon, P D

    1996-01-01

    A rabbit serosal scarification model was utilized to compare the ability of four drugs, previously administered peri-operatively to horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy, to prevent the development of postoperative intestinal adhesions. The substances compared were 32% Dextran 70 (7 mL/kg), 1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (7 mL/kg), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (30 mg/kg), and flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg). The first two were administered intra-abdominally following surgery, while the latter two were administered systemically in the peri-operative period. Fibrous adhesions were evident in all animals in the untreated serosal scarification group. No significant difference in the number of animals with adhesions was found between the untreated control group and any treatment group, nor among the treatment groups. Microscopic examination of adhesions collected at postmortem examination revealed fibers consistent with cotton, surrounded by a giant-cell reaction and ongoing acute inflammation. The source of the fibers was likely the cotton laparotomy sponges used to scarify the intestinal surface, since the pattern in the granuloma and sponge fibers appeared similar under polarized light. Though consistent intestinal adhesion formation was produced in the rabbit, the presence of foreign body granulomas may prevent consideration of this model for future research. The drugs tested were ineffective in preventing the formation of postoperative small intestinal adhesions in this model. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8904667

  7. Exposure of activated sludge to nanosilver and silver ion: Inhibitory effects and binding to the fractions of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Ag(+) and AgNP (commercial and synthesized) on activated sludge by using respirometry. Along with this aim, also the changes taking place in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied. Additionally, the binding of Ag(+) or AgNP to the different fractions in EPS was assessed using voltammetry. Synthesized AgNP led to an obvious inhibition whereas commercial AgNP had no effect on activated sludge. For Ag(+) and AgNP, IC50 values were found between 2.3-3.0mg/L and 3.2-11.1mg/L, respectively. Thus, AgNP was less inhibitory than silver ion, since the release of free silver from AgNP was very small. The protein and carbohydrate content of EPS generally increased when Ag(+) was added. Both tightly- and loosely bound fractions in EPS could bind Ag(+) and AgNP. Silver binding capacity of EPS was seen to depend on the molecular weight of proteins.

  8. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The focus of the present study was to simulate the fluoride intake of the children using the methods of material flow analysis (MFA) and substance flow analysis. Discussion With a model based on MFA, we quantified the potential reduction in total fluoride intake given different scenarios—for example, by reducing the fluoride intake from drinking water and cooking water. The results show clearly that only by removing fluoride completely from both drinking and cooking water does the probability of remaining below the daily tolerable upper intake level exceed 50%. Both prepared food and food ingredients must be taken into consideration when assessing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas. Relevance This knowledge will help health personnel, the government, and the food authorities to give scientifically based advice on strategies for reducing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. PMID:21463976

  9. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted.

  10. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted. PMID:26361918

  11. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a mindfulness-based relapse prevention intervention for culturally-diverse, low-income women in substance use disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Hortensia; Spear, Suzanne; Vallejo, Zayda; Conron, Kerith; Black, David S

    2014-04-01

    We examined feasibility, acceptability, and benefits of a mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) intervention in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 318 low-income women in substance use disorder treatment (2003-2006). The study used a single group, repeated measures design. Participant satisfaction was high (M = 3.4, SD = .3), but completion was modest (36%). Linear regressions examining change in addiction severity and psychological functioning by dosage showed that higher dosage was associated with reduced alcohol (β = -.07, p < .05), drug severity (β = -.04, p < .05), and perceived stress (β = -2.29, p < .05) at 12 months. Further research on MBRP efficacy for this population is warranted. The study's limitations are noted.

  12. [The exposure of the population to toxic substances in the interior of motor vehicles--the example of benzene].

    PubMed

    Eikmann, T; Kramer, M; Goebel, H

    1992-06-01

    The exposure of the population to benzene is caused in the first place by emissions of the motor-vehicle traffic. The air pollution concentrations in main traffic routes and in the sphere of influence of industrial plants amount to 5-30 micrograms Benzene/m3 in the course of the year. In indoor air about 6-12 micrograms/m3 are detectable, in the interior of motor-vehicles between 50 and 200 micrograms/m3. Smoking raises the individual burden significantly; in contrast food and drinking water amount only for a small part of the total intake of benzene. In rural areas with low outdoor-air concentrations the main source of burden can be the intake of benzene during the use of motor-vehicles. Despite the relatively low carcinogenic potency of benzene but because of the unfavourable exposure conditions and the comparatively high concentrations measures for the reduction of benzene in fuel should be taken immediately.

  13. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Johns, Lauren E.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011–2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  14. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  15. Occupational Health Update: Focus on Preventing the Acquisition of Infections with Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2016-09-01

    Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease. PMID:27515145

  16. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  17. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  18. Modified exposure and response prevention to treat the repetitive behaviors of a child with autism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2011-01-01

    We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:22937399

  19. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  20. The relationship between baseline Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment subscale scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders treatment clinics: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) is a measure of organizational readiness for implementing practice change in healthcare settings that is organized based on the core elements and sub-elements of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. General support for the reliability and factor structure of the ORCA has been reported. However, no published study has examined the utility of the ORCA in a clinical setting. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between baseline ORCA scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders (SUD) clinics. Methods Nine clinic teams from Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics across the United States participated in a six-month training program to promote evidence-based practices for hepatitis prevention. A representative from each team completed the ORCA evidence and context subscales at baseline. Results Eight of nine clinics reported implementation of at least one new hepatitis prevention practice after completing the six-month training program. Clinic teams were categorized by level of implementation-high (n = 4) versus low (n = 5)-based on how many hepatitis prevention practices were integrated into their clinics after completing the training program. High implementation teams had significantly higher scores on the patient experience and leadership culture subscales of the ORCA compared to low implementation teams. While not reaching significance in this small sample, high implementation clinics also had higher scores on the research, clinical experience, staff culture, leadership behavior, and measurement subscales as compared to low implementation clinics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ORCA was able to measure differences in organizational factors at baseline between clinics that reported high and low implementation of practice recommendations at follow-up. This

  1. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus exposure in Egypt: Opportunities for prevention and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, F DeWolfe; Elzalabany, Mahmoud S; Hassani, Sara; Cuadros, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To critically evaluate the current epidemiology data on exposures, rather than infection, to hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and recommend epidemiologic strategies to fill gaps. METHODS: Standard methods for identifying and evaluating relevant epidemiologic literature and available data were used. RESULTS: There is a large body of literature on the epidemiology of HCV transmission in Egypt that collectively identifies ongoing iatrogenic exposures as the major driver for HCV transmission due to short comings in infection control and standard procedures. Additional epidemiologic studies on HCV transmission that requires the participation of human subject is unwarranted. Alternatively, very little literature was found on the epidemiology of exposure to HCV, infection control, and safe injection practices. The information that is available on patterns of HCV exposure shows high frequencies of inadequate infection control, problems in sterilization in health care facilities, low rates of hand washing, untrained personnel, lack of stated policies in facilities, HCV contamination of instruments and very large injection frequencies with low but very significant syringe and needle reuse. There is an important need to increase the number, size, and diversity of epidemiologic studies on HCV exposures, patterns of risk factors for infection, infection control, and safe injection practices. In addition to health care facilities evaluation, relevant knowledge attitude and practice studies are recommended. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologic methods on HCV exposure can be used to characterize the magnitude of exposures to HCV infection, target interventions to reduce exposures, and provide the best method for evaluating interventions by demonstrating the reduction of exposure to HCV infection. PMID:26668697

  3. Early exposure to allergens: a new window of opportunity for non-communicable disease prevention in complementary feeding?

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Laicini, Emanuela

    2014-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that an early exposure to dietary antigens may be more protective towards allergy than a later introduction even in high-risk infants. The consequent earlier introduction of food items such as egg yolk and oily fish, together with breastfeeding continuation through the first year, could contribute to reducing protein and increasing fat supply, respectively. These changes might have a role in the overall prevention of non-communicable disorders of adulthood.

  4. An evaluation of the effectiveness of exposure and response prevention on repetitive behaviors associated with Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Woods, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    Exposure and response prevention (ERP) was evaluated as treatment for three repetitive behaviors in an 11-year-old boy using a multiple baseline across behaviors design. The repetitive behaviors and associated self-reported distress were eliminated. At 3-month follow-up, the frequency for two of the three behaviors returned to baseline levels. This study demonstrates that ERP may be a useful treatment for repetitive behaviors, although booster sessions may be needed to maintain the treatment effects. PMID:17236341

  5. Integrating Antiretroviral Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Post- and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Early Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Robert M.; Smith, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Best practices for integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral interventions for prevention and treatment are suggested based on research evidence and existing normative guidance. The goal is to provide high-impact prevention services during periods of substantial risk. Antiretroviral medications are recommended for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV infection. We reviewed research evidence and current normative guidelines to identify best practices for integrating these high-impact prevention strategies. More sensitive HIV tests used for screening enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, more appropriate counseling, and help limit drug resistance. A fully suppressive PEP regimen should be initiated based on exposure history or physical findings when sensitive diagnostic testing is delayed or not available and antibody tests are negative. Transitions from PEP to PrEP are often warranted because HIV exposure events may continue to occur. This algorithmic approach to integrating PEP, PrEP, and early treatment decisions may increase the uptake of these interventions by a greater number and diversity of knowledgeable healthcare providers. PMID:26512356

  6. Exposure-dependent increases in IL-1beta, substance P, CTGF, and tendinosis in flexor digitorum tendons with upper extremity repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Fedorczyk, Jane M; Barr, Ann E; Rani, Shobha; Gao, Helen G; Amin, Mamta; Amin, Shreya; Litvin, Judith; Barbe, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Upper extremity tendinopathies are associated with performance of forceful repetitive tasks. We used our rat model of repetitive strain injury to study changes induced in forelimb flexor digitorum tendons. Rats were trained to perform a high repetition high force (HRHF) handle-pulling task (12 reaches/min at 60 +/- 5% maximum pulling force [MPF]), or a low repetition negligible force (LRNF) reaching and food retrieval task (three reaches/min at 5 +/- 5% MPF), for 2 h/day in 30 min sessions, 3 days/week for 3-12 weeks. Forelimb grip strength was tested. Flexor digitorum tendons were examined at midtendon at the level of the carpal tunnel for interleukin (IL)-1beta, neutrophil, and macrophage influx, Substance P, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and periostin-like factor (PLF) immunoexpression, and histopathological changes. In HRHF rats, grip strength progressively decreased, while IL-1beta levels progressively increased in the flexor digitorum peritendon (para- and epitendon combined) and endotendon with task performance. Macrophage invasion was evident in week 6 and 12 HRHF peritendon but not endotendon. Also in HRHF rats, Substance P immunoexpression increased in week 12 peritendon as did CTGF- and PLF-immunopositive fibroblasts, the increased fibroblasts contributing greatly to peritendon thickening. Endotendon collagen disorganization was evident in week 12 HRHF tendons. LRNF tendons did not differ from controls, even at 12 weeks. Thus, we observed exposure-dependent changes in flexor digitorum tendons within the carpal tunnel, including increased inflammation, nociceptor-related neuropeptide immunoexpression, and fibrotic histopathology, changes associated with grip strength decline.

  7. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  8. The relative autonomy of schools and educational interventions for substance abuse prevention, sex education, and gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Shamai, S; Coambs, R B

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.

  9. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls.

  10. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  11. Enactment of Home Practice Following Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention and its Association with Substance-use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Harrop, Erin N.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based treatments have received increasing interest and empirical support in the clinical psychology literature. There are, however, no studies to date that have systematically examined treatment enactment, which is the amount and type of home practice participants incorporate into their daily lives. Because treatment enactment has been cited as a key aspect of treatment fidelity (Bellg et al., 2004), this study aimed to fill this important research gap by documenting treatment enactment (i.e., home practice) in the context of a larger study of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP; Bowen et al., 2009). Participants (N = 93) in this secondary analysis had been randomized in the parent study to receive MBRP. Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, craving, and home practice were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 2-month and 4-month follow-up time points. Findings indicated that MBRP participants significantly increased the amount of time spent in home practice over the course of the study. Further, greater time spent in home practice was associated with less craving and AOD use at the 2- and 4-month follow-ups. Unfortunately, the significant treatment gains in home practice faded somewhat at the 2- and 4-month follow-ups. These findings suggest that MBRP clinicians should target this post-intervention decline in home practice to maximize the benefits of mindfulness meditation in decreasing AOD use and craving. PMID:25218066

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety thresholds for oral non-cancer risk in all age

  13. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  14. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  15. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure prevents cardiac valve formation in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vatsal; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2008-08-01

    Cardiovascular malformations are one of the most common congenital birth defects observed in humans. Defects in cardiac valves disrupt normal blood flow. Zebrafish are an outstanding experimental model for studying the effects that environmental contaminants have on developmental processes. Previous research has shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes blood regurgitation in the heart and reduces peripheral blood flow in embryonic zebrafish, suggesting some form of valve failure. To test this we used video microscopy to examine valve function and structure in developing zebrafish exposed to TCDD. TCDD exposure produced blood regurgitation at both the atrioventricular (AV) and bulboventricular (BV) junctions. In marked contrast to control embryos exposed to the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, embryos exposed to TCDD failed to form valve leaflets as the heart matured. In addition, whereas TCDD did not block initial formation of the bulbus arteriosus, we found that TCDD exposure prevented the normal growth and development of this portion of the outflow tract. TCDD altered the localization of endothelial cells at the AV and BV junctions and altered the localized expression of mRNAs bmp4 and notch1b normally associated with the nascent valves. Taken together, our results demonstrate that although TCDD does not prevent the initial specification of the presumptive valve locations, TCDD exposure produces severe alterations in valve development, leading to blood regurgitation and failing circulation in the developing zebrafish.

  16. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway. PMID:25817235

  17. How acceptable are antiretrovirals for the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV?: A review of research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Ingrid; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated how antiretrovirals (ARVs) could be effective in the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV. We review research on the acceptability of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) for HIV prevention amongst potential users. We consider with whom, where and in what context this research has been conducted, how acceptability has been approached, and what research gaps remain. Findings from 33 studies show a lack of TasP research, PrEP studies which have focused largely on men who have sex with men (MSM) in a US context, and varied measures of acceptability. In order to identify when, where and for whom PrEP and TasP would be most appropriate and effective, research is needed in five areas: acceptability of TasP to people living with HIV; motivation for PrEP use and adherence; current perceptions and management of risk; the impact of broader social and structural factors; and consistent definition and operationalisation of acceptability which moves beyond adherence. PMID:23897125

  18. Environmental Lead Exposure in Polish Children: Blood Lead Levels, Major Sources and Principles of the Lead Poisoning Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Muszyńska-Graca, Maja; Dąbkowska, Beata; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna; Sakowska-Maliszewska, lwona; Woźniakowa, Yvonna

    2003-01-01

    In Poland, children are exposed to lead from the combustion of leaded gasoline and industrial processes. Since the early 1990s, emission levels have declined, and a ban on leaded petrol is anticipated in 2005. Major industrial sources are located in Silesia Province and the copper mining centre (Legnica region). Concerns about, lead exposure in children date back to the 1980s; mean blood lead levels (BILL)reported in children living near lead smelters in Silesia exceeded 20ug/dl. in the 1990s, mean BLLs were decreasing, both in urban children and those living near lead industry. Lower than the CDC action level of 101ug/dl, they were however higher than mean values in children from the other countries, where leaded gasoline had already been banned. Childhood lead poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive approach, involving different sectors. Medical prevention focuses on the early detection of exposed child by the blood lead testing and individual case management. An increasing body of evidence, indicating adverse effects even below the current “safe” level of 101ug/dl, argues for intensification of the primary prevention, which requires legal, economic and technical measures. Public health efforts should contribute to the reduction and elimination of sources of exposure in child’s environment and public education campaigns. PMID:18365064

  19. Self-medication among traumatized youth: structural equation modeling of pathways between trauma history, substance misuse, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-04-01

    In an effort to self-medicate psychological distress stemming from exposure to traumatic life events, at-risk youth may be likely to seek intoxication via substance use. Concomitantly, self-medication with psychoactive substances is theorized to confer risk of developing future psychiatric and substance use disorders. The present study employed structural equation modeling to examine self-medication among a sample of 723 youth in residential treatment for antisocial behavior via recursive and non-recursive relationships between trauma history, substance misuse, and psychological distress. Results supported study hypotheses that: (a) the effects of trauma history on psychological distress are partially mediated by substance misuse, and (b) exposure to traumatic life events drives a feedback loop between substance misuse and psychological distress. Findings from this large-scale survey of adolescents exhibiting behavioral dysfunction suggest that identification of self-medication processes among traumatized youth may be crucial for developing targeted prevention and treatment initiatives.

  20. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students' Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Basak, Debashish; Kumar, Amit; Dasar, Pralhad; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Debnath, Nitai; Gupta, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient's body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r = 0.385, p value <0.0001). Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented. PMID:26413091