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Sample records for substantially protects mice

  1. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. PMID:25550100

  2. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  3. Vectors Based on Modified Vaccinia Ankara Expressing Influenza H5N1 Hemagglutinin Induce Substantial Cross-Clade Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Annett; Schwendinger, Michael; Holzer, Georg W.; Orlinger, Klaus K.; Coulibaly, Sogue; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Zips, Marie-Luise; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203), the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05), the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05) and A/chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06), and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05) were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. Conclusions/Significance The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines utilizing MVA vector

  4. Substantial Reduction of Parenchymal Cerebral Blood Flow in Mice with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Yorito; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Iguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS. Brain MRA showed anterior circulation flow was substantially decreased until 14 days post-BCAS, which gradually but incompletely recovered over the following 14 days, with probable growth of collaterals from the posterior cerebral artery. ASL showed that cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF remained decreased at approximately 50% of the baseline level during 1 and 14 days post-BCAS, recovering to approximately 70% at day 28. CBF levels in the parenchyma were lower than the cortical superficial region in the BCAS model and remained decreased without recovery during the first 2 weeks post-BCAS. These results suggest that the BCAS model reliably replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:27535801

  5. Claim substantiation and efficiency of hydrating body lotions and protective creams.

    PubMed

    de Paepe, K; Derde, M P; Roseeuw, D; Rogiers, V

    2000-04-01

    In the present work a practical claim substantiation study is shown by the example of 5 commercially available body lotions. Their efficacy with respect to effects on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum (SC) hydration of ageing skin has been examined. Results were obtained after single and repeated application (14 days, 2 x a day). The best performing product was then selected and further tested for its potential effects on sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-damaged skin. This was done in a younger population and the recovery of the impaired barrier function was followed by TEWL measurements. The selected body lotion had a high efficacy, improving both the TEWL and SC hydration of ageing skin by more than 30%. When applied to SLS-damaged skin, the product was able to improve skin barrier repair in comparison with physiological barrier repair. The results of this study show that a combination of non-invasive objective measurements can be used to substantiate product claims. Claims can be made with respect to protective and preventive properties of products, but also as to effectiveness of topical skin treatment in the case of abnormal barrier function or barrier restoration.

  6. Guide for evaluating 12 inch Substantial Dividing Walls (SDWs) to provide protection from remote operation, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsoun, Adib R.

    1991-09-01

    This report provides installations with procedures to relate Net Explosive Weights (NEWs) to combinations of intervening 12-inch Substantial Dividing Walls (SDWs) to provide protection to personnel from remote operations where an accidental detonation is the hazard. Protection to be provided is IAW DoD and Army policy: 2.3 psi maximum overpressure exposure and no hazardous fragments. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 is a 'how to' guide for installation use; Volume 2 is the rationale (calculations, etc.) behind Volume 1. Protection from thermal effects from flash fires, deflagrations, etc. is not addressed.

  7. Guide for evaluating 12 inch Substantial Dividing Walls (SDWs) to provide protection from remote operation, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsoun, Adib R.

    1991-09-01

    This report provides installations with procedures to relate Net Explosive Weights (NEWs) to combinations of intervening 12-inch Substantial Dividing Walls (SDWs) to provide protection to personnel from remote operations where an accidental detonation is the hazard. Protection to be Provided is IAW DoD and Army policy: 2.3 psi maximum overpressure exposure and no hazardous fragments. The report consists of two Volumes. Volume 1 is a 'how to' guide for installation use; Volume 2 is the rationale (calculations, etc) behind the Volume 1. Protection from thermal effects from flash fires, deflagrations, etc. is not addressed.

  8. Chemokine Adjuvanted Electroporated-DNA Vaccine Induces Substantial Protection from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaginal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hutnick, N A; Moldoveanu, Z; Hunter, M; Reuter, M; Yuan, S; Yan, J; Ginsberg, A; Sylvester, A; Pahar, B; Carnathan, D; Kathuria, N; Khan, A S; Montefiori, D; Sardesai, N Y; Betts, M R; Mestecky, J; Marx, P; Weiner, D B

    2015-01-01

    There have been encouraging results for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. However, many questions remain regarding the quality of immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies. We addressed some of these issues by using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine adjuvanted with plasmid-expressed mucosal chemokines combined with an intravaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaque (RhM) model. We previously reported on the ability of CCR9 and CCR10 ligand (L) adjuvants to enhance mucosal and systemic IgA and IgG in small animals. In this study, RhMs were intramuscularly immunized five times with either DNA or DNA plus chemokine adjuvant delivered by electroporation followed by challenge with SIVsmE660. Sixty-eight percent of all vaccinated animals (P=0.0016) remained either uninfected or had aborted infection compared to only 14% in the vaccine naïve group. The highest protection was observed in the CCR10L chemokines group, where 6 of 9 animals had aborted infection and two remained uninfected, leading to 89% protection (P=0.0003). The induction of mucosal SIV-specific antibodies and neutralization titers correlated with trends in protection. These results indicate the need to further investigate the contribution of chemokine adjuvants to modulate immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies in SIV/HIV protection. PMID:25943275

  9. Antisense Reduction of Tau in Adult Mice Protects against Seizures

    PubMed Central

    DeVos, Sarah L.; Goncharoff, Dustin K.; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S.; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C. Frank; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS—brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF—while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:23904623

  10. Commentary on "How Child Protective Service Investigators Decide to Substantiate Mothers for Failure-to-Protect in Sexual Abuse Cases"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Victor I.

    2006-01-01

    As this author traveled around the country, many university professors and domestic violence advocates told him that prosecuting or even intervening with social services is morally "wrong" in cases in which parents fail to protect their children. There are two problems with these arguments. First, these arguments assume that mothers should "never"…

  11. Serospecific protection of mice against intranasal infection with Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Gorringe, A R; Funnell, S G; Fernandez, M

    1989-08-01

    The ability of purified serospecific agglutinogens from Bordetella pertussis to protect mice against intranasal infection has been examined. Immunization with agglutinogen 2 protected mice against infection with 1.2.0 or 1.2.3 serotypes of B. pertussis, whereas immunization with agglutinogen 3 protected mice against infection with all serotypes. More importantly immunization with serospecific agglutinogen resulted in immune selection so that organisms recovered following infection did not express the immunizing antigen. The results are consistent with the suggestions that protection of children with whole cell pertussis vaccine is to some extent serospecific and that agglutinogens should be considered as constituents of acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:2573215

  12. Broad protection against influenza infection by vectored immunoprophylaxis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Alejandro B.; Bloom, Jesse D.; Hong, Christin M.; Rao, Dinesh S.; Baltimore, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies that target epitopes conserved among many strains of influenza virus have been recently isolated from humans. Here we demonstrate that adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encoding two such broadly neutralizing antibodies are protective against diverse influenza strains. Serum from mice that received a single intramuscular AAV injection efficiently neutralized all H1, H2 and H5 influenza strains tested. After infection with diverse strains of H1N1 influenza, treated mice showed minimal weight loss and lung inflammation. Protection lasted for at least 11 months after AAV injection. Notably, even immunodeficient and older mice were protected by this method, suggesting that expression of a monoclonal antibody alone is sufficient to protect mice from illness. If translated to humans, this prophylactic approach may be uniquely capable of protecting immunocompromised or elderly patient populations not reliably protected by existing vaccines. PMID:23728362

  13. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Alsaedi, Wijdan; Alabdulmohsen, Waad; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fine, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the role of lactoferrin in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO−/−) mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also determine the protective role of human lactoferrin in the LFKO−/− mice. Methods and Results Antibiotic treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0.3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO−/−I mice showed a 2 log (P=0.001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WTI mice. LFKO−/−I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P=0.001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO−/−I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy revealed that the tongue of the LFKO−/−I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO−/−I+hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO−/−I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO−/−I +hLF mice. Conclusions Human lactoferrin is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Significance and Impact of the Study Human lactoferrin, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral health care products against C. albicans. PMID:25319508

  14. Exploring the spatial dynamics of alcohol outlets and Child Protective Services referrals, substantiations, and foster care entries.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G; Lery, Bridgette; Needell, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    Controlling for neighborhood demographic characteristics, this study examined the relationship of alcohol outlets with rates of Child Protective Services (CPS) referrals, substantiations, and foster care entries from 1998-2003 in 579 zip codes in California. Data for this panel study were analyzed using spatial random effects panel models. Zip codes with higher concentrations of off-premise alcohol outlets (e.g., convenience or liquor stores) and proportions of Black residents had higher rates of maltreatment. Higher average household size and median household income were generally related to lower child maltreatment rates. More specifically, the model derived estimates that an average decrease of one off-premise outlet per zip code would reduce total referrals to CPS in the 579 zip codes by 1,040 cases, substantiations by 180 cases, and foster care entries by 93 cases. Characteristics of adjacent zip codes also were related to maltreatment rates in local neighborhoods, indicating a spatial dynamic to this relationship. Reductions in number of alcohol outlets per zip code, particularly off-premise outlets, may result in lower rates of child maltreatment.

  15. Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigens protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Soong, L; Duboise, S M; Kima, P; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1995-09-01

    In the search for a leishmaniasis vaccine, extensive studies have been carried out with promastigote (insect stage) molecules. Information in this regard on amastigote (mammalian host stage) molecules is limited. To investigate host immune responses to Leishmania amastigote antigens, we purified three stage-specific antigens (A2, P4, and P8) from in vitro-cultivated amastigotes of Leishmania pifanoi by using immunoaffinity chromatography. We found that with Corynebacterium parvum as an adjuvant, three intraperitoneal injections of 5 micrograms of P4 or P8 antigen provided partial to complete protection of BALB/c mice challenged with 10(5) to 10(7) L. pifanoi promastigotes. These immunized mice developed significantly smaller or no lesions and exhibited a 39- to 1.6 x 10(5)-fold reduction of lesion parasite burden after 15 to 20 weeks of infection. In addition, P8 immunization resulted in complete protection against L. amazonensis infection of CBA/J mice and partial protection of BALB/c mice, suggesting that this antigen provided cross-species protection of mice with different H-2 haplotypes. At different stages during infection, vaccinated mice exhibited profound proliferative responses to parasite antigens and increased levels of gamma interferon production, suggesting that a Th1 cell-mediated immune response is associated with the resistance in these mice. Taken together, the data in this report indicate the vaccine potential of amastigote-derived antigens.

  16. Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigens protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Soong, L; Duboise, S M; Kima, P; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1995-09-01

    In the search for a leishmaniasis vaccine, extensive studies have been carried out with promastigote (insect stage) molecules. Information in this regard on amastigote (mammalian host stage) molecules is limited. To investigate host immune responses to Leishmania amastigote antigens, we purified three stage-specific antigens (A2, P4, and P8) from in vitro-cultivated amastigotes of Leishmania pifanoi by using immunoaffinity chromatography. We found that with Corynebacterium parvum as an adjuvant, three intraperitoneal injections of 5 micrograms of P4 or P8 antigen provided partial to complete protection of BALB/c mice challenged with 10(5) to 10(7) L. pifanoi promastigotes. These immunized mice developed significantly smaller or no lesions and exhibited a 39- to 1.6 x 10(5)-fold reduction of lesion parasite burden after 15 to 20 weeks of infection. In addition, P8 immunization resulted in complete protection against L. amazonensis infection of CBA/J mice and partial protection of BALB/c mice, suggesting that this antigen provided cross-species protection of mice with different H-2 haplotypes. At different stages during infection, vaccinated mice exhibited profound proliferative responses to parasite antigens and increased levels of gamma interferon production, suggesting that a Th1 cell-mediated immune response is associated with the resistance in these mice. Taken together, the data in this report indicate the vaccine potential of amastigote-derived antigens. PMID:7642292

  17. Protective activities in mice of monoclonal antibodies against pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Sato, Y

    1990-10-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) protein, which is the most important protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis, has a hexameric structure composed of five subunits, designated S1 through S5. Immunoprotective activity of 20 different mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against pertussis toxin, 10 anti-S1, 1 anti-S2, 2 anti-S3, 4 anti-S23, and 3 anti-S4 antibodies, were investigated by aerosol and intracerebral challenges with virulent B. pertussis organisms in mice. Four anti-S1, named 1B7, 1D7, 3F11, and 10D6, and three anti-S23 antibodies, named 11E6, 10B5, and 10C9, showed the highest, and almost complete, protectivity against the aerosol challenge. Mouse protectivity against the intracerebral challenge was significant for these four anti-S1 MAbs but not for any of the three anti-S23 MAbs. Four anti-S1 and two anti-S4 MAbs did not protect the mice against either challenge. The other seven MAbs also showed dose-dependent moderate but significant protection against the aerosol challenge. In the aerosol challenge system, bacterial numbers and amounts of PT detected in the lung and the number of peripheral leukocytes were lower in the mice given the protective MAbs. All mice surviving 5 weeks after the infection produced high titers of antibodies against PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and agglutinogens from the challenge organisms. A combination of the protective MAbs 1B7 and 11E6 strongly suppressed the disease and mortality of the mice at smaller amounts than with the anti-PT polyclonal antibody. Although combinations of one of the protective MAb and anti-FHA or anti-agglutinogen 2 also showed extremely high mouse protection without development of symptoms of the disease, antibody titers of the survivors against PT, FHA, and agglutinogens were significantly low. The foregoing results suggest that some important protective epitopes should be in S1 and S2 and/or S3, although there are both differences and similarities in the protective roles between anti-S1 and anti-S23

  18. Protective activities in mice of monoclonal antibodies against pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Sato, Y

    1990-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) protein, which is the most important protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis, has a hexameric structure composed of five subunits, designated S1 through S5. Immunoprotective activity of 20 different mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against pertussis toxin, 10 anti-S1, 1 anti-S2, 2 anti-S3, 4 anti-S23, and 3 anti-S4 antibodies, were investigated by aerosol and intracerebral challenges with virulent B. pertussis organisms in mice. Four anti-S1, named 1B7, 1D7, 3F11, and 10D6, and three anti-S23 antibodies, named 11E6, 10B5, and 10C9, showed the highest, and almost complete, protectivity against the aerosol challenge. Mouse protectivity against the intracerebral challenge was significant for these four anti-S1 MAbs but not for any of the three anti-S23 MAbs. Four anti-S1 and two anti-S4 MAbs did not protect the mice against either challenge. The other seven MAbs also showed dose-dependent moderate but significant protection against the aerosol challenge. In the aerosol challenge system, bacterial numbers and amounts of PT detected in the lung and the number of peripheral leukocytes were lower in the mice given the protective MAbs. All mice surviving 5 weeks after the infection produced high titers of antibodies against PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and agglutinogens from the challenge organisms. A combination of the protective MAbs 1B7 and 11E6 strongly suppressed the disease and mortality of the mice at smaller amounts than with the anti-PT polyclonal antibody. Although combinations of one of the protective MAb and anti-FHA or anti-agglutinogen 2 also showed extremely high mouse protection without development of symptoms of the disease, antibody titers of the survivors against PT, FHA, and agglutinogens were significantly low. The foregoing results suggest that some important protective epitopes should be in S1 and S2 and/or S3, although there are both differences and similarities in the protective roles between anti-S1 and anti-S23

  19. Context-specific protection of TGFα null mice from osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Shirine E; Ulici, Veronica; Pest, Michael A; Hill, Tracy L; Welch, Ian D; Beier, Frank

    2016-07-26

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is a growth factor involved in osteoarthritis (OA). TGFα induces an OA-like phenotype in articular chondrocytes, by inhibiting matrix synthesis and promoting catabolic factor expression. To better understand TGFα's potential as a therapeutic target, we employed two in vivo OA models: (1) post-traumatic and (2) aging related OA. Ten-week old and six-month old male Tgfa null mice and their heterozygous (control) littermates underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Disease progression was assessed histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. As well, spontaneous disease progression was analyzed in eighteen-month-old Tgfa null and heterozygous mice. Ten-week old Tgfa null mice were protected from OA progression at both seven and fourteen weeks post-surgery. No protection was seen however in six-month old null mice after DMM surgery, and no differences were observed between genotypes in the aging model. Thus, young Tgfa null mice are protected from OA progression in the DMM model, while older mice are not. In addition, Tgfa null mice are equally susceptible to spontaneous OA development during aging. Thus, TGFα might be a valuable therapeutic target in some post-traumatic forms of OA, however its role in idiopathic disease is less clear.

  20. Context-specific protection of TGFα null mice from osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Shirine E.; Ulici, Veronica; Pest, Michael A.; Hill, Tracy L.; Welch, Ian D.; Beier, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is a growth factor involved in osteoarthritis (OA). TGFα induces an OA-like phenotype in articular chondrocytes, by inhibiting matrix synthesis and promoting catabolic factor expression. To better understand TGFα’s potential as a therapeutic target, we employed two in vivo OA models: (1) post-traumatic and (2) aging related OA. Ten-week old and six-month old male Tgfa null mice and their heterozygous (control) littermates underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Disease progression was assessed histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. As well, spontaneous disease progression was analyzed in eighteen-month-old Tgfa null and heterozygous mice. Ten-week old Tgfa null mice were protected from OA progression at both seven and fourteen weeks post-surgery. No protection was seen however in six-month old null mice after DMM surgery, and no differences were observed between genotypes in the aging model. Thus, young Tgfa null mice are protected from OA progression in the DMM model, while older mice are not. In addition, Tgfa null mice are equally susceptible to spontaneous OA development during aging. Thus, TGFα might be a valuable therapeutic target in some post-traumatic forms of OA, however its role in idiopathic disease is less clear. PMID:27457421

  1. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Huang, Robert Y; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Sheu, Chia-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2005-08-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection can cause severe invasive diseases, including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine, is an immunomodulator. In this study the air-pouch bacterial inoculation model was used to investigate the protective efficacy of C. sinensis mycelium extract against GAS infection. Force-feeding mice with C. sinensis mycelium extract for 3 consecutive days before GAS infection increased the survival rate and reduced local skin-tissue injury compared with mice fed PBS. Bacterial numbers in the air pouch exudates from C. sinensis-treated mice were lower than those from PBS-treated mice. Blood and organs in PBS-treated mice showed bacterial dissemination, but those in C. sinensis-treated mice did not. Three days of pretreatment with C. sinensis extract followed by C. sinensis treatment every other day after GAS infection resulted in 100% survival. The post-GAS-infection levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen in the sera of C. sinensis-treated mice were lower than those of PBS-treated mice. Taken together, these results show that C. sinensis mycelium extract protects by decreasing bacterial growth and dissemination, thereby increasing mouse survival rate. IL-12 and IFN-gamma expression and macrophage phagocytic activity also increased after C. sinensis treatment. PMID:16014434

  2. Chimeric Plantibody Passively Protects Mice against Aerosolized Ricin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sully, Erin K.; Whaley, Kevin J.; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H.; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Hiatt, Ernie; Morton, Josh; Swope, Kelsi; Roy, Chad J.; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Recent incidents in the United States and abroad have heightened concerns about the use of ricin toxin as a bioterrorism agent. In this study, we produced, using a robust plant-based platform, four chimeric toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that were then evaluated for the ability to passively protect mice from a lethal-dose ricin challenge. The most effective antibody, c-PB10, was further evaluated in mice as a therapeutic following ricin exposure by injection and inhalation. PMID:24574537

  3. Chimeric plantibody passively protects mice against aerosolized ricin challenge.

    PubMed

    Sully, Erin K; Whaley, Kevin J; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Hiatt, Ernie; Morton, Josh; Swope, Kelsi; Roy, Chad J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Recent incidents in the United States and abroad have heightened concerns about the use of ricin toxin as a bioterrorism agent. In this study, we produced, using a robust plant-based platform, four chimeric toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that were then evaluated for the ability to passively protect mice from a lethal-dose ricin challenge. The most effective antibody, c-PB10, was further evaluated in mice as a therapeutic following ricin exposure by injection and inhalation. PMID:24574537

  4. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  5. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, X.K.; Jia, Lin Xiang; Amm, Kathleen

    2008-08-02

    This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.

  6. A novel recombinant vaccine protecting mice against abrin intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhong; Gao, Shan; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Lin; Xu, Na; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Abrin toxin (AT) consisting of an A chain and a B chain is a potential agent for bioterrorism and an effective vaccine against AT poisoning is urgently required. In this study, AT B chain (ATB) was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and assessed the protection capacity against AT intoxication. The recombinant ATB (rATB) subunit induces a good immune response after 4 immunizations. All BALB/c mice immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the purified rATB protein survived after challenged with 5 × LD50 of AT. Transfusion of sera from immunized mice provided passive protection in naive mice. Furthermore, histological findings showed that immunization with rATB decreased the severity of toxin-related tissue damage. This work indicates that the rATB protein may be a promising vaccine candidate against human exposure to AT. PMID:26086588

  7. Cyclophilin A protects mice against infection by influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chen, Can; Wong, Gary; Dong, Wei; Zheng, Weinan; Li, Yun; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Lianfeng; Gao, George F; Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies indicate that Cyclophilin A (CypA) impairs the replication of influenza A virus in vitro. To further evaluate the antiviral functions of CypA and explore its mechanism, transgenic mice with overexpression of CypA by two specific promoters with SPC (CypA-SPC) or CMV (CypA-CMV) were developed. After challenge with the A/WSN/33(H1N1) influenza virus, CypA-SPC and CypA-CMV transgenic mice displayed nearly 2.5- and 3.8-fold stronger disease resistance to virus infection, respectively, compared to wild-type animals. Virus replication, pathological lesions and inflammatory cytokines were substantially reduced in both lines of transgenic mice. In addition, after infection there was an upregulation of genes associated with cell migration, immune function, and organ development; and a downregulation of genes associated with the positive regulation of immune cells and apoptosis in the peritoneal macrophages of CypA-overexpressing transgenic mice (CypA+). These results indicate that CypA is a key modulator of influenza virus resistance in mice, and that CypA+ mice constitutes an important model to study the roles of CypA in the regulation of immune responses and infections. PMID:27354005

  8. Cyclophilin A protects mice against infection by influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Can; Wong, Gary; Dong, Wei; Zheng, Weinan; Li, Yun; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Lianfeng; Gao, George F.; Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies indicate that Cyclophilin A (CypA) impairs the replication of influenza A virus in vitro. To further evaluate the antiviral functions of CypA and explore its mechanism, transgenic mice with overexpression of CypA by two specific promoters with SPC (CypA-SPC) or CMV (CypA-CMV) were developed. After challenge with the A/WSN/33(H1N1) influenza virus, CypA-SPC and CypA-CMV transgenic mice displayed nearly 2.5- and 3.8-fold stronger disease resistance to virus infection, respectively, compared to wild-type animals. Virus replication, pathological lesions and inflammatory cytokines were substantially reduced in both lines of transgenic mice. In addition, after infection there was an upregulation of genes associated with cell migration, immune function, and organ development; and a downregulation of genes associated with the positive regulation of immune cells and apoptosis in the peritoneal macrophages of CypA-overexpressing transgenic mice (CypA+). These results indicate that CypA is a key modulator of influenza virus resistance in mice, and that CypA+ mice constitutes an important model to study the roles of CypA in the regulation of immune responses and infections. PMID:27354005

  9. Frostbite Protection in Mice Expressing an Antifreeze Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Martin; Mattessich, Sarah; Rembisz, Alison; Acar, Ali; Shapiro, Martin; Booth, Carmen J.; Neelakanta, Girish; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature resistance and prevent tissue damage. The accumulation of anti-freeze proteins that improve cold hardiness occurs in diverse species including plants, arthropods, fish, and amphibians. We previously identified an Ixodes scapularis anti-freeze glycoprotein, named IAFGP, and demonstrated its cold protective function in the natural tick host and in a transgenic Drosophila model. Here we show, in a transgenic mouse model expressing an anti-freeze glycoprotein, that IAFGP protects mammalian cells and mice from cold shock and frostbite respectively. Transgenic skin samples showed reduced cell death upon cold storage ex vivo and transgenic mice demonstrated increased resistance to frostbite injury in vivo. IAFGP actively protects mammalian tissue from freezing, suggesting its application for the prevention of frostbite, and other diseases associated with cold exposure. PMID:25714402

  10. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7??104LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial purification of protective antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    The purification of antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, through their ability to provoke cellular proliferation of immune cells and through their recognition by antibodies, led to an antigenic preparation which was extracted from adult worms and which contained only two proteins (MW 14 and 43 Kd). Mice which were vaccinated by the oral route after the entrapment of these two proteins in liposomes were strongly protected.

  12. Tumor suppressor p53 protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Pingping; Wei, Jianchao; Zhu, Zixiang; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Ma, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is involved in regulating immune responses, which contribute to antitumor and antiviral activity. However, whether p53 has anti-bacterial functions remains unclear. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) causes listeriosis in humans and animals, and it is a powerful model for studying innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we illustrate an important regulatory role of p53 during LM infection. p53 knockout (p53KO) mice were more susceptible to LM infection, which was manifested by a shorter survival time and lower survival rate. p53KO mice showed significant impairments in LM eradication. Knockdown of p53 in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells resulted in increased invasion and intracellular survival of LM. Furthermore, the invasion and intracellular survival of LM was inhibited in p53-overexpressing RAW264.7 and HeLa cells. LM-infected p53KO mice exhibited severe clinical symptoms and organ injury, presumably because of the abnormal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. Decreased IFN-γ and GBP1 productions were observed in LM-infected p53-deficient mice or cells. The combination of these defects likely resulted in the overwhelming LM infection in the p53KO mice. These observations indicate that p53 serves as an important regulator of the host innate immune that protects against LM infection. PMID:27644341

  13. Tumor suppressor p53 protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Pingping; Wei, Jianchao; Zhu, Zixiang; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Ma, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is involved in regulating immune responses, which contribute to antitumor and antiviral activity. However, whether p53 has anti-bacterial functions remains unclear. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) causes listeriosis in humans and animals, and it is a powerful model for studying innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we illustrate an important regulatory role of p53 during LM infection. p53 knockout (p53KO) mice were more susceptible to LM infection, which was manifested by a shorter survival time and lower survival rate. p53KO mice showed significant impairments in LM eradication. Knockdown of p53 in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells resulted in increased invasion and intracellular survival of LM. Furthermore, the invasion and intracellular survival of LM was inhibited in p53-overexpressing RAW264.7 and HeLa cells. LM-infected p53KO mice exhibited severe clinical symptoms and organ injury, presumably because of the abnormal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. Decreased IFN-γ and GBP1 productions were observed in LM-infected p53-deficient mice or cells. The combination of these defects likely resulted in the overwhelming LM infection in the p53KO mice. These observations indicate that p53 serves as an important regulator of the host innate immune that protects against LM infection. PMID:27644341

  14. Tumor suppressor p53 protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Pingping; Wei, Jianchao; Zhu, Zixiang; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Ma, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is involved in regulating immune responses, which contribute to antitumor and antiviral activity. However, whether p53 has anti-bacterial functions remains unclear. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) causes listeriosis in humans and animals, and it is a powerful model for studying innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we illustrate an important regulatory role of p53 during LM infection. p53 knockout (p53KO) mice were more susceptible to LM infection, which was manifested by a shorter survival time and lower survival rate. p53KO mice showed significant impairments in LM eradication. Knockdown of p53 in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells resulted in increased invasion and intracellular survival of LM. Furthermore, the invasion and intracellular survival of LM was inhibited in p53-overexpressing RAW264.7 and HeLa cells. LM-infected p53KO mice exhibited severe clinical symptoms and organ injury, presumably because of the abnormal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. Decreased IFN-γ and GBP1 productions were observed in LM-infected p53-deficient mice or cells. The combination of these defects likely resulted in the overwhelming LM infection in the p53KO mice. These observations indicate that p53 serves as an important regulator of the host innate immune that protects against LM infection.

  15. Macrophage autophagy protects against liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, Jasper; Denaës, Timothé; Chobert, Marie-Noële; Wan, JingHong; El-Benna, Jamel; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of cellular components that displays antiinflammatory properties in macrophages. Macrophages are critically involved in chronic liver injury by releasing mediators that promote hepatocyte apoptosis, contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and activation of hepatic fibrogenic cells. Here, we investigated whether macrophage autophagy may protect against chronic liver injury. Experiments were performed in mice with mutations in the autophagy gene Atg5 in the myeloid lineage (Atg5fl/fl LysM-Cre mice, referred to as atg5−/−) and their wild-type (Atg5fl/fl, referred to as WT) littermates. Liver fibrosis was induced by repeated intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. In vitro studies were performed in cultures or co-cultures of peritoneal macrophages with hepatic myofibroblasts. As compared to WT littermates, atg5−/− mice exposed to chronic carbon tetrachloride administration displayed higher hepatic levels of IL1A and IL1B and enhanced inflammatory cell recruitment associated with exacerbated liver injury. In addition, atg5−/− mice were more susceptible to liver fibrosis, as shown by enhanced matrix and fibrogenic cell accumulation. Macrophages from atg5−/− mice secreted higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced IL1A and IL1B. Moreover, hepatic myofibroblasts exposed to the conditioned medium of macrophages from atg5−/− mice showed increased profibrogenic gene expression; this effect was blunted when neutralizing IL1A and IL1B in the conditioned medium of atg5−/− macrophages. Finally, administration of recombinant IL1RN (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist) to carbon tetrachloride-exposed atg5−/− mice blunted liver injury and fibrosis, identifying IL1A/B as central mediators in the deleterious effects of macrophage autophagy invalidation. These results uncover macrophage autophagy as a novel antiinflammatory pathway regulating liver fibrosis. PMID:26061908

  16. Macrophage autophagy protects against liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Jasper; Denaës, Timothé; Chobert, Marie-Noële; Wan, JingHong; El-Benna, Jamel; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of cellular components that displays antiinflammatory properties in macrophages. Macrophages are critically involved in chronic liver injury by releasing mediators that promote hepatocyte apoptosis, contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and activation of hepatic fibrogenic cells. Here, we investigated whether macrophage autophagy may protect against chronic liver injury. Experiments were performed in mice with mutations in the autophagy gene Atg5 in the myeloid lineage (Atg5(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice, referred to as atg5(-/-)) and their wild-type (Atg5(fl/fl), referred to as WT) littermates. Liver fibrosis was induced by repeated intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. In vitro studies were performed in cultures or co-cultures of peritoneal macrophages with hepatic myofibroblasts. As compared to WT littermates, atg5(-/-) mice exposed to chronic carbon tetrachloride administration displayed higher hepatic levels of IL1A and IL1B and enhanced inflammatory cell recruitment associated with exacerbated liver injury. In addition, atg5(-/-) mice were more susceptible to liver fibrosis, as shown by enhanced matrix and fibrogenic cell accumulation. Macrophages from atg5(-/-) mice secreted higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced IL1A and IL1B. Moreover, hepatic myofibroblasts exposed to the conditioned medium of macrophages from atg5(-/-) mice showed increased profibrogenic gene expression; this effect was blunted when neutralizing IL1A and IL1B in the conditioned medium of atg5(-/-) macrophages. Finally, administration of recombinant IL1RN (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist) to carbon tetrachloride-exposed atg5(-/-) mice blunted liver injury and fibrosis, identifying IL1A/B as central mediators in the deleterious effects of macrophage autophagy invalidation. These results uncover macrophage autophagy as a novel antiinflammatory pathway regulating liver fibrosis.

  17. Protective effect of dextromethorphan against endotoxic shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Guorong; Liu, Yuxin; Tzeng, Nian-ssheng; Cui, Gang; Block, Michelle L; Wilson, Belinda; Qin, Liya; Wang, Tongguang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2005-01-15

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextrorotatory morphinan and an over-the-counter non-opioid cough suppressant. We have previously shown that DM protects against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration through inhibition of microglia activation. Here, we investigated protective effects of DM against endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) in mice and the mechanism underlying its protective effect. Mice were given multiple injections of DM (12.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before and 2, 4 h after an injection of LPS/GalN (20 microg/700 mg/kg). DM administration decreased LPS/GalN-induced mortality and hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by increased survival rate, decreased serum alanine aminotransferase activity and improved pathology. Furthermore, DM was also effective when it was given 30 min after LPS/GalN injection. The protection was likely associated with reduced serum and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. DM also attenuated production of superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species in Kupffer cells and neutrophils. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that DM administration suppressed the expression of a variety of inflammation-related genes such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2, CXC chemokine, thrombospondin-1, intercellular adhesion molecular-1 and interleukin-6. DM also decreased the expression of genes related to cell-death pathways, such as the DNA damage protein genes GADD45 and GADD153. In summary, DM is effective in protecting mice against LPS/GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism is likely through a faster TNF-alpha clearance, and decrease of superoxide production and inflammation and cell-death related components. This study not only extends neuroprotective effect of DM, but also suggests that DM may be a novel compound for the therapeutic intervention for sepsis. PMID:15627475

  18. Capsomer Vaccines Protect Mice from Vaginal Challenge with Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wai-Hong; Gersch, Elizabeth; Kwak, Kihyuck; Jagu, Subhashini; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Huh, Warner K.; Garcea, Robert L.; Roden, Richard B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Capsomers were produced in bacteria as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins with human papillomavirus type 16 L1 lacking the first nine and final 29 residues (GST-HPV16L1Δ) alone or linked with residues 13–47 of HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 L2 in tandem (GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3). Subcutaneous immunization of mice with GST-HPV16L1Δ or GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3 in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similarly high titers of HPV16 neutralizing antibodies. GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3 also elicited moderate L2-specific antibody titers. Intravaginal challenge studies showed that immunization of mice with GST-HPV16 L1Δ or GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3 capsomers, like Cervarix®, provided complete protection against HPV16. Conversely, vaccination with GST-HPV16 L1Δ capsomers failed to protect against HPV18 challenge, whereas mice immunized with either GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3 capsomers or Cervarix® were each completely protected. Thus, while the L2-specific response was moderate, it did not interfere with immunity to L1 in the context of GST-HPV16L1Δ-L2x3 and is sufficient to mediate L2-dependent protection against an experimental vaginal challenge with HPV18. PMID:22069498

  19. SIRT6 protects against endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suowen; Yin, Meimei; Koroleva, Marina; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Zhang, Wenbo; Bai, Peter; Little, Peter J.; Jin, Zheng Gen

    2016-01-01

    SIRT6 is an important member of sirtuin family that represses inflammation, aging and DNA damage, three of which are causing factors for endothelial dysfunction. SIRT6 expression is decreased in atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE−/− mice and human patients. However, the role of SIRT6 in regulating vascular endothelial function and atherosclerosis is not well understood. Here we show that SIRT6 protects against endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Global and endothelium-specific SIRT6 knockout mice exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Moreover, SIRT6+/− haploinsufficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) also displayed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Importantly, SIRT6+/−;ApoE−/− mice after HFD feeding exhibited exacerbated atherosclerotic lesion development, concurrent with increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine VCAM-1. Loss- and gain-of-SIRT6 function studies in cultured human endothelial cells (ECs) showed that SIRT6 attenuated monocyte adhesion to ECs. RNA-sequencing profiling revealed that SIRT6 overexpression decreased the expression of multiple atherosclerosis-related genes, including proatherogenic gene TNFSF4 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that SIRT6 decreased TNFSF4 gene expression by binding to and deacetylating H3K9 at TNFSF4 gene promoter. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that SIRT6 play a pivotal role in maintaining endothelial function and increased SIRT6 activity could be a new therapeutic strategy to combat atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27249230

  20. A 129-kb Deletion on Chromosome 12 Confers Substantial Protection Against Rheumatoid Arthritis, Implicating the Gene SLC2A3

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Colin D; Reekie, Katherine E; Lorentzen, Johnny C; Gregersen, Peter K; Padyukov, Leonid; Brookes, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a copy-number variant (CNV) for which deletion alleles confer a protective affect against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This CNV reflects net unit deletions and expansions to a normal two-unit tandem duplication located on human chr12p13.31, a region with conserved synteny to the rat RA susceptibility quantitative trait loci Oia2. Genotyping, using the paralogue ratio test and SNP intensity data, in Swedish samples (2,403 cases, 1,269 controls) showed that the frequency of deletion variants is significantly lower in cases (P = 0.0012, OR = 0.442 [95%CI 0.258–0.755]). Reduced frequencies of deletion variants were also seen in replication materials comprising 9,201 UK samples (1,846 cases, 7,355 controls) and 2,963 US samples (906 controls, 1,967 cases) (Mantel–Haenszel P = 0.036, OR = 0.559 [95%CI 0.323–0.966]). Combining the three datasets produces a Mantel–Haenszel OR of 0.497 (P < 0.0002). The deletion variant lacks 129-kb of DNA containing SLC2A3, NANOGP1, and SLC2A14. SLC2A3 encodes a high-affinity glucose transporter important in the immune response and chondrocyte metabolism, both key aspects of RA pathogenesis. The large effect size of this association, its potential relevance to other diseases in which SLC2A3 is implicated, and the possibility of targeting drugs to inhibit SLC2A3, argue for further examination of the genetics and the biology of this CNV. PMID:24178905

  1. Absence of apolipoprotein E protects mice from cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Fikregabrail Aberra; Van Den Ham, Kristin; Rainone, Anthony; Fournier, Sylvie; Boilard, Eric; Olivier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria claims the life of millions of people each year, particularly those of children, and is a major global public health problem. Thus, the identification of novel malaria biomarkers that could be utilized as diagnostic or therapeutic targets is becoming increasingly important. Using a proteomic approach, we previously identified unique biomarkers in the sera of malaria-infected individuals, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE is the dominant apolipoprotein in the brain and has been implicated in several neurological disorders; therefore, we were interested in the potential role of ApoE in cerebral malaria. Here we report the first demonstration that cerebral malaria is markedly attenuated in ApoE(-/-) mice. The protection provided by the absence of ApoE was associated with decreased sequestration of parasites and T cells within the brain, and was determined to be independent from the involvement of ApoE receptors and from the altered lipid metabolism associated with the knock-out mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that treatment of mice with the ApoE antagonist heparin octasaccharide significantly decreased the incidence of cerebral malaria. Overall, our study indicates that the reduction of ApoE could be utilized in the development of therapeutic treatments aimed at mitigating the neuropathology of cerebral malaria. PMID:27647324

  2. Absence of apolipoprotein E protects mice from cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Fikregabrail Aberra; Van Den Ham, Kristin; Rainone, Anthony; Fournier, Sylvie; Boilard, Eric; Olivier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria claims the life of millions of people each year, particularly those of children, and is a major global public health problem. Thus, the identification of novel malaria biomarkers that could be utilized as diagnostic or therapeutic targets is becoming increasingly important. Using a proteomic approach, we previously identified unique biomarkers in the sera of malaria-infected individuals, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE is the dominant apolipoprotein in the brain and has been implicated in several neurological disorders; therefore, we were interested in the potential role of ApoE in cerebral malaria. Here we report the first demonstration that cerebral malaria is markedly attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. The protection provided by the absence of ApoE was associated with decreased sequestration of parasites and T cells within the brain, and was determined to be independent from the involvement of ApoE receptors and from the altered lipid metabolism associated with the knock-out mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that treatment of mice with the ApoE antagonist heparin octasaccharide significantly decreased the incidence of cerebral malaria. Overall, our study indicates that the reduction of ApoE could be utilized in the development of therapeutic treatments aimed at mitigating the neuropathology of cerebral malaria. PMID:27647324

  3. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J; Witteman, Cilia L M; Del Valle, Jorge F; Hayes, David

    2015-11-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case characteristic (mother's wish with regard to removal), practitioner characteristic (child welfare attitudes), and protective system context (four countries: Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland and Spain); and three dependent factors: substantiation of maltreatment, risk assessment, and intervention recommendation. The sample consisted of 828 practitioners from four countries. Participants were presented with a vignette of a case of alleged child maltreatment and were asked to determine whether maltreatment was substantiated, assess risk and recommend an intervention using structured instruments. Participants' child welfare attitudes were assessed. The case characteristic of mother's wish with regard to removal had no impact on judgments and decisions. In contrast, practitioners' child welfare attitudes were associated with substantiation, risk assessments and recommendations. There were significant country differences on most measures. The findings support most of the predictions derived from the JUDPIC model. The significant differences between practitioners from different countries underscore the importance of context in child protection decision making. Training should enhance practitioners' awareness of the impact that their attitudes and the context in which they are embedded have on their judgments and decisions.

  4. Amiloride protects against pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Atif; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Pillai, Krishna Kolappa; Vohora, Divya

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether or not amiloride, a sodium–hydrogen exchanger (NHE) inhibitor, can protect against seizure development of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice. Kindling was induced by once every 2 days treatment with PTZ (25 mg kg−1 i.p.) for 5 weeks. Challenge experiments were carried out after 15 or 30 days of last treatment with PTZ. Administration of amiloride (2 h before PTZ, in doses of 0.65 and 1.3 mg kg−1, p.o.) significantly prolonged the onset of kindling and reduced the incidence and severity of seizures in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of amiloride on the incidence of PTZ-induced seizures was evident even after 15 or 30 days of last treatment. The results indicate a protective role for amiloride against PTZ-induced kindling in mice. The possibility of mediation of such effects by NHE inhibition is discussed. PMID:15951829

  5. Smad7 protects against chronic aristolochic acid nephropathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Ru; Fu, Ping; Lan, Hui-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive chronic kidney disease related to herb medicine. However, treatment for chronic AAN remains ineffective. We report here that Smad7 is protective and has therapeutic potential for chronic AAN. In a mouse model of chronic AAN, progressive renal injury was associated with a loss of renal Smad7 and disruption of Smad7 largely aggravated the severity of chronic AAN as demonstrated by a significant increase in levels of 24-hour urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine, and progressive renal fibrosis and inflammation. In contrast, restored Smad7 locally in the kidneys of Smad7 knockout mice prevented the progression of chronic AAN. Further studies revealed that worsen chronic AAN in Smad7 knockout mice was associated with enhanced activation of TGF-β/Smad3 and NF-κB signaling pathways, which was reversed when renal Smad7 was restored. Importantly, we also found that overexpression of Smad7 locally in the kidneys with established chronic AAN was capable of attenuating progressive chronic AAN by inactivating TGF-β/Smad3-medated renal fibrosis and NF-κB-driven renal inflammation. In conclusion, Smad7 plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of chronic AAN and overexpression of Smad7 may represent a novel therapeutic potential for chronic AAN. PMID:25883225

  6. Exendin-4 protected against critical limb ischemia in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Meng-Wei; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chua, Sarah; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Lee, Fan-Yen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that exendin-4 protects against critical limb ischemia (CLI) in obese mice undergoing hypoxic stress (H). B6 mice were categorized into aged-matched control (C)-H (group 1-A), obesity (induced by high-fat diet) (O)-H (group 1-B), C-H-CLI (group 2-A), O-H-CLI (group 2-B), C-H-CLI-exendin-4 (group 3-A) and O-H-CLI-exendin-4 (group 3-B). Animals were sacrificed by day 14 after CLI procedure. By day 14, laser Doppler results showed that blood flow in CLI area was higher in group 3-A than group 2-A, higher in group 3-B than group 2-B, highest in groups 1-A and 1-B, higher in group 2-A than in group 2-B, and higher in group 3-A than in group 3-B (all p<0.001), but not significantly different between groups 1-A and 1-B. Furthermore, circulating numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (c-kit/CD31+, Sca-1/KDR+) showed an identical pattern of blood flow in CLI area among groups 2-A, 2-B, 3-A and 3-B, except that these biomarkers were lowest in groups 1-A and 1-B (all p<0.001). Protein and cellular levels of angiogenesis factors (VEGF, CXCR4, SDF-1α) exhibited an identical pattern of circulating EPC numbers among all groups (all p<0.001). Protein levels of apoptotic (cytosolic cytochrome-C, mitochondrial Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP) and fibrotic (Samd 3, TGF-β) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of blood flow in CLI area among groups 2-A, 2-B, 3-A and 3-B, but were lowest in groups 1-A and 1-B (all p<0.001). This finding suggests exendin-4 protected against CLI in obese mice undergoing hypoxic stress mainly through enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  7. Constitutionally Protected or Substantially Disruptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign has, by all accounts, been extraordinary. Record numbers of voters expressed their views in historic primaries, and citizens across the country have been invigorated by debate about what policies and which politician will be best for this country. Equally noteworthy is the fact that young people have not been absent…

  8. Capsaicin Protects Mice from Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Leng, Bingfeng; Dong, Jing; Li, Hongen; Luo, Mingjing; Zhang, Yu; Dai, Xiaohan; Luo, Yonghuang; Deng, Xuming

    2012-01-01

    Background α-toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus strains, which played a central role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus pneumonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of capsaicin on the production of α-toxin by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA 300 and to further assess its performance in the treatment of CA-MRSA pneumonia in a mouse model. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro effects of capsaicin on α-toxin production by S. aureus USA 300 were determined using hemolysis, western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays. The influence of capsaicin on the α-toxin-mediated injury of human alveolar epithelial cells was determined using viability and cytotoxicity assays. Mice were infected intranasally with S. aureus USA300; the in vivo protective effects of capsaicin against S. aureus pneumonia were assessed by monitoring the mortality, histopathological changes and cytokine levels. Low concentrations of capsaicin substantially decreased the production of α-toxin by S. aureus USA 300 without affecting the bacterial viability. The addition of capsaicin prevented α-toxin-mediated human alveolar cell (A549) injury in co-culture with S. aureus. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments indicated that capsaicin protected mice from CA-MRSA pneumonia caused by strain USA 300. Conclusions/Significance Capsaicin inhibits the production of α-toxin by CA-MRSA strain USA 300 in vitro and protects mice from CA-MRSA pneumonia in vivo. However, the results need further confirmation with other CA-MRSA lineages. This study supports the views of anti-virulence as a new antibacterial approach for chemotherapy. PMID:22427935

  9. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  10. BIM Deficiency Protects NOD Mice From Diabetes by Diverting Thymocytes to Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Chee, Jonathan; Jhala, Gaurang; Trivedi, Prerak; Catterall, Tara; Selck, Claudia; Gurzov, Esteban N; Brodnicki, Thomas C; Graham, Kate L; Wali, Jibran A; Zhan, Yifan; Gray, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Allison, Janette; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H

    2015-09-01

    Because regulatory T-cell (Treg) development can be induced by the same agonist self-antigens that induce negative selection, perturbation of apoptosis will affect both negative selection and Treg development. But how the processes of thymocyte deletion versus Treg differentiation bifurcate and their relative importance for tolerance have not been studied in spontaneous organ-specific autoimmune disease. We addressed these questions by removing a critical mediator of thymocyte deletion, BIM, in the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes. Despite substantial defects in the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes, BIM-deficient NOD (NODBim(-/-)) mice developed less insulitis and were protected from diabetes. BIM deficiency did not impair effector T-cell function; however, NODBim(-/-) mice had increased numbers of Tregs, including those specific for proinsulin, in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Increased levels of Nur77, CD5, GITR, and phosphorylated IκB-α in thymocytes from NODBim(-/-) mice suggest that autoreactive cells receiving strong T-cell receptor signals that would normally delete them escape apoptosis and are diverted into the Treg pathway. Paradoxically, in the NOD model, reduced thymic deletion ameliorates autoimmune diabetes by increasing Tregs. Thus, modulating apoptosis may be one of the ways to increase antigen-specific Tregs and prevent autoimmune disease.

  11. BIM Deficiency Protects NOD Mice From Diabetes by Diverting Thymocytes to Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Chee, Jonathan; Jhala, Gaurang; Trivedi, Prerak; Catterall, Tara; Selck, Claudia; Gurzov, Esteban N; Brodnicki, Thomas C; Graham, Kate L; Wali, Jibran A; Zhan, Yifan; Gray, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Allison, Janette; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H

    2015-09-01

    Because regulatory T-cell (Treg) development can be induced by the same agonist self-antigens that induce negative selection, perturbation of apoptosis will affect both negative selection and Treg development. But how the processes of thymocyte deletion versus Treg differentiation bifurcate and their relative importance for tolerance have not been studied in spontaneous organ-specific autoimmune disease. We addressed these questions by removing a critical mediator of thymocyte deletion, BIM, in the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes. Despite substantial defects in the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes, BIM-deficient NOD (NODBim(-/-)) mice developed less insulitis and were protected from diabetes. BIM deficiency did not impair effector T-cell function; however, NODBim(-/-) mice had increased numbers of Tregs, including those specific for proinsulin, in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Increased levels of Nur77, CD5, GITR, and phosphorylated IκB-α in thymocytes from NODBim(-/-) mice suggest that autoreactive cells receiving strong T-cell receptor signals that would normally delete them escape apoptosis and are diverted into the Treg pathway. Paradoxically, in the NOD model, reduced thymic deletion ameliorates autoimmune diabetes by increasing Tregs. Thus, modulating apoptosis may be one of the ways to increase antigen-specific Tregs and prevent autoimmune disease. PMID:25948683

  12. Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGFβ signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

  13. Chitohexaose protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Barman, P K; Mukherjee, R; Prusty, B K; Suklabaidya, S; Senapati, S; Ravindran, B

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP)) toxicity causes acute liver failure by inducing centrilobular hepatic damage as a consequence of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Sterile inflammation, triggered by hepatic damage, facilitates gut bacterial translocation leading to systemic inflammation; TLR4-mediated activation by LPS has been shown to have a critical role in APAP-mediated hepatotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrate significant protection mediated by chitohexaose (Chtx) in mice challenged with a lethal dose of APAP (400 mg/kg b.w.). Decreased mortality by Chtx was associated with reduced hepatic damage, increased peritoneal migration of neutrophils, decreased mRNA expression of IL-1β as well as inhibition of inflammasome activation in liver. Further, an alternate mouse model of co-administration of a sublethal doses of APAP (200 mg/kg b.w.) and LPS (5 mg/kg b.w.) operating synergistically and mediating complete mortality was developed. Overwhelming inflammation, characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and so on) in liver as well as in circulation and mortality was demonstrable in this model. Also, Chtx administration mediated significant reversal of mortality in APAP+LPS co-administered mice, which was associated with reduced IL-1β in liver and plasma cytokines in this model. In conclusion, Chtx being a small molecular weight linear carbohydrate offers promise for clinical management of liver failure associated with APAP overdose. PMID:27171266

  14. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as "cuachalalate." Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  15. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  16. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis.

  17. Protective effects of asiaticoside on septic lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-na; Zheng, Jia-jia; Zhang, Li; Gong, Xia; Huang, Hai; Wang, Chang-dong; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meng-jiao; Li, Xiao-hui; Sun, Wen-juan; Liu, Ying-ju; Wan, Jing-yuan

    2011-09-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), a major triterpenoid saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica, has been described to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of AS on septic lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were pretreated with the AS (45 mg/kg) or AS as well as GW9662 at 1h before CLP, the survival, lung injury, inflammatory mediators and signaling molecules, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were determined 24 h after CLP. The results showed that AS significantly decreased CLP-induced the mortality, lung pathological damage, the infiltration of mononuclear, polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes and total proteins. Moreover, AS inhibited CLP-induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in lung tissues, and the production of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Interestingly, the expression of PPAR-γ protein in lung tissue was up-regulated by AS. Furthermore, GW9662 (the inhibitor of PPAR-γ) significantly reversed these beneficial effects of AS in septic mice. These findings suggest that AS could effectively protect from septic lung injury induced by CLP and the underlying mechanisms might be related to up-regulation of PPAR-γ expression to some extent, which inhibits MAPKs and NF-κB pathway.

  18. Second Generation Inactivated Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Candidates Protect Mice against a Lethal Aerosol Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Honnold, Shelley P.; Bakken, Russell R.; Fisher, Diana; Lind, Cathleen M.; Cohen, Jeffrey W.; Eccleston, Lori T.; Spurgers, Kevin B.; Maheshwari, Radha K.; Glass, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no FDA-licensed vaccines or therapeutics for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) for human use. We recently developed several methods to inactivate CVEV1219, a chimeric live-attenuated eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Dosage and schedule studies were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three potential second-generation inactivated EEEV (iEEEV) vaccine candidates in mice: formalin-inactivated CVEV1219 (fCVEV1219), INA-inactivated CVEV1219 (iCVEV1219) and gamma-irradiated CVEV1219 (gCVEV1219). Both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 provided partial to complete protection against an aerosol challenge when administered by different routes and schedules at various doses, while iCVEV1219 was unable to provide substantial protection against an aerosol challenge by any route, dose, or schedule tested. When evaluating antibody responses, neutralizing antibody, not virus specific IgG or IgA, was the best correlate of protection. The results of these studies suggest that both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 should be evaluated further and considered for advancement as potential second-generation inactivated vaccine candidates for EEEV. PMID:25116127

  19. Fusion of a Short Peptide that Binds Immunoglobulin G to a Recombinant Protein Substantially Increases Its Plasma Half-Life in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Kivimäe, Saul; Szoka, Francis C.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a strategy to substantially increase the half-life of recombinant proteins by genetic fusion to FcIII, a 13-mer IgG-Fc domain binding peptide (IgGBP) originally identified by DeLano and co-workers at Genentech [DeLano WL, et al. (2000) Science 287∶1279–1283]. IgGBP fusion increases the in vivo half-life of proteins by enabling the fusion protein to bind serum IgG, a concept originally introduced by DeLano and co-workers in a patent but that to the best of our knowledge has never been pursued in the scientific literature. To further investigate the in vitro and in vivo properties of IgGBP fusion proteins, we fused FcIII to the C-terminus of a model fluorescent protein, monomeric Katushka (mKate). mKate-IgGBP fusions are easily expressed in Escherichia coli and bind specifically to human IgG with an affinity of ∼40 nM and ∼20 nM at pH 7.4 and pH 6, respectively, but not to mouse or rat IgG isotypes. mKate-IgGBP binds the Fc-domain of hIgG1 at a site overlapping the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn) and as a consequence inhibits the binding of hIgG1 to hFcRn in vitro. High affinity binding to human IgG also endows mKate-IgGBP with a long circulation half-life of ∼8 hr in mice, a 75-fold increase compared to unmodified mKate. Thus, IgGBP fusion significantly reduces protein clearance by piggybacking on serum IgG without substantially increasing protein molecular weight due to the small size of the IgGBP. These attractive features could result in protein therapies with reduced dose frequency and improved patient compliance. PMID:25057984

  20. Antibody protection against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Stanker, Larry H; Henderson, Thomas D; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D

    2009-10-01

    Adulteration of food or feed with any of the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potential bioterrorism concern. Currently, there is strong interest in the development of detection reagents, vaccines, therapeutics, and other countermeasures. A sensitive immunoassay for detecting BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) F1-2 and F1-40, has been developed and used in complex matrices. The epitope for F1-2 has been mapped to the heavy chain of BoNT/A, and the epitope of F1-40 has been mapped to the light chain. The ability of these MAbs to provide therapeutic protection against BoNT/A intoxication in mouse intravenous and oral intoxication models was tested. High dosages of individual MAbs protected mice well both pre- and postexposure to BoNT/A holotoxin. A combination therapy consisting of antibodies against both the light and heavy chains of the toxin, however, significantly increased protection, even at a lower MAb dosage. An in vitro peptide assay for measuring toxin activity showed that pretreatment of toxin with these MAbs did not block catalytic activity but instead blocked toxin entry into primary and cultured neuronal cells. The timing of antibody rescue in the mouse intoxication models revealed windows of opportunity for antibody therapeutic treatment that correlated well with the biologic half-life of the toxin in the serum. Knowledge of BoNT intoxication and antibody clearance in these mouse models and understanding of the pharmacokinetics of BoNT are invaluable for future development of antibodies and therapeutics against intoxication by BoNT.

  1. Sodium butyrate protects the intestinal barrier function in peritonitic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaofeng; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yunlei; Sheng, Yingmo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritonitis is a commonly seen disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is prevalently considered that the impaired intestinal barrier during peritonitis is the access point of gut microbes into the blood system, and acts as the engine of the following systemic infection. In our previous study, we found that Sodium Butyrate (NaB) was protective on intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of NaB on overwhelming infection animal models of peritonitis. Methods: Mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was used to study the effects of NaB on the intestinal barrier. Experimental animals were fed of NaB by gavage. Post-CLP mortality, gut permeability and intestinal histological alterations were studied. Results: Gastrointestinal NaB pharmacodynamics profiles after medication were studied. Measurements of NaB concentration in chyme showed significantly higher intestinal concentration of NaB in the NaB treated group than that of the control group. CLP-induced mortality was significantly decreased by oral NaB treatments. Gut permeability was largely increased after CLP, which was partially prevented by NaB feeding. Histological study showed that intestinal, especially ileal injury following peritonitis was substantially alleviated by NaB treatments. Moreover, tissue regeneration was also prompted by NaB. Conclusion: NaB has a potential protective effect on intestinal barrier function in peritonitis. PMID:26064302

  2. Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G W; Leary, S E; Williamson, E D; Titball, R W; Welkos, S L; Worsham, P L; Friedlander, A M

    1996-11-01

    The purified recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, an adjuvant approved for human use, was used to immunize outbred Hsd:ND4 mice subcutaneously. Immunization protected mice from lethal bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by CO92, a wild-type F1+ strain, or by the isogenic F1- strain C12. This work demonstrates that a subunit plague vaccine formulated for human use provides significant protection against bubonic plague caused by an F1- strain (C12) or against substantial aerosol challenges from either F1+ (CO92) or F1-(C12) Y. pestis.

  3. Lupeol Protects Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jun; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun Bok; Jo, Il-Joo; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Kon; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Lupeol is a triterpenoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antiinflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of lupeol on acute pancreatitis specifically have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the effects of lupeol on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Acute pancreatitis was induced via an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 µg/kg). In the lupeol treatment group, lupeol was administered intraperitoneally (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg) 1 h before the first cerulein injection. Blood samples were taken to determine serum cytokine and amylase levels. The pancreas was rapidly removed for morphological examination and used in the myeloperoxidase assay, trypsin activity assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we isolated pancreatic acinar cells using a collagenase method to examine the acinar cell viability. Lupeol administration significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis, as was shown by reduced pancreatic edema, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, lupeol inhibited elevation of digestive enzymes and cytokine levels, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, lupeol inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death. In conclusion, these results suggest that lupeol exhibits protective effects on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

  4. Caveolin-1 Protects B6129 Mice against Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983

  5. Caveolin-1 protects B6129 mice against Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    PubMed

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P A; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird") compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.

  6. Mechanism of T cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen. PMID:23644176

  7. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  8. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Chronic Cadmium Toxicity in Mice Indicate Routes of Protection besides Intestinal Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Yong Q.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study confirmed the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 to protect against acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in mice. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity in mice and to gain insights into the protection mode of this strain. Experimental mice were divided into two groups and exposed to Cd for 8 weeks via drinking water or intraperitoneal injection. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups, control, Cd only, CCFM8610 only, and Cd plus CCFM8610. Levels of Cd were measured in the feces, liver, and kidneys, and alterations of several biomarkers of Cd toxicity were noted. The results showed that when Cd was introduced orally, cotreatment with Cd and CCFM8610 effectively decreased intestinal Cd absorption, reduced Cd accumulation in tissue, alleviated tissue oxidative stress, reversed hepatic and renal damage, and ameliorated the corresponding histopathological changes. When Cd was introduced intraperitoneally, administration of CCFM8610 did not have an impact on tissue Cd accumulation or reverse the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, CCFM8610 still offered protection against oxidative stress and reversed the alterations of Cd toxicity biomarkers and tissue histopathology. These results suggest that CCFM8610 is effective against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. Besides intestinal Cd sequestration, CCFM8610 treatment offers direct protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. We also provide evidence that the latter is unlikely to be mediated via protection against Cd-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24771031

  9. Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intracervical infection in DBA/1j mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Arulanandam, Bernard; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-03-10

    We previously reported that intracervical inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum induced hydrosalpinx in DBA/1j mice, but intravaginal inoculation failed to do so. In the current study, we found unexpectedly that intrabursal inoculation of live chlamydial organisms via the oviduct failed to induce significant hydrosalpinx. We further tested whether primary infection via intravaginal or intrabursal inoculation could induce protective immunity against hydrosalpinx following intracervical challenge infection. Mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum were fully protected from developing hydrosalpinx, while intrabursal inoculation offered partial protection. We then compared immune responses induced by the two genital tract inoculations. Both inoculations induced high IFNγ and IL-17 T cell responses although the ratio of IgG2a versus IgG1 in intravaginally infected mice was significantly higher than in mice infected intrabursally. When the antigen-specificities of antibody responses were compared, both groups of mice dominantly recognized 24 C. muridarum antigens, while each group preferentially recognized unique sets of antigens. Thus, we have demonstrated that intrabursal inoculation is neither effective for causing hydrosalpinx nor efficient in inducing protective immunity in DBA/1j mice. Intravaginal immunization, in combination with intracervical challenge infection in DBA/1j mice, can be a useful model for understanding mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenicity and protective immunity.

  10. Resveratrol Protects the Brain of Obese Mice from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Shraddha D.; Kumar, Sruthi; Wilson, David N.; Tamura, Leslie; Geetha, Thangiah; Mathews, Suresh T.; Huggins, Kevin W.; Broderick, Tom L.; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that exerts cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Recently it has been shown that obesity is associated with an increase in cerebral oxidative stress levels, which may enhance neurodegeneration. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective action of resveratrol in brain of obese (ob/ob) mice. Resveratrol was administered orally at the dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight daily for three weeks to lean and obese mice. Resveratrol had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in obese mice. Lipid peroxides were significantly increased in brain of obese mice. The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nonenzymatic antioxidants tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione were decreased in obese mice brain. Administration of resveratrol decreased lipid peroxide levels and upregulated the antioxidant activities in obese mice brain. Our findings indicate a neuroprotective effect of resveratrol by preventing oxidative damage in brain tissue of obese mice. PMID:24163719

  11. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia. PMID:17414418

  12. In vivo administration of interleukin-2 protects susceptible mice from Theiler's virus persistence.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson-Sciard, E L; Dethlefs, S; Brahic, M

    1997-01-01

    In vivo administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-secreting tumor cells results in complete protection against persistent infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in susceptible DBA/2 mice. The IL-2-mediated protection was found to depend on the inoculum size as well as the timing of IL-2 administration. IL-2-treated and TMEV-infected mice displayed a three- to fourfold relative increase in virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) precursors. Thus, we postulate that the persistence of TMEV infection in susceptible mice reflects limited numbers of relevant CTL precursors and their time course of induction and activation. PMID:8985419

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis lung infection in IL-18 and IL-12 knockout mice: IL-12 is dominant over IL-18 for protective immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H.; Yang, X.; Takeda, K.; Zhang, D.; Fan, Y.; Luo, M.; Shen, C.; Wang, S.; Akira, S.; Brunham, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-gamma is a key to protective immunity against a variety of intracellular bacterial infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Interleukin (IL)-18, a recently identified Th1 cytokine, together with IL-12 is a strong stimulator for IFN-gamma production. We investigated the relative roles of IL-18 and IL- 12 in protective immunity to C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) infection using gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were intranasally infected with C. trachomatis MoPn and protective immunity was assessed among groups of mice by daily body weight changes, lung growth of MoPn, and histopathological appearances at day 10 postinfection. The corresponding immune responses for each group of mice at the same postinfection time point were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibody isotype responses and cytokine profiles. RESULTS: Our results showed that IL-18 deficiency had little or no influence on clearance of MoPn from the lung, although KO mice exhibited slightly more severe inflammatory reactions in lung tissues, as well as reduced systemic and local IFN-gamma production, compared with WT mice. Results with IL-18 KO mice were in sharp contrast to those observed with IL-12 KO mice that showed substantially reduced clearance of MoPn from the lungs, substantial reductions of antigen-specific systemic and lung IFN-gamma production, decreased ratio of MoPn-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a/IgG1, and severe pathological changes in the lung with extensive polymorphonuclear, instead of mononuclear, cell infiltration. Exogenous IL-12 or IL-18 was able to increase IFN-gamma production in IL-18 KO mice; whereas, only exogenous IL-12, but not IL-18, enhanced IFN-gamma production in IL-12 KO mice. Caspase-1 is the key protease for activation of IL-18 precursor into the bioactive form, and caspase-1 KO mice also displayed similar bacterial clearance and body weight loss to that in WT mice at early stages

  14. Anti-oxidative protection against iron overload-induced liver damage in mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-02-01

    In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload. PMID:23923610

  15. Protection of mice from lethal influenza virus infection with high dose-short duration ribavirin aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Wyde, P R; Wilson, S Z; Gilbert, B E; Smith, R H

    1986-01-01

    An aerosol generated from a reservoir containing 60 mg of ribavirin per ml given for 2 h twice daily for 4 days afforded the same high level of protection against lethal influenza virus infection of mice as a longer, conventional treatment schedule (20 mg/ml given for 11 h daily for 4 days). Incremental decreases in ribavirin concentration made while maintaining the 2-h intermittent schedule provided progressively less protection of mice. Mice exposed to the 60-mg/ml doses had significantly increased pulmonary and serum drug levels when compared with mice given 20 mg of drug per ml, these increases were transient, and no evidence of pulmonary intolerance was detected. These studies suggest that protective effects of ribavirin against influenza virus infection can be achieved without untoward effects if higher doses and shorter periods of administration are used. PMID:3813516

  16. Evaluation of the Borrelia burgdorferi BBA64 Protein as a Protective Immunogen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Kevin S.; Patton, Toni G.; Allard, Anna S.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Radolf, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product is a surface-localized lipoprotein synthesized within mammalian and tick hosts and is involved in vector transmission of disease. These properties suggest that BBA64 may be a vaccine candidate against Lyme borreliosis. In this study, protective immunity against B. burgdorferi challenge was assessed in mice immunized with the BBA64 protein. Mice developed a high-titer antibody response following immunization with soluble recombinant BBA64 but were not protected when challenged by needle inoculation of culture-grown spirochetes. Likewise, mice passively immunized with an anti-BBA64 monoclonal antibody were not protected against needle-inoculated organisms. BBA64-immunized mice were subjected to B. burgdorferi challenge by the natural route of a tick bite, but these trials did not demonstrate significant protective immunity in either outbred or inbred strains of mice. Lipidated recombinant BBA64 produced in Escherichia coli was assessed for possible improved elicitation of a protective immune response. Although inoculation with this antigen produced a high-titer antibody response, the lipidated BBA64 also was unsuccessful in protecting mice from B. burgdorferi challenge by tick bites. Anti-BBA64 antibodies raised in rats eradicated the organisms, as evidenced by in vitro borreliacidal assays, thus demonstrating the potential for BBA64 to be effective as a protective immunogen. However, passive immunization with the same monospecific rat anti-BBA64 polyclonal serum failed to provide protection against tick bite-administered challenge. These results reveal the challenges faced in not only identifying B. burgdorferi proteins with potential protective capability but also in producing recombinant antigens conducive to preventive therapies against Lyme borreliosis. PMID:24501342

  17. Dual mechanism of protection by live attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1 against Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Hana; Feunou, Pascal Feunou; Foligne, Benoit; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Raze, Dominique; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2012-08-31

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic respiratory tract infections in a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including man, and no human vaccine is currently available. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect poorly against B. bronchiseptica, although they contain cross-reactive antigens. We have recently developed Bordetella pertussis BPZE1, a novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine, currently completing phase I clinical trials in humans, and found that it protects against both B. pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in mice. Here, we show that a single nasal administration of BPZE1 protects mice against lethal infection with B. bronchiseptica. After challenge, the vaccinated animals displayed markedly reduced lung inflammation and tissue damage, decreased neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in the lungs compared to non-immunized mice. Depletion of these cells abolished BPZE1-induced protection, indicating that BPZE1 protects against lethal inflammation through the recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, the B. bronchiseptica load was significantly decreased in the vaccinated animals. Using passive transfer experiments, protection was found to be essentially cell mediated, and BPZE1-induced Th1 and Th17 T cells recognize whole B. bronchiseptica extracts, although the participation of antibodies in protection cannot be discounted. Thus, a single administration of BPZE1 can confer protection against B. bronchiseptica in mice by a dual mechanism.

  18. Partial Protection against Brucella Infection in Mice by Immunization with Nonpathogenic Alphaproteobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Delpino, M. Victoria; Estein, Silvia M.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that Brucella antigens and those from nonpathogenic alphaproteobacteria (NPAP) are cross-recognized by the immune system. We hypothesized that immunization with NPAP would protect mice from Brucella infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with heat-killed Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Mesorhizobium loti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, or Brucella melitensis H38 (standard positive control) before intravenous challenge with Brucella abortus 2308. Cross-reacting serum antibodies against Brucella antigens were detected at the moment of challenge in all NPAP-immunized mice. Thirty days after B. abortus challenge, splenic CFU counts were significantly lower in mice immunized with O. anthropi, M. loti, and B. melitensis H38 than in the phosphate-buffered saline controls (protection levels were 0.80, 0.66, and 1.99 log units, respectively). In mice immunized intraperitoneally with cytosoluble extracts from NPAP or Brucella abortus, protection levels were 1.58 for the latter, 0.63 for O. anthropi, and 0.40 for M. loti. To test whether the use of live NPAP would increase protection further, mice were both immunized and challenged by the oral route. Immunization with NPAP induced a significant increase in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not serum or fecal IgA, against Brucella antigens. After challenge, anti-Brucella IgA increased significantly in the sera and feces of mice orally immunized with O. anthropi. For all NPAP, protection levels were higher than those obtained with systemic immunizations but were lower than those obtained by oral immunization with heat-killed B. abortus. These results show that immunization with NPAP, especially O. anthropi, confers partial protection against Brucella challenge. However, such protection is lower than that conferred by immunization with whole Brucella or its cytosoluble fraction. PMID:17715332

  19. Treatment with Isorhamnetin Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Jing; Song, Jin-Qing; Pan, Shu-Yi; Wang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. The aim of this work was to investigate whether treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Experimental stroke mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion. Treatment with isorhamnetin or vehicle was initiated immediately at the onset of reperfusion. It was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced infarct volume and caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), and improved neurological function recovery. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin attenuated cerebral edema, improved blood-brain barrier function, and upregulated gene expression of tight junction proteins including occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-5. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin activated Nrf2/HO-1, suppressed iNOS/NO, and led to reduced formation of MDA and 3-NT in ipsilateral cortex. In addition, treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin suppressed activity of MPO (a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration) and reduced protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in ipsilateral cortex. Furthermore, it was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced mRNA and protein expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR1 in ipsilateral cortex. In conclusion, treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Isorhamnetin could thus be envisaged as a countermeasure for ischemic stroke but remains to be tested in humans. PMID:27161367

  20. Protective effects of macrophage-derived interferon against encephalomyocarditis virus-induced diabetes mellitus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, K; Ogiso, Y; Takeda, M; Lee, M J; Itagaki, S; Doi, K

    1995-12-01

    The involvement of macrophages in protection against diabetes mellitus in mice of BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL (resistant) strains infected with the B (non-diabetogenic) or D (highly diabetogenic) variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was examined. Pretreatment with the B variant of EMC virus (EMC-B), avirulent interferon (IFN) inducer, or Corynebacterium parvum inhibited diabetes in BALB/c mice infected with the D variant of EMC virus (EMC-D). Treatment of C57BL mice with carrageenan to compromise macrophage function rendered C57BL mice susceptible to EMC-D-induced diabetes. In macrophage culture for BALB/c mice, EMC-B induced IFN at an earlier stage than did EMC-D. The C57BL mouse-derived macrophages produced more IFN than did BALB/c mouse-derived macrophages after stimulation with EMC-D. Moreover, C. parvum increased IFN production in macrophage cultures from BALB/c mice, whereas carrageenan inhibited that in macrophage cultures from C57BL mice. These results suggest that IFN derived from macrophages may have an important role in protecting mice against EMC virus infection. PMID:8746525

  1. Naturally transmitted segmented filamentous bacteria segregate with diabetes protection in nonobese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Martin A.; Sefik, Esen; Hill, Jonathan A.; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates typically harbor a rich gastrointestinal microbiota, which has coevolved with the host over millennia and is essential for several host physiological functions, in particular maturation of the immune system. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of a single bacterial species, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), in inducing a robust T-helper cell type 17 (Th17) population in the small-intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP) of the mouse gut. Consequently, SFB can promote IL-17–dependent immune and autoimmune responses, gut-associated as well as systemic, including inflammatory arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we exploit the incomplete penetrance of SFB colonization of NOD mice in our animal facility to explore its impact on the incidence and course of type 1 diabetes in this prototypical, spontaneous model. There was a strong cosegregation of SFB positivity and diabetes protection in females, but not in males, which remained relatively disease-free regardless of the SFB status. In contrast, insulitis did not depend on SFB colonization. SFB-positive, but not SFB-negative, females had a substantial population of Th17 cells in the SI-LP, which was the only significant, repeatable difference in the examined T-cell compartments of the gut, pancreas, or systemic lymphoid tissues. Th17-signature transcripts dominated the very limited SFB-induced molecular changes detected in SI-LP CD4+ T cells. Thus, a single bacterium, and the gut immune system alterations associated with it, can either promote or protect from autoimmunity in predisposed mouse models, probably reflecting their variable dependence on different Th subsets. PMID:21709219

  2. A High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin Is Not Associated with Substantial Pachytene Loss in Heterozygous Male Mice Carrying Multiple Simple Robertsonian Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Chiara; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Rufas, Julio S.; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., γH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR). These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading of Robertsonian

  3. Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against cutaneous and systemic Leishmania major infections of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, A H; Mock, B A; Meltzer, M S; Nacy, C A

    1987-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administration on Leishmania major infections of BALB/c and P/J mice. There were two treatment protocols. In the first, the footpads of naive animals were inoculated with mixtures of L. major and BCG (viable or heat killed) or the soluble mycobacterial antigen, purified protein derivative. Viable BCG, but not heat-killed BCG or purified protein derivative, inoculated with L. major amastigotes into the footpads of naive BALB/c or P/J mice protected these animals from the metastatic spread of parasites to the viscera and from ensuing lethal systemic infection. This treatment also induced cures of the cutaneous lesions of P/J mice but not of BALB/c mice. In the second protocol, we induced an immune response to BCG before inoculation of L. major. BCG given intraperitoneally 10 days before infection of footpads with leishmania offered protection against the metastatic spread of amastigotes in both P/J and BALB/c mice, regardless of intralesional treatment, and modulated the severity of cutaneous infection by 30 to 50%. Inoculation of a mixture of viable BCG and L. major amastigotes into BCG-immune mice completely protected both BALB/c and P/J strains from cutaneous disease; we recovered no parasites from the inoculated footpads of these animals. Furthermore, each of the nonspecifically protected mice of both the BALB/c and P/J strains developed immunity to rechallenge with viable L. major. Injection of amastigotes at a site remote from the original lesion, the contralateral footpad, resulted in the complete clearance of parasites in the inoculum with no evidence of either cutaneous or systemic disease over an extended observation period. PMID:3298065

  4. Low dose of carbon monoxide intraperitoneal injection provides potent protection against GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongmei; Liu, Yan; Li, Feng; Wen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important effector-signaling molecule involved in various pathophysiological processes. Here we investigated the protective effects of exogenous CO in a murine model of acute liver damage induced by d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous CO gas was administered to mice via intraperitoneal injection (first at a dose of 15 ml kg(-1) and then, 6 h later, 8 ml kg(-1)), which caused a significant elevation of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of up to 12-14% for more than 12 h. GalN/LPS were given to induce acute liver damage in mice 30 min prior to CO exposure. This showed that GalN/LPS induced severe liver injury in mice, whereas CO injection remarkably improved the survival rate of mice and led to attenuated hepatocellular damage. CO exhibited anti-oxidative capabilities by inhibiting hepatic malondialdehyde contents and restoring superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as by reducing inducible NOS/NO production. The anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CO were substantial, characterized by a notable inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Our findings thus supported the hypothesis that exogenous CO provides protective effects against acute liver damage in mice, mainly dependent on its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.

  5. Protective effects of phyllanthus emblica leaf extract on sodium arsenite-mediated adverse effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sadia; Ahsan, Nazmul; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Rashid, Abdur; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). 'Control' mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated 'SA' and 'SA+PLE' were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity.

  6. A conditionally lethal mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium induces a protective response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Villagra, Nicolás A; Jerez, Sebastián A; Fuentes, Juan A; Mora, Guido C

    2016-02-01

    Here we present the design of a conditionally lethal mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) which growth depends on tetracycline (Tet). Four mutants of S. Typhimurium, with Tet-conditional growth, were created by inserting the tetRA cassette. Three of the mutants presented a conditional-lethal phenotype in vitro. One mutant in the yabB gene remained conditional inside cells and did not persisted after 24 h in cell cultures. The capacity of S. Typhimurium yabB::tetRA to invade deep organs was investigated in intraperitoneally (IP) infected mice fed with or without chlortetracycline (CTet), a Tet analog with lower antibiotic activity. The yabB::tetRA mutant was undetectable in liver or spleen of animals under normal diet, while in mice under diet including CTet, yabB::tetRA invaded at a level comparable to the WT in mice under normal diet. Moreover, yabB::tetRA produced a strong humoral-immunoresponse after one IP immunization with 10(6) bacteria, measured as serum reactivity against S. Typhimurium whole cell extract. By contrast, oral immunization with 10(6) bacteria was weaker and variable on inducing antibodies. Consistently, IP infected mice were fully protected in a challenge with 10(4) oral S. Typhimurium, while protection was partial in orally immunized mice. Our data indicate that S. Typhimurium yabB::tetRA is a conditionally attenuated strain capable of inducing a protective response in mice in non-permissive conditions.

  7. The protective role of tacrine and donepezil in the retina of acetylcholinesterase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yun-Min; Cai, Li; Shao, Yi; Xu, Man; Yi, Jing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the effect of different concentrations of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors tacrine and donepezil on retinal protection in AChE+/− mice (AChE knockout mice) of various ages. METHODS Cultured ARPE-19 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µmol/L and protein levels were measured using Western blot. Intraperitoneal injections of tacrine and donepezil (0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL) were respectively given to AChE+/− mice aged 2mo and 4mo and wild-type S129 mice for 7d; phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to the control group. The mice were sacrificed after 30d by in vitro cardiac perfusion and retinal samples were taken. AChE-deficient mice were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific genotyping protocols obtained from the Jackson Laboratory website. H&E staining, immunofluorescence and Western blot were performed to observe AChE protein expression changes in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer. RESULTS Different concentrations of H2O2 induced AChE expression during RPE cell apoptosis. AChE+/− mice retina were thinner than those in wild-type mice (P<0.05); the retinal structure was still intact at 2mo but became thinner with increasing age (P<0.05); furthermore, AChE+/− mice developed more slowly than wild-type mice (P<0.05). Increased concentrations of tacrine and donepezil did not significantly improve the protection of the retina function and morphology (P>0.05). CONCLUSION In vivo, tacrine and donepezil can inhibit the expression of AChE; the decrease of AChE expression in the retina is beneficial for the development of the retina. PMID:26558196

  8. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly on Oxymetholone- Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Vahid; Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Babaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) on oxymetholone (OXM)-induced oxidative liver injuries in mice. Methods: In total, 32 adult male NMRI mice were divided into four groups of eight mice each. Mice in groups 1 and 2 were orally administered 5 mg/kg/day OXM for 30 days. At the same time, mice in group 3 received RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Saline control and RJ control groups were also included in this study. Results: Administration of 5 mg/kg OXM resulted in a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde (P<0.05). In addition, OXM-administrated mice showed a slight increase in liver enzymes, including alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Although OXM caused histopathological changes in the liver, RJ could significantly improve all of the above-mentioned parameters at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that RJ has a partially protective effect on OXM-induced liver toxicity in mice. PMID:27178489

  9. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 protects mice from diet-induced fatty liver disease and obesity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T; Mazagova, Magdalena; Horvath, Angela; Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Varki, Nissi M; Brandl, Katharina; Ho, Samuel B; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are characterized by altered gut microbiota, inflammation, and gut barrier dysfunction. Here, we investigated the role of mucin-2 (Muc2) as the major component of the intestinal mucus layer in the development of fatty liver disease and obesity. We studied experimental fatty liver disease and obesity induced by feeding wild-type and Muc2-knockout mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk. Muc2 deficiency protected mice from HFD-induced fatty liver disease and obesity. Compared with wild-type mice, after a 16-wk HFD, Muc2-knockout mice exhibited better glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, and upregulated expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation in white adipose tissue. Compared with wild-type mice that were fed the HFD as well, Muc2-knockout mice also displayed higher intestinal and plasma levels of IL-22 and higher intestinal levels of the IL-22 target genes Reg3b and Reg3g. Our findings indicate that absence of the intestinal mucus layer activates the mucosal immune system. Higher IL-22 levels protect mice from diet-induced features of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel CouplingMagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Wang, L.; Guo, X.L.

    2007-11-20

    The MICE coupling coil is fabricated from Nb-Ti, which hashigh quench propagation velocities within the coil in all directionscompared to coils fabricated with other superconductors such as niobiumtin. The time for the MICE coupling coil to become fully normal throughnormal region propagation in the coil is shorter than the time needed fora safe quench (as defined by a hot-spot temperature that is less than 300K). A MICE coupling coil quench was simulated using a code written at theInstitute of Cryogenics and Superconductive Technology (ICST) at theHarbin Institute of Technology (HIT). This code simulates quench backfrom the mandrel as well as normal region propagation within the coil.The simulations included sub-division of the coil. Each sub-division hasa back to back diodes and resistor across the coil. Current flows in theresistor when there is enough voltage across the coil to cause current toflow through the diodes in the forward direction. The effects of thenumber of coil sub-divisions and the value of the resistor across thesub-division on the quench were calculated with and without quench back.Sub-division of the coupling coil reduces the peak voltage to ground, thelayer-to-layer voltage and the magnet hot-spot temperature. Quench backreduces the magnet hot-spot temperature, but the peak voltage to groundand layer-to-layer voltage are increased, because the magnet quenchesfaster. The resistance across the coil sub-division affects both thehot-spot temperature and the peak voltage to ground.

  11. Protection of mice against Salmonella typhimurium with an O-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1992-01-01

    Serious infections with salmonellae remain a threat in many human populations. Despite extensive study of salmonella infections in animals and clinical experience with killed cellular vaccines, there are no vaccines against serotypes other than Salmonella typhi licensed for human use. Serum antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) of salmonellae protect mice against invasive infection. In order to render it immunogenic, we have conjugated the O-SP of Salmonella typhimurium to carrier proteins by various schemes. O-SP conjugated to tetanus toxoid (O-SP-TT) elicited antibodies in outbred mice after three subcutaneous injections without adjuvant. The O-SP alone elicited no detectable antibody. The antibody response to O-SP-TT was boosted by successive doses and consisted of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Most mice only produced antibodies specific for the abequose (O:4 factor) region of the O-SP. Occasional animals also produced antibodies to the core oligosaccharide. Immunized mice were protected against intraperitoneal challenge with S. typhimurium, demonstrating a 160-fold increase in the 50% lethal dose. Passive immunization with conjugate-induced IgM or IgG also protected against challenge. These results indicate that an O-SP-TT conjugate, when given by a route and formulation acceptable for human use, protects mice against challenge with S. typhimurium. Images PMID:1383154

  12. Protective activity of hesperidin and lipoic acid against sodium arsenite acute toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Ricardo N Pires; Carvalho, Félix; Carvalho, Márcia; Fernandes, Eduarda; Soares, Elisa; de Bastos, Maria Lourdes; de Pereira, Maria Lourdes

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the toxic effects of sodium arsenite, As(III), in mice and the protective effect of 2 antioxidants, hesperidin and lipoic acid, against the observed As(III)-induced toxicity. In each study, mice were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control, antioxidant, antioxidant + arsenite, and arsenite. Animals were first injected with the vehicle or 25 mg antioxidant/kg BW. After 30 minutes they received an injection of 10 mg arsenite/kg BW or 0.9% NaCl. Two hours after the first injection, the liver, kidney, and testis were collected for histological evaluation. Liver samples were also taken for quantification of arsenic. In mice exposed only to As(III), various histopathological effects were observed in the liver, kidneys, and testes. In mice pretreated with either hesperidin or lipoic acid, a reduction of histopathologic effects on the liver and kidneys was observed. No protective effects were observed in the testes for either of the 2 studied antioxidants. In conclusion, hesperidin and lipoic acid provided protective effects against As(III)-induced acute toxicity in the liver and kidneys of mice. These compounds may potentially play an important role in the protection of populations chronically exposed to arsenic.

  13. M2SR, a novel live single replication influenza virus vaccine, provides effective heterosubtypic protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarawar, Sally; Hatta, Yasuko; Watanabe, Shinji; Dias, Peter; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bilsel, Pamuk

    2016-09-30

    Despite the annual public health burden of seasonal influenza and the continuing threat of a global pandemic posed by the emergence of highly pathogenic/pandemic strains, conventional influenza vaccines do not provide universal protection, and exhibit suboptimal efficacy rates, even when they are well matched to circulating strains. To address the need for a highly effective universal influenza vaccine, we have developed a novel M2-deficient single replication vaccine virus (M2SR) that induces strong cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza strains in mice. M2SR is able to infect cells and expresses all viral proteins except M2, but is unable to generate progeny virus. M2SR generated from influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) protected mice against lethal challenge with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1, homosubtypic) and influenza A/Aichi/2/1968 (H3N2, heterosubtypic). The vaccine induced strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses of both IgA and IgG classes. Strong virus-specific T cell responses were also induced. Following heterologous challenge, significant numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells, with effector or effector/memory phenotypes and specific for conserved viral epitopes, were observed in the lungs of vaccinated mice. A substantial proportion of the CD8 T cells expressed Granzyme B, suggesting that they were capable of killing virus-infected cells. Thus, our data suggest that M2-deficient influenza viruses represent a promising new approach for developing a universal influenza vaccine. PMID:27595896

  14. Protection of SJL/J mice from demyelinating disease mediated by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, C I; Sun, X M; Fujinami, R S

    1995-01-01

    Intracerebral infection with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces a chronic demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Intraperitoneal inoculation with either the wild-type DA virus or an attenuated variant virus of DA, H7A6-2, results in protection from development of chronic demyelinating disease. Protective anti-viral immune responses result in reduced viral titers and decreased inflammation in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge with virus. Development of protective immunity requires the presence of B cells and CD4+ T cells but does not require CD8+ T cells. High titers of serum anti-viral IgG and neutralizing antibodies are induced following the intraperitoneal inoculation with the DA virus or H7A6-2 virus prior to challenge. While protection could not be transferred with immune serum from DA virus-infected mice or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, protection was correlated with increased numbers of DA virus-specific plasma cells in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge. Protected mice also had enhanced levels of anti-DA virus IgG and neutralizing antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid by 1 week following intracerebral challenge with DA virus. Thus, we conclude that vaccination with live virus results in protection from chronic demyelinating disease by inducing immune responses which are manifested in the central nervous system and rapidly clear infection after intracerebral challenge with DA virus.

  15. Sera from patients with chronic Lyme disease protect mice from Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Fikrig, E; Bockenstedt, L K; Barthold, S W; Chen, M; Tao, H; Ali-Salaam, P; Telford, S R; Flavell, R A

    1994-03-01

    Sera from selected patients with Lyme disease in different stages were used to passively immunize mice against Borrelia burgdorferi challenge to determine if human antibodies could protect the animals from infection. Sera from 2 patients with late-stage Lyme disease that contained strong antibody reactivity to proteins in B. burgdorferi lysates, including antibodies to the outer surface proteins (Osps) A and B, partly protected mice from infection after challenge with a small inoculum (10(2)) of B. burgdorferi. Mice immunized with sera from either of these 2 patients developed significantly fewer infections from the borreliae (patient 1 serum, 5%; patient 2 serum, 25%) relative to control mice (patient 1 serum, 90%; patient 2 serum, 74%). In contrast, sera from 2 patients with early or late Lyme disease that lacked antibodies reactive to OspA and OspB did not confer protection. Immunity appeared to be related, at least in part, to the presence of a strong humoral response to the Osps. These results suggest that during prolonged infection, some patients develop an immune response that may be partly protective against reinfection with B. burgdorferi. Therefore, although most patients do not mount a strong humoral response to the Osps during natural infection, vaccination with an Osp may elicit protective immunity.

  16. Natural Killer T Cell Activation Protects Mice Against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Avneesh K.; Wilson, Michael T.; Hong, Seokmann; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Du, Caigan; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Joyce, Sebastian; Sriram, Subramaniam; Koezuka, Yasuhiko; Van Kaer, Luc

    2001-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) serves as a prototypic model for T cell–mediated autoimmunity. Vα14 natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I–like protein CD1d. Here, we show that activation of Vα14 NKT cells by the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) protects susceptible mice against EAE. β-GalCer, which binds CD1d but is not recognized by NKT cells, failed to protect mice against EAE. Furthermore, α-GalCer was unable to protect CD1d knockout (KO) mice against EAE, indicating the requirement for an intact CD1d antigen presentation pathway. Protection of disease conferred by α-GalCer correlated with its ability to suppress myelin antigen-specific Th1 responses and/or to promote myelin antigen-specific Th2 cell responses. α-GalCer was unable to protect IL-4 KO and IL-10 KO mice against EAE, indicating a critical role for both of these cytokines. Because recognition of α-GalCer by NKT cells is phylogenetically conserved, our findings have identified NKT cells as novel target cells for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:11748281

  17. Hepatic Scavenger Receptor BI Protects Against Polymicrobial-induced Sepsis through Promoting LPS Clearance in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Zheng, Zhong; Ai, Junting; Huang, Bin; Li, Xiang-An

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic SR-BI-mediated LPS clearance may provide a therapeutic approach for sepsis. PMID:24719333

  18. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (P<0.05) negative and non-linear correlation with fasting glucose levels in berberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  19. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Promotes Intestinal Barrier Homeostasis and Protection Against Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Conlin, Victoria S.; Morampudi, Vijay; Ryz, Natasha R.; Nasser, Yasmin; Bhinder, Ganive; Bergstrom, Kirk S.; Yu, Hong B.; Waterhouse, Chris C. M.; Buchan, Allison M. J.; Popescu, Oana E.; Gibson, William T.; Waschek, James A.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Jacobson, Kevan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with changes in neuropeptide expression and function, including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP regulates intestinal vasomotor and secretomotor function and motility; however, VIP’s role in development and maintenance of colonic epithelial barrier homeostasis is unclear. Using VIP deficient (VIPKO) mice, we investigated VIP’s role in epithelial barrier homeostasis, and susceptibility to colitis. Colonic crypt morphology and epithelial barrier homeostasis were assessed in wildtype (WT) and VIPKO mice, at baseline. Colitic responses were evaluated following dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS) exposure. Mice were also treated with exogenous VIP. At baseline, VIPKO mice exhibited distorted colonic crypts, defects in epithelial cell proliferation and migration, increased apoptosis, and altered permeability. VIPKO mice also displayed reduced goblet cell numbers, and reduced expression of secreted goblet cell factors mucin 2 and trefoil factor 3. These changes were associated with reduced expression of caudal type homeobox 2 (Cdx2), a master regulator of intestinal function and homeostasis. DNBS and DSS-induced colitis were more severe in VIPKO than WT mice. VIP treatment rescued the phenotype, protecting VIPKO mice against DSS colitis, with results comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, VIP plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of colonic epithelial barrier integrity under physiological conditions and promotes epithelial repair and homeostasis during colitis. PMID:25932952

  20. The androgen receptor confers protection against diet-induced atherosclerosis, obesity, and dyslipidemia in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Fagman, Johan B.; Wilhelmson, Anna S.; Motta, Benedetta M.; Pirazzi, Carlo; Alexanderson, Camilla; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; Holmäng, Agneta; Anesten, Fredrik; Jansson, John-Olov; Levin, Malin; Borén, Jan; Ohlsson, Claes; Krettek, Alexandra; Romeo, Stefano; Tivesten, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Androgens have important cardiometabolic actions in males, but their metabolic role in females is unclear. To determine the physiologic androgen receptor (AR)–dependent actions of androgens on atherogenesis in female mice, we generated female AR-knockout (ARKO) mice on an atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE)–deficient background. After 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, but not on a normal chow diet, atherosclerosis in aorta was increased in ARKO females (+59% vs. control apoE-deficient mice with intact AR gene). They also displayed increased body weight (+18%), body fat percentage (+62%), and hepatic triglyceride levels, reduced insulin sensitivity, and a marked atherogenic dyslipidemia (serum cholesterol, +52%). Differences in atherosclerosis, body weight, and lipid levels between ARKO and control mice were abolished in mice that were ovariectomized before puberty, consistent with a protective action of ovarian androgens mediated via the AR. Furthermore, the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone reduced atherosclerosis (−41%; thoracic aorta), subcutaneous fat mass (−44%), and cholesterol levels (−35%) in ovariectomized mice, reduced hepatocyte lipid accumulation in hepatoma cells in vitro, and regulated mRNA expression of hepatic genes pivotal for lipid homeostasis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the AR protects against diet-induced atherosclerosis in female mice and propose that this is mediated by modulation of body composition and lipid metabolism.—Fagman, J. B., Wilhelmson, A. S., Motta, B. M., Pirazzi, C., Alexanderson, C., De Gendt, K., Verhoeven, G., Holmäng, A., Anesten, F., Jansson, J.-O., Levin, M., Borén, J., Ohlsson, C., Krettek, A., Romeo, S., Tivesten, A. The androgen receptor confers protection against diet-induced atherosclerosis, obesity, and dyslipidemia in female mice. PMID:25550469

  1. Ostα-/- mice are not protected from western diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Christine L; Wheeler, Sadie G; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Organic solute transporterα-OSTβ is a bile acid transporter important for bile acid recycling in the enterohepatic circulation. In comparison to wild-type mice, Ostα(-/-) mice have a lower bile acid pool and increased fecal lipids and they are relatively resistant to age-related weight gain and insulin resistance. These studies tested whether Ostα(-/-) mice are also protected from weight gain, lipid changes, and insulin resistance which are normally observed with a western-style diet high in both fat and cholesterol (WD). Wild-type and Ostα(-/-) mice were fed a WD, a control defined low-fat diet (LF) or standard laboratory chow (CH). Surprisingly, although the Ostα(-/-) mice remained lighter on LF and CH diets, they weighed the same as wild-type mice after 12 weeks on the WD even though bile acid pool levels remained low and fecal lipid excretion remained elevated. Mice of both genotypes excreted relatively less lipid when switched from CH to LF or WD. WD caused slightly greater changes in expression of genes involved in lipid transport in the small intestines of Ostα(-/-) mice than wild-type, but the largest differences were between CH and defined diets. After WD feeding, Ostα(-/-) mice had lower serum cholesterol and hepatic lipids, but Ostα(-/-) and wild-type mice had equivalent levels of muscle lipids and similar responses in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Taken together, the results show that Ostα(-/-) mice are able to adapt to a western-style diet despite low bile acid levels.

  2. Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tatiane Oliveira; Cleto, Lorena Sabino; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Silva, Renata Sabino; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Sousa-Franco, Junia; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Penaforte, Claudia Lopes; Pinto, Kelerson Mauro de Castro; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (± 1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P < 0.05) compared to untrained group. However, no effect of training was observed in the activity of GPx. In a second experiment, trained and untrained mice were submitted to a maximum progressive swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.

  3. Inactivated coxsackievirus A10 experimental vaccines protect mice against lethal viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chaoyun; Liu, Qingwei; Zhou, Yu; Ku, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lili; Lan, Ke; Ye, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhong

    2016-09-22

    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). It is now recognized that CVA10 should be targeted for vaccine development. We report here that β-propiolactone inactivated whole-virus based CVA10 vaccines can elicit protective immunity in mice. We prepared two inactivated CVA10 experimental vaccines derived from the prototype strain CVA10/Kowalik and from a clinical isolate CVA10/S0148b, respectively. Immunization with the experimental vaccines elicited CVA10-specific serum antibodies in mice. The antisera from vaccinated mice could potently neutralize in vitro infection with either homologous or heterologous CVA10 strains. Importantly, passive transfer of the anti-CVA10 sera protected recipient mice against CVA10/Kowalik or CVA10/S0148b infections. Moreover, active immunization with the inactivated vaccines also conferred protection against homologous and heterologous infections in mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate the proof-of-concept for inactivated whole-virus based CVA10 vaccines. PMID:27562093

  4. Protection of mice against challenge with Bacillus anthracis STI spores after DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ulrike K; Alex, Michaela; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Böhm, Reinhard; Beyer, Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Immune responses against the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis are known to confer immunity against anthrax. We evaluated the efficacy of genetic vaccination with plasmid vectors encoding PA, in protecting mice from a lethal challenge with B. anthracis STI spores. BALB/c and A/J mice were immunized via gene gun inoculation, using eukaryotic expression vectors with different cellular targeting signals for the encoded antigen. The vector pSecTag PA83, encoding the full-length PA protein, has a signal sequence for secretion of the expressed protein. The plasmids pCMV/ER PA83 and pCMV/ER PA63, encoding the full-length and the physiologically active form of PA, respectively, target and retain the expressed antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum of transfected cells. All three plasmids induced PA-specific humoral immune responses, predominantly IgG1 antibodies, in mice. Spleen cells collected from plasmid-vaccinated BALB/c mice produced PA-specific interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interferon-gamma in vitro. Vaccination with either pSecTag PA83 or pCMV/ER PA83 showed significant protection of A/J mice against infection with B. anthracis STI spores. PMID:15293452

  5. Novel Mode of ISG15-Mediated Protection against Influenza A Virus and Sendai Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morales, David J.; Monte, Kristen; Sun, Lulu; Struckhoff, Jessica J.; Agapov, Eugene; Holtzman, Michael J.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier and one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins and a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, and understanding how these modifications affect the interferon response and virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15−/− mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, and in the case of influenza B virus and vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting the virus burden. In order to better understand the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus and Sendai virus in ISG15−/− mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation-dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication and did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but nonantiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 and demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo. IMPORTANCE It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15−/− mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. Since ISG15 is one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. Although a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a

  6. MTBVAC vaccine is safe, immunogenic and confers protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Nacho; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzon, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Development of novel more efficient preventive vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to achieve TB eradication by 2050, one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for the current century. MTBVAC is the first and only live attenuated vaccine based on a human isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed as BCG-replacement strategy in newborns that has entered first-in-human adult clinical trials. In this work, we characterize the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MTBVAC in a model of newborn C57/BL6 mice. Our data clearly indicate that MTBVAC is safe for newborn mice, and does not affect animal growth or organ development. In addition, MTBVAC-vaccinated mice at birth showed enhanced immunogenicity and better protection against M. tuberculosis challenge in comparison with BCG.

  7. MTBVAC vaccine is safe, immunogenic and confers protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilo, Nacho; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzon, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Development of novel more efficient preventive vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to achieve TB eradication by 2050, one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for the current century. MTBVAC is the first and only live attenuated vaccine based on a human isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed as BCG-replacement strategy in newborns that has entered first-in-human adult clinical trials. In this work, we characterize the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MTBVAC in a model of newborn C57/BL6 mice. Our data clearly indicate that MTBVAC is safe for newborn mice, and does not affect animal growth or organ development. In addition, MTBVAC-vaccinated mice at birth showed enhanced immunogenicity and better protection against M. tuberculosis challenge in comparison with BCG. PMID:26786657

  8. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Donpunha, Wanida; Sompamit, Kwanjit; Surawattanawan, Praphassorn

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L) in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd. PMID:24662163

  9. Overexpression of Nrf2 protects against microcystin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Wu, Kai Connie; Qu, Qiang; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion are implicated in mycocystin hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in microcystin-induced liver injury, Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice were treated with microcystin (50 μg/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Microcystin increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and caused extensive inflammation and necrosis in Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Keap1-HKO mice. Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in microcystin-induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as neutrophil-specific chemokines mKC and MIP-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The increased expression of these pro-inflammatory genes was attenuated in Keap1-HKO mice. Nrf2 and Nqo1 mRNA and protein were higher in Keap1-HKO mice at constitutive levels and after microcystin. To further investigate the mechanism of the protection, hepatic GSH and the mRNA of GSH-related enzymes were determined. Microcystin markedly depleted liver GSH by 60-70% in Nrf2 and WT mice but only 35% in Keap1-HKO mice. The mRNAs of GSH conjugation and peroxide reduction enzymes, such as Gstα1, Gstα4, Gstμ, and Gpx2 were higher in livers of Keap1-HKO mice, together with higher expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis (Gclc). Organic anion transport polypeptides were increased by microcystin with the most increase in Keap1-HKO mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that higher basal levels of Nrf2 and GSH-related genes in Keap1-HKO mice prevented microcystin-induced oxidative stress and liver injury.

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Protects Retinal Function and Structure in rd1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Eric C; Bhatia, Shagun K; Han, Moon K; Aung, Moe H; Ciavatta, Vincent; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Pardue, Machelle T

    2016-01-01

    We explored the potential protective effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on cone photoreceptor survival in a model of rapid retinal degeneration, the ß-Pde6 (rd1) (rd1) mouse model. We injected two strains of rd1 mice (B6.C3-Pde6b (rd1) Hps4(le)/J and C57BL/6J-Pde6b (rd1-2)/J mice) daily from postnatal day (P) 6 to P21 with TUDCA or vehicle. At P21, retinal function was evaluated with light-adapted electroretinography (ERG) and retinal structure was observed with plastic or frozen sections. TUDCA treatment partially preserved function and structure in B6.C3-Pde6b (rd1) Hps4(le)/J mice but only partially preserved structure in C57BL/6J-Pde6b (rd1-2)/J mice. Our results suggest a possible intervention for patients undergoing rapid retinal degeneration.

  11. Protective effect of carvacrol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaosheng; Jia, Aiqing

    2014-08-01

    Carvacrol, the major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS and the mortality of mice for 7 days were observed twice a day. Meanwhile, the protective effect of carvacrol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) on LPS-induced endotoxemia were detected. Using an experimental model of LPS-induced ALI, we examined the effect of carvacrol in resolving lung injury. The results showed that carvacrol could improve survival during lethal endotoxemia and attenuate LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of carvacrol may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production. PMID:24577726

  12. Protective effect of humus extract against Trypanosoma brucei infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Okazaki, Fumi; Ishida, Saeko

    2008-11-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms are present. Oral administration of humus extract to mice successfully induced effective protection against experimental challenge by the two subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense. Mortality was most reduced among mice who received a 3% humus extract for 21 days in drinking water ad libitum. Spleen cells from humus-administered mice exhibited significant non-specific cytotoxic activity against L1210 mouse leukemia target cells. Also, spleen cells produced significantly higher amounts of Interferon-gamma when stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A than cells from normal controls. These results clearly show that administration to mice of humus extract induced effective resistance against Trypanosoma infection. Enhancement of the innate immune system may be involved in host defense against trypanosomiasis.

  13. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  14. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaisman, Boris L.; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G.; Freeman, Lita A.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Liu, Chengyu; Stonik, John A.; Sampson, Maureen L.; Pryor, Milton; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Patterson, Amy P.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC. PMID:26504816

  15. TLR4 mutant mice are protected from renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana C P; Tsuji, Takayuki; Baranova, Irina N; Bocharov, Alexander V; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Street, Jonathan M; Alvarez-Prats, Alejandro; Hu, Xuzhen; Eggerman, Thomas; Yuen, Peter S T; Star, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and immunosuppression. In this study we tested the role of Toll-like receptor 4, the main receptor for endotoxin (LPS), in a mouse model of renal fibrosis and in a model of progressive CKD that better resembles the human disease. C3HeJ (TLR4 mutant) mice have a missense point mutation in the TLR4 gene, rendering the receptor nonfunctional. In a model of renal fibrosis after folic acid injection, TLR4 mutant mice developed less interstititial fibrosis in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy with continuous low-dose angiotensin II infusion, C3HeOuJ (TLR4 WT) mice developed progressive CKD with albuminuria, increased serum levels of BUN and creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis, whereas TLR4 mutant mice were significantly protected from CKD progression. TLR4 WT mice also developed low-grade systemic inflammation, splenocyte apoptosis and increased expression of the immune inhibitory receptor PD-1 in the spleen, which were not observed in TLR4 mutant mice. In vitro, endotoxin (LPS) directly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome expression in renal epithelial cells via TLR4. In summary, TLR4 contributes to renal fibrosis and CKD progression, at least in part, via inflammasome activation in renal epithelial cells, and may also participate in the dysregulated immune response that is associated with CKD. PMID:26416975

  16. Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 confers protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Wen, Li-Min; Pei, Yan-Jiang; Wang, Fen; Yin, Li-Tian; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Guo, Rui; Wang, Chun-Fang; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses worldwide. It has a high incidence and can result in severe disease in humans and livestock. Effective vaccines are needed to limit and prevent infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we evaluated the immuno-protective efficacy of a recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (rTgPGAM 2) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. We report that the mice nasally immunised with rTgPGAM 2 displayed significantly higher levels of special IgG antibodies against rTgPGAM 2 (including IgG1, IgG2a and IgAs) and cytokines (including IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) in their blood sera and supernatant of cultured spleen cells compared to those of control animals. In addition, an increased number of spleen lymphocytes and enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses were observed in the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice. After chronic infection and lethal challenge with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain by oral gavage, the survival time of the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice was longer (P < 0.01) and the survival rate (70%) was higher compared with the control mice (P < 0.01). The reduction rate of brain and liver tachyzoites in rTgPGAM 2-vaccinated mice reached approximately 57% and 69% compared with those of the control mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that rTgPGAM 2 can generate protective immunity against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice and may be a promising antigen in the further development of an effective vaccine against T. gondii infection. PMID:26984115

  17. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yabin; Chen, Fan; Yao, Xingchen; Zhu, Junbo; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Juanling; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg), L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg), L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg) treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721) at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05). The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05). L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice. PMID:26193298

  18. α-Galactosylceramide protects mice from lethal Coxsackievirus B3 infection and subsequent myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C Y; Feng, Y; Qian, G C; Wu, J H; Luo, J; Wang, Y; Chen, G J; Guo, X K; Wang, Z J

    2010-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium which often follows virus infections. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), as a marker of the enterovirus group, is one of the most important infectious agents of virus-induced myocarditis. Using a CVB3-induced myocarditis model, we show that injection α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a ligand for invariant natural killer (NK) T (iNK T) cells, can protect the mice from viral myocarditis. After the systemic administration of α-GalCer in CVB3 infected mice, viral transcription and titres in mouse heart, sera and spleen were reduced, and the damage to the heart was ameliorated. This is accompanied by a better disease course with an improved weight loss profile. Compared with untreated mice, α-GalCer-treated mice showed high levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4, and reduced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in their cardiac tissue. Anti-viral immune response was up-regulated by α-GalCer. Three days after CVB3 infection, α-GalCer-administered mice had larger spleens. Besides NK T cells, more macrophages and CD8+ T cells were found in these spleens. Upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin, splenocytes from α-GalCer-treated mice produced significantly more cytokines [including IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-4 and IL-10] than those from untreated mice. These data suggest that administration of α-GalCer during acute CVB3 infection is able to protect the mice from lethal myocarditis by local changes in inflammatory cytokine patterns and enhancement of anti-viral immune response at the early stage. α-GalCer is a potential candidate for viral myocarditis treatment. Our work supports the use of anti-viral treatment early to reduce the incidence of virus-mediated heart damage. PMID:20726989

  19. Immunization with extracellular proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces cell-mediated immune responses and substantial protective immunity in a guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, P G; Horwitz, M A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the capacity of a selected fraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis extracellular proteins (EP) released into broth culture by mid-logarithmic-growth-phase organisms to induce cell-mediated immune responses and protective immunity in a guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol but not uninfected control guinea pigs exhibit strong cell-mediated immune responses to EP, manifest by dose-dependent cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. Guinea pigs immunized subcutaneously with EP but not sham-immunized control guinea pigs also develop strong cell-mediated immune responses to EP, manifest by dose-dependent cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. EP is nonlethal and nontoxic to guinea pigs upon subcutaneous immunization. Guinea pigs immunized with EP and then challenged with aerosolized M. tuberculosis exhibit protective immunity. In five independent experiments, EP-immunized guinea pigs were consistently protected against clinical illness, including weight loss. Compared with EP-immunized guinea pigs, sham-immunized control guinea pigs lost 12.9 +/- 2.0% (mean +/- SE) of their total weight. EP-immunized guinea pigs also had a 10-fold reduction in viable M. tuberculosis bacilli in their lungs and spleens (P = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively) compared with sham-immunized control animals. In the two experiments in which some guinea pigs died after aerosol challenge, EP-immunized animals were protected from death. Whereas all 12 (100%) EP-immunized guinea pigs survived challenge with aerosolized M. tuberculosis, only 6 of 12 (50%) sham-immunized control guinea pigs survived challenge (P = 0.007, Fisher exact test). This study demonstrates that actively growing M. tuberculosis cells release immunoprotective molecules extracellularly, that a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis is feasible, and that extracellular molecules of M

  20. Prediction of T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluation of their protective role in mice.

    PubMed

    Afley, Prachiti; Dohre, Sudhir K; Prasad, G B K S; Kumar, Subodh

    2015-09-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis.

  1. Pyruvate kinase deficiency in mice protects against malaria.

    PubMed

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Fortin, Anny; Tam, Mi-Fong; Nantel, André; Stevenson, Mary M; Gros, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    The global health impact of malaria is enormous, with an estimated 300-500 million clinical cases and 1 million annual deaths. In humans, initial susceptibility to infection with Plasmodium species, disease severity and ultimate outcome of malaria (self-healing or lethal) are under complex genetic control. Alleles associated with sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassemia and deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have a protective effect against malaria and may have been retained by positive selection in areas of endemic malaria. Likewise, genetic variations in erythrocyte antigens and levels of host cytokines affect type and severity of disease. A mouse model of infection with Plasmodium chabaudi was used to study the genetic component of malaria susceptibility. Segregation analyses in informative F2 crosses derived from resistant C57BL/6J and susceptible A/J, C3H and SJL strains using extent of blood stage replication of the parasite and survival as traits mapped three P. chabaudi resistance (Char) loci on chromosomes 9 (Char1), 8 (Char2) and 17 (Char3, MHC-linked). Recombinant congenic strains AcB55 and AcB61 are unusually resistant to malaria despite carrying susceptibility alleles at Char1 and Char2. Malaria resistance in AcB55 and AcB61 is associated with splenomegaly and constitutive reticulocytosis, is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is controlled by a locus on chromosome 3 (Char4). Sequencing of candidate genes from the Char4 region identified a loss-of-function mutation (269T-->A, resulting in the amino acid substitution I90N) in the pyruvate kinase gene (Pklr) that underlies the malaria resistance in AcB55 and AcB61. These results suggest that pyruvate kinase deficiency may similarly protect humans against malaria. PMID:14595440

  2. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan; Zhan, Le; Williams, Jessica A.; Tawfik, Ossama; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L.

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.

  3. Dietary folic acid protects against genotoxicity in the red blood cells of mice.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Amanda J; Behan, Nathalie A; Field, Martha S; Williams, Andrew; Stover, Patrick J; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-09-01

    Folate is an essential B vitamin required for the de novo synthesis of purines, thymidylate and methionine. Folate deficiency can lead to mutations and genome instability, and has been shown to exacerbate the genotoxic potential of environmental toxins. We hypothesized that a folic acid (FA) deficient diet would induce genotoxicity in mice as measured by the Pig-a mutant phenotype (CD24-) and micronuclei (MN) in reticulocytes (RET) and red blood cells/normochromatic erythrocytes (RBC/NCE). Male Balb/c mice were fed a FA deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) or supplemented (6 mg/kg) diet from weaning for 18 wk. Mice fed the deficient diet had 70% lower liver folate (p < 0.001), 1.8 fold higher MN-RET (p < 0.001), and 1.5 fold higher MN-NCE (p < 0.001) than mice fed the control diet. RET(CD24-) and RBC(CD24-) frequencies were not different between mice fed the deficient and control diets. Compared to mice fed the FA supplemented diet, mice fed the deficient diet had 73% lower liver folate (p < 0.001), a 2.0 fold increase in MN-RET (p < 0.001), a 1.6 fold increase in MN-NCE (p < 0.001) and 3.8 fold increase in RBC(CD24-) frequency (p = 0.011). RET(CD24-) frequency did not differ between mice fed the deficient and supplemented diets. Our data suggest that FA adequacy protects against mutagenesis at the Pig-a locus and MN induction in the red blood cells of mice.

  4. Dietary folic acid protects against genotoxicity in the red blood cells of mice

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Amanda J.; Behan, Nathalie A.; Field, Martha S.; Williams, Andrew; Stover, Patrick J.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Folate is an essential B vitamin required for the de novo synthesis of purines, thymidylate and methionine. Folate deficiency can lead to mutations and genome instability, and has been shown to exacerbate the genotoxic potential of environmental toxins. We hypothesized that a folic acid (FA) deficient diet would induce genotoxicity in mice as measured by the Pig-a mutant phenotype (CD24−) and micronuclei (MN) in reticulocytes (RET) and red blood cells/normochromatic erythrocytes (RBC/NCE). Male Balb/c mice were fed a FA deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) or supplemented (6 mg/kg) diet from weaning for 18 wk. Mice fed the deficient diet had 70% lower liver folate (p < 0.001), 1.8 fold higher MN-RET (p < 0.001), and 1.5 fold higher MN-NCE (p < 0.001) than mice fed the control diet. RETCD24− and RBCCD24− frequencies were not different between mice fed the deficient and control diets. Compared to mice fed the FA supplemented diet, mice fed the deficient diet had 73% lower liver folate (p < 0.001), a 2.0 fold increase in MN-RET (p < 0.001), a 1.6 fold increase in MN-NCE (p < 0.001) and 3.8 fold increase in RBCCD24− frequency (p = 0.011). RETCD24− frequency did not differ between mice fed the deficient and supplemented diets. Our data suggest that FA adequacy protects against mutagenesis at the Pig-a locus and MN induction in the red blood cells of mice. PMID:26177356

  5. Partial protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice elicited by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Yanping; Yin, Litian; Liu, Yisheng; Wang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Kuiyang; Cao, Jianping

    2016-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and wildlife, sometimes causing serious clinical presentations. Currently, no viable vaccine or effective drug strategies exist to prevent and control toxoplasmosis. T. gondii malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) is a crucial enzyme in cellular redox reactions and has been shown to be an immunogenic compound that could be a potential vaccine candidate. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant TgMDH (rTgMDH) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. All mice were vaccinated via the nasal route. We determined the optimal vaccination dose by monitoring systemic and mucosal immune responses. The results showed that mice vaccinated with 30 μg of rTgMDH produced the highest antibody titers in serum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, marked increases in their levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and significantly greater levels of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal washes. In addition, the vaccinated mice were orally challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Compared to the control group, we found that vaccination with rTgMDH increased the survival rate of infected mice by 47% and also significantly reduced the tachyzoite loads in their liver (by 58%) and brain (by 41%). Therefore, the rTgMDH protein triggers a strong systemic and mucosal immune response and provides partial protection against T. gondii infection.

  6. Polaprezinc protects normal intestinal epithelium against exposure to ionizing radiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Odawara, Soichi; Doi, Hiroshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hitomi; Niwa, Yasue; Kosaka, Kengo; Tarutani, Kazuo; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), an antiulcer drug, has been reported to have antioxidant effects. The purpose of the present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of PZ in the normal intestine of C57BL/6J mice. PZ was orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight in the drinking water. Firstly, the present study compared the survival of normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells with mice that received PZ prior to or following irradiation. Next, the present study examined the sequential changes of the incidence of apoptosis in the normal intestine of mice that received irradiation. The mice that received PZ prior to irradiation demonstrated a stronger protective effect on the normal intestine compared with those that received PZ after irradiation. The present study therefore administrated PZ 2 h before irradiation in the subsequent experiments. The mice receiving PZ developed fewer apoptotic cells in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Radiation-induced cell death occurred with a peak at position 10 or lower from the base of the crypt axis, and was subsequently reduced by PZ treatment. Pretreatment with PZ protected the normal intestinal tissues from radiation-induced apoptosis.

  7. The Protective Effect of Stauntonia Chinensis Polysaccharide on CCl4-induced Acute Liver Injuries in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Xiong, Qingming; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Shirong; Zhu, Lihua; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Stauntonia chinensis polysaccharides (SCP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver injuries in mice. Methods: Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the pathological model group, and the SCP group. The SCP group was further divided into three subgroups based on SCP treatment: Low dosage (50 mg/kg), medium dosage (100 mg/kg) and high dosage (200 mg/kg). After being fed for 7 days, mixed-edible-oil solution was intraperitoneally injected into the control group, while the other two groups were injected with 0.15% CCl4 mixed with mixed-edible-oil. Sera were collected from mice 24 h later to determine the activity of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). Mice were then sacrificed to prepare liver homogenate. Levels of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. Pathological changes in livers were also analyzed. Results: SCP significantly reduced the ALT activity in the serum and inhibited the decrease of serum GSH, GSH-PX and SOD and rose the levels of MDA and NO (P<0.05-0.01). This lessened the pathological damage to the liver tissues. Conclusion: SCP protects against CCl4-induced acute liver injuries in mice. PMID:24711744

  8. Immunogenic recombinant Burkholderia pseudomallei MprA serine protease elicits protective immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chui-Yoke; Tan, Swee-Chen; Nathan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a diverse group of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins whilst quinolones and aminoglycosides have no reliable effect. As therapeutic options are limited, development of more effective forms of immunotherapy is vital to avoid a fatal outcome. In an earlier study, we reported on the B. pseudomallei serine MprA protease, which is relatively stable over a wide pH and temperature range and digests physiological proteins. The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the MprA as a potential vaccine candidate. In BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant MprA protease (smBpF4), a significantly high IgG titer was detectable. Isotyping studies revealed that the smBpF4-specific antibodies produced were predominantly IgG1, proposing that immunization with smBpF4 triggered a Th2 immune response. Mice were immunized with smBpF4 and subsequently challenged with B. pseudomallei via the intraperitoneal route. Whilst control mice succumbed to the infection by day 9, smBpF4-immunized mice were protected against the lethal challenge and survived beyond 25 days post-infection. In conclusion, MprA is immunogenic in melioidosis patients whilst also eliciting a strong immune response upon bacterial challenge in mice and presents itself as a potential vaccine candidate for the treatment of melioidosis. PMID:22919676

  9. Oral Immunization of Mice with Live Pneumocystis murina Protects against Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Derrick R; de la Rua, Nicholas M; Charles, Tysheena P; Ruan, Sanbao; Taylor, Christopher M; Blanchard, Eugene E; Luo, Meng; Ramsay, Alistair J; Shellito, Judd E; Welsh, David A

    2016-03-15

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV. In this study, we evaluated the potential of oral immunization with live Pneumocystis to elicit protection against respiratory infection with Pneumocystis murina. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with live P. murina using a prime-boost vaccination strategy were protected from a subsequent lung challenge with P. murina at 2, 7, 14, and 28 d postinfection even after CD4(+) T cell depletion. Specifically, vaccinated immunocompetent mice had significantly faster clearance than unvaccinated immunocompetent mice and unvaccinated CD4-depleted mice remained persistently infected with P. murina. Vaccination also increased numbers of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD11b(+) macrophages in the lungs following respiratory infection. In addition, levels of lung, serum, and fecal P. murina-specific IgG and IgA were increased in vaccinated animals. Furthermore, administration of serum from vaccinated mice significantly reduced Pneumocystis lung burden in infected animals compared with control serum. We also found that the diversity of the intestinal microbial community was altered by oral immunization with P. murina. To our knowledge, our data demonstrate for the first time that an oral vaccination strategy prevents Pneumocystis infection.

  10. Alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone protects lung of BALB/c mice irradiated with 6 Gy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubec, G.; Foltinova, J.; Leplawy, T.; Mallinger, R.; Tichatschek, E.; Getoff, N.

    1996-06-01

    The radiation protective activity of intraperitoneally administered alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone (α-MHCTL; 100 mg/kg body weight) in female BALB/c mice and such treated with cysteine treated (100 mg/kg body weight), using unirradiated and placebo treated irradiated mice were tested as controls. 6 Gy whole body irradiated was applied and after a period of three weeks the animals were sacrificed and lungs were taken for morphometry and the determination of o-tyrosine. Septal areas were highest in the irradiated, placebo treated mice (68.67 + 9.82% septal area to total area)and lowest in the α-MHCTL treated irradiated mice (55.67 +11.29%), significant at the p < 0.05 level. Morphometric data were accompanied by highest levels of o-tyrosine, a reliable parameter for OH-attack, in the irradiated, placebo treated group with 1.87 + 0.40 μM/g lung tissue and 0.32 + 0.13 gmM/g lung tissue in the αMHCTL treated group; the statistical difference was significant. Significant radiation protection in the mammalian system at the morphological and biochemical level were found. The potent effect could be explained by the influence of alpha-alkylation in homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) which renders amino acids unmetabolizeable, nontoxic, increases lipophilicity and therefore improving permeability through membranes. The present report confirms morphological data on the radiation protective activity of this interesting thiol compound.

  11. Heme oxygenase 1 protects ethanol-administered liver tissue in Aldh2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David; Chen, Ying; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (​ALDH2) gene, ALDH2*2, encodes an enzymatically defective ALDH2 protein. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that possessing ALDH2*2 is a protective factor for liver tissue in healthy individuals, although these studies lack a mechanistic explanation. Our animal studies have shown the same trend: levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and hepatic tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were lower in Aldh2 knockout (Aldh2(-/-)) mice than in wild-type (Aldh2(+/+)) mice after ethanol administration. To propose a mechanistic hypothesis, residual liver specimens from the previous experiment were analyzed. An anti-oxidative protein, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and an oxidative stress-producing protein, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), were detected at higher levels in Aldh2(-/-) mice than in Aldh2(+/+) mice, regardless of ethanol treatment. Other oxidative stress-related proteins and inflammatory cytokines did not show such a significant difference. To conclude, we propose a protective role of HO-1 in individuals with A​LDH2*2. Our continued studies support the epidemiological finding that possession of ALDH2*2 is a protective factor in the liver of the healthy individual. PMID:27139237

  12. Protective effect of Plantago major L. Pectin polysaccharide against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Hetland, G; Samuelsen, A B; Løvik, M; Paulsen, B S; Aaberge, I S; Groeng, E C; Michaelsen, T E

    2000-10-01

    The antibacterial effect of a soluble pectin polysaccharide, PMII, isolated from the leaves of Plantago major, was examined in inbred NIH/OlaHsd and Fox Chase SCID mice experimentally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. Serotype 6B is known to give a more protracted infection when injected intraperitoneally into susceptible mice than more virulent serotypes like type 4. PMII was administered i.p. either once 3 days before challenge or once to thrice from 3 to 48 h after challenge. The number of bacteria in blood and the mouse survival rate were recorded. Pre-challenge administration of PMII and also lipopolysaccharide (LPS), included as a control, gave a dose-dependent protective effect against S. pneumoniae type 6B infection. However, injection of PMII after establishment of the infection in NIH/OlaHsd mice had no effect. The data demonstrate that, firstly, the polysaccharide fraction PMII from P. major protects against pneumococcal infection in mice when administered systemically prechallenge, and secondly that the protective effect is owing to stimulation of the innate and not the adaptive immune system. PMID:11013005

  13. Protective responses against skin-dwelling microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Folkard, S G; Taylor, M J; Butcher, G A; Bianco, A E

    1997-01-01

    Inoculation of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis results in a sustained infection of the skin, extending for months beyond the point at which the parasites are eliminated from immunocompetent BALB/c controls. Reconstitution of SCID mice with spleen cells, thymocytes, or CD4+-cell-enriched splenocytes from naive BALB/c donors confers the ability to mount a protective immune response, leading to the rapid elimination of microfilariae. High levels of interleukin-5 and low levels of gamma interferon in the sera of reconstituted SCID mice during the destruction of microfilariae suggest that this protective immune response is directed by Th2 lymphocytes, mirroring that observed in immunocompetent controls. Unexpectedly, abbreviation of primary infections of unreconstituted SCID mice with the drug ivermectin induces resistance to reinfection with microfilariae at a level equivalent to that induced in secondarily infected, immunocompetent controls. In contrast to protection mediated by adoptive reconstitution, resistance induced by ivermectin-abbreviated infection occurs in the absence of T cells and in association with negligible levels of serum interleukin-5 and gamma interferon. This points to the activation of some alternative host defense mechanism that operates after the clearance of therapeutic levels of drug. Such a response could have important implications for the treatment of human onchocerciasis and may go some way in explaining the long-term suppression of microfilariae observed in patients after treatment with ivermectin. PMID:9199458

  14. Protective effect of Plantago major L. Pectin polysaccharide against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Hetland, G; Samuelsen, A B; Løvik, M; Paulsen, B S; Aaberge, I S; Groeng, E C; Michaelsen, T E

    2000-10-01

    The antibacterial effect of a soluble pectin polysaccharide, PMII, isolated from the leaves of Plantago major, was examined in inbred NIH/OlaHsd and Fox Chase SCID mice experimentally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. Serotype 6B is known to give a more protracted infection when injected intraperitoneally into susceptible mice than more virulent serotypes like type 4. PMII was administered i.p. either once 3 days before challenge or once to thrice from 3 to 48 h after challenge. The number of bacteria in blood and the mouse survival rate were recorded. Pre-challenge administration of PMII and also lipopolysaccharide (LPS), included as a control, gave a dose-dependent protective effect against S. pneumoniae type 6B infection. However, injection of PMII after establishment of the infection in NIH/OlaHsd mice had no effect. The data demonstrate that, firstly, the polysaccharide fraction PMII from P. major protects against pneumococcal infection in mice when administered systemically prechallenge, and secondly that the protective effect is owing to stimulation of the innate and not the adaptive immune system.

  15. B-Cell Deficiency Predisposes Mice to Disseminating Anaerobic Infections: Protection by Passive Antibody Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linda; Sasakj, Hajime; Stashenko, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a high proportion of RAG-2 SCID knockout mice, which lack T and B cells, develop orofacial abscesses and disseminated infections following pulpal infection, whereas immunocompetent control mice do not. In the present study, we sought to identify the components of the adaptive immune response which contribute to protection against disseminating anaerobic infections and sepsis. For this purpose, various genetically engineered immunodeficient mice were employed, including RAG-2 SCID, Igh-6 (B-cell deficient), Tcrb Tcrd (T-cell deficient) and Hc0 (C5 deficient). For abscess induction, the mandibular first molars were subjected to pulp exposure on day 0. Teeth were infected with a mixture of four anaerobic pathogens, including Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus intermedius, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus micros, and teeth were sealed to prevent communication with the oral cavity. The findings demonstrate that both RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice, but not T-cell- or C5-deficient mice, have increased susceptibility to the development of disseminating anaerobic infections. Abscess-susceptible RAG-2 SCID and B-cell-deficient mice also showed a significant loss of body weight, splenomegaly, and absent antibacterial antibody production. Furthermore, dissemination was significantly reduced, from 74 to 25%, in susceptible RAG-2 mice by passively transferred antibody, predominantly immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) and IgM, against the infecting bacterial innoculum. Fractionated IgG-enriched preparations were more efficient in transferring protection than IgM preparations. We conclude that an antibody-mediated mechanism(s), most likely bacterial opsonization, is of importance in localizing anaerobic root canal infections and in preventing their systemic spread. PMID:10992465

  16. B regulatory cells are increased in hypercholesterolaemic mice and protect from lesion development via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Strom, Asa C; Cross, Amanda J; Cole, Jennifer E; Blair, Paul A; Leib, Christoph; Goddard, Michael E; Rosser, Elizabeth C; Park, Inhye; Hultgårdh Nilsson, Anna; Nilsson, Jan; Mauri, Claudia; Monaco, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Whilst innate B1-B cells are atheroprotective, adaptive B2-B cells are considered pro-atherogenic. Different subsets of B regulatory cells (B(reg)) have been described. In experimental arthritis and lupus-like disease, B(reg) are contained within the CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cell pool. The existence and role of B(reg) in vascular disease is not known. We sought to investigate the existence, identity and location of B(reg) in vascular disease. The representation of B2-B cell subsets in the spleens and lymph nodes (LNs) of Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mice compared to controls was characterised by flow cytometry. Additionally, we utilised a model of neointima formation based on the placement of a perivascular collar around the carotid artery in ApoE(-/-) mice to ascertain whether B cells and B cell subsets confer protection against lesion development. Adoptive transfer of B cells was performed from wild type or genetically modified mice. We showed that CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells are unexpectedly increased in the draining LNs of ApoE(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of LN-derived B2-B cells or purified CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells to syngeneic mice reduced lesion size and inflammation without changing serum cholesterol levels. Follicular B2-B cells did not confer protection. IL-10 blockade or transfer of IL10-deficient B cells prevented LN-derived B cell-mediated protection. This is the first identification of a specific LN-derived B2-B(reg) subset that confers IL-10 mediated protection from neointima formation. This may open the way for immune modulatory approaches in cardiovascular disease.

  17. Protein Kinase D2 Protects against Acute Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Ming-feng; Wang, Ya-dong; Chen, Li-ping; Xu, Wan-fu; Wang, Yao-dong; Deng, Fan; Liu, Si-de

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by dysregulation of the mucosal immune system resulting from impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function. Protein kinase D2 has been implicated in the regulation of immune responses. The present study was to define PKD2 might affect murine colitis. Colitis was induced in wild-type mice (PKD2WT/WT) and PKD2 catalytic activity deficient mice (PKD2SSAA/SSAA) with dextran sulfate sodium. PKD2SSAA-knockin mice displayed catalytic activity deficiency and increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis with enhanced weight loss, colonic inflammation compared with PKD2WT/WT mice. Furthermore, crucial inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in PKD2SSAA-knockin mice were higher than controls accompanied with down-regulation of ZO-1, MUC2 and intestinal barrier dysfunction. However, there were no differences in the proliferation or apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in PKD2SSAA-knockin mice compared with wild-type controls. In addition, PKD2 expression was repressed in patients with IBD compared with healthy controls. These studies suggested that activation of PKD2 in the colonic epithelium microenvironment may contribute to protect against DSS-induced colitis through regulation of intestinal mucosal immunity and barrier function. PMID:27659202

  18. Peroxiredoxin-6 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and liver injury during ischemia-reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Eismann, Thorsten; Huber, Nadine; Shin, Thomas; Kuboki, Satoshi; Galloway, Elizabeth; Wyder, Michael; Edwards, Michael J.; Greis, Kenneth D.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Fisher, Aron B.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important complication of liver surgery and transplantation. Mitochondrial function is central to this injury. To examine alterations in mitochondrial function during I/R, we assessed the mitochondrial proteome in C57Bl/6 mice. Proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria revealed 234 proteins with significantly altered expression after I/R. From these, 13 proteins with the greatest expression differences were identified. One of these proteins, peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), has never before been described in mitochondria. In hepatocytes from sham-operated mice, Prdx6 expression was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. After ischemia or I/R, Prdx6 expression disappeared from the cytoplasm and appeared in the mitochondria, suggesting mitochondrial trafficking. To explore the functional role of Prdx6 in hepatic I/R injury, wild-type and Prdx6-knockout mice were subjected to I/R injury. Prdx6-knockout mice had significantly more hepatocellular injury compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, the increased injury in Prdx6-knockout mice occurred despite reduced inflammation and was associated with increased mitochondrial generation of H2O2 and dysfunction. The mitochondrial dysfunction appeared to be related to complex I of the electron transport chain. These data suggest that hepatocyte Prdx6 traffics to the mitochondria during I/R to limit mitochondrial dysfunction as a protective mechanism against hepatocellular injury. PMID:19033532

  19. Vectored antibody gene delivery protects against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge in mice

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Cailin; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Espinosa, Diego A.; Zavala, Fidel; Baltimore, David; Ketner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum kills nearly one million children each year and imposes crippling economic burdens on families and nations worldwide. No licensed vaccine exists, but infection can be prevented by antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), the major surface protein of sporozoites, the form of the parasite injected by mosquitoes. We have used vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP), an adeno-associated virus-based technology, to introduce preformed antibody genes encoding anti-P. falciparum CSP mAb into mice. VIP vector-transduced mice exhibited long-lived mAb expression at up to 1,200 µg/mL in serum, and up to 70% were protected from both i.v. and mosquito bite challenge with transgenic Plasmodium berghei rodent sporozoites that incorporate the P. falciparum target of the mAb in their CSP. Serum antibody levels and protection from mosquito bite challenge were dependent on the dose of the VIP vector. All individual mice expressing CSP-specific mAb 2A10 at 1 mg/mL or more were completely protected, suggesting that in this model system, exceeding that threshold results in consistent sterile protection. Our results demonstrate the potential of VIP as a path toward the elusive goal of immunization against malaria. PMID:25114213

  20. Live Attenuated Borrelia burgdorferi Targeted Mutants in an Infectious Strain Background Protect Mice from Challenge Infection.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Beth L; Padmore, Lavinia J; Ristow, Laura C; Curtis, Michael W; Coburn, Jenifer

    2016-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii are all agents of Lyme disease in different geographic locations. If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause significant and long-term morbidity, which may continue after appropriate antibiotic therapy has been administered and live bacteria are no longer detectable. The increasing incidence and geographic spread of Lyme disease are renewing interest in the vaccination of at-risk populations. We took the approach of vaccinating mice with two targeted mutant strains of B. burgdorferi that, unlike the parental strain, are avirulent in mice. Mice vaccinated with both strains were protected against a challenge with the parental strain and a heterologous B. burgdorferi strain by either needle inoculation or tick bite. In ticks, the homologous strain was eliminated but the heterologous strain was not, suggesting that the vaccines generated a response to antigens that are produced by the bacteria both early in mammalian infection and in the tick. Partial protection against B. garinii infection was also conferred. Protection was antibody mediated, and reactivity to a variety of proteins was observed. These experiments suggest that live attenuated B. burgdorferi strains may be informative regarding the identification of protective antigens produced by the bacteria and recognized by the mouse immune system in vivo Further work may illuminate new candidates that are effective and safe for the development of Lyme disease vaccines. PMID:27335385

  1. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  2. Recql5 protects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wan-Qin; Qi, Ya-Lei; Wang, Lin; Dong, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Tao; Ding, Chao-Dong; Liu, Rui; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Li-Ting; Li, He; Li, Wen-Feng; Luo, Guang-Bin; Lu, Xin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Recql5 deficiency on liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-Gal). METHODS: Liver injury was induced in wild type (WT) or Recql5-deficient mice using LPS/D-Gal, and assessed by histological, serum transaminases, and mortality analyses. Hepatocellular apoptosis was quantified by transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3. Liver inflammatory chemokine and cytochrome P450 expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity. Expression and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p65, and H2A.X was determined by Western blot. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde production and nitric oxide synthase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activity. RESULTS: Following LPS/D-Gal exposure, Recql5-deficient mice exhibited enhanced liver injury, as evidenced by more severe hepatic hemorrhage, higher serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and lower survival rate. As compared to WT mice, Recql5-deficient mice showed an increased number of apoptotic hepatocytes and higher cleaved caspase-3 levels. Recql5-deficient mice exhibited increased DNA damage, as evidenced by increased γ-H2A.X levels. Inflammatory cytokine levels, neutrophil infiltration, and ERK phosphorylation were also significantly increased in the knockout mice. Additionally, Recql5-deficicent mice exhibited increased malondialdehyde production and elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activity, indicative of enhanced oxidative stress. Moreover, CYP450 expression was significantly downregulated in Recql5-deficient mice after LPS/D-Gal treatment. CONCLUSION: Recql5 protects the liver against LPS/D-Gal-induced injury through suppression of hepatocyte apoptosis and oxidative

  3. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency Protects against Cholesterol-induced Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Lauren; Li, Lixin; Pun, Henry; Liu, Lu; Hossain, Mohammad A.; Maguire, Graham F.; Naples, Mark; Baker, Chris; Magomedova, Lilia; Tam, Jonathan; Adeli, Khosrow; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Connelly, Philip W.; Ng, Dominic S.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) knock-out mice, particularly in the LDL receptor knock-out background, are hypersensitive to insulin and resistant to high fat diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. We demonstrated that chow-fed Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice have elevated hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes IR, compared with wild-type controls, and this effect is normalized in Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hepatic ER cholesterol metabolism differentially regulates ER stress using these models. We observed that the Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice accumulate excess hepatic total and ER cholesterol primarily attributed to increased reuptake of biliary cholesterol as we observed reduced biliary cholesterol in conjunction with decreased hepatic Abcg5/g8 mRNA, increased Npc1l1 mRNA, and decreased Hmgr mRNA and nuclear SREBP2 protein. Intestinal NPC1L1 protein was induced. Expression of these genes was reversed in the Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice, accounting for the normalization of total and ER cholesterol and ER stress. Upon feeding a 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice accumulated a similar amount of total hepatic cholesterol compared with the Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice, but the hepatic ER cholesterol levels remained low in conjunction with being protected from HCD-induced ER stress and IR. Hepatic ER stress correlates strongly with hepatic ER free cholesterol but poorly with hepatic tissue free cholesterol. The unexpectedly low ER cholesterol seen in HCD-fed Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice was attributable to a coordinated marked up-regulation of ACAT2 and suppressed SREBP2 processing. Thus, factors influencing the accumulation of ER cholesterol may be important for the development of hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:22500017

  4. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  5. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinkum, Kelsey L.; Stemler, Kristina M.; White, Lynn S.; Loza, Andrew J.; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M.; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy. PMID:26644583

  6. Therapeutic inducers of the HSP70/HSP110 protect mice against traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Binnur; Kimbler, Donald E; Pang, Junfeng; Choi, Justin; Moskophidis, Demetrius; Yanasak, Nathan; Dhandapani, Krishnan M; Mivechi, Nahid F

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces severe harm and disability in many accident victims and combat-related activities. The heat-shock proteins Hsp70/Hsp110 protect cells against death and ischemic damage. In this study, we used mice deficient in Hsp110 or Hsp70 to examine their potential requirement following TBI. Data indicate that loss of Hsp110 or Hsp70 increases brain injury and death of neurons. One of the mechanisms underlying the increased cell death observed in the absence of Hsp110 and Hsp70 following TBI is the increased expression of reactive oxygen species-induced p53 target genes Pig1, Pig8, and Pig12. To examine whether drugs that increase the levels of Hsp70/Hsp110 can protect cells against TBI, we subjected mice to TBI and administered Celastrol or BGP-15. In contrast to Hsp110- or Hsp70i-deficient mice that were not protected following TBI and Celastrol treatment, there was a significant improvement of wild-type mice following administration of these drugs during the first week following TBI. In addition, assessment of neurological injury shows significant improvement in contextual and cued fear conditioning tests and beam balance in wild-type mice that were treated with Celastrol or BGP-15 following TBI compared to TBI-treated mice. These studies indicate a significant role of Hsp70/Hsp110 in neuronal survival following TBI and the beneficial effects of Hsp70/Hsp110 inducers toward reducing the pathological consequences of TBI. Our data indicate that loss of Hsp110 or Hsp70 in mice increases brain injury following TBI. (a) One of the mechanisms underlying the increased cell death observed in the absence of these Hsps following TBI is the increased expression of ROS-induced p53 target genes known as Pigs. In addition, (b) using drugs (Celastrol or BGP-15) to increase Hsp70/Hsp110 levels protect cells against TBI, suggesting the beneficial effects of Hsp70/Hsp110 inducers to reduce the pathological consequences of TBI.

  7. Protection of mice from respiratory Sendai virus infections by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Takao, S I; Kiyotani, K; Sakaguchi, T; Fujii, Y; Seno, M; Yoshida, T

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms of protection of mice from Sendai virus, which is exclusively pneumotropic and causes a typical respiratory disease, by immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses (RVVs) were investigated. Although the RVV carrying a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Sendai virus (Vac-HN) propagated in the noses and lungs of mice by either intranasal (i.n.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, no vaccinia virus antigens were detected in the mucosal layer of upper and lower airways of the i.p.-inoculated mice. The mice immunized i.n. with Vac-HN or Vac-F (the RVV carrying a fusion protein gene of Sendai virus) demonstrated the strong resistance to Sendai virus challenge both in the lung and in the nose, whereas the i.p.-immunized mice showed almost no resistance in the nose but showed a partial resistance in the lung. Titration of Sendai virus-specific antibodies in the nasal wash (NW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and serum collected from the Vac-F-immunized mice showed that the NW from the i.n.-immunized mice contained immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies but no IgG and the BAL from the mice contained both IgA and IgG antibodies. On the other hand, neither IgA nor IgG antibodies were detected in the NW from the i.p.-immunized mice and only IgG antibodies were detected in the BAL, although both i.n.- and i.p.-immunized mice exhibited similar levels of serum IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies. The resistance to Sendai virus in the noses of i.n.-immunized mice could be abrogated by the intranasal instillation of anti-mouse IgA but not of anti-IgG antiserum, while the resistance in the lung was not significantly abrogated by such treatments. These results demonstrate that IgA is a major mediator for the immunity against Sendai virus induced by the RVVs and IgG is a supplementary one, especially in the lung, and that the RVV should be intranasally inoculated to induce an efficient mucosal immunity even if it has a pantropic nature.

  8. Quantitative relationship between anticapsular antibody measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or radioimmunoassay and protection of mice against challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4.

    PubMed Central

    Musher, D M; Johnson, B; Watson, D A

    1990-01-01

    We have recently shown that a substantial proportion of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay is removed by adsorption with pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). The present study was undertaken to validate the hypothesis that only serotype-specific antibody that remains after adsorption with CWPS provides protection against pneumococcal infection. Serum samples were obtained from human subjects before and after they had been vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Antibody to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 was measured by ELISA without adsorption or after adsorption of serum with CWPS. Groups of mice were injected with graded doses of serum and then challenged intraperitoneally with 10, 100, or 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. pneumoniae serotype 4. Without adsorption, prevaccination sera from five healthy adults appeared to contain up to 33 micrograms of antibody to S. pneumoniae serotype 4 antigen per ml; adsorption with CWPS removed all detectable antibody, and pretreating mice with up to 0.1 ml of these sera (less than or equal to 3.3 micrograms of antibody) failed to protect them against challenge with 100 LD50. In contrast, postvaccination sera contained 2.9 to 30 micrograms of antibody per ml that was not removed by adsorption. Diluting sera to administer desired amounts of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G showed a significant relationship between protection and antibody remaining after adsorption (P less than 0.05 by linear regression analysis); 150 ng was uniformly protective against 1,000 LD50, and 50 ng was protective against 100 LD50. These studies have, for the first time, quantitated the amount of serotype-specific antibody that protects mice against challenge with S. pneumoniae type 4. In light of these observations, it is necessary to reassess current concepts regarding the presence of antipneumococcal antibody in the unvaccinated

  9. Cholestasis induced by model organic anions protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in male CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa M; Hennig, Gayle E; Manautou, José E

    2006-01-25

    Administration of the non-metabolizable organic anion indocyanine green (ICG) prior to a toxic dose of acetaminophen (4-acetamidophenol; APAP) reduces liver injury 24h after dosing. ICG also produces a dose-dependent decrease in bile flow in mice and rats. Studies in bile duct-cannulated rats suggest that cholestasis can play a role in this protection. This study was conducted to determine if the ability of model organic anions to produce cholestasis is relevant to the protection against APAP hepatotoxicity afforded by ICG. In these studies, overnight fasted male CD-1 mice were dosed (i.v.) with the cholestatic dyes bromcresol green (BCG, 30 micromol/kg) and rose bengal (RB, 60 micromol/kg) immediately prior APAP administration (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Other groups of mice received the non-cholestatic dyes dibromosulphthalein (DBSP, 150 micromol/kg) and amaranth (AM, 300 micromol/kg) prior to APAP. Controls were given vehicle only. Hepatocellular necrosis was evident at 24 h in control mice receiving APAP. Pretreatment with the cholestatic dyes BCG and RB decreased the severity of hepatocellular necrosis induced by APAP. However, administration of the non-cholestatic dyes DBSP and AM did not alter APAP-induced liver damage. Glutathione replenishment was not altered by pretreatment with any of these dyes. Furthermore, ICG protected mice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity. Since CCl4 undergoes minimal biliary excretion and does not compete for biliary transport function, this finding supports the notion that cholestasis itself rather than competition for canalicular transporters is central to the hepatoprotection by ICG and other cholephilic dyes.

  10. Plasma-Mediated Gut Protection After Hemorrhagic Shock is Lessened in Syndecan-1-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Ban, Kechen; Peng, Zhanglong; Pati, Shibani; Witkov, Richard B; Park, Pyong Woo; Kozar, Rosemary A

    2015-11-01

    We have shown in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock (HS) that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) reduces lung inflammation and injury that are correlated with restitution of syndecan-1. As the gut is believed to contribute to distant organ injury and inflammation after shock, the current study sought to determine if the protective effects of plasma would extend to the gut and to elucidate the contribution of syndecan-1 to this protective effect. We also examined the potential role of TNFα, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-17, both intestinal sheddases of syndecan-1. Wild-type (WT) and syndecan-1 (KO) mice were subjected to HS followed by resuscitation with lactated Ringer's (LR) or FFP and compared with shock alone and shams. Small bowel and blood were obtained after 3  h for analysis of mucosal injury and inflammation and TNFα and ADAM-17 protein expression and activity. After HS, gut injury and inflammation were significantly increased compared with shams. Resuscitation with LR decreased both injury and inflammation that were further lessened by FFP. KO mice displayed worsened gut injury and inflammation after HS compared with WT mice, and LR and FFP equivalently inhibited injury and inflammation. Both systemic and intestinal TNFα and ADAM-17 followed similar trends, with increases after HS, reduction by LR, and a further decrease by FFP in WT but not KO mice. In conclusion, FFP decreased gut injury and inflammation after hemorrhagic shock, an effect that was abrogated in syndecan-1 mice. Plasma also decreased TNFα and ADAM-17, representing a potential mechanistic link to its protection via syndecan-1.

  11. Supplementation of sodium butyrate protects mice from the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng Jun; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-12-14

    Overnutrition, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function are discussed as critical factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Not only butyrate-producing probiotics as well as supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) have been suggested to bear protective effects on liver damage of various aetiologies. However, whether an oral consumption of SoB has a protective effect on Western-style diet (WSD)-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and if so molecular mechanism involved has not yet been determined. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed either a liquid control or WSD±0·6 g/kg body weight SoB. After 6 weeks, markers of liver damage, inflammation, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signalling, lipid peroxidation and glucose as well as lipid metabolism were determined in the liver tissue. Tight junction protein levels were determined in the duodenal tissue. SoB supplementation had no effects on the body weight gain or liver weight of WSD-fed mice, whereas liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation were significantly decreased (e.g. less inflammatory foci and neutrophils) when compared with mice fed only a WSD. Tight junction protein levels in duodenum, hepatic mRNA expression of TLR-4 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c were altered similarly in both WSD groups when compared with controls, whereas protein levels of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and F4/80 macrophages were only significantly induced in livers of mice fed only the WSD. In summary, these data suggest that an oral supplementation of SoB protects mice from inflammation in the liver and thus from the development of WSD-induced NASH.

  12. Protective effect of picolinic acid on mice intracerebrally infected with lethal doses of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, E; Mazzolla, R; Pitzurra, L; Barluzzi, R; Bistoni, F

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effects of picolinic acid (PLA), a product of tryptophan degradation, on mouse susceptibility to intracerebral infection with Candida albicans. We show that intraperitoneal administration of PLA significantly enhances the median survival time of mice inoculated with the lethal challenge. Furthermore, intracerebral administration of this agent induces a protective state against the local lethal infection, the phenomenon depending upon the administration schedule and doses of PLA employed. According to survival data, yeast growth in the brain as well as yeast colonization of the kidneys are drastically reduced in PLA-treated mice compared with those for untreated controls. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of brain tissues demonstrates that mRNA levels specific for tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 are augmented and induced, respectively, after inoculation of PLA. These results indicate that PLA has a protective effect likely involving elicitation of a cytokine response in vivo against fungal infections. Images PMID:7506894

  13. Virus-like particle-based vaccine against coxsackievirus A6 protects mice against lethal infections.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chaoyun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yu; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Lili; Lan, Ke; Liu, Qingwei; Huang, Zhong

    2016-07-25

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) is emerging as one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available for preventing CA6 infection. Here, we report the development of a virus-like particle (VLP)-based recombinant vaccine for CA6. We produced CA6 VLPs in insect cells by infecting the cells with a baculovirus coexpressing the genes encoding CA6 P1 and 3CD. Biochemical analyses showed that the produced VLPs consisted of VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid subunit proteins generated by the cleavage of P1 by 3CD. Mice immunized with these VLPs produced CA6-specific serum antibodies. Passive transfer of antisera from CA6 VLP-immunized mice protected recipient mice from lethal infections caused by homologous and heterologous CA6 strains. Moreover, active immunization of mice with CA6 VLPs efficiently conferred protection against both homologous and heterologous CA6 infections. These results suggested that CA6 VLP-based recombinant vaccine is a promising candidate vaccine for preventing CA6 infection and can be incorporated into a multivalent HFMD vaccine formulation to achieve broad-spectrum and effective prevention of this disease. PMID:27340093

  14. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  15. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage.

    PubMed

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects mice from endotoxin toxicity and reduces tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed Central

    Danenberg, H D; Alpert, G; Lustig, S; Ben-Nathan, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated an immunomodulating activity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) different from that described for glucocorticoids. The present study was designed to test DHEA's activity in endotoxic shock and to investigate its effect on endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mortality of CD-1 mice exposed to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 800 micrograms per mouse) was reduced from 95 to 24% by treatment with a single dose of DHEA, given 5 min before LPS. LPS administration resulted in high levels of TNF, a response that was significantly blocked by DHEA, both in vivo and in vitro. DHEA treatment also reduced LPS-induced increments in serum corticosterone levels, a parameter considered not to be mediated by TNF. In another experimental model, mice sensitized with D-galactosamine, followed by administration of recombinant human TNF, were subjected to 89% mortality rate, which was reduced to 55% in DHEA-treated mice. These data show that DHEA protects mice from endotoxin lethality. The protective effect is probably mediated by reduction of TNF production as well as by effecting both TNF-induced and non-TNF-induced phenomena. PMID:1444309

  17. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53.

    PubMed

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Casanova, M Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-04-12

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  18. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53

    PubMed Central

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P.; Casanova, M. Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M.; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  19. Protective effect of naringin against ankylosing spondylitis via ossification, inflammation and oxidative stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Wu, Lianguo; Shi, Xiaolin; Wu, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is an abundant flavanone in pomelo, grapefruit as well as lime and its variants, has been shown to exhibit certain antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and hypoglycemic effects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of naringin against ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to elucidate the potential underlying mechanism. Firstly, a mouse model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was established. Next, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) activity values, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress were evaluated in the AS mice. Then, the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein expression levels in the AS mice were investigated using western blot analysis. The results showed that naringin increased OC, ALP and TG activity values in the AS mouse model. Furthermore, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress levels in the AS mice were restrained by treatment with naringin. Furthermore, JAK2 and STAT3 protein expression levels were reduced by treatment with naringin. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the protective effects of naringin against AS are exerted via the induction of ossification, suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress and the downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 in mice. PMID:27446336

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Gp43 protects mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

    PubMed

    Assis-Marques, Mariana Aprigio; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM.

  1. Vaccination with soluble headless hemagglutinin protects mice from challenge with divergent influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Wohlbold, Teddy John; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Margine, Irina; Tan, Gene S; Hirsh, Ariana; Krammer, Florian

    2015-06-26

    Current influenza virus vaccines provide solid protection from infection with viruses that are well matched with the vaccine strains. However, they do not protect efficiently against drifted or shifted strains. We developed an antigen based on the conserved stalk domain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin and tested its efficacy as a vaccine in a mouse virus challenge model. Although the antigen lacked the correct conformation of the native stalk domain and was not recognized by a panel of neutralizing stalk-reactive antibodies, it did induce considerable protection against H1N1, H5N1 and H6N1 challenge strains. Protection was enhanced when mice had pre-existing immunity against the stalk domain. Since pre-existing immunity is also present in the human population, we hypothesize that a similar antigen could show efficacy in humans as well.

  2. Vaccinia Virus Recombinants: Expression of VSV Genes and Protective Immunization of Mice and Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackett, M.; Yilma, T.; Rose, J. K.; Moss, B.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. When DNA copies of messenger RNA's for the G or N proteins of VSV were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized VSV polypeptides. After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV. In cattle, the degree of protection against intradermalingually injected VSV was correlated with the level of neutralizing antibody produced following vaccination.

  3. Humanized Monoclonal Antibody That Passively Protects Mice against Systemic and Intranasal Ricin Toxin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Van Slyke, Greta; Sully, Erin K; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    PB10 is a murine monoclonal antibody against an immunodominant epitope on ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit. Here, we characterize a fully humanized version of PB10 IgG1 (hPB10) and demonstrate that it has potent in vitro and in vivo toxin-neutralizing activities. We also report the minimum serum concentrations of hPB10 required to protect mice against 10 times the 50% lethal dose of ricin when delivered by injection and inhalation. PMID:27466351

  4. Subchronic chloroform priming protects mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Binu K.; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-10-01

    Protection offered by pre-exposure priming with a small dose of a toxicant against the toxic and lethal effects of a subsequently administered high dose of the same toxicant is autoprotection. Although autoprotection has been extensively studied with diverse toxicants in acute exposure regimen, not much is known about autoprotection after priming with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate this concept following repeated exposure to a common water contaminant, chloroform. Swiss Webster (SW) mice, exposed continuously to either vehicle (5% Emulphor, unprimed) or chloroform (150 mg/kg/day po, primed) for 30 days, were challenged with a normally lethal dose of chloroform (750 mg chloroform/kg po) 24 h after the last exposure. As expected, 90% of the unprimed mice died between 48 and 96 h after administration of the lethal dose in contrast to 100% survival of mice primed with chloroform. Time course studies indicated lower hepato- and nephrotoxicity in primed mice as compared to unprimed mice. Hepatic CYP2E1, glutathione levels (GSH), and covalent binding of {sup 14}C-chloroform-derived radiolabel did not differ between livers of unprimed and primed mice after lethal dose exposure, indicating that protection in liver is neither due to decreased bioactivation nor increased detoxification. Kidney GSH and glutathione reductase activity were upregulated, with a concomitant reduction in oxidized glutathione in the primed mice following lethal dose challenge, leading to decreased renal covalent binding of {sup 14}C-chloroform-derived radiolabel, in the absence of any change in CYP2E1 levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) intervention led to 70% mortality in primed mice challenged with lethal dose. These data suggest that higher detoxification may play a role in the lower initiation of kidney injury observed in primed mice. Exposure of primed mice to a lethal dose of chloroform led to 40% lower chloroform levels (AUC{sub 15-360min}) in the systemic

  5. ATG4B/autophagin-1 regulates intestinal homeostasis and protects mice from experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Sandra; Fernández, Alvaro F; Mariño, Guillermo; Aguirre, Alina; Suárez, María F; Español, Yaiza; Vega, José A; Laurà, Rosaria; Fueyo, Antonio; Fernández-García, M Soledad; Freije, José M P; Kroemer, Guido; López-Otín, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    The identification of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes by genome-wide association has linked this pathology to autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is crucial for cell and tissue homeostasis. Here, we describe autophagy-related 4B, cysteine peptidase/autophagin-1 (ATG4B) as an essential protein in the control of inflammatory response during experimental colitis. In this pathological condition, ATG4B protein levels increase in parallel with the induction of autophagy. Moreover, ATG4B expression is significantly reduced in affected areas of the colon from IBD patients. Consistently, atg4b (-/-) mice present Paneth cell abnormalities, as well as an increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. atg4b-deficient mice exhibit significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators of the immune response to bacterial infections, which are reminiscent of those found in patients with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Additionally, antibiotic treatments and bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice reduced colitis in atg4b (-/-) mice. Taken together, these results provided additional evidence for the importance of autophagy in intestinal pathologies and describe ATG4B as a novel protective protein in inflammatory colitis. Finally, we propose that atg4b-null mice are a suitable model for in vivo studies aimed at testing new therapeutic strategies for intestinal diseases associated with autophagy deficiency.

  6. AHNAK KO mice are protected from diet-induced obesity but are glucose intolerant.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, M; Harel, C; Armoni, M; Karnieli, E

    2015-04-01

    AHNAK is a 700 KD phosphoprotein primarily involved in calcium signaling in various cell types and regulating cytoskeletal organization and cell membrane architecture. AHNAK expression has also been associated with obesity. To investigate the role of AHNAK in regulating metabolic homeostasis, we studied whole body AHNAK knockout mice (KO) on either regular chow or high-fat diet (HFD). KO mice had a leaner phenotype and were resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO), as reflected by a reduction in adipose tissue mass in conjunction with higher lean mass compared to wild-type controls (WT). However, KO mice exhibited higher fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and diminished serum insulin levels on either diet. Concomitantly, KO mice on HFD displayed defects in insulin signaling, as evident from reduced Akt phosphorylation and decreased cellular glucose transporter (Glut4) levels. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also associated with changes in expression of genes regulating fat, glucose, and energy metabolism in adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (a) AHNAK is involved in glucose homeostasis and weight balance (b) under normal feeding KO mice are insulin sensitive yet insulin deficient; and (c) AHNAK deletion protects against HFD-induced obesity, but not against HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in vivo.

  7. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Xiao, Yue; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  8. Deficiency of adiponectin protects against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Pei-xia; Wu, Xiao-lin; Dang, Su-ying; Chen, Yan; Ni, Ying-yin; Gao, Li-hong; Lu, Shun-yuan; Kuang, Ying; Huang, Lei; Fei, Jian; Wang, Zhu-gang; Pang, Xiao-fen

    2013-01-01

    Adipokine adiponectin (APN) has been recently reported to play a role in regulating bone mineral density (BMD). To explore the mechanism by which APN affects BMD, we investigated BMD and biomechanical strength properties of the femur and vertebra in sham-operated (Sham) and ovariectomized (OVX) APN knockout (KO) mice as compared to their operated wild-type (WT) littermates. The results show that APN deficiency has no effect on BMD but induces increased ALP activity and osteoclast cell number. While OVX indeed leads to significant bone loss in both femora and vertebras of WT mice with comparable osteogenic activity and a significant increase in osteoclast cell number when compared to that of sham control. However, no differences in BMD, ALP activity and osteoclast cell number were found between Sham and OVX mice deficient for APN. Further studies using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrate an enhanced osteogenic differentiation and extracellular matrix calcification in APN KO mice. The possible mechanism for APN deletion induced acceleration of osteogenesis could involve increased proliferation of MSCs and higher expression of Runx2 and Osterix genes. These findings indicate that APN deficiency can protect against OVX-induced osteoporosis in mice, suggesting a potential role of APN in regulating the balance of bone formation and bone resorption, especially in the development of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23844209

  9. ATG4B/autophagin-1 regulates intestinal homeostasis and protects mice from experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Sandra; Fernández, Álvaro F.; Mariño, Guillermo; Aguirre, Alina; Suárez, María F.; Español, Yaiza; Vega, José A.; Laurà, Rosaria; Fueyo, Antonio; Fernández-García, M. Soledad; Freije, José M.P.; Kroemer, Guido; López-Otín, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The identification of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes by genome-wide association has linked this pathology to autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is crucial for cell and tissue homeostasis. Here, we describe autophagy-related 4B, cysteine peptidase/autophagin-1 (ATG4B) as an essential protein in the control of inflammatory response during experimental colitis. In this pathological condition, ATG4B protein levels increase in parallel with the induction of autophagy. Moreover, ATG4B expression is significantly reduced in affected areas of the colon from IBD patients. Consistently, atg4b−/− mice present Paneth cell abnormalities, as well as an increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. atg4b-deficient mice exhibit significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators of the immune response to bacterial infections, which are reminiscent of those found in patients with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Additionally, antibiotic treatments and bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice reduced colitis in atg4b−/− mice. Taken together, these results provided additional evidence for the importance of autophagy in intestinal pathologies and describe ATG4B as a novel protective protein in inflammatory colitis. Finally, we propose that atg4b-null mice are a suitable model for in vivo studies aimed at testing new therapeutic strategies for intestinal diseases associated with autophagy deficiency. PMID:23782979

  10. Protective effect of boric acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Keles, Hikmet; Erdogan, Metin; Hazman, Omer; Kucukkurt, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of boric acid against liver damage was evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male albino mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with boric acid (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or silymarin daily for 7 days and received 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (10 mL/kg, i.p.) on day 7. Results showed that administration of boric acid significantly reduced the elevation in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and the level of malondialdehyde in the liver that were induced by CCl(4) in mice. Boric acid treatment significantly increased glutathione content, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. Boric acid treatment improved the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 and maintained activation of nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cell gene expression, with no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the livers of mice. Histopathologically, clear decreases in the severity of CCl(4)-induced lesions were observed, particularly at high boric acid concentrations. Results suggest that boric acid exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice, likely the result of both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  11. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246 against Copper Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8246, which has a relatively strong copper binding capacity and tolerance to copper ions, was obtained by screening from 16 lactic acid bacteria in vitro. The selected strain was then applied to a mouse model to evaluate its protective function against copper intoxication in vivo. The experimental mice were divided into an intervention group and a therapy group; mice in the intervention group received co-administration of CCFM8246 and a copper ion solution by gavage, while mice in the therapy group were treated with CCFM8246 after 4 weeks of copper exposure. In both two groups, mice treated with copper alone and that treated with neither CCFM8246 nor copper served as positive and negative controls, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, the copper content in feces and tissues, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, and oxidation stress indices in liver and kidney tissue were determined. Learning and memory ability was evaluated by Morris water maze experiments. The results indicated that treatment with CCFM8246 significantly increased the copper content in feces to promote copper excretion, reduce the accumulation of copper in tissues, reverse oxidative stress induced by copper exposure, recover the ALT and AST in serum and improve the spatial memory of mice. PMID:26605944

  12. Mitomycin C-treated Trypanosoma cruzi in vaccination of mice: induction of immunosuppression but not protection.

    PubMed Central

    Tarleton, R L; Kuhn, R E; Cunningham, D S

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to immunize susceptible hosts against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi have generally not met with a high degree of success. In the present study, we used the antimetabolite mitomycin C to produce nonreplicating, attenuated culture forms of T. cruzi. Attempts to immunize highly susceptible C3H(He) mice with single or multiple inoculi of mitomycin C-treated trypanosomes 2 weeks before injection of infective blood-form trypomastigotes did not, however, lead to greater longevity in immunized mice over nonimmunized, control mice. It was determined that a single injection of 10(7) attenuated parasites induced a transient suppression of the immune response to sheep erythrocytes which was maximum on day 7, less on day 14, and undetectable by the 21st day after immunization. This immunosuppression to a heterologous antigen did not, however, appear to be the cause of the failure of the vaccination procedure to elicit protective immunity since mice immunized once with 10(7) mitomycin C-treated trypanosomes and challenged 30, 60, or 90 days later exhibited no greater longevity than control mice. PMID:6783545

  13. Dietary Methyl Donor Depletion Protects Against Intestinal Tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadaveru, Krishna; Protiva, Petr; Greenspan, Emily J; Kim, Young-In; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent population data, the influence of dietary folate supplementation on colon cancer risk remains controversial. This study examines the effects of folate deficiency, in combination with choline, methionine and vitamin B12 depletion, on intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Methyl donor sufficient (MDS) and deficient (MDD) diets were started at 5 or 10 weeks of age and tumors evaluated at 16 weeks. MDD suppressed intestinal tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice (~80%) when started at 5 weeks of age. The protective effect was lost when MDD was initiated at 10 weeks of age, indicating an important time-dependency on cancer suppression. Concomitant with cancer protection, MDD restricted body weight gain. Therefore, a second study was conducted in which MDS was given ad libitum or pair-fed with MDD. While small intestinal tumors were reduced 54% in pair-fed MDS mice, MDD caused a further reduction (96%). In colon, although MDD did not affect tumor numbers, tumor size was reduced. Gene expression profiling of normal-appearing colonic mucosa after 11 weeks on MDD identified a total of 493 significantly down-regulated genes relative to the MDS group. Pathway analysis placed many of these genes within general categories of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle regulation, consistent with recently published human data obtained during folate depletion (1). Further studies are warranted to investigate the complex interplay of methyl donor status and cancer protection in high-risk populations. PMID:22677908

  14. Vaccination with major outer membrane protein proteosomes elicits protection in mice against a Chlamydia respiratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Tifrea, Delia F; Pal, Sukumar; Toussi, Deana N; Massari, Paola; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines formulated with the Chlamydia muridarum native major outer membrane protein (nMOMP) have so far been shown to elicit the most robust protection against this pathogen. nMOMP is a membrane protein and therefore, detergents are used to keep it in solution. Detergents however, have toxic effects. To address this limitation, we tested a nMOMP proteosome vaccine and compared its ability to elicit protection against nMOMP solubilized in the detergent Z3-14. The two preparations were formulated with or without CpG + Montanide (C/M). As a control antigen we used ovalbumin. Mice vaccinated with nMOMP developed strong humoral and cell mediated Chlamydia-specific immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 levels in serum and amounts of IFN-γ in splenocytes supernatants the immune responses were predominantly Th1-biased. The animals were subsequently challenged intranasally with 2 × 10(3)Chlamydia inclusion forming units (IFU) and the course of the infection was followed for 10 days when the mice were euthanized. Based on changes in body weight, weight of the lungs and number of IFU recovered from the lungs, mice immunized with nMOMP-Ps and nMOMP + Z3-14 adjuvanted with C/M showed the most robust protection. In summary, nMOMP-Ps should be considered as Chlamydia vaccine candidates.

  15. Divalent flagellin immunotherapy provides homologous and heterologous protection in experimental urinary tract infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy employs selected prokaryotic elements which are specially targeted because of their designated important role in the pathogenicity of the microbes. Among these is the flagellin of P. aeruginosa, which plays a major role in establishment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In this study we envisage divalent flagellin (a combination of flagellin subtypes, 'a' and 'b') as an immunotherapeutic candidate against UTIs caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Flagellin proteins were isolated from P. aeruginosa strains and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Their efficacy was checked in an ascending model of UTI. Divalent flagellin ('a' and 'b') when given together (intraperitoneally, i.p.) to female LACA mice at a concentration of 5 μg each, protected mice against pyelonephritis due to P. aeruginosa strains with no bacterial load at peak day of infection. Tissue destruction was minimum, as assessed by MDA levels and renal histopathology. Divalent flagellin immunization also drastically reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF α and IL-1β) in renal homogenates as determined by ELISA. It also prevented UTI caused by heterologous strain Escherichia coli. Antibodies against both flagellin proteins were assessed by ELISA. Passive immunization protected mice against UTI induced by either of the strains, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. These results confirmed homologous and heterologous protection provided by divalent flagellin. PMID:26655680

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  17. The liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects mice against cisplatin-induced kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Wang, Rong; Sun, Jing; Yu, Kezhou; Chen, Bing; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptors are in the nuclear receptor superfamily and are contained in the regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Besides, liver X receptors are considered crucial regulators of the inflammatory response and innate immunity. The current study evaluates the in vivo effects that the synthetic liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects against cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. Mice received cisplatin administration through a single intraperitoneal injection (20 mg/kg in saline). And then the mice were treated with the TO901317 by daily gavage (10 mg/kg/day) 12 h postcisplatin administration, and cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated. At 72 h after cisplatin treatment, elevated plasma urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05) were evidenced which indicates the renal dysfunction of the vehicle-treated mice, consistent with tubular necrosis, protein cast, dilation of renal tubules, and desquamation of epithelial cells in renal tubules. In contrast, the severity of renal dysfunction and histological damage was reduced in TO901317 treated mice (P < 0.05). In accordance, circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, renal tumor necrosis factor alpha, p47phox, gp91phox, and protein expression levels and COX-2 mRNA, renal monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, VACAM-1 mRNA and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contents, and renal prostaglandin E2 amounts, were higher in samples from cisplatin-treated mice in comparison with controls (P < 0.05) but attenuated in the TO901317 treatment group (P < 0.05). Taken together, treatment with the liver X receptor agonist TO901317 ameliorated the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. PMID:26062799

  18. The Mbd4 DNA glycosylase protects mice from inflammation-driven colon cancer and tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Amy Marie; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Samson, Leona D.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the global cancer burden is associated with longstanding inflammation accompanied by release of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we report that the Mbd4 DNA glycosylase is protective in the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) mouse model of inflammation-driven colon cancer. Mbd4 excises T and U from T:G and U:G mismatches caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. Since the rate of deamination is higher in inflamed tissues, we investigated the role of Mbd4 in inflammation-driven tumorigenesis. In the AOM/DSS assay, Mbd4−/− mice displayed more severe clinical symptoms, decreased survival, and a greater tumor burden than wild-type (WT) controls. The increased tumor burden in Mbd4−/− mice did not arise from impairment of AOM-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Histopathological analysis indicated that the colonic epithelium of Mbd4−/− mice is more vulnerable than WT to DSS-induced tissue damage. We investigated the role of the Mbd4−/− immune system in AOM/DSS-mediated carcinogenesis by repeating the assay on WT and Mbd4−/− mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. Mbd4−/− mice with WT bone marrow behaved similarly to Mbd4−/− mice. Together, our results indicate that the colonic epithelium of Mbd4−/− mice is more vulnerable to DSS-induced injury, which exacerbates inflammation-driven tissue injury and cancer. PMID:27086921

  19. Protection Against H7 Subtype Influenza Virus Infection in Mice by Passive Transfer of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Ming; Zheng, Shimin

    2015-10-01

    H7 subtype influenza viruses pose serious threats to both the poultry industry and public health. Recent human infections of avian H7N9 influenza viruses with substantial morbidity and mortality have raised concerns about this virus becoming a potential pandemic pathogen. Neutralizing antibodies have been proven to be highly effective in blocking influenza virus infections. In this study, in order to develop an antibody-based immunoprophylaxis against H7 subtype influenza virus, we first generated a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) by using a pseudotyped lentiviral vector carrying the hemagglutinin protein of H7 subtype influenza virus. In vitro studies demonstrated that this neutralizing MAb completely inhibited the infection of an H7 subtype influenza virus to cells. The protective efficacy of this MAb was then further tested in a mouse model. It was shown that passive immunization of this MAb protected mice from local virus challenge. Results of the current study lay a foundation for the development of neutralizing MAb-mediated prophylactic strategies to combat human H7 influenza virus infections. PMID:26492625

  20. Protection from inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation in mice by topical Pycnogenol.

    PubMed

    Sime, Suzann; Reeve, Vivienne E

    2004-02-01

    Pycnogenol is a standardized extract of the bark of the French maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Ait., that has multiple biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. This study describes the effect of topical application of lotions containing Pycnogenol to Skh:hr hairless mice undergoing minimally inflammatory daily exposures to solar-simulated UV radiation (SSUV). We report that concentrations of Pycnogenol of 0.05-0.2% applied to the irradiated dorsal skin immediately after exposure resulted in dose-dependent reduction of the inflammatory sunburn reaction, measured as its edema component. When mice received three consecutive daily exposures of minimally edematous SSUV, their ability to raise a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction was suppressed by 54%. Pycnogenol lotions applied postirradiation reduced this immunosuppression to 22% (0.05% Pycnogenol) and 13% (0.1% Pycnogenol). Furthermore, when CHS was suppressed by 71% with exogenous treatment with cis-urocanic acid, the putative epidermal mediator of photoimmunosuppression, 0.2% Pycnogenol lotion reduced the immunosuppression to 18%. Chronic exposure to SSUV on 5 days/week for 10 weeks induced skin tumors from 11 weeks in both control mice and in mice receiving daily applications of 0.05% Pycnogenol, but tumor appearance was significantly delayed until 20 weeks in mice receiving 0.2% Pycnogenol. Furthermore, whereas 100% of control mice had at least one tumor by 30 weeks, and mice treated with 0.05% Pycnogenol by 33 weeks, the maximum tumor prevalence in mice treated with 0.2% Pycnogenol was significantly reduced to 85%, with some mice remaining tumor free. Average tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced by 0.2% Pycnogenol, from 5.2 in control mice to 3.5 at 35 weeks. Thus, topical Pycnogenol offered significant and dose-dependent protection from SSUV-induced acute inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis, when applied to the skin after daily

  1. Refined live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis vaccines mediate homologous and heterologous serogroup protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Galen, James E; Levine, Myron M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26351285

  2. Refined live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis vaccines mediate homologous and heterologous serogroup protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Galen, James E; Levine, Myron M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. ANTIOXIDANTS PROTECT CALSEQUESTRIN-1 KNOCKOUT MICE FROM HALOTHANE- AND HEAT-INDUCED SUDDEN DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Antonio; Paolini, Cecilia; Canato, Marta; Wei-Lapierre, Lan; Pietrangelo, Laura; De Marco, Alessandro; Reggiani, Carlo; Dirksen, Robert T.; Protasi, Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Background Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca2+ binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia (MH) in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress. Methods As oxidative species may play a critical role in MH crises, we treated CASQ1-null mice with two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC provided ad libitum in drinking water) and Trolox (administered by intra-peritoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41°C, 1 h). Results NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being: 79% (n=14), 25% (n=16) and 20% (n=5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n=21), 29% (n=21) and 33% (n=6) during heat-stress in un-treated, NAC- and Trolox- treated mice, respectively. During heat challenge, the increase in core temperature in CASQ1-null mice (42.3±0.1°C, n=10) was significantly reduced by both NAC and Trolox (40.6±0.3°C, n=6; 40.5±0.2°C, n=6). NAC treatment of CASQ1-null muscles/mice normalized caffeine sensitivity during in-vitro contracture tests, Ca2+ transients in single fibers, and significantly reduced the percentage of fibers undergoing rhabdomyolysis (37.6±2.5%, 38/101 fibers in 3 mice; 11.6±1.1%, 21/186 fibers in 5 mice respectively). The protective effect of antioxidant treatment likely resulted from mitigation of oxidative stress, as NAC reduced mitochondrial superoxide production, superoxide dismutase type-1 (SOD1) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) expression, and increased both reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio. Conclusions These studies provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hyperthermic crises in calsequestrin-1 deficient muscle and demonstrate that antioxidant pre-treatment may prevent them. PMID:26132720

  4. Protection of pregnant mice, fetuses and neonates from lethality of H5N1 influenza viruses by maternal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seon Do; Shin, Jin Soo; Ku, Keun Bon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sung Whan; Seo, Sang Heui

    2010-04-01

    The highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are one of candidates for the next pandemic. Information on protective immunity for pregnant animals by vaccination against the H5N1 influenza virus is limited. Here, we show that the immunization of pregnant mice with inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine protects them, their fetuses, and their infant mice from H5N1 influenza viruses. Pregnant mice immunized with two doses of H5N1 influenza vaccine were protected from homologous infections of H5N1 influenza viruses with no viruses detected in fetuses, and that they were protected upto 30% from heterologous infections of H5N1 influenza viruses with viruses detected in fetuses. The infant mice born to mothers immunized with H5N1 influenza vaccine were fully protected from infections of H5N1 influenza viruses for upto 4 weeks of age. The protection of infant mice was closely related to the presence of IgG2a antibody in lung, heart, and rectum tissues. Our results suggest that maternal vaccination may be critical for protecting pregnant animals, their fetuses, and their infant mice from lethal infections of H5N1 influenza viruses.

  5. Characterisation of the protective immune response following subcutaneous vaccination of susceptible mice against Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Little, Matthew C; Else, Kathryn J

    2010-05-01

    Trichuris muris is a laboratory model for the human whipworm Trichuris trichiura which infects approximately 1 billion people in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The development of a vaccine would control trichuriasis by promoting the acquisition of immunity during childhood, thereby reducing faecal egg output by the community into their environment. Resistance to T. muris, defined as expulsion of the parasite prior to patency, requires the development of a T helper 2 (Th2) response during a primary infection. To our knowledge this is the first study to describe the protective immune response in the peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and colonic mucosa following s.c. vaccination against T. muris. Susceptible AKR mice were either vaccinated with T. muris excretory-secretory product (ES) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) (ES/IFA) or injected with PBS in IFA (PBS/IFA) and for protection experiments were infected with embryonated infective T. muris eggs 10 days later. The ES/IFA vaccine induced the proliferation of PLN cells and their production of Th2 cytokines and the Th1-associated cytokine IFN-gamma. Following a challenge infection, the ES/IFA vaccination offered susceptible mice complete protection. While MLN-derived IFN-gamma was produced by infected mice following either ES/IFA vaccination or PBS/IFA, the protection of susceptible mice by ES/IFA was characterised by the production of MLN-derived Th2 cytokines. Goblet cell hyperplasia and the influx and alternative activation of macrophages were observed locally in the gut post-challenge infection. The rate of epithelial turnover did not appear to be increased by vaccination, suggesting that there are differences in the mechanisms of expulsion between 'natural resistance' and 'vaccinated resistance'. High levels of serum IgG1 and cell-bound IgG1 in the colon of mice protected by the ES/IFA vaccine suggest that antibody may be involved in vaccination-induced worm expulsion. PMID

  6. Ursolic Acid Protects Diabetic Mice Against Monocyte Dysfunction and Accelerated Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ullevig, Sarah L.; Zhao, Qingwei; Zamora, Debora; Asmis, Reto

    2011-01-01

    Aims Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major diabetic complication initiated by the enhanced recruitment of monocytes into the vasculature. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of the phytonutrients ursolic acid (UA) and resveratrol (RES) in preventing monocyte recruitment and accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Dietary supplementation with either RES or UA (0.2%) protected against accelerated atherosclerosis induced by streptozotocin in high-fat diet-fed LDL receptor-deficient mice. However, mice that received dietary UA for 11 weeks were significantly better protected and showed a 53% reduction in lesion formation while mice fed a RES-supplemented diet showed only a 31% reduction in lesion size. Importantly, UA was also significantly more effective in preventing the appearance of proinflammatory GR-1high monocytes induced by these diabetic conditions and reducing monocyte recruitment into MCP-1-loaded Matrigel plugs implanted into these diabetic mice. Oxidatively-stressed THP-1 monocytes mimicked the behavior of blood monocytes in diabetic mice and showed enhanced responsiveness to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) without changing MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) surface expression. Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with RES or UA (0.3 – 10 μM) for 15 h resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of H2O2-accelerated chemotaxis in response to MCP-1, but with an IC50 of 0.4 μM, UA was 2.7-fold more potent than RES. Conclusion Dietary UA is a potent inhibitor of monocyte dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis induced by diabetes. These studies identify ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, and provide a novel mechanism for the anti-atherogenic properties of ursolic acid. PMID:21752377

  7. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects against nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant defense enzyme, has been shown to protect against oxidant-induced liver injury. However, its role on liver fibrosis remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effect and the mechanism of HO-1 in nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for eight weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin), HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1) were administered to mice, respectively. Liver injury was assessed by serum ALT, AST levels and histological examination; hepatic lipid peroxides levels were determined; the expression levels of several fibrogenic related genes were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results MCD feeding mice showed progressive hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury. This effect was associated with the up-regulation of HO-1, reduction of hepatic lipid peroxides levels, down-regulation of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as well as the pro-fibrotic genes alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9. A contrary effect was observed in mice treated with ZnPP-IX. Conclusions The present study provided the evidence for the protective role of HO-1 in ameliorating MCD diet-induced fibrosing steatohepatitis. Modulation of HO-1 expression might serve as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic steatohepatitis. PMID:21314960

  8. Farnesoid X Receptor Protects against Kidney Injury in Uninephrectomized Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Gai, Zhibo; Gui, Ting; Hiller, Christian; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2016-01-29

    Activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has indicated a therapeutic potential for this nuclear bile acid receptor in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy and obesity-induced renal damage. Here, we investigated the protective role of FXR against kidney damage induced by obesity in mice that had undergone uninephrectomy, a model resembling the clinical situation of kidney donation by obese individuals. Mice fed a high-fat diet developed the core features of metabolic syndrome, with subsequent renal lipid accumulation and renal injury, including glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and albuminuria. The effects were accentuated by uninephrectomy. In human renal biopsies, staining of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), and C/EBP-homologous protein, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, was more prominent in the proximal tubules of 15 obese patients compared with 16 non-obese patients. In mice treated with the FXR agonist obeticholic acid, renal injury, renal lipid accumulation, apoptosis, and changes in lipid peroxidation were attenuated. Moreover, disturbed mitochondrial function was ameliorated and the mitochondrial respiratory chain recovered following obeticholic acid treatment. Culturing renal proximal tubular cells with free fatty acid and FXR agonists showed that FXR activation protected cells from free fatty acid-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, as denoted by a reduction in the level of reactive oxygen species staining and Grp78 immunostaining, respectively. Several genes involved in glutathione metabolism were induced by FXR activation in the remnant kidney, which was consistent with a decreased glutathione disulfide/glutathione ratio. In summary, FXR activation maintains endogenous glutathione homeostasis and protects the kidney in uninephrectomized mice from obesity-induced injury.

  9. Correlation between intestinal synthesis of specific immunoglobulin A and protection against experimental cholera in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Svennerholm, A; Lange, S; Holmgren, J

    1978-01-01

    The importance of locally and systemically formed antibodies of various classes for protection against experimental cholera has been studied in mice immunized with cholera toxin. Groups of mice were given various numbers of peroral or intravenous immunizations, or a combination of both. Serum antibodies and antibodies synthesized by spleen and small intestine in vitro during tissue culture were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protective immunity against intestinal toxin challenge was determined by means of a small-bowel loop assay. Regression analyses showed a close correlation between the magnitude of intestinal synthesis of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies and protection (r = 0.98), whereas neither the local formation of IgG or IgM nor the production of antitoxin antibodies of any immunoglobulin class by spleen showed any significant correlation with protection. The serum titers of IgG and IgM antibodies did not show any such relation, whereas the level of specific IgA in serum, probably mainly derived from the intestine, correlated significantly (r = 0.90). PMID:711308

  10. Intranasal immunisation with recombinant adenovirus vaccines protects against a lethal challenge with pneumonia virus of mice.

    PubMed

    Maunder, Helen E; Taylor, Geraldine; Leppard, Keith N; Easton, Andrew J

    2015-11-27

    Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) infection of BALB/c mice induces bronchiolitis leading to a fatal pneumonia in a dose-dependent manner, closely paralleling the development of severe disease during human respiratory syncytial virus infection in man, and is thus a recognised model in which to study the pathogenesis of pneumoviruses. This model system was used to investigate delivery of the internal structural proteins of PVM as a potential vaccination strategy to protect against pneumovirus disease. Replication-deficient recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors were constructed that expressed the M or N gene of PVM pathogenic strain J3666. Intranasal delivery of these rAd5 vectors gave protection against a lethal challenge dose of PVM in three different mouse strains, and protection lasted for at least 20 weeks post-immunisation. Whilst the PVM-specific antibody response in such animals was weak and inconsistent, rAd5N primed a strong PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell response and, to a lesser extent, a CD4(+) T cell response. These findings suggest that T-cell responses may be more important than serum IgG in the observed protection induced by rAd5N.

  11. Protection of mice and swine from pseudorabies virus conferred by vaccinia virus-based recombinants.

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, M; Tartaglia, J; Perkus, M E; Norton, E K; Bongermino, C M; Lacoste, F; Duret, C; Desmettre, P; Paoletti, E

    1992-01-01

    Glycoproteins gp50, gII, and gIII of pseudorabies virus (PRV) were expressed either individually or in combination by vaccinia virus recombinants. In vitro analysis by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence demonstrated the expression of a gII protein of approximately 120 kDa that was proteolytically processed to the gIIb (67- to 74-kDa) and gIIc (58-kDa) mature protein species similar to those observed in PRV-infected cells. Additionally, the proper expression of the 90-kDa gIII and 50-kDa gp50 was observed. All three of these PRV-derived glycoproteins were detectable on the surface of vaccinia virus-PRV recombinant-infected cells. In vivo, mice were protected against a virulent PRV challenge after immunization with the PRV glycoprotein-expressing vaccinia virus recombinants. The coexpression of gII and gIII by a single vaccinia virus recombinant resulted in a significantly reduced vaccination dose required to protect mice against PRV challenge. Inoculation of piglets with the various vaccinia virus-PRV glycoprotein recombinants also resulted in protection against virulent PRV challenge as measured by weight gain. The simultaneous expression of gII and gp50 in swine resulted in a significantly enhanced level of protection as evaluated by weight evolution following challenge with live PRV. Images PMID:1316458

  12. The assembly conformation of rotavirus VP6 determines its protective efficacy against rotavirus challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ana Ruth; Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Contreras, Martha A; Esquivel, Ernesto; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2014-05-19

    Viral protein assemblies have shown to be superior immunogens used in commercial vaccines. However, little is known about the effect of protein assembly structure in immunogenicity and the protection conferred by a vaccine. In this work, rotavirus VP6, a polymorphic protein that assembles into nanotubes, icosahedra (dlRLP) or trimers was used to compare the immune response elicited by three different assemblies. VP6 is the most antigenic and abundant rotavirus structural protein. It has been demonstrated that antibodies against VP6 interfere with the replication cycle of rotavirus, making it a vaccine candidate. Groups of mice were immunized with either nanotubes, dlRLP or trimers and the humoral response (IgG and IgA titers) was measured. Immunized mice were challenged with EDIM rotavirus and protection against rotavirus infection, measured as viral shedding, was evaluated. Immunization with nanotubes resulted in the highest IgG titers, followed by immunization with dlRLP. While immunization with one dose of nanotubes was sufficient to reduce viral shedding by 70%, two doses of dlRLP or trimers were required to obtain a similar protection. The results show that the type of assembly of VP6 results in different humoral responses and protection efficacies against challenge with live virus. This information is important for the design of recombinant vaccines in general.

  13. Metallothionein I and II protect against zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E J; Quaife, C J; Froelick, G J; Palmiter, R D

    1996-07-01

    Metallothionein (MT)-bound zinc accumulates when animals are exposed to excess zinc and is depleted under conditions of zinc deficiency, suggesting that MT serves as a means of sequestering excess zinc as well as a zinc reservoir that can be utilized when zinc is deficient. To examine the importance of MT for these processes, mice with null alleles of both MT I and MT II genes were created and the zinc concentration and histological appearance of multiple organs assessed. At birth, the hepatic zinc concentration of these MT-null mice was lower than that of wild-type controls (0.27 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.11 micromol zinc/g tissue, P < 0.05). During the next 3 wk of suckling zinc-replete (95 micrograms zinc/g diet) dams, the hepatic zinc concentration of controls fell to 0.42 +/- 0.04 micromol/g but was unchanged in the MT-null mice (0.28 +/- 0.04 micromol/g). The most prominent histological anomaly observed at 3 wk of age was the presence of swollen Bowman's capsules in the kidneys of MT-null mice. When nursing MT-null dams were fed a severely zinc-deficient (1.5 microg/g) diet, kidney development in the MT-null pups was retarded as indicated by the retention of the nephrogenic zone and incomplete tubule development. We suggest that the lack of a hepatic reservoir of zinc jeopardizes the developing kidney in the MT-null mice. In addition to being more sensitive to dietary zinc restriction, MT-null mice are more sensitive to zinc toxicity. When adult mice were challenged with a ramping dose of zinc up to a total of 3700 micromol zinc/kg body weight, MT-null mice had a greater incidence of pancreatic acinar cell degeneration compared with control mice despite accumulating less zinc (2.72 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.23 +/- 0.52 micromol zinc/g pancreas, control and MT-null, respectively, P < 0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that MT I and MT II can protect against both zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity.

  14. Targeting of rotavirus VP6 to DEC-205 induces protection against the infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Badillo-Godinez, O; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, L; Plett-Torres, T; Pedroza-Saavedra, A; Gonzalez-Jaimes, A; Chihu-Amparan, L; Maldonado-Gama, M; Espino-Solis, G; Bonifaz, L C; Esquivel-Guadarrama, F

    2015-08-20

    Rotavirus (RV) is the primary etiologic agent of severe gastroenteritis in human infants. Although two attenuated RV-based vaccines have been licensed to be applied worldwide, they are not so effective in low-income countries, and the induced protection mechanisms have not been clearly established. Thus, it is important to develop new generation vaccines that induce long lasting heterotypic immunity. VP6 constitutes the middle layer protein of the RV virion. It is the most conserved protein and it is the target of protective T-cells; therefore, it is a potential candidate antigen for a new generation vaccine against the RV infection. We determined whether targeting the DEC-205 present in dendritic cells (DCs) with RV VP6 could induce protection at the intestinal level. VP6 was cross-linked to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against murine DEC-205 (αDEC-205:VP6), and BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice with the conjugated containing 1.5 μg of VP6 in the presence of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) as adjuvant. As controls and following the same protocol, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) cross-linked to the mAb anti-DEC-205 (αDEC-205:OVA), VP6 cross-linked to a control isotype mAb (Isotype:VP6), 3 μg of VP6 alone, Poly I:C or PBS. Two weeks after the last inoculation, mice were orally challenged with a murine RV. Mice immunized with α-DEC-205:VP6 and VP6 alone presented similar levels of serum Abs to VP6 previous to the virus challenge. However, after the virus challenge, only α-DEC-205:VP6 induced up to a 45% IgA-independent protection. Memory T-helper (Th) cells from the spleen and the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) showed a Th1-type response upon antigen stimulation in vitro. These results show that when VP6 is administered parenterally targeting DEC-205, it can induce protection at the intestinal level at a very low dose, and this protection may be Th1-type cell dependent.

  15. Targeting of rotavirus VP6 to DEC-205 induces protection against the infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Badillo-Godinez, O; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, L; Plett-Torres, T; Pedroza-Saavedra, A; Gonzalez-Jaimes, A; Chihu-Amparan, L; Maldonado-Gama, M; Espino-Solis, G; Bonifaz, L C; Esquivel-Guadarrama, F

    2015-08-20

    Rotavirus (RV) is the primary etiologic agent of severe gastroenteritis in human infants. Although two attenuated RV-based vaccines have been licensed to be applied worldwide, they are not so effective in low-income countries, and the induced protection mechanisms have not been clearly established. Thus, it is important to develop new generation vaccines that induce long lasting heterotypic immunity. VP6 constitutes the middle layer protein of the RV virion. It is the most conserved protein and it is the target of protective T-cells; therefore, it is a potential candidate antigen for a new generation vaccine against the RV infection. We determined whether targeting the DEC-205 present in dendritic cells (DCs) with RV VP6 could induce protection at the intestinal level. VP6 was cross-linked to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against murine DEC-205 (αDEC-205:VP6), and BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice with the conjugated containing 1.5 μg of VP6 in the presence of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) as adjuvant. As controls and following the same protocol, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) cross-linked to the mAb anti-DEC-205 (αDEC-205:OVA), VP6 cross-linked to a control isotype mAb (Isotype:VP6), 3 μg of VP6 alone, Poly I:C or PBS. Two weeks after the last inoculation, mice were orally challenged with a murine RV. Mice immunized with α-DEC-205:VP6 and VP6 alone presented similar levels of serum Abs to VP6 previous to the virus challenge. However, after the virus challenge, only α-DEC-205:VP6 induced up to a 45% IgA-independent protection. Memory T-helper (Th) cells from the spleen and the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) showed a Th1-type response upon antigen stimulation in vitro. These results show that when VP6 is administered parenterally targeting DEC-205, it can induce protection at the intestinal level at a very low dose, and this protection may be Th1-type cell dependent. PMID:25850020

  16. Protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on endotoxin shock in mice with retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toki, S; Hiromatsu, K; Aoki, Y; Makino, M; Yoshikai, Y

    1997-10-01

    Mice with retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) were hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal shock accompanied by marked elevations of systematic interleukin 1beta (IL-beta) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) after LPS challenge. Pretreatment with 10 microg of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) protected MAIDS mice from hypersensitivity to LPS-induced lethal shock and this protection was concomitant with suppression of IFN-gamma production.

  17. Receptor MAS protects mice against hypothermia and mortality induced by endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Souza, Laura L; Duchene, Johan; Todiras, Mihail; Azevedo, Luciano C P; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Alenina, Natalia; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system is involved in maintaining cardiovascular function by regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. More recently, alternative pathways within the renin-angiotensin system have been described, such as the ACE-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, with opposite effects to the ones of the ACE/Ang-II/AT1 axis. Correspondingly, our previous work reported that Ang-(1-7) via its receptor Mas inhibits the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data led us to investigate the functional role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in an in vivo LPS model. In this work, we present evidence that Ang-(1-7) via Mas significantly reduced the LPS-increased production of circulating cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and CXCL-1. This inhibitory effect was mediated by Mas because it was not detectable in Mas-deficient (Mas) mice. Accordingly, IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 levels were higher after LPS treatment in the absence of Mas. Mas mice were less resistant to LPS-induced endotoxemia, their survival rate being 50% compared with 95% in wild-type mice. Telemetric analyses showed that Mas mice presented more pronounced LPS-induced hypothermia with a 3°C lower body temperature compared with wild-type mice. Altogether, our findings suggest that Ang-(1-7) and Mas inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production and hypothermia and thereby protect mice from the fatal consequences of endotoxemia. PMID:24430551

  18. Protective effect of Acanthopanax gracilistylus-extracted Acankoreanogenin A on mice with fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Xin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zu-Ping; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhong, Bai-Yun; Zou, Ming-Xiang; Dai, Xia-Hong; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2011-08-01

    The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both acute (IL-1β and TNF-α) and chronic [high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)] phases, is thought to play important roles in the development of fulminant hepatitis (FH). Triterpenoid Acankoreanogenin A (AA) which is extracted from the leaves of the Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. Smith (AGS) has shown its inhibiting effect on TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 release in vitro in our preliminary experiments. In present study, we investigated the effect of AA on mice with fulminant hepatitis in vivo. Fulminant hepatitis mice model was established by intraperitoneally injecting galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of serum of TNF-α, IL-1β, ALT, AST and HMGB1 from AA-treated mice were measured at different time points. Our results demonstrated that pre-treatment of mice with AA markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, HMGB1, ALT and AST with the improvement in histological features. And the survival rate from AA-treated fulminant hepatitis mice was increased. Furthermore, delayed administration of AA after peak occurrence of the early pro-inflammatory cytokines still endowed significant protection against GalN/LPS-induced lethality. The post-treatment of AA could significantly attenuate the release of HMGB1, but not the TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicate that AA inhibits the systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1, and dose-dependently rescue the mice from lethal GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis, which suggests this component as a candidate therapy for fulminant hepatitis. PMID:21356341

  19. The protective effects of oral low-dose quercetin on diabetic nephropathy in hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Isabele B. S.; Porto, Marcella L.; Santos, Maria C. L. F. S.; Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Gava, Agata L.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Pereira, Thiago M. C.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important causes of chronic renal disease, and the incidence of DN is increasing worldwide. Considering our previous report (Gomes et al., 2014) indicating that chronic treatment with oral low-dose quercetin (10 mg/Kg) demonstrated anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and renoprotective effects in the C57BL/6J model of DN, we investigated whether this flavonoid could also have beneficial effects in concurrent DN and spontaneous atherosclerosis using the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse (apoE−/−). Methods: Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes (100 mg/kg/day, 3 days) in male apoE−/− mice (8 week-old). After 6 weeks, the mice were randomly separated into DQ: diabetic apoE−/− mice treated with quercetin (10 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks, n = 8), DV: diabetic ApoE−/− mice treated with vehicle (n = 8) and ND: non-treated non-diabetic mice (n = 8). Results: Quercetin treatment diminished polyuria (~30%; p < 0.05), glycemia (~25%, p < 0.05), normalized the hypertriglyceridemia. Moreover, this bioflavonoid diminished creatininemia (~30%, p < 0.01) and reduced proteinuria but not to normal levels. We also observed protective effects on the renal structural changes, including normalization of the index of glomerulosclerosis and kidney weight/body weight. Conclusions: Our data revealed that quercetin treatment significantly reduced DN in hypercholesterolemic mice by inducing biochemical changes (decrease in glucose and triglycerides serum levels) and reduction of glomerulosclerosis. Thus, this study highlights the relevance of quercetin as an alternative therapeutic option for DN, including in diabetes associated with dyslipidemia. PMID:26388784

  20. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  1. Antibodies targeting linear determinants of the envelope protein protect mice against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Ledizet, Michel; Kar, Kalipada; Foellmer, Harald G; Bonafé, Nathalie; Anthony, Karen G; Gould, L Hannah; Bushmich, Sandra L; Fikrig, Erol; Koski, Raymond A

    2007-12-15

    The flavivirus envelope (E) protein mediates cellular attachment and fusion with host cell membranes and is recognized by virus-neutralizing antibodies. We raised antibodies against a broad range of epitopes by immunizing a horse with recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) E protein. To define epitopes recognized by protective antibodies, we selected, by affinity chromatography, immunoglobulins against immobilized linear peptides derived from parts of the E protein. Immunoglobulins binding 9 different peptides from domains I, II, and III of the E protein neutralized WNV in vitro. This indicates that multiple protective epitopes can be found in the E protein. Immunoglobulins recognizing 3 peptides derived from domains I and II of E protein protected mice against a lethal challenge with WNV. These immunoglobulins recognized the E proteins of related flaviviruses, demonstrating that antibodies targeting specific E protein epitopes could be developed for prevention and treatment of multiple flavivirus infections. PMID:18190253

  2. G6PD protects from oxidative damage and improves healthspan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega-Pereira, Sandrina; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Brioche, Thomas; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Flores, Juana M.; Viña, Jose; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated by cells and ROS-derived damage contributes to ageing. Protection against oxidative damage largely relies on the reductive power of NAPDH, whose levels are mostly determined by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Here, we report a transgenic mouse model with moderate overexpression of human G6PD under its endogenous promoter. Importantly, G6PD-Tg mice have higher levels of NADPH, lower levels of ROS-derived damage, and better protection from ageing-associated functional decline, including extended median lifespan in females. The G6PD transgene has no effect on tumour development, even after combining with various tumour-prone genetic alterations. We conclude that a modest increase in G6PD activity is beneficial for healthspan through increased NADPH levels and protection from the deleterious effects of ROS. PMID:26976705

  3. Protective effects of Chlorella vulgaris in lead-exposed mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Mary L S; Rodrigues, Ana P O; Bincoletto, Claudia; Figueirêdo, Camila A V; Malacrida, Solange

    2003-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris extract (CVE) was examined for its chelating effects on the myelosuppression induced by lead in Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice. The reduction in the number of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) observed after the infection was more severe in the groups previously exposed to lead. Extramedullar hematopoiesis, which was drastically increased after the infection, was not altered by the presence of lead. Treatment with CVE, given simultaneously or following lead exposure, restored to control values the myelosuppression observed in infected/lead-exposed mice and produced a significant increase in serum colony-stimulating activity. The benefits of the CVE treatment were also evident in the recovery of thymus weight, since the reduction produced by the infection was further potentiated by lead exposure. The efficacy of CVE was evident when infected and infected/lead-exposed mice were challenged with a lethal dose of L. monocytogenes after a 10-day treatment with 50 mg/kg CVE/day, given simultaneously to the exposure to 1300 ppm lead acetate in drinking water. Survival rates of 30% for the infected group and of 20% for the infected/lead-exposed groups were observed. Evidence that these protective effects of CVE are partly due to its chelating effect was given by the changes observed in blood lead levels. We have observed in the group receiving the CVE/lead simultaneous exposure a dramatic reduction of 66.03% in blood lead levels, when compared to lead-exposed nontreated control. On the other hand, CVE treatment following lead exposure produced a much less effective chelating effect. CVE treatments for 3 or 10 days, starting 24 h following lead exposure, produced a reduction in blood lead levels of 13.5% and 17%, respectively, compared to lead-exposed nontreated controls. The significantly better response observed with the simultaneous CVE/lead administration indicates that the immunomodulation effect of CVE plays an important

  4. Protective effects of Zhuyeqing liquor on the immune function of normal and immunosuppressed mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL), a well-known Chinese traditional health liquor, has various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoenhancement and cardiovascular protective effects. Methods The protective effects of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) on the immune function was investigated in vivo in normal healthy mice and immunosuppressed mice treated with Cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on days 4, 8 and 12. ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 14 days. The phagocytotic function of mononuclear phagocytic system was detected with carbon clearance methods, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in serum were detected with Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immune organs were weighed and organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of thymus and spleen were calculated. Meanwhile, the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in serum and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) in spleen tissue were measured. Results ZYQL significantly upgrades the K value for clearance of carbon particles in normal mice treated with ZYQL (400 mg/kg) and immunosuppressed mice treated with ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) together with Cy (100 mg/kg) in vivo. The treatment of ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively increased the activity of serum lysozyme as well as promoted the serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ in normal mice and immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had an antioxidant effects in immune system by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in vivo. In addition, ZYQL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) effectively elevated the Cy-induced decreased organ index (thymus and spleen). Conclusions The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of ZYQL is capable of influencing immune responses, which implying that its valuable functional health may be attributed

  5. MDP: A Deinococcus Mn2+-Decapeptide Complex Protects Mice from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joan T.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Grichenko, Olga; Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara; Daly, Michael J.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective capacity of a rationally-designed Mn2+-decapeptide complex (MDP), based on Mn antioxidants in the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, was investigated in a mouse model of radiation injury. MDP was previously reported to be extraordinarily radioprotective of proteins in the setting of vaccine development. The peptide-component (DEHGTAVMLK) of MDP applied here was selected from a group of synthetic peptides screened in vitro for their ability to protect cultured human cells and purified enzymes from extreme damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR). We show that the peptides accumulated in Jurkat T-cells and protected them from 100 Gy. MDP preserved the activity of T4 DNA ligase exposed to 60,000 Gy. In vivo, MDP was nontoxic and protected B6D2F1/J (female) mice from acute radiation syndrome. All irradiated mice treated with MDP survived exposure to 9.5 Gy (LD70/30) in comparison to the untreated mice, which displayed 63% lethality after 30 days. Our results show that MDP provides early protection of white blood cells, and attenuates IR-induced damage to bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells via G-CSF and GM-CSF modulation. Moreover, MDP mediated the immunomodulation of several cytokine concentrations in serum including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-10 during early recovery. Our results present the necessary prelude for future efforts towards clinical application of MDP as a promising IR countermeasure. Further investigation of MDP as a pre-exposure prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic in radiotherapy and radiation emergencies is warranted. PMID:27500529

  6. Vaccination with Recombinant Microneme Proteins Confers Protection against Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; Almeida, Fausto; Lai, Livia; Lopes, Carla Duque; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Matthews, Stephen; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important public health problem and veterinary concern. Although there is no vaccine for human toxoplasmosis, many attempts have been made to develop one. Promising vaccine candidates utilize proteins, or their genes, from microneme organelle of T. gondii that are involved in the initial stages of host cell invasion by the parasite. In the present study, we used different recombinant microneme proteins (TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6) or combinations of these proteins (TgMIC1-4 and TgMIC1-4-6) to evaluate the immune response and protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with recombinant TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 alone conferred partial protection, as demonstrated by reduced brain cyst burden and mortality rates after challenge. Immunization with TgMIC1-4 or TgMIC1-4-6 vaccines provided the most effective protection, since 70% and 80% of mice, respectively, survived to the acute phase of infection. In addition, these vaccinated mice, in comparison to non-vaccinated ones, showed reduced parasite burden by 59% and 68%, respectively. The protective effect was related to the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by vaccination and included the release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, antigen-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and production of antigen-specific serum antibodies. Our results demonstrate that microneme proteins are potential vaccines against T. gondii, since their inoculation prevents or decreases the deleterious effects of the infection.

  7. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi.

  8. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide anions against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Isao; Kamata, Shotaro; Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Abiko, Yumi; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The key mechanism for hepatotoxicity resulting from acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is cytochrome P450-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a potent electrophilic metabolite that forms protein adducts. The fundamental roles of glutathione in the effective conjugation/clearance of NAPQI have been established, giving a molecular basis for the clinical use of N-acetylcysteine as a sole antidote. Recent evidence from in vitro experiments suggested that sulfide anions (S(2-)) to yield hydrogen sulfide anions (HS(-)) under physiological pH could effectively react with NAPQI. This study evaluated the protective roles of HS(-) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We utilized cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice that are highly sensitive to acetaminophen toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (150 mg/kg) into Cth(-/-) mice resulted in highly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase associated with marked increases in oncotic hepatocytes; all of which were significantly inhibited by intraperitoneal preadministration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS preadministration significantly suppressed APAP-induced serum malondialdehyde level increases without abrogating APAP-induced rapid depletion of hepatic glutathione. These results suggest that exogenous HS(-) protects hepatocytes by directly scavenging reactive NAPQI rather than by increasing cystine uptake and thereby elevating intracellular glutathione levels, which provides a novel therapeutic approach against acute APAP poisoning. PMID:26558465

  9. Conditioned medium from Bifidobacteria infantis protects against Cronobacter sakazakii-induced intestinal inflammation in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Meiqian; Ganguli, Kriston; Zhu, Weishu; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan

    2014-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight infants. Several hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of NEC have been proposed but to date no effective treatment is available. Previous studies suggest that probiotic supplementation is protective. We recently reported that probiotic (Bifidobacterium infantis) conditioned medium (PCM) has an anti-inflammatory effect in cultured fetal human intestinal cells (H4) and fetal intestine explants. In this study, we tested in vivo whether PCM protects neonatal mice from developing intestinal inflammation induced by exposure to Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii), an opportunistic pathogen associated with NEC. We found that infected neonatal mice had a significantly lower body weight than control groups. Infection led to ileal tissue damage including villous rupture, disruption of epithelial cell alignment, intestinal inflammation, apoptotic cell loss, and decreased mucus production. Pretreatment with PCM prevented infection caused decrease in body weight, attenuated enterocyte apoptotic cell death, mitigated reduced mucin production, and maintained ileal structure. Infected ileum expressed reduced levels of IκBα, which could be restored upon pretreatment with PCM. We also observed a nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in H4 cells exposed to C. sakazakii, which was prevented in PCM-pretreated cells. Finally, treatment of neonatal mice with PCM prior to infection sustained the capacity of ileal epithelial proliferation. This study suggests that an active component(s) released into the culture medium by B. infantis may prevent ileal damage by a pathogen linked to NEC.

  10. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  11. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide anions against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Isao; Kamata, Shotaro; Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Abiko, Yumi; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The key mechanism for hepatotoxicity resulting from acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is cytochrome P450-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a potent electrophilic metabolite that forms protein adducts. The fundamental roles of glutathione in the effective conjugation/clearance of NAPQI have been established, giving a molecular basis for the clinical use of N-acetylcysteine as a sole antidote. Recent evidence from in vitro experiments suggested that sulfide anions (S(2-)) to yield hydrogen sulfide anions (HS(-)) under physiological pH could effectively react with NAPQI. This study evaluated the protective roles of HS(-) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We utilized cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice that are highly sensitive to acetaminophen toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (150 mg/kg) into Cth(-/-) mice resulted in highly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase associated with marked increases in oncotic hepatocytes; all of which were significantly inhibited by intraperitoneal preadministration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS preadministration significantly suppressed APAP-induced serum malondialdehyde level increases without abrogating APAP-induced rapid depletion of hepatic glutathione. These results suggest that exogenous HS(-) protects hepatocytes by directly scavenging reactive NAPQI rather than by increasing cystine uptake and thereby elevating intracellular glutathione levels, which provides a novel therapeutic approach against acute APAP poisoning.

  12. Protective effect of CardiPro against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohan, I K; Kumar, K V; Naidu, M U R; Khan, M; Sundaram, C

    2006-03-01

    The effect of CardiPro, a polyherbal formulation, with an antioxidant property, has been studied on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. CardiPro (150 mg/kg b.w., twice daily was administered orally for 7 weeks along with four equal injections (each containing 4.0 mg/kg b.w., DXR) intraperitoneally, once weekly (cumulative dose 16 mg/kg). After a 3-week post DXR treatment period, cardiotoxicity was assessed by noting mortality, volume of ascites, liver congestion, changes in heart weight, myocardial lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histology of heart. DXR-treated animals showed higher mortality (50%) and more ascites. Myocardial SOD and glutathione peroxidase activity were decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased. Histology of heart of DXR-treated animals showed loss of myofibrils and focal cytoplasmic vacuolization. CardiPro significantly protected the mice from DXR-induced cardiotoxic effects as evidenced by lower mortality (25%), less ascites, myocardial lipid peroxidation, normalization of antioxidant enzymes and minimal damage to the heart histologically. Our data confirm the earlier reports that DXR cardiotoxicity is associated with the free radical-induced tissue damage. Administration of CardiPro, with an antioxidant property, protected the DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. PMID:16492523

  13. Bright cyclic light rearing-mediated retinal protection against damaging light exposure in adrenalectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Anderson, Robert E

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that albino rats and mice raised in bright cyclic light are protected from light-induced retinal damage. We tested if the stress response mediated by the adrenal grand is involved in the initiation of this neuroprotective phenomenon. Balb/c mice that were adrenalectomized (Adrex) or sham operated at 28 days of age were kept under dim (5 lux) or bright (400 lux) cyclic light (12h on/off) for 2 weeks. Thereafter, their electroretinogram (ERG), outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness and area, and plasma corticosterone levels were measured in animals with (dim+light and bright+light groups) and without (dim and bright groups) damaging light exposure (3000 lux for 24 h). In the dim+light group, a- and b-wave amplitudes and the ONL thicknesses and areas were significantly higher in the Adrex animals than the sham animals, indicating that adrenalectomy itself yielded retinal protection. In the Adrex animals, the ONL areas were significantly larger in the bright+light group than the dim+light group, indicating that bright cyclic light rearing yielded further retinal tolerance, even in the absence of the adrenal gland. In sham animals, the plasma corticosterone concentration did not change between the dim and the light groups. Accordingly, glucocorticoid secreted from the adrenal gland is not likely to be required for the mechanisms of the light-adaptation neuroprotection phenomenon in mice.

  14. Protective Effect of Isorhamnetin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Ping; Ni, Yun-Feng; Du, Hong-Yin; Wang, Rong; Li, Ming-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Chen; Li, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xu-Hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Isorhamnetin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isorhamnetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of isorhamnetin on LPS-induced lung pathological damage, wet/dry ratios and the total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokine release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were examined. In addition, the COX-2 activation in lung tissues was detected by Western blot. Isorhamnetin pretreatment improved the mice survival rates. Moreover, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly attenuated edema and the pathological changes in the lung and inhibited protein extravasation in BALF. Isorhamnetin also significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF. In addition, isorhamnetin markedly prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of COX-2. Isorhamnetin has been demonstrated to protect mice from LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. PMID:26276127

  15. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  17. Protective effect of δ-amyrone against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the protective effect of δ-amyrone on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. The mice intragastric administration 75% (0.5 mL/100g) ethanol was pretreated with δ-amyrone (4 and 8 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) or vehicles in different experimental groups for a continuous three-day, and animals were euthanized 3h after ethanol ingestion. The gastric lesions were significantly attenuated by δ-amyrone (4 and 8 mg/kg) as compared to the ulcer control group. Pre-treatment with δ-amyrone prevented the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO) in serum, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression. Analysis of cytokines in gastric tissue and serum of ethanol-induced mice showed the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased by δ-amyrone in response to NF-κB p65. These results suggested that δ-amyrone exerts its protective effect on experimental gastric ulcer by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathways, which subsequently reduces overproduction of the inducible enzymes iNOS and suppresses the release of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and NO. Thus, δ-amyrone shows promise as a therapeutic agent in experimental gastric ulcer.

  18. Mitochondrial anti-oxidant protects IEX-1 deficient mice from organ damage during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Haley; Wu, Mei X

    2014-12-01

    Sepsis, a leading cause of mortality in intensive care units worldwide, is often a result of overactive and systemic inflammation following serious infections. We found that mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1) were prone to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced endotoxemia. A nonlethal dose of LPS provoked numerous aberrations in IEX-1 knockout (KO) mice including pancytopenia, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lung neutrophilia, concurrent with liver and kidney damage, followed by death. Given these results, in conjunction with a proven role for IEX-1 in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis during stress, we pre-treated IEX-1 KO mice with Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrion-based antioxidant prior to LPS injection. The treatment significantly reduced ROS formation in circulatory cells and protected against pancytopenia and multiple organ failure, drastically increasing the survival rate of IEX-1 KO mice challenged by this low dose of LPS. This study confirms significant contribution of mitochondrial ROS to the etiology of sepsis. PMID:25466275

  19. Silencing of Paralemmin-3 Protects Mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Qian, Pin; Lv, Xuejun; Qian, Lanlan; Wang, Qin; Qian, Guisheng; Yao, Wei; Wu, Xueling

    2016-02-01

    Excessive inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a critical role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Paralemmin-3 (PALM3) is a novel protein that can modulate LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the progression of ALI in vivo. Therefore, we studied the role of PALM3 in the pathogenesis of ALI induced by LPS. ALI was induced by LPS peritoneal injection in C57BL/6J mice. Lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the mouse PALM3 gene and a negative control siRNA were intranasally administered to the mice. We found that the expression of PALM3 was up-regulated in the lung tissues obtained from the mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. The LPS-evoked inflammatory response (neutrophils and the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines [IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MIP-2] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF]), histologic lung injury (lung injury score), permeability of the alveolar capillary barrier (lung wet/dry weight ratio and BALF protein concentration) and mortality rates were attenuated in the PALM3 siRNA-treated mice. These results indicate that PALM3 contributes to the development of ALI in mice challenged with LPS. Inhibiting PALM3 through the intranasal application of specific siRNA protected against LPS-induced ALI.

  20. Inactivation of hypothalamic FAS protects mice from diet-induced obesity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Manu V; Zhu, Yimin; Yin, Li; Coleman, Trey; Pappan, Kirk L; Marshall, Connie A; McDaniel, Michael L; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2009-04-01

    Obesity promotes insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. Disrupting any of several distinct steps in lipid synthesis decreases adiposity, but it is unclear if this approach coordinately corrects the environment that propagates metabolic disease. We tested the hypothesis that inactivation of FAS in the hypothalamus prevents diet-induced obesity and systemic inflammation. Ten weeks of high-fat feeding to mice with inactivation of FAS (FASKO) limited to the hypothalamus and pancreatic beta cells protected them from diet-induced obesity. Though high-fat fed FASKO mice had no beta-cell phenotype, they were hypophagic and hypermetabolic, and they had increased insulin sensitivity at the liver but not the periphery as demonstrated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, and biochemically by increased phosphorylated Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, and FOXO1 compared with wild-type mice. High-fat fed FASKO mice had decreased excretion of urinary isoprostanes, suggesting less oxidative stress and blunted tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to endotoxin, suggesting less systemic inflammation. Pair-feeding studies demonstrated that these beneficial effects were dependent on central FAS disruption and not merely a consequence of decreased adiposity. Thus, inducing central FAS deficiency may be a valuable integrative strategy for treating several components of the metabolic syndrome, in part by correcting hepatic insulin resistance and suppressing inflammation.

  1. KLHDC10 Deficiency Protects Mice against TNFα-Induced Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Namiko; Sekine, Shiori; Naguro, Isao; Sekine, Yusuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a form of fatal acute inflammation for which there is no effective treatment. Here, we revealed that the ablation of Kelch domain containing 10 (KLHDC10), which we had originally identified as an activator of Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1), protects mice against TNFα-induced SIRS. The disease development of SIRS is mainly divided into two stages. The early stage is characterized by TNFα-induced systemic necroptosis, a regulated form of necrosis mediated by Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1/3 kinases. The later stage presents with an over-production of inflammatory cytokines induced by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are immunogenic cellular contents released from cells that underwent necroptosis. Analysis of TNFα-challenged mice revealed that KLHDC10-deficient mice show a reduction in the inflammatory response, but not in early systemic necroptosis. In vitro analysis suggested that the reduced inflammatory response observed in KLHDC10-deficient mice might be caused, in part, by enhanced necroptosis of inflammatory cells encountering DAMPs. Interestingly, the enhancement of necroptosis induced by KLHDC10 deficiency was selectively observed in inflammatory cells. Our results suggest that KLHDC10 is a cell-type specific regulator of necroptosis that ultimately contributes to the development of TNFα-induced SIRS. PMID:27631783

  2. The possible protective effect of L-carnitine on tilmicosin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kart, A; Yapar, K; Karapehlivan, M; Citil, M

    2007-04-01

    The protective effect of L-carnitine was investigated against tilmicosin-induced cardiotoxic effects including blood creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, total sialic acid as well as the alterations in glutathione and malondialdehyde concentrations in mice. Thirty-two Balb/C mice were divided into four groups including group 1 (control), group 2 (L-carnitine, s.c., 500 mg/kg for 5 days), group 3 (tilmicosin, s.c., single dose of 75 mg/kg) and group 4 (L-carnitine plus tilmicosin). Serum CK, CK-MB and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in group 3 compared with those of other groups. Total sialic acid level in group 3 was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in groups 1 and 2, as well. Contrary to these results, glutathione level in group 3 was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in groups 1 and 2. In group 4, serum CK, CK-MB, MDA and total sialic acid levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in group 3. These results suggest that tilmicosin is cardiotoxic in mice as evidenced by higher total sialic acid, CK and CK-MB. In addition, tilmicosin caused the decrease in glutathione and increase in MDA levels. However, administration of L-carnitine could ameliorate these adverse toxic effects of tilmicosin in mice.

  3. Electromagnetic field treatment protects against and reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Arendash, Gary W; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Lin, Xiaoyang; Runfeldt, Melissa; Wang, Li; Zhang, Guixin; Sava, Vasyl; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, there is no definitive evidence that high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is a risk to human health. To the contrary, this report presents the first evidence that long-term EMF exposure directly associated with cell phone use (918 MHz; 0.25 w/kg) provides cognitive benefits. Both cognitive-protective and cognitive-enhancing effects of EMF exposure were discovered for both normal mice and transgenic mice destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. The cognitive interference task utilized in this study was designed from, and measure-for-measure analogous to, a human cognitive interference task. In Alzheimer's disease mice, long-term EMF exposure reduced brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition through Abeta anti-aggregation actions and increased brain temperature during exposure periods. Several inter-related mechanisms of EMF action are proposed, including increased Abeta clearance from the brains of Alzheimer's disease mice, increased neuronal activity, and increased cerebral blood flow. Although caution should be taken in extrapolating these mouse studies to humans, we conclude that EMF exposure may represent a non-invasive, non-pharmacologic therapeutic against Alzheimer's disease and an effective memory-enhancing approach in general.

  4. Protective effect of N-acetyl chitohexaose on Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tokoro, A; Kobayashi, M; Tatewaki, N; Suzuki, K; Okawa, Y; Mikami, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, M

    1989-01-01

    A water-soluble oligosaccharide, N-acetyl chitohexaose (NACOS-6) was able to enhance the protecting effect of BALB/c male mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection, when administered intraperitoneally 24 hr before the challenge with this microbe. Significant decrease in number of microbes within the peritoneal cavity, spleen, and liver from the mice of NACOS-6-administered group was not observed 1 day after the infection but 4 days after the infection. Administration of NACOS-6 enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or heat-killed L. monocytogenes. Splenic T lymphocytes from mice administered NACOS-6 released macrophage activating factor (MAF). These results suggested that NACOS-6 was also able to elevate the function of cellular immunity. Macrophages treated with a combination of NACOS-6 and the culture supernatant of splenic T lymphocytes from mice administered NACOS-6, "NACOS-6 sup," were found to exert a fairly strong growth-inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) were able to enhance the growth-inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes by the NACOS-6-treated macrophages.

  5. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    PubMed

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  6. Lysostaphin expression in mammary glands confers protection against staphylococcal infection in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D E; Plaut, K; Bramley, A J; Williamson, C M; Lax, A J; Moore, K; Wells, K D; Wall, R J

    2001-01-01

    Infection of the mammary gland, in addition to causing animal distress, is a major economic burden of the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is the major contagious mastitis pathogen, accounting for approximately 15-30% of infections, and has proved difficult to control using standard management practices. As a first step toward enhancing mastitis resistance of dairy animals, we report the generation of transgenic mice that secrete a potent anti-staphylococcal protein into milk. The protein, lysostaphin, is a peptidoglycan hydrolase normally produced by Staphylococcus simulans. When the native form is secreted by transfected eukaryotic cells it becomes glycosylated and inactive. However, removal of two glycosylation motifs through engineering asparagine to glutamine codon substitutions enables secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin, a bioactive variant. Three lines of transgenic mice, in which the 5'-flanking region of the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene directed the secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin into milk, exhibit substantial resistance to an intramammary challenge of 104 colony-forming units (c.f.u.) of S. aureus, with the highest expressing line being completely resistant. Milk protein content and profiles of transgenic and nontransgenic mice are similar. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of genetic engineering to combat the most prevalent disease of dairy cattle.

  7. B cell deficient mice are protected from biliary obstruction in the rotavirus-induced mouse model of biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Tucker, Rebecca M; Fenner, Erika K; Pelanda, Roberta; Mack, Cara L

    2013-01-01

    A leading theory regarding the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA) is that bile duct injury is initiated by a virus infection, followed by an autoimmune response targeting bile ducts. In experimental models of autoimmune diseases, B cells have been shown to play an important role. The aim of this study was to determine the role of B cells in the development of biliary obstruction in the Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced mouse model of BA. Wild-type (WT) and B cell-deficient (Ig-α(-/-)) mice received RRV shortly after birth. Ig-α(-/-) RRV-infected mice had significantly increased disease-free survival rate compared to WT RRV-infected BA mice (76.8% vs. 17.5%). In stark contrast to the RRV-infected BA mice, the RRV-infected Ig-α(-/-) mice did not have hyperbilirubinemia or bile duct obstruction. The RRV-infected Ig-α(-/-) mice had significantly less liver inflammation and Th1 cytokine production compared to RRV-infected WT mice. In addition, Ig-α(-/-) mice had significantly increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) at baseline and after RRV infection compared to WT mice. However, depletion of Tregs in Ig-α(-/-) mice did not induce biliary obstruction, indicating that the expanded Tregs in the Ig-α(-/-) mice were not the sole reason for protection from disease. Conclusion : B cell deficient Ig-α(-/-) mice are protected from biliary obstruction in the RRV-induced mouse model of BA, indicating a primary role of B cells in mediating disease pathology. The mechanism of protection may involve lack of B cell antigen presentation, which impairs T-cell activation and Th1 inflammation. Immune modulators that inhibit B cell function may be a new strategy for treatment of BA.

  8. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody protects mice either before or after challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ann R; Frederickson, Shana; Hinkel, Christopher; Bowdish, Katherine S; Roehrig, John T

    2006-09-01

    A humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been developed and its potential to protect from or cure a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) infection was evaluated. The VEEV-neutralizing, protective murine mAb 3B4C-4 was humanized using combinatorial antibody libraries and phage-display technology. Humanized VEEV-binding Fabs were evaluated for virus-neutralizing capacity, then selected Fabs were converted to whole immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, and stable cell lines were generated. The humanized mAb Hy4-26C, designated Hy4 IgG, had virus-neutralizing capacity similar to that of 3B4C-4. Passive antibody protection studies with purified Hy4 IgG were performed in adult Swiss Webster mice. As little as 100 ng Hy4 IgG protected 90 % of mice challenged with 100 intraperitoneal (i.p.) mean morbidity (MD(50)) doses of virulent VEEV (Trinidad donkey) 24 h after antibody transfer; also, 500 mug Hy4 IgG protected 80 % of mice inoculated with 100 intranasal MD(50) doses of VEEV. Moreover, 10 mug passive Hy4 IgG protected 70 % of mice from a VEEV challenge dose as great as 10(7) i.p. MD(50). Hy4 IgG also protected mice from challenge with another epizootic VEEV variety, 1C (P676). Importantly, therapeutic administration of the humanized mAb to mice already infected with VEEV cured 90 % of mice treated with Hy4 IgG within 1 h of VEEV inoculation and 75 % of mice treated 24 h after virus infection. PMID:16894184

  9. Purified recombinant organophosphorus acid anhydrase protects mice against soman. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Broomfield, C.A.

    1992-12-31

    Since pharmacologic treatments of organophosphorus anticholinesterases (OPs) are nearing their practical limit other types of treatment are being sought. One approach is the prophylactic administration of scavengers that will detoxify OPs before they reach their critical target site. Using mice that were sensitized to OPs by depletion of their serum carboxylesterase with cresylbenzodioxaphosphorin oxide (CBDP), we have shown that animals pretreated intravenously with a purified organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (parathionase) (0.10 mg per g body wt.) are not measurably affected by up to 34.4 microgram soman per kg, a dose more than double that which is lethal to untreated animals. This result indicates that this approach is worthy of exploration and development for protecting military personnel and agricultural workers against OP intoxication. Scavengers, pretreatment, soman, OP intoxication, mice.

  10. Competitive inhibitor of cellular α-glucosidases protects mice from lethal dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhong; Schul, Wouter; Yip, Andy; Xu, Xiaodong; Guo, Ju-Tao; Block, Timothy M

    2011-11-01

    Dengue virus infection causes diseases in people, ranging from the acute febrile illness dengue fever, to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. We previously reported that a host cellular α-glucosidases I and II inhibitor, imino sugar CM-10-18, potently inhibited dengue virus replication in cultured cells, and significantly reduced viremia in dengue virus infected AG129 mice. In this report we show that CM-10-18 also significantly protects mice from death and/or disease progress in two mouse models of lethal dengue virus infection. Our results thus provide a strong support for the development of CM-10-18 or its derivatives as antiviral agents to treat servere dengue virus infections.

  11. Irsogladine maleate, a gastric mucosal protectant, suppresses intestinal polyp development in Apc-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Wakana; Tomono, Susumu; Miyamoto, Shinngo; Fujii, Gen; Hamoya, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Fukai, Fumio; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2016-02-23

    This study aimed to identify gastric mucosal protectants that suppress intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model. We chose six gastric mucosal protectants (ecabet sodium hydrate, irsogladine maleate, rebamipide, sofalcone, teprenone and troxipide) and examined their effects on the activity of oxidative stress-related transcriptional factors, including AP-1, NF-jB, NRF2, p53 and STAT3, in Caco-2 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Among the six protectants, irsogladine maleate clearly inhibited NF-jB and AP-1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the chemopreventive property of irsogladine maleate was examined in a Min mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Treatment with irsogladine maleate at doses of 5 and 50 ppm significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps to 69% and 66% of the untreated control value, respectively. In these polyps, mRNA levels of the downstream targets of NF-jB, such as IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased by irsogladine maleate treatment. Moreover, the levels of oxidative stress-related markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the livers of Min mice were clearly decreased following the administration of irsogladine maleate. This study demonstrated that irsogladine maleate suppresses intestinal polyp formation in Min mice partly through the NF-jB signaling pathway, thus reducing oxidative stress.

  12. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones. PMID:26580602

  13. Irsogladine maleate, a gastric mucosal protectant, suppresses intestinal polyp development in Apc-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Wakana; Tomono, Susumu; Miyamoto, Shinngo; Fujii, Gen; Hamoya, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Fukai, Fumio; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify gastric mucosal protectants that suppress intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model. We chose six gastric mucosal protectants (ecabet sodium hydrate, irsogladine maleate, rebamipide, sofalcone, teprenone and troxipide) and examined their effects on the activity of oxidative stress-related transcriptional factors, including AP-1, NF-jB, NRF2, p53 and STAT3, in Caco-2 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Among the six protectants, irsogladine maleate clearly inhibited NF-jB and AP-1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the chemopreventive property of irsogladine maleate was examined in a Min mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Treatment with irsogladine maleate at doses of 5 and 50 ppm significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps to 69% and 66% of the untreated control value, respectively. In these polyps, mRNA levels of the downstream targets of NF-jB, such as IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased by irsogladine maleate treatment. Moreover, the levels of oxidative stress-related markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the livers of Min mice were clearly decreased following the administration of irsogladine maleate. This study demonstrated that irsogladine maleate suppresses intestinal polyp formation in Min mice partly through the NF-jB signaling pathway, thus reducing oxidative stress. PMID:26840084

  14. Protection of swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Goyal, P K; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-07-01

    The radioprotective effects of Mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against radiation induced haematological alterations in peripheral blood and the survival of Swiss albino mice were studied. Mentha oil 40 micro L/animal/day for 3 consecutive days when fed orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) showed protection of the animals in terms of the survival percentage and haematological parameters in mice. Fifty per cent of the animals died within 20 days and 100% mortality was observed up to 30 days post-irradiation in the control irradiated group. Whereas only 17% of the mice died within 30 days in the experimental group (Mentha oil pretreated irradiated). The total RBC count decreased maximally at 24 h (3.45 +/- 0.20 x 10(12)/L, p < 0.001), similar observations were obtained for the WBC count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage in the irradiated control animals. However, in irradiated animals pretreated with Mentha oil, although the initial values of haematological components were lower they later showed a remarkable recovery reaching normal at 30 days post-irradiation compared with the irradiated control animals. In general, the recovery of the blood cell number in irradiated animals depends on the survival of stem cells and their derivatives. The results from the present study suggest that the oil of Mentha piperita (Linn.) has a radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the haematopoietic system. Hence, enhanced survival and an increase in the haematological constituents of peripheral blood of mice against lethal gamma radiation was observed.

  15. NDV-3 protects mice from vulvovaginal candidiasis through T- and B-cell immune response.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Luo, Guanpingsheng; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lee, Hongkyu; Schmidt, Clint S; Hennessey, John P; French, Samuel W; Yeaman, Michael R; Filler, Scott G; Edwards, John E

    2013-11-12

    We have previously reported that vaccination with rAls3p-N protein of Candida albicans, formulated with alum adjuvant (also designated as NDV-3) protects immunocompetent mice from, lethal disseminated candidiasis and mucosal oropharyngeal candidiasis. NDV-3 vaccine was recently, tested in a Phase 1 clinical trial and found to be safe, well-tolerated, and induced robust humoral and, cellular immune responses with increased interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-17 secretion. In preparation for a Phase 2 clinical trial against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), we evaluated NDV-3, efficacy in a murine VVC model. Here, NDV-3 induced a strong immune response characterized by high, anti-rAls3p-N serum IgG and vaginal IgA titers. Furthermore, moderate doses of the vaccine (a range of 1-30μg given subcutaneously [SQ] or 0.3-10μg given intramuscularly [IM]) elicited a 10-1000 fold, decrease in vaginal fungal burden vs. control (mice injected with alum adjuvant alone) in both inbred, and outbred mice infected with different clinical C. albicans isolates. Additionally, NDV-3 required both, T and B lymphocytes for efficacy in reducing C. albicans tissue burden, which is followed by a reduction, in neutrophil influx to the affected site. Finally, anti-rAls3p-N antibodies enhanced the ex vivo killing, of C. albicans by neutrophils primed with IFN-gamma. These data indicate that NDV-3 protects mice, from VVC by a mechanism that involves the concerted priming of both humoral and adaptive immune, responses.

  16. The Polyphenol Oleuropein Aglycone Protects TgCRND8 Mice against Aß Plaque Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Cristina; Rigacci, Stefania; Ambrosini, Stefano; Ed Dami, Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Traini, Chiara; Failli, Paola; Berti, Andrea; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet), the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and “fluffy”; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:23951225

  17. The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Cristina; Rigacci, Stefania; Ambrosini, Stefano; Ed Dami, Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Traini, Chiara; Failli, Paola; Berti, Andrea; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet), the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-01

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against murine endotoxemia induced by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). Pretreatment of the mice with RHSE via dietary administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression (in %) of LPS/GalN-induced catalase by 70.7, superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 54.6, and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes by 40.6/62.5, the amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and the reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by 61.1 and nitrite serum level by 83.4, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme associated with necrotic injury of the lung and kidney by 65.7 and 63.3, respectively. The RHSE also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. The results using inflammation biomarkers and from the lifespan studies suggest that the RHSE can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thereby increasing the survival of the toxic-shock-induced mice. These beneficial effects and previous studies on the antimicrobial effects against Salmonella Typhimurium in culture and in mice suggest that the smoke extract also has the potential to serve as a new multifunctional resource in human food and animal feeds. Possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects at the cellular and molecular levels and suggested food uses are discussed. PMID:25068861

  19. Human IL-32 expression protects mice against a hypervirulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiyuan; Shang, Shaobin; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall J; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Matsuda, Jennifer L; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Chan, Mallory M; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Kinney, William H; Trostel, Jessica; Bai, An; Honda, Jennifer R; Achcar, Rosane; Hartney, John; Joosten, Leo A B; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Orme, Ian; Dinarello, Charles A; Ordway, Diane J; Chan, Edward D

    2015-04-21

    Silencing of interleukin-32 (IL-32) in a differentiated human promonocytic cell line impairs killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) but the role of IL-32 in vivo against MTB remains unknown. To study the effects of IL-32 in vivo, a transgenic mouse was generated in which the human IL-32γ gene is expressed using the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-IL-32γTg). Wild-type and SPC-IL-32γTg mice were infected with a low-dose aerosol of a hypervirulent strain of MTB (W-Beijing HN878). At 30 and 60 d after infection, the transgenic mice had 66% and 85% fewer MTB in the lungs and 49% and 68% fewer MTB in the spleens, respectively; the transgenic mice also exhibited greater survival. Increased numbers of host-protective innate and adaptive immune cells were present in SPC-IL-32γTg mice, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) positive lung macrophages and dendritic cells, and IFN-gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Alveolar macrophages from transgenic mice infected with MTB ex vivo had reduced bacterial burden and increased colocalization of green fluorescent protein-labeled MTB with lysosomes. Furthermore, mouse macrophages made to express IL-32γ but not the splice variant IL-32β were better able to limit MTB growth than macrophages capable of producing both. The lungs of patients with tuberculosis showed increased IL-32 expression, particularly in macrophages of granulomas and airway epithelial cells but also B cells and T cells. We conclude that IL-32γ enhances host immunity to MTB.

  20. Human IL-32 expression protects mice against a hypervirulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiyuan; Shang, Shaobin; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall J.; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Matsuda, Jennifer L.; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Chan, Mallory M.; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Kinney, William H.; Trostel, Jessica; Bai, An; Honda, Jennifer R.; Achcar, Rosane; Hartney, John; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Orme, Ian; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Silencing of interleukin-32 (IL-32) in a differentiated human promonocytic cell line impairs killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) but the role of IL-32 in vivo against MTB remains unknown. To study the effects of IL-32 in vivo, a transgenic mouse was generated in which the human IL-32γ gene is expressed using the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-IL-32γTg). Wild-type and SPC-IL-32γTg mice were infected with a low-dose aerosol of a hypervirulent strain of MTB (W-Beijing HN878). At 30 and 60 d after infection, the transgenic mice had 66% and 85% fewer MTB in the lungs and 49% and 68% fewer MTB in the spleens, respectively; the transgenic mice also exhibited greater survival. Increased numbers of host-protective innate and adaptive immune cells were present in SPC-IL-32γTg mice, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) positive lung macrophages and dendritic cells, and IFN-gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Alveolar macrophages from transgenic mice infected with MTB ex vivo had reduced bacterial burden and increased colocalization of green fluorescent protein-labeled MTB with lysosomes. Furthermore, mouse macrophages made to express IL-32γ but not the splice variant IL-32β were better able to limit MTB growth than macrophages capable of producing both. The lungs of patients with tuberculosis showed increased IL-32 expression, particularly in macrophages of granulomas and airway epithelial cells but also B cells and T cells. We conclude that IL-32γ enhances host immunity to MTB. PMID:25820174

  1. Protective Effects of Thymoquinone against Methotrexate-Induced Germ Cell Apoptosis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhbahaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Rabzia, Arezou; Mansouri, Kamran; Ghanbari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxic effects of anti-cancer and other drugs on the normal tissues could be reduced by the herbal plants and their fractions. This study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) as a fraction of Nigella sativa on methotrexate (MTX)- induced germ cell apoptosis in male mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, thirty male Balb/c mice were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6). A single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) and different concentrations of TQ were administrated for 4 consecutive days. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections to analysis the occurrence of apoptosis in the testis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of apoptosis-related genes was performed with RNA extracted from testes of the mice. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. Results In the MTX group, there was a significant increase in morphologic sign of germ cell degeneration of tubules (48 ± 0.6%), apoptotic index (AI; 2.3 ± 0.6%), as well as mRNA expression of p53 (P=0.008), caspase 8 (P=0.002), caspase 3 (P=0.005), caspase 9 (P=0.000), bax (P=0.004) and the ratio of bax/bcl-2 (P=0.000), whereas there was an decrease in the expression of bcl-2 (P=0.003), as compared to control group. In MTX+TQ groups, the data showed that different concentrations of TQ could improve the harmful effects caused by the MTX. The best protective effects were achieved in MTX+TQ (10 mg/kg). Conclusion TQ protects testicular germ cell against MTX-induced apoptosis by affecting related genes regulation. PMID:26985343

  2. Protective effect of Triphala Rasayana against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dewasya Pratap; Mani, Dayanandan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, is known to cause liver and renal injury in humans when administered in higher and repeated doses that cause acute liver injury. Triphala is a well-known Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation that is prescribed for balancing of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of liver and kidney diseases. Objective: The present study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal injury in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used in this study. The mice were divided into five groups of six animals each. The aqueous extract of Triphala was given orally at two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) to induce hepato–renal toxicity. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured as indices of liver and renal injury. All the statistical analyses were performed with the help of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student–Newman–Keuls test as post hoc test. Results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: Pre-treatment with Triphala extract at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant (P < 0.01) hepatoprotective activity. The protective effect of Triphala extract at 300 mg/kg body weight appears more effective than 100 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The present study gives an evidence of the protective role of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal toxicity and validates its traditional claim in the Ayurveda system. PMID:26604553

  3. Mutant Brucella abortus Membrane Fusogenic Protein Induces Protection against Challenge Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V.; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:25644010

  4. Mutant Brucella abortus membrane fusogenic protein induces protection against challenge infection in mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-04-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies.

  5. Prevention of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 expressing N. caninum protective antigens.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Jain, Neeta; Lindsay, David S; Schurig, Gerhardt S; Boyle, Stephen M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2007-11-01

    Bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. Infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. Neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. Brucella abortus strain RB51, a commercially available vaccine for bovine brucellosis, can also be used as a vector to express plasmid-encoded proteins from other pathogens. Neospora caninum protective antigens MIC1, MIC3, GRA2, GRA6 and SRS2 were expressed in strain RB51. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with a recombinant strain RB51 expressing N. caninum antigen or irradiated tachyzoites, boosted 4 weeks later and then bred. Antigen-specific IgG, IFN-gamma and IL-10 were detected in vaccinated pregnant mice. Vaccinated mice were challenged with 5 x 10(6)N. caninum tachyzoites between days 11-13 of pregnancy. Brain tissue was collected from pups 3 weeks after birth and examined for the presence of N. caninum by real-time PCR. The RB51-MIC3, RB51-GRA6, irradiated tachyzoite vaccine, pooled strain RB51-Neospora vaccine, RB51-MIC1 and RB51-SRS2 vaccines elicited approximately 6-38% protection against vertical transmission. However, the differences in parasite burden in brain tissue of pups from the control and vaccinated groups were highly significant for all groups. Thus, B. abortus strain RB51 expressing the specific N. caninum antigens induced substantial protection against vertical transmission of N. caninum in mice.

  6. [Protective effect of semen Ziziphi spinosae on superoxide dismutase reduction in mice with endotoxin fever].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Zhang, H; Cheng, S; Guo, W

    1995-06-01

    An animal model with decreasing SOD was established by fever from intravenous injection of endotoxin. The SOD level was measured by RIA in the animal serum and liver tissues. The results indicated that the SOD level of the model group was obviously lower than that of the normal group (P < 0.05), but the level of the group treated with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae was higher than that of the model group. The study shows that Semen Ziziphi Spinosae can protect mice with endotoxin fever from SOD decrease. PMID:7646811

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  8. Active immunization with recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis protects mice against plague.

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S E; Williamson, E D; Griffin, K F; Russell, P; Eley, S M; Titball, R W

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding V antigen from Yersinia pestis was cloned into the plasmid expression vector pGEX-5X-2. When electroporated into Escherichia coli JM109, the recombinant expressed V antigen as a stable fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. The glutathione S-transferase-V fusion protein was isolated from recombinant E. coli and cleaved with factor Xa to yield purified V antigen as a stable product. Recombinant V antigen was inoculated intraperitoneally into mice and shown to induce a protective immune response against a subcutaneous challenge with 3.74 x 10(6) CFU of virulent Y. pestis. Protection correlated with the induction of a high titer of serum antibodies and a T-cell response specific for recombinant V antigen. These results indicate that V antigen should be a major component of an improved vaccine for plague. PMID:7622205

  9. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  10. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27318789

  11. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  12. Synergism of organic zinc salts and sulfhydryl compounds (thiols) in the protection of mice against acute ethanol toxicity, and protective effects of various metal salts.

    PubMed

    Floersheim, G L

    1987-06-01

    Organic zinc salts such as zinc aspartate, zinc orotate, zinc histidine and zinc acetate protected mice against the lethality of an acute intraperitoneal challenge with ethanol. A similar activity was also provided by salts of cobalt, zirconium, lithium and magnesium. Organic zinc salts acted synergistically with sulfhydryl compounds in protecting the mice and potentiation between the two categories of agents was seen. The results are in analogy to radioprotective effects by zinc and thiols and imply that organic zinc salts may, alone or in conjunction with thiols, reduce in a wider context tissue injury caused by free radical-mediated mechanisms. PMID:3630856

  13. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  14. Mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction in renal convoluted tubules of obese mice: protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Favero, Gaia; Giugno, Lorena; Lavazza, Antonio; Reiter, Russel J; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a common and complex health problem, which impacts crucial organs; it is also considered an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Few studies have analyzed the consequence of obesity in the renal proximal convoluted tubules, which are the major tubules involved in reabsorptive processes. For optimal performance of the kidney, energy is primarily provided by mitochondria. Melatonin, an indoleamine and antioxidant, has been identified in mitochondria, and there is considerable evidence regarding its essential role in the prevention of oxidative mitochondrial damage. In this study we evaluated the mechanism(s) of mitochondrial alterations in an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice) and describe the beneficial effects of melatonin treatment on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics as influenced by mitofusin-2 and the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Melatonin dissolved in 1% ethanol was added to the drinking water from postnatal week 5-13; the calculated dose of melatonin intake was 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Compared to control mice, obesity-related morphological alterations were apparent in the proximal tubules which contained round mitochondria with irregular, short cristae and cells with elevated apoptotic index. Melatonin supplementation in obese mice changed mitochondria shape and cristae organization of proximal tubules, enhanced mitofusin-2 expression, which in turn modulated the progression of the mitochondria-driven intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These changes possibly aid in reducing renal failure. The melatonin-mediated changes indicate its potential protective use against renal morphological damage and dysfunction associated with obesity and metabolic disease.

  15. Naja naja atra Venom Protects against Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in MRL/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiali; Cui, Kui; Kou, Jianqun; Wang, Shuzhi; Xu, Yinli; Ding, Zhihui; Han, Rong; Qin, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and effective therapy for this pathology is currently unavailable. We previously reported that oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) had anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. We speculated that NNAV may have therapeutic effects in MRL/lpr SLE mice. Twelve-week-old MRL/lpr mice received oral administration of NNAV (20, 40, and 80 μg/kg) or Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (10 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks. The effects of NNAV on SLE manifestations, including skin erythema, proteinuria, and anxiety-like behaviors, were assessed with visual inspection and Multistix 8 SG strips and open field test, respectively. The pathology of spleen and kidney was examined with H&E staining. The changes in autoimmune antibodies and cytokines were determined with ELISA kits. The results showed that NNAV protected against the manifestation of SLE, including skin erythema and proteinuria. In addition, although no apparent histological change was found in liver and heart in MRL/lpr SLE mice, NNAV reduced the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, NNAV increased serum C3 and reduced concentrations of circulating globulin, anti-dsDNA antibody, and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. NNAV also reduced lymphadenopathy and renal injury. These results suggest that NNAV may have therapeutic values in the treatment of SLE by inhibiting autoimmune responses. PMID:25093033

  16. CXCR2 knockout mice are protected against DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-11-15

    Organ cross talk exists in many diseases of the human and animal models of human diseases. A recent study demonstrated that inflammatory mediators can cause acute kidney injury and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-colitis. However, the chemokines and their receptors that may mediate distant organ effects in colitis are unknown. We hypothesized that keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)/IL-8 receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) mediates DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Consistent with our hypothesis, wild-type (WT) mice developed severe colitis with DSS treatment, which was associated with inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration in the colon. DSS-colitis in WT was accompanied by acute kidney injury and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the kidney. However, CXCR2 knockout mice were protected against DSS-colitis as well as acute kidney injury. Moreover, the expression of cytokines and chemokines and neutrophil infiltration was blunted in CXCR2 knockout mice in the colon and kidney. Administration of recombinant KC exacerbated DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Our results suggest that KC/IL-8 and its receptor CXCR2 are critical and major mediators of organ cross talk in DSS colitis and neutralization of CXCR2 will help to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury due to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in humans.

  17. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  18. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  19. Characterization of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Brucella melitensis and Protection Induced in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Calderón, Eric Daniel; Lopez-Merino, Ahidé; Jain, Neeta; Peralta, Humberto; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M.; Witonsky, Sharon; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from smooth B. melitensis 16 M and a derived rough mutant, VTRM1 strain, were purified and characterized with respect to protein content and induction of immune responses in mice. Proteomic analysis showed 29 proteins present in OMVs from B. melitensis 16 M; some of them are well-known Brucella immunogens such as SOD, GroES, Omp31, Omp25, Omp19, bp26, and Omp16. OMVs from a rough VTRM1 induced significantly higher expression of IL-12, TNFα, and IFNγ genes in bone marrow dendritic cells than OMVs from smooth strain 16 M. Relative to saline control group, mice immunized intramuscularly with rough and smooth OMVs were protected from challenge with virulent strain B. melitensis 16 M just as well as the group immunized with live strain B. melitensis Rev1 (P < 0.005). Additionally, the levels of serum IgG2a increased in mice vaccinated with OMVs from rough strain VTRM1 consistent with the induction of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:22242036

  20. Targeting Antigens to Dec-205 on Dendritic Cells Induces Immune Protection in Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wadwa, Munisch; Klopfleisch, Robert; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    The endocytotic c-type lectin receptor DEC-205 is highly expressed on immature dendritic cells. In previous studies, it was shown that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 is a useful tool for the induction of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and thereby can prevent inflammatory processes. However, whether this approach is sufficient to mediate tolerance in mucosal tissues like the gut is unknown. In this study, we established a new mouse model in which the adoptive transfer of naive hemagglutinin (HA)-specific CD4+Foxp3– T cells into VILLIN-HA transgenic mice leads to severe colitis. To analyze if antigen-targeting to DEC-205 could protect against inflammation of the gut, VILLIN-HA transgenic mice were injected with an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the immunogenic HA110–120 peptide coupled to an α-DEC-205 antibody (DEC-HA) before adoptive T cell transfer. DEC-HA-treated mice showed significantly less signs of intestinal inflammation as was demonstrated by reduced loss of body weight and histopathology in the gut. Strikingly, abrogated intestinal inflammation was mediated via the conversion of naive HA-specific CD4+Foxp3– T cells into HA-specific CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we provide evidence that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 can be utilized for the induction of tolerance in mucosal organs that are confronted with large numbers of exogenous antigens. PMID:27141310

  1. Oral immunization with a live recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium protects mice against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Cong, H; Gu, Q M; Jiang, Y; He, S Y; Zhou, H Y; Yang, T T; Li, Y; Zhao, Q L

    2005-01-01

    The natural site of infection for T. gondii is the mucosal surface of the intestine, so the protective immunity obtained after natural infection with T. gondii points to the importance of developing a vaccine that stimulates mucosal defences. In this study, an aroA- and aroD- attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium (BRD509) has been used to deliver the recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pSAG(1-2)/CTA2/B expressing a multi-antigenic gene encoding SAG1 and SAG2 of T. gondii linked to A2/B subunits of cholera toxin as a candidate oral T. gondii vaccine. Immunoblot analysis showed compound gene expression in HeLa cells in vitro and intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinant salmonella resulted in the induction of humoral and Th1 type cellular immune responses and afforded protection against RH strain T. gondii challenge. Anti-T. gondii IgG values increased markedly in the BRD509/pSAG(1-2)-CTA2/B immunized group; these values were significantly higher than those in the negative controls (P = 0.008). With CTA2/B genetic adjuvant, the T. gondii-specific response was predominantly Th1, indicating that the CTA(2)/B genetic adjuvant was able to overcome the strong Th2-bias of the antigen (IgG2a > IgG1). Antigen-specific T cell proliferative responses and CTL activity were significantly enhanced when cholera toxin CTA2/B genetic adjuvant was used (P = 0.009; P = 0.006). Culture supernatants from antigen-stimulated splenocytes from mice in these groups were also examined by ELISA for Th1- and Th2-type cytokines; mean IFN-gamma levels produced after oral immunization with BRD509/pSAG(1-2)-CTA2/B were about nine-fold higher than after immunization with BRD509/pSAG(1-2) (P = 0.007). On the other hand, the levels of IL-4 were low for all groups and no increase was seen in the presence of CTA2/B genetic adjuvant. When the immunized mice were intraperitoneally challenged with 10(3) tachyzoites of the highly virulent RH strain, the survival time of the mice immunized with

  2. Ligularia fischeri extract protects against oxidative-stress-induced neurotoxicity in mice and PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Cho Rong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques in brain and the overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ), leading to learning and memory impairment and intense oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of Ligularia fischeri extract was investigated using PC12 cells. L. fischeri extract attenuated hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA fragmentation in cells. In vivo behavioral tests were performed to examine the effects of the extract on amyloid-β peptide1-42-induced impairment of learning and memory in mice. A diet containing the extract increased alternation behaviors in the Y-maze test and step-through latency of passive avoidance task. Moreover, we found that consumption of the extract decreased lipid peroxidation in a biochemical study of brain tissue in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the active compounds in the extract. These results suggest that L. fischeri extract could be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its constituent, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid.

  3. A nonreplicating subunit vaccine protects mice against lethal Ebola virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Dye, John M; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Piensook, Khanrat; Pratt, William D; Arntzen, Charles J; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2011-12-20

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute and often deadly disease caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The possible intentional use of this virus against human populations has led to design of vaccines that could be incorporated into a national stockpile for biological threat reduction. We have evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of an EBOV vaccine candidate in which the viral surface glycoprotein is biomanufactured as a fusion to a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in glycoprotein, resulting in the production of Ebola immune complexes (EICs). Although antigen-antibody immune complexes are known to be efficiently processed and presented to immune effector cells, we found that codelivery of the EIC with Toll-like receptor agonists elicited a more robust antibody response in mice than did EIC alone. Among the compounds tested, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC, a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist) was highly effective as an adjuvant agent. After vaccinating mice with EIC plus PIC, 80% of the animals were protected against a lethal challenge with live EBOV (30,000 LD(50) of mouse adapted virus). Surviving animals showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to the antigen, suggesting this may be important for protection. Survival after vaccination with EIC plus PIC was statistically equivalent to that achieved with an alternative viral vector vaccine candidate reported in the literature. Because nonreplicating subunit vaccines offer the possibility of formulation for cost-effective, long-term storage in biothreat reduction repositories, EIC is an attractive option for public health defense measures.

  4. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  5. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiping; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Deng, Li; Chang, Mujun; Yu, Zaoqin; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26579201

  6. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Kaur, Tejinder; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    The current study was designed to examine the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines based on gp63 and Hsp70 against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Inbred BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at an interval of three weeks with pcDNA3.1(+) encoding T cell epitopes of gp63 and Hsp70 individually and in combination. Animals were challenged intracardially with 10(7) promastigotes of Leishmania donovani 10 days post immunization and sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 months post challenge. The immunized animals revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in splenic and hepatic parasite burden as compared to the infected controls. Maximum reduction in parasite load (P < 0.05) was observed in animals treated with a combination of pcDNA/gp63 and pcDNA/Hsp70. These animals also showed heightened DTH response, increased IgG2a, elevated Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) and reduced IgG1 and IL-10 levels. Thus, mice immunized with the cocktail vaccine exhibited significantly greater protection in comparison to those immunized with individual antigens. PMID:27533939

  7. Renal protective effects of extracts from guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in extracts of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), and examined the renal protective effects of guava aqueous extract (GAE) and ethanol extract (GEE) in diabetic mice. GAE had more caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin; and GEE had more cinnamic, coumaric and ferulic acids. GAE or GEE at 1 and 2 % was supplied in diet for 12 weeks. GAE or GEE intake at 2 % significantly reduced glucose and blood urea nitrogen levels, increased insulin level in plasma of diabetic mice (p < 0.05). GAE or GEE treatments dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, retained activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in kidney (p < 0.05). GAE and GEE treatments at 2 % significantly declined renal N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, pentosidine and fructose levels (p < 0.05), and suppressed renal activity of aldose reductase (p < 0.05). These findings support that guava fruit could protect kidney against diabetic progression via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects.

  8. Protective Effects of Red Guava on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Yin, Mei-Chin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Tang, Feng-Yao; Chao, Che-Yi

    2015-12-12

    Diabetes is an important chronic disease and the 4th leading cause of death in Taiwan. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage are the main causes of chronic complications in diabetic patients. The red guava (red-fleshed guava cultivar of Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit belonging to the Myrtaceae family and an important commercial crop in Taiwan. In this study, the protective effects of a diet containing red guava on inflammation and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were examined. The experimental group was divided into seven subgroups: normal (N), diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetes + red guava 1% (L), 2% (M), and 5% (H), diabetes + 5% red guava + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (HR), and diabetes + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (R). The mice were fed for 8 weeks and sacrificed by decapitation. Compared with the DM group, the experimental groups with diets containing red guava as well as rosiglitazone all showed significant improvements in blood glucose control, insulin resistance, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol, c-reactive protein, TNF-α, and IL-10. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory proteins, such as iNOS and NF-κB, was suppressed via activated PPARγ, and the expression levels of GPx3 and ACO increased. In summary, red guava can significantly suppress inflammatory and oxidative damage caused by diabetes and alleviate diabetic symptoms; thus, it exerts protective effects and has potential applications for the development of a dietary supplement.

  9. Protective Effects of Red Guava on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Yin, Mei-Chin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Tang, Feng-Yao; Chao, Che-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is an important chronic disease and the 4th leading cause of death in Taiwan. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage are the main causes of chronic complications in diabetic patients. The red guava (red-fleshed guava cultivar of Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit belonging to the Myrtaceae family and an important commercial crop in Taiwan. In this study, the protective effects of a diet containing red guava on inflammation and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were examined. The experimental group was divided into seven subgroups: normal (N), diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetes + red guava 1% (L), 2% (M), and 5% (H), diabetes + 5% red guava + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (HR), and diabetes + anti-diabetic rosiglitazone (R). The mice were fed for 8 weeks and sacrificed by decapitation. Compared with the DM group, the experimental groups with diets containing red guava as well as rosiglitazone all showed significant improvements in blood glucose control, insulin resistance, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol, c-reactive protein, TNF-α, and IL-10. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory proteins, such as iNOS and NF-κB, was suppressed via activated PPARγ, and the expression levels of GPx3 and ACO increased. In summary, red guava can significantly suppress inflammatory and oxidative damage caused by diabetes and alleviate diabetic symptoms; thus, it exerts protective effects and has potential applications for the development of a dietary supplement. PMID:26703532

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Kaur, Tejinder; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The current study was designed to examine the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines based on gp63 and Hsp70 against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Inbred BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at an interval of three weeks with pcDNA3.1(+) encoding T cell epitopes of gp63 and Hsp70 individually and in combination. Animals were challenged intracardially with 107 promastigotes of Leishmania donovani 10 days post immunization and sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 months post challenge. The immunized animals revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in splenic and hepatic parasite burden as compared to the infected controls. Maximum reduction in parasite load (P < 0.05) was observed in animals treated with a combination of pcDNA/gp63 and pcDNA/Hsp70. These animals also showed heightened DTH response, increased IgG2a, elevated Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) and reduced IgG1 and IL-10 levels. Thus, mice immunized with the cocktail vaccine exhibited significantly greater protection in comparison to those immunized with individual antigens. PMID:27533939

  11. Recombinant Flagellin-Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Fusion Protein Promotes Protective Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhu, Shanshan; Wei, Li; Yan, Xu; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Liu, Jue

    2015-01-01

    The Cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) that serves as a major host-protective immunogen was used to develop recombinant vaccines for control of PCV2-associated diseases. Growing research data have demonstrated the high effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant for humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, a recombinant protein was designed by fusing a modified version of bacterial flagellin to PCV2 Cap protein and expressed in a baculovirus system. When administered without adjuvant to BALB/c mice, the flagellin-Cap fusion protein elicited stronger PCV2-specific IgG antibody response, higher neutralizing antibody levels, milder histopathological changes and lower viremia, as well as higher secretion of cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ that conferred better protection against virus challenge than those in the recombinant Cap alone-inoculated mice. These results suggest that the recombinant Cap protein when fused to flagellin could elicit better humoral and cellular immune responses against PCV2 infection in a mouse model, thereby acting as an attractive candidate vaccine for control of the PCV2-associated diseases. PMID:26070075

  12. Protective effect of linalool against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Haiying

    2014-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound of the essential oils, has been shown to have antinociceptive, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of linalool against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice were administered with linalool 1h before receiving LPS (50 μg/kg) and GalN (800 mg/kg). The results demonstrated that linalool had a protective effect on LPS/GalN-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the attenuation of hepatic pathological damage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, MPO activity and serum ALT and AST levels. Linalool alleviated serum and hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as hepatic iNOS and COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Treatment of linalool increased bcl-2 expression and inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression. In addition, linalool increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression up-regulation by LPS/GalN. In conclusion, our results suggested that linalool was protected against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury through induction of antioxidant defense via Nrf2 activating and reduction inflammatory response via NF-κB inhibition.

  13. BLOCKADE OF PGE2, PGD2 RECEPTORS CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST PREPATENT SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Rabia, Ibrahim; El-Ahwany, Eman; Saber, Sameh; Gamal, Rasha; Nagy, Faten; Mahmoud, Olaa; Hamad, Rabab Salem; Barakat, Walled

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease with considerable social impact. Despite the availability of affordable chemotherapy, drug treatment has not significantly reduced the overall number of disease cases. Among other mechanisms, the parasite produces PGE2 and PGD2 to evade host immune defenses. To investigate the role of PGE2 and PGD2 in schistosomiasis, we evaluated the effects of L-161,982, Ah6809 (PGE2 receptor antagonists alone of combined with each other) and MK-0524 (PGD2 receptor antagonist) during prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally an hour before and 24 hours after infection of C57BL/6 mice with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. L-161,982, Ah6809, their combination and MK-0524 caused partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection which was mediated by biasing the immune response towards Th1 phenotype. These results showed that blockade of PGE2 and PGD2 receptors confers partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection in mice and that they may be useful as adjunctive therapy to current anti-schistosomal drugs or vaccines. PMID:26939228

  14. Proteomic analysis of protective effects of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza against immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation.

  15. Synthetic antibodies with a human framework that protect mice from lethal Sudan ebolavirus challenge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Koellhoffer, Jayne F; Zak, Samantha E; Frei, Julia C; Liu, Nina; Long, Hua; Ye, Wei; Nagar, Kaajal; Pan, Guohua; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Lai, Jonathan R

    2014-10-17

    The ebolaviruses cause severe and rapidly progressing hemorrhagic fever. There are five ebolavirus species; although much is known about Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and its neutralization by antibodies, little is known about Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), which is emerging with increasing frequency. Here we describe monoclonal antibodies containing a human framework that potently inhibit infection by SUDV and protect mice from lethal challenge. The murine antibody 16F6, which binds the SUDV envelope glycoprotein (GP), served as the starting point for design. Sequence and structural alignment revealed similarities between 16F6 and YADS1, a synthetic antibody with a humanized scaffold. A focused phage library was constructed and screened to impart 16F6-like recognition properties onto the YADS1 scaffold. A panel of 17 antibodies were characterized and found to have a range of neutralization potentials against a pseudotype virus infection model. Neutralization correlated with GP binding as determined by ELISA. Two of these clones, E10 and F4, potently inhibited authentic SUDV and conferred protection and memory immunity in mice from lethal SUDV challenge. E10 and F4 were further shown to bind to the same epitope on GP as 16F6 with comparable affinities. These antibodies represent strong immunotherapeutic candidates for treatment of SUDV infection. PMID:25140871

  16. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiping; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Deng, Li; Chang, Mujun; Yu, Zaoqin; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26579201

  17. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  18. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen. PMID:26410104

  19. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  20. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Devera, T Scott; Prusator, Dawn K; Joshi, Sunil K; Ballard, Jimmy D; Lang, Mark L

    2015-06-25

    Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC) to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities.

  1. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  2. Recombinant tandem multi-linear neutralizing epitopes of human enterovirus 71 elicited protective immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralization antibodies have been documented to play critical roles during in vitro and in vivo protection against EV71 infection. Results In this study, a novel strategy to produce EV71 vaccine candidate based on recombinant multiple tandem linear neutralizing epitopes (mTLNE) was proposed. The three well identified EV71 linear neutralizing epitopes in capsid proteins, VP1-SP55, VP1-SP70 and VP2-SP28, were sequentially linked by a Gly-Ser linker ((G4S)3), and expressed in E.coli in fusion with the Trx and His tag at either terminal. The recombinant protein mTLNE was soluble and could be purified by standard affinity chromatography. Following three dosage of immunization in adult mice, EV71-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies were readily induced by recombinant mTLNE. IgG subtyping demonstrated that lgG1 antibodies dominated the mTLNE-induced humoral immune response. Especially, cytokine profiling in spleen cells from the mTLNE-immunized mice revealed high production of IL-4 and IL-6. Finally, in vivo challenge experiments showed that passive transfer with anti-mTLNE sera conferred full protection against lethal EV71 challenge in neonatal mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that this rational designed recombinant mTLNE might have the potential to be further developed as an EV71 vaccine in the future. PMID:24885030

  3. Enhanced stability of tristetraprolin mRNA protects mice against immune-mediated inflammatory pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Patial, Sonika; Curtis, Alan D.; Lai, Wi S.; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Hill, Georgette D.; Flake, Gordon P.; Mannie, Mark D.; Blackshear, Perry J.

    2016-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an inducible, tandem zinc-finger mRNA binding protein that binds to adenylate-uridylate–rich elements (AREs) in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of specific mRNAs, such as that encoding TNF, and increases their rates of deadenylation and turnover. Stabilization of Tnf mRNA and other cytokine transcripts in TTP-deficient mice results in the development of a profound, chronic inflammatory syndrome characterized by polyarticular arthritis, dermatitis, myeloid hyperplasia, and autoimmunity. To address the hypothesis that increasing endogenous levels of TTP in an intact animal might be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, we generated a mouse model (TTPΔARE) in which a 136-base instability motif in the 3′UTR of TTP mRNA was deleted in the endogenous genetic locus. These mice appeared normal, but cultured fibroblasts and macrophages derived from them exhibited increased stability of the otherwise highly labile TTP mRNA. This resulted in increased TTP protein expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages and increased levels of TTP protein in mouse tissues. TTPΔARE mice were protected from collagen antibody-induced arthritis, exhibited significantly reduced inflammation in imiquimod-induced dermatitis, and were resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, presumably by dampening the excessive production of proinflammatory mediators in all cases. These data suggest that increased systemic levels of TTP, secondary to increased stability of its mRNA throughout the body, can be protective against inflammatory disease in certain models and might be viewed as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of human inflammatory diseases. PMID:26831084

  4. Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

  5. Protective immunity induced in mice by F0 and FII antigens purified from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Diniz, S N; Reis, B S; Goes, T S; Zouain, C S; Leite, M F; Goes, A M

    2004-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated whether immunization with P. brasiliensis antigens fractionated by anionic chromatography on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) could elicit protective immunity. BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection of either 10 microg fractions 0 (F0), II (FII) or III (FIII) in the presence of 100 microg of Corynebacterium parvum and 1 mg of Al(OH)(3) and challenged with pathogenic P. brasiliensis strain. Mice immunized with F0 presented cellular and humoral immune responses with significant production of IFN-gamma, and high levels of IgG2a and IgG3 isotypes. Immunization with FII induced significant production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 associated with high levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. It was demonstrated that immunization with F0 or FII promoted significant decrease of organ colony-forming units (CFUs) in the lung after challenge infection without fungi dissemination to the spleen or liver. In contrast, FIII immunized mice develop a progressive disseminated disease to spleen and liver presented significant levels of INF-gamma, IL-10 or TGF-beta associated with high production of IgG1 and IgG2a with low production of IgG2b and IgG3 after challenge infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that antigens of F0 and FII are reliable vaccine candidates against the paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:14670331

  6. Garlic provides protection to mice heart against isoproterenol-induced oxidative damage: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Padiya, Raju; Karnewar, Santosh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Agawane, Sachin B; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-06-30

    Garlic has been widely recognized as a cardioprotective agent. However, the molecular mechanism of its cardioprotective effects is not well established. Here we hypothesized that aqueous garlic homogenate may mediate cardioprotection via nitric oxide (NO). Mice were fed with saline and aqueous garlic homogenate (250 and 500 mgkg(-1)day(-1) orally) for 30 days. In another set of experiment, mice were pre-treated with saline, aqueous garlic homogenate (AGH) (250 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 30 days), and AGH (30 days) along with L-NAME (20 mgkg(-1)day(-1) i.p. for last 7 days) before inducing acute myocardial infarction by isoproterenol (s.c. injection of isoproterenol 150 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 2 days) and sacrificed after 48 h. Dose dependent increase in serum NO level was observed after garlic 250 and 500 mgkg(-1) dose feeding. While no change in serum SGPT and SGOT level, a significant decrease in serum LDH level was observed after garlic feeding. Garlic-induced NO formation was further confirmed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Administration of isoproterenol caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants i.e., myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx activity, and mitochondrial enzyme activities like citrate synthase and β hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase. All those deleterious cardiac changes induced by isoproterenol were significantly attenuated by garlic homogenate. However this beneficial effect of garlic was blunted when garlic was administered with L-NAME, a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Further, a significant increase in myocardial TBARS and decrease in total antioxidant activity was observed in L-NAME treated group compared to isoproterenol treated group. Administration of L-NAME in mice from control group lowered serum and cardiac NO levels without any change of oxidative stress parameters. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence that garlic homogenate is protective in myocardial infarction via NO-signaling pathway in mice.

  7. Vorinostat protects against calcium oxalate-induced kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei; Peng, Zhongjiang; Liu, Changcheng; Zhang, Caihong; Guo, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (SAHA), on renal function in a calcium oxalate crystal mouse model, and to investigate the mechanism underlying the renoprotective effect of SAHA. Calcium oxalate crystal formation was induced in 8 week‑old male C57BL/6 mice by administering 100 mg/kg glyoxylate for 7 days. A total of 24 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group and the following experimental groups: 50 mg/kg normal saline + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; 50 mg/kg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; and 50 mg/kg SAHA + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate. The mice in each of the experimental groups were injected with the saline, DMSO or SAHA into their abdominal cavities 6 h prior to the glyoxylate injection. The mice were sacrificed after 7 days, following which blood and urine samples were collected. The kidneys were harvested to analyze the levels of calcium concentrations and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Immunohistochemical staining and semi‑quantitative analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of osteopontin (OPN) and CD44. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was detected using a TUNEL assay. The concentrations of calcium and malondialdehyde were significantly decreased in the SAHA group, and calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue and the expression levels of OPN and CD44 in the SAHA group were lower, compared with the other experimental groups. SAHA significantly reduced the urinary excretion of KIM‑1 and renal tubular cell apoptosis. In conclusion, SAHA reduced calcium oxalate crystal deposition and protected against kidney injury.

  8. Protective effect of the orientin on noise-induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuting; Yu, Yinghua; Feng, Yan; Zou, Fang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Yuyun; Zheng, Xian; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhu, Yufu; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic noise stress impairs cognition and induces oxidative stress in the brain. Recently, orientin, a phenolic compound abundant in some fruits, millet, and herbs, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. This study investigated the potential effects of orientin against chronic noise-induced cognitive decline and its underlying mechanisms. A moderate-intensity noise exposure model was used to investigate the effects of orientin on behavior and biochemical alterations in mice. After 3 weeks of the noise exposure, the mice were treated with orientin (20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, oral gavage) for 3 weeks. The chronic noise exposure impaired the learning and memory in mice in the Morris water maze and step-through tests. The noise exposure also decreased exploration and interest in a novel environment in the open field test. The administration of orientin significantly reversed noise-induced alterations in these behavior tests. Moreover, the orientin treatment significantly improved the noise-induced alteration of serum corticosterone and catecholamine levels and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, the orientin treatment ameliorated the noise-induced decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synapse-associated proteins (synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Thus, orientin exerts protective effects on noise-induced cognitive decline in mice, specifically by improving central oxidative stress, neurotransmission, and increases synapse-associated proteins. Therefore, supplementation with orientin-enriched food or fruit could be beneficial as a preventive strategy for chronic noise-induced cognitive decline.

  9. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  10. Potential protective effects of Clostridium butyricum on experimental gastric ulcers in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Yan; Liu, Jia-Ming; Luo, Hai-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on experimental gastric ulcers (GUs) induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation in mice, respectively. METHODS: One hundred and twenty mice were randomly allocated into three types of gastric ulcer models (n = 40 each), induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation. In each GU model, 40 mice were allocated into four groups (n = 10 each): the sham control group; model group (GU induction without pretreatment); C. butyricum group (GU induction with C. butyricum pretreatment); and Omeprazole group (GU induction with Omeprazole pretreatment). The effects of C. butyricum were evaluated by examining the histological changes in the gastric mucosal erosion area, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the contents of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 6-keto-PGF-1α (degradation product of PGI2) in the gastric tissue. RESULTS: Our data showed that C. butyricum significantly reduced the gastric mucosal injury area and ameliorated the pathological conditions of the gastric mucosa. C. butyricum not only minimized the decreases in activity of SOD and CAT, but also reduced the level of MDA in all three GU models used in this study. The accumulation of IL1-β, TNF-α and LBT4 decreased, while 6-keto-PGF-1α increased with pretreatment by C. butyricum in all three GU models. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated the protective effects of pretreatment with C. butyricum on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation in different types of GU models in mice. Further studies are needed to explore its potential clinical benefits. PMID:26217085

  11. Protective effects of lithium chloride treatment on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingyue; Song, Chunfeng; Wang, Tianjun; Li, Ling; Dong, Yanhong; Jin, Wei; Lu, Peiyuan

    2015-02-01

    Lithium is a renowned pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that lithium chloride (LiCl) performs neuroprotective effects on cerebrovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the protective effects of LiCl treatment on the hippocampus of mice with repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Mice were subjected to IR through repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. LiCl (2 mmol/kg) was administered daily postoperative until the mice were sacrificed. Swimming time was prolonged and error count increased in the model group through learning and memory tests. Pathological changes such as reduction in cell count and obvious pyknosis were seen in haematoxylin-eosin staining, and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in hippocampal CA1 regions in the model group. The model animals exhibited more phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3β Ser9 than the sham group when measured by Western blot. LiCl treatment mitigated the prolonged swimming time and the increased error count compared with NaCl-treated group and improved the pathological changes. Meanwhile, LiCl further up-regulated phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3β Ser9 expression. The highest level of diversity was at 4 weeks postoperative. Therefore, repeated IR can severely damage the hippocampus and decrease the learning and memory functions in mice. Changes in the Akt and GSK3β protein activity were involved in the IR process. LiCl treatment exerted a neuroprotective effect on learning and memory by potentiating the Akt/GSK3β cell-signaling pathway.

  12. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-01

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  13. Use of a purified outer membrane protein F (porin) preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a protective vaccine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilleland, H E; Parker, M G; Matthews, J M; Berg, R D

    1984-01-01

    The outer membrane protein F (porin) from the PAO1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified by two different methods. One procedure involved separation by column chromatography of proteins extracted from isolated outer membranes, whereas the other involved extraction from gels after slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from cell envelopes. Both procedures yielded protein F preparations which successfully immunized mice from subsequent challenge with the PAO1 strain. The protein F preparations contained small quantities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This level of LPS contamination protected immunized mice from challenge with the homologous LPS serotype strain. However, immunization of mice with protein F preparations from the PAO1 strain also afforded protection against challenge with two different LPS serotype strains. This protective ability was lost when the protein F preparation was treated with papain before use as a vaccine. These observations support the conclusion that protein F has protective ability, which is not due to LPS contamination, when given as a vaccine. After immunization with the protein F preparation, mice showed an increase in antibody titer to the purified protein F preparation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mice were protected passively by administration of rabbit antisera raised to the protein F preparation. These results indicate that the protein F preparation elicits a specific humoral antibody response in immunized animals. Our results suggest that purified protein F has potential as an effective vaccine for P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:6323316

  14. Stimulation of Lung Innate Immunity Protects against Lethal Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Cecilia G.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, Christopher M.; Hawke, David; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Reynolds, Paul R.; Moghaddam, Seyed J.; Scott, Brenton L.; Melicoff, Ernestina; Adachi, Roberto; Dickey, Burton F.; Tuvim, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The lungs are a common site of serious infection in both healthy and immunocompromised subjects, and the most likely route of delivery of a bioterror agent. Since the airway epithelium shows great structural plasticity in response to inflammatory stimuli, we hypothesized it might also show functional plasticity. Objectives: To test the inducibility of lung defenses against bacterial challenge. Methods: Mice were treated with an aerosolized lysate of ultraviolet-killed nontypeable (unencapsulated) Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), then challenged with a lethal dose of live Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) delivered by aerosol. Measurements and Main Results: Treatment with the NTHi lysate induced complete protection against challenge with a lethal dose of Spn if treatment preceded challenge by 4 to 24 hours. Lesser levels of protection occurred at shorter (83% at 2 h) and longer (83% at 48–72 h) intervals between treatment and challenge. There was also some protection when treatment was given 2 hours after challenge (survival increased from 14 to 57%), but not 24 hours after challenge. Protection did not depend on recruited neutrophils or resident mast cells and alveolar macrophages. Protection was specific to the airway route of infection, correlated in magnitude and time with rapid bacterial killing within the lungs, and was associated with increases of multiple antimicrobial polypeptides in lung lining fluid. Conclusions: We infer that protection derives from stimulation of local innate immune mechanisms, and that activated lung epithelium is the most likely cellular effector of this response. Augmentation of innate antimicrobial defenses of the lungs might have therapeutic value. PMID:18388354

  15. Blockade of TLR3 protects mice from lethal radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Naoki; Kawasaki, Takumi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Lamichhane, Aayam; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Ito, Junichi; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Karuppuchamy, Thangaraj; Matsunaga, Kouta; Miyatake, Shoichiro; Mori, Nobuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Satoh, Takashi; Kumagai, Yutaro; Kawai, Taro; Standley, Daron M.; Ishii, Ken J.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    High-dose ionizing radiation induces severe DNA damage in the epithelial stem cells in small intestinal crypts and causes gastrointestinal syndrome (GIS). Although the tumour suppressor p53 is a primary factor inducing death of crypt cells with DNA damage, its essential role in maintaining genome stability means inhibiting p53 to prevent GIS is not a viable strategy. Here we show that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is critical for the pathogenesis of GIS. Tlr3−/− mice show substantial resistance to GIS owing to significantly reduced radiation-induced crypt cell death. Despite showing reduced crypt cell death, p53-dependent crypt cell death is not impaired in Tlr3−/− mice. p53-dependent crypt cell death causes leakage of cellular RNA, which induces extensive cell death via TLR3. An inhibitor of TLR3–RNA binding ameliorates GIS by reducing crypt cell death. Thus, we propose blocking TLR3 activation as a novel approach to treat GIS. PMID:24637670

  16. A semiquinone glucoside derivative provides protection to male reproductive system of the mice against gamma radiation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dev Dutt; Bansal, Deen Dayal; Mishra, Saurabh; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Kumar, Raj

    2014-05-01

    Present investigation was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of a novel Semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD), isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1, in the male reproductive system of BALB/c mice. Animals were administered 50 mg/kg b.wt. (i.p.) SQGD 2 h before whole body γ-irradiation (10 Gy). Radiation-induced cellular toxicity and its modulation by SQGD pretreatment was evaluated in the mice testes by quantitative histological and protein expression analysis. SQGD pretreatment protects irradiated mice from radiation-induced testicular atrophy and germ cells degeneration, which may lead to emptiness of seminiferous tubules. Significant decrease in P53 and P21((Cip/WAF-1)) expression was observed in the irradiated mice pretreated (2 h) by SQGD at 6 h compared with only irradiated mice. However, contrary to P53, expressions of P21 at latter time, that is, 24-72 h was found to be increased significantly in the irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD. Significant increase in the intact PARP-1 protein expression were observed in the testes of the mice pretreated by SQGD 2 h before irradiation at 24-72 h compared with the only irradiated mice, whereas significant increase in PARP-1 cleaved fragment was noticed at 24 h. Similarly, significant increase in NF-kB and BCL-2/BAX expressions ratio was noticed in SQGD-treated mice (± irradiation) compared with irradiated mice, suggested a role of SQGD in the activation of prosurvival signaling in the testicular germinal cells population of the irradiated mice and thus contributed to protection against lethal γ-irradiation.

  17. Low-lycopene containing tomato powder diet does not protect against prostate cancer in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Lauren E; Wallig, Matthew A; Erdman, John W

    2015-10-01

    Previously, tomato powder (TP) diets initiated postweaning have been shown to be effective in reducing prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The TRAMP model develops and progresses through all stages of carcinogenesis similarly to humans. We hypothesized that a 10% TP diet intervention after puberty would reduce carcinogenesis at 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age in TRAMP mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 X FVB F1 TRAMP mice were randomized to consume either an AIN-93G + 10% TP diet (n = 90) or the AIN-93G control diet (n = 88) and randomized to 1 of 3 end point ages: 12 (n = 59), 16 (n = 60), or 20 (n = 59) weeks of age. There was no difference between diets in overall cancer incidence at any time point. However, at 16 weeks of age, TP significantly increased high-grade PIN (P = .014) and significantly decreased poorly differentiated (P = .024) lesions compared with the control diet suggesting a delay in the progression of prostate cancer. Two variables that may explain the modest effect of TP in this study are as follows: the low amount of lycopene in the TP diet (12.3 ppm) and the timing of the intervention (8 weeks of age). The TP diet contained 30-fold less lycopene than previous studies in our laboratory. In addition, the initiation of the diet intervention time of 8 weeks of age instead of 4 weeks of age may have been too late in cancer progression to substantially impact carcinogenesis. In conclusion, a low-lycopene TP intervention failed to reduce carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice. PMID:26255194

  18. Protective role of taurine against genotoxic damage in mice treated with methotrexate and tamoxfine.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sally S; Hafiz, Nagla A; Abd El-Rahim, Abeer H

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxic actions of anti-neoplastic drugs can lead to the development of secondary cancers in patients in extended remission. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury. We investigated the modulatory effects of exogenously administered taurine, on the genotoxicity of two well known anti-neoplastic drugs methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TAM) in Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of ten mice each. Two groups were received single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (10 mg/kgb.wt.) and TAM (50 mg/kgb.wt.) to induce genotoxicity. Two other groups were treated orally with taurine (100 mg/kgb.wt.) for nine days prior to MTX and TAM administration. A vehicle treated control group and taurine control groups were also included. The protective effects of taurine were monitored by apoptosis assays and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, in liver, chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells as well as sperm count, motility and morphology. The results indicated that taurine pre-treatment showed significant increment in the levels of GSH content, reduction in DNA fragmentation and ladder formation in hepatic tissue, suggesting the antioxidant activity of taurine may reduce the toxic effects of MTX and TAM. Treatment with taurine showed also significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in both somatic and germ cells. Moreover, it increases sperm count and motility, and decreases the incidence of sperm abnormalities. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against anti-neoplastic drugs-induced genotoxicity in somatic and germ tissues and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the risk of secondary tumors in chemotherapy.

  19. The protective and therapeutic effects of alpha-solanine on mice breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohsenikia, Maryam; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Khodayari, Saeed; Khodayari, Hamid; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Karimi, Aliasghar; Zamani, Mina; Azizian, Saleh; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali

    2013-10-15

    Alpha-solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid, is found in leaves and fruits of plants as a defensive agent against fungi, bacteria and insects. Herein, we investigated solanine toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and assessed its protective and the therapeutic effects on a typical animal model of breast cancer. The study conducted in three series of experiments to obtain (i) solanine effects on cell viability of mammary carcinoma cells, (ii) in vivo toxicity of solanine, and (iv) the protective and therapeutic effects of solanine on animal model of breast cancer. Alpha-solanine significantly suppressed proliferation of mouse mammary carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo (P<0.05). Under the dosing procedure, 5 mg/kg solanine has been chosen for assessing its protective and therapeutic effects in mice breast cancer. Tumor take rate in the solanine-treated group was zero compared with a 75% rate in its respective control group (P<0.05). The average tumor size and weight were significantly lower in solanine-treated animals than its respective control ones (P<0.05). Proapoptotic Bax protein expression increased in breast tumor by solanine compared with its respective control group (P<0.05). Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression found to be lower in solanine-treated animals (P<0.05). Proliferative and angiogenic parameters greatly decreased in solanine-treated mice (P<0.05). Data provide evidence that solanine exerts a significant chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic effects on an animal model of breast cancer through apoptosis induction, cell proliferation and angiogenesis inhibition. These findings reveal a new therapeutic potential for solanine in cancer.

  20. Multi-serotype outer membrane vesicles of Shigellae confer passive protection to the neonatal mice against shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Soma; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Koley, Hemanta

    2013-06-28

    Recently, we have demonstrated, immunization of adult female mice with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Shigella boydii type 4 protected their offspring passively from shigellosis. In our present study, we have advanced our research by formulating multi-serotype outer membrane vesicles (MOMVs), mixing the OMVs of Shigella dysenteriae 1 Δstx, Shigella flexneri 2a, 3a and 6, S. boydii type 4 and Shigella sonnei to achieve a broad spectrum protection against shigellosis. Adult mice were immunized orally with 50 μg of MOMVs, four times at weekly intervals. Immunological parameters were observed at various time points, before, during and after immunization, in adult mice. Passive protection was examined in their offspring by measuring protective efficacy and studying intestinal colonization, after challenging with various Shigella strains. Immunized dams exhibited a consistent broad spectrum antibody response. 3-4 day-old offspring of immunized dams showed significant long term passive protection against wild type S. flexneri 2a, 3a, and 6, S. boydii type 2 and S. dysenteriae 1. Their stomach extracts, essentially containing mother's milk, have also exhibited significant levels of anti-MOMVs immunoglobulins. In conclusion, MOMVs formulation represents an easy, safe immunization strategy that was found suitable to provide complete passive protection to the neonatal mice against all four serogroups of Shigellae. It could be exploited for the development of a novel non-living vaccine against human shigellosis in near future. PMID:23684822

  1. Muscle expression of a malonyl-CoA-insensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 protects mice against high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vavrova, Eliska; Lenoir, Véronique; Alves-Guerra, Marie-Clotilde; Denis, Raphaël G; Castel, Julien; Esnous, Catherine; Dyck, Jason R B; Luquet, Serge; Metzger, Daniel; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Prip-Buus, Carina

    2016-09-01

    Impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (mFAO) has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) is a key regulatory enzyme of mFAO whose activity is inhibited by malonyl-CoA, a lipogenic intermediate. Whereas increasing CPT1 activity in vitro has been shown to exert a protective effect against lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells, only a few studies have addressed this issue in vivo. We thus examined whether a direct modulation of muscle CPT1/malonyl-CoA partnership is detrimental or beneficial for insulin sensitivity in the context of diet-induced obesity. By using a Cre-LoxP recombination approach, we generated mice with skeletal muscle-specific and inducible expression of a mutated CPT1 form (CPT1mt) that is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA inhibition. When fed control chow, homozygous CPT1mt transgenic (dbTg) mice exhibited decreased CPT1 sensitivity to malonyl-CoA inhibition in isolated muscle mitochondria, which was sufficient to substantially increase ex vivo muscle mFAO capacity and whole body fatty acid utilization in vivo. Moreover, dbTg mice were less prone to high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced insulin resistance and muscle lipotoxicity despite similar body weight gain, adiposity, and muscle malonyl-CoA content. Interestingly, these CPT1mt-protective effects in dbTg-HFHS mice were associated with preserved muscle insulin signaling, increased muscle glycogen content, and upregulation of key genes involved in muscle glucose metabolism. These beneficial effects of muscle CPT1mt expression suggest that a direct modulation of the malonyl-CoA/CPT1 partnership in skeletal muscle could represent a potential strategy to prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID:27507552

  2. Butyrate alleviates metabolic impairments and protects pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The relative or absolute deficiency of pancreatic β-cell mass function underlies the pathogenesis of diabetes. It is necessary to alleviate the metabolic stress and reduce the demand for insulin to decrease the effects of mutations affecting β-cell expansion. Butyrate is a natural nutrient existed in food and can also be produced physiologically through the intestinal fermentation of fiber. Pregnancy and obesity model would be helpful for understanding how β-cell adapt to insulin resistance and how butyrate alleviate the metabolic impairment and protect pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity. C57BL/6J female mice were divided into three groups and fed with high fat food (HF group, 40% energy from fat), high fat with sodium butyrate food (HSF group, 95% HF with 5% butyrate), or control food (CF group, 14% energy from fat), respectively. The feeding would last for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams were sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 14.5 to evaluate the changes of metabolism and β-cell function, mass, proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory reaction of islet from different diet. Pancreases were double immuno-labeled to assess the islet morphology, insulin expression, expression of proliferation gene PCNA and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2. Moreover, we detected the expression of NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (pNF-κB) to evaluate the islet inflammatory response with immunohistochemistry. Mice fed with HSF showed obviously changes including the decreased values of weight gain, glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol level of blood compared with high fat diet group, and the reduced circulating maternal pro-inflammation factors at GD14.5. Mice fed with HF displayed β-cell hyperplasia with a greater β-cell size and β-cell area in pancreas. Furthermore, the higher ratio of apoptosis and inflammatory response were found in HF group compared with HSF and CF group, while the proliferation

  3. C-reactive protein protects mice against pneumococcal infection via both phosphocholine-dependent and phosphocholine-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gang, Toh B; Hanley, Gregory A; Agrawal, Alok

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of action of C-reactive protein (CRP) in protecting mice against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is unknown. The involvement of the phosphocholine (PCh)-binding property of CRP in its antipneumococcal function previously has been explored twice, with conflicting results. In this study, using three different intravenous sepsis mouse models, we investigated the role of the PCh-binding property of CRP by employing a CRP mutant incapable of binding to PCh. The ability of wild-type CRP to protect mice against infection was found to differ in the three models; the protective ability of wild-type CRP decreased when the severity of infection was increased, as determined by measuring mortality and bacteremia. In the first animal model, in which we used 25 μg of CRP and 10(7) CFU of pneumococci, both wild-type and mutant CRP protected mice against infection, suggesting that the protection was independent of the PCh-binding activity of CRP. In the second model, in which we used 25 μg of CRP and 5 × 10(7) CFU of pneumococci, mutant CRP was not protective while wild-type CRP was, suggesting that the protection was dependent on the PCh-binding activity of CRP. In the third model, in which we used 150 μg of CRP and 10(7) CFU of pneumococci, mutant CRP was as protective as wild-type CRP, again indicating that the protection was independent of the PCh-binding activity of CRP. We conclude that both PCh-dependent and PCh-independent mechanisms are involved in the CRP-mediated decrease in bacteremia and the resulting protection of mice against pneumococcal infection.

  4. Huperzine A Provides Robust and Sustained Protection against Induced Seizures in Scn1a Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Dutton, Stacey B. B.; Collins, Stephen D.; Schachter, Steven; Escayg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    De novo loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) SCN1A (encoding Nav1.1) are the main cause of Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic early-life encephalopathy associated with prolonged and recurrent early-life febrile seizures (FSs), refractory afebrile epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and a 15–20% mortality rate. SCN1A mutations also lead to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), which is an inherited disorder characterized by early-life FSs and the development of a range of adult epilepsy subtypes. Current antiepileptic drugs often fail to protect against the severe seizures and behavioral and cognitive deficits found in patients with SCN1A mutations. To address the need for more efficacious treatments for SCN1A-derived epilepsies, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A, a naturally occurring reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In CF1 mice, Hup A (0.56 or 1 mg/kg) was found to confer protection against 6 Hz-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. Robust protection against 6 Hz-, MES-, and hyperthermia-induced seizures was also achieved following Hup A administration in mouse models of DS (Scn1a+/−) and GEFS+ (Scn1aRH/+). Furthermore, Hup A-mediated seizure protection was sustained during 3 weeks of daily injections in Scn1aRH/+ mutants. Finally, we determined that muscarinic and GABAA receptors play a role in Hup A-mediated seizure protection. These findings indicate that Hup A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy. PMID:27799911

  5. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Wormald, Michael M; Fast, Randy L; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K; Amemiya, Kei; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2010-10-13

    Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr) V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252) and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254) by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  6. Loss of Nlrp3 Does Not Protect Mice from Western Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ringling, Rebecca E.; Gastecki, Michelle L.; Woodford, Makenzie L.; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J.; Grant, Ryan W.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:27583382

  7. Loss of Nlrp3 Does Not Protect Mice from Western Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ringling, Rebecca E; Gastecki, Michelle L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J; Grant, Ryan W; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:27583382

  8. Loss of Nlrp3 Does Not Protect Mice from Western Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ringling, Rebecca E; Gastecki, Michelle L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J; Grant, Ryan W; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

  9. Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection--effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Quadros, M R; Souza Brito, A R; Queiroz, M L

    1999-02-01

    In this study we have investigated the effects of Petiveria alliacea on the hematopoietic response of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Our results demonstrate a protective effect of the crude extract of P. alliacea since the survival of the treated/infected was higher than that in the infected group. Moreover, the number of granulocyte/macrophage colonies (CFU-GM) and the serum colony stimulating activity levels were increased in the treated/infected mice in relation to the infected group. These results suggest an immunomodulation of Petiveria alliacea extract on hematopoiesis, which may be responsible, at least in part, for the increased resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

  10. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Tao, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Xu, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hua; Li, Jun; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  11. Protection against herpes simplex virus infection in mice by recombinant murine interferon-beta in combination with antibody.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Y; Yamamoto, M; Mori, R

    1987-06-01

    A recombinant murine interferon -beta (rMuIFN-beta) was used to suppress the development of skin lesions and death of mice after challenge with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1). Depilated female BALB/c mice were inoculated intradermally with HSV-1, Hayashida strain, and were administered various concentrations of interferon (IFN) intraperitoneally 3 h later. The treatment with IFN was given once a day for 10 successive days. Under the conditions in which almost all control mice died after development of severe zosteriform skin lesions, the mortality of mice treated with IFN (8 X 10(5) or 8 X 10(4) U/mouse) was less than 50% (9/20 and 4/10, respectively), though all mice treated with a lower dose of IFN (8 X 10(3) U/mouse) died. Titration revealed that there was no significant suppression of virus growth by IFN in the skin or dorsal root ganglia, but it was significantly suppressed in the brain. The protective effect of IFN was enhanced when it was used in combination with human anti-HSV antibody having a neutralizing titer (NT) of 1:16. All mice treated with IFN (8 X 10(5) U/mouse) and antibody (NT, 1:16) survived, and only 40% of them developed slight zosteriform skin lesions. The effect of the combination was observed even when both IFN and antibody were diluted 1:10. The protective effect of IFN was also observed when athymic nude mice were used as the host. In this system, though the IFN-treated nude mice survived significantly longer than the controls, they finally died. In antibody- or acyclovir (ACV)-treated nude mice, there was also a prolongation of survival time as compared with control mice. The effect of antibody was enhanced by the addition of IFN, but IFN did not potentiate the effect of ACV.

  12. Multifunctional PEG Retinylamine Conjugate Provides Prolonged Protection against Retinal Degeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) retinylamine (Ret-NH2) conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret with a glycine-phenylalanine-leucine (GFL) spacer was synthesized for controlled oral delivery of Ret-NH2 to treat retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The peptide spacer was introduced for sustained release of the drug by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetics experiments showed that the PEG conjugate could control the sustained drug release after oral administration and had much lower nonspecific liver drug accumulation than the free drug in wild-type female C57BL mice. In the mean time, the conjugate maintained the same concentration of Ret-NH2 in the eye as the free drug. Also, PEG-GFL-NH-Ret at a Ret-NH2 equivalent dose of 25 mg/kg produced complete protection of Abca4–/–Rdh8–/– mouse retinas against light-induced retinal degeneration for 3 days after oral administration, as revealed by OCT retina imaging, whereas free Ret-NH2 did not provide any protection under identical conditions. The polymer conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret has great potential for controlled delivery of Ret-NH2 to the eye for effective protection against retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25390360

  13. Protective activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. on nicotine-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Viji; Helen, A

    2007-04-01

    Nicotine, a pharmacologically active component of cigarettes smoke causes devastating effects in important biomolecules of the cell through generation of free radicals leading to genomic instability. Bacopa monniera is a reputed drug in Ayurveda known for its hepatoprotective and DNA protective effects. In this study, an aqueous extract of Bacopa monniera (BAE, 50 mg/kg i.p.) was investigated for its ability to reduce nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and confer genoprotection in Swiss mice. Genoprotective effect was assayed using micronucleus (MN) assay. LPO status was studied by evaluating MDA levels and antioxidant status. Nicotine altered hepatic function as evident by increased ALP and GST levels and decreased SOD, catalase and GPx activities. BAE treatment restored antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase and GPx in liver. BAE treatment also significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei induced by nicotine by decreasing the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE). Hepatic GSH, ALP and GST levels were brought to normal values indicating protection. The results of the present study suggest that BAE exerts protective effects by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:17236174

  14. Multifunctional PEG retinylamine conjugate provides prolonged protection against retinal degeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanping; Wu, Xueming; Ayat, Nadia; Maeda, Akiko; Gao, Song-Qi; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2014-12-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) retinylamine (Ret-NH2) conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret with a glycine-phenylalanine-leucine (GFL) spacer was synthesized for controlled oral delivery of Ret-NH2 to treat retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The peptide spacer was introduced for sustained release of the drug by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetics experiments showed that the PEG conjugate could control the sustained drug release after oral administration and had much lower nonspecific liver drug accumulation than the free drug in wild-type female C57BL mice. In the mean time, the conjugate maintained the same concentration of Ret-NH2 in the eye as the free drug. Also, PEG-GFL-NH-Ret at a Ret-NH2 equivalent dose of 25 mg/kg produced complete protection of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mouse retinas against light-induced retinal degeneration for 3 days after oral administration, as revealed by OCT retina imaging, whereas free Ret-NH2 did not provide any protection under identical conditions. The polymer conjugate PEG-GFL-NH-Ret has great potential for controlled delivery of Ret-NH2 to the eye for effective protection against retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. Protective effect of lectin from Synadenium carinatum on Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Afonso-Cardoso, Sandra R.; Rodrigues, Flávio H.; Gomes, Márcio A.B.; Silva, Adriano G.; Rocha, Ademir; Guimarães, Aparecida H.B.; Candeloro, Ignês; Favoreto, Sílvio; Ferreira, Marcelo S.

    2007-01-01

    The protective effect of the Synadenium carinatum latex lectin (ScLL), and the possibility of using it as an adjuvant in murine model of vaccination against American cutaneous leishmaniasis, were evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized with the lectin ScLL (10, 50, 100 µg/animal) separately or in association with the soluble Leishmania amazonensis antigen (SLA). After a challenge infection with 106 promastigotes, the injury progression was monitored weekly by measuring the footpad swelling for 10 weeks. ScLL appeared to be capable of conferring partial protection to the animals, being most evident when ScLL was used in concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/animal. Also the parasite load in the interior of macrophages showed significant reduction (61.7%) when compared to the control group. With regard to the cellular response, ScLL 50 and 100 µg/animal stimulated the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction significantly (P < 0.05) higher than SLA or SLA plus ScLL 10 weeks after the challenge infection. The detection of high levels of IgG2a and the expression of mRNA cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α (Th1 profiles), corroborated the protective role of this lectin against cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is the first report of the ScLL effect on leishmaniasis and shows a promising role for ScLL to be explored in other experimental models for treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:18165707

  16. Vaccination with an Attenuated Ferritin Mutant Protects Mice against Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Pandey, Ruchi; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Rodriguez, G. Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis the causative agent of tuberculosis affects millions of people worldwide. New tools for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis are urgently needed. We previously showed that a ferritin (bfrB) mutant of M. tuberculosis has altered iron homeostasis and increased sensitivity to antibiotics and to microbicidal effectors produced by activated macrophages. Most importantly, M. tuberculosis lacking BfrB is strongly attenuated in mice, especially, during the chronic phase of infection. In this study, we examined whether immunization with a bfrB mutant could confer protection against subsequent infection with virulent M. tuberculosis in a mouse model. The results show that the protection elicited by immunization with the bfrB mutant is comparable to BCG vaccination with respect to reduction of bacterial burden. However, significant distinctions in the disease pathology and host genome-wide lung transcriptome suggest improved containment of Mtb infection in animals vaccinated with the bfrB mutant, compared to BCG. We found that downmodulation of inflammatory response and enhanced fibrosis, compared to BCG vaccination, is associated with the protective response elicited by the bfrB mutant. PMID:26339659

  17. The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-08-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins.

  18. The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-08-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins. PMID:21290441

  19. Comparative study of protective effects of chitin, chitosan, and N-acetyl chitohexaose against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Makiko; Suzuki, Shigeo; Suzuki, Masuko

    2003-06-01

    We conducted a comparative study of the protective effects of chitin, chitosan, and N-acetyl chitohexaose (NACOS-6) against mice infected intravenously or intraperitoneally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes. Mice pretreated with chitin, chitosan, and NACOS-6 showed resistance to intraperitoneal infections by both microbes. Only mice pretreated with chitin and chitosan showed resistance to intravenous infections by both microbes. The number, active oxygen generation, and myeloperoxidase activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) in the chitin, chitosan, and NACOS-6-treated mice were greater than those of the untreated mice. Also, these PEC factors from mice pretreated with chitin and chitosan were greater than those from the NACOS-6-treated mice.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-O-Gallate Protects Against Hepatic Damage and Testicular Toxicity in Male Mice Exposed to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jian; Han, Baoyu; Hu, Huajun; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) on hepatic damage and testicular toxicity in male mice exposed to daily oral administration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). A mouse model was used to assess the effects of daily intraperitoneal EGCG injection on hepatic and testicular damage. Histological and mitochondrial membrane potential results revealed that EGCG treatment significantly arrested the progression of hepatic damage. EGCG treatment resulted in significant suppression of liver injury (i.e., reduced activities of alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]). The development of DEHP-induced hepatic and testicular damage altered the testosterone concentration in mouse serum, which could affect the reproductive ability of male mice. Moreover, EGCG treatment markedly attenuated testes lesions, sperm deformity, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. At the molecular level, hepatic CYP3A4 expression was substantially reduced by EGCG treatment in mice exposed to DEHP compounds, whereas testicular aromatase expression was increased significantly in testes. Thus, these results demonstrate that EGCG administration may protect against liver damage and reproductive toxicity in males exposed to DEHP. PMID:25789634

  1. Protective effects of oridonin on the sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Jun; Lv, Hu; Xu, Ping-Bo; Zhu, Min-Min; Liu, Yi; Miao, Chang-Hong; Zhu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of oridonin (ORI) on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice weighing 22-30 g and aged 8-10 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups: Sham group, CLP group, or CLP plus ORI group. In the CLP group and ORI group, CLP was induced, and intraperitoneal injection of normal saline and oridonin (100 μg/kg) was conducted, respectively. The survival rate was determined within the following 7 days. The blood, liver, and lung were collected at 24 hours after injury. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the lung, detection of lung wet-to-dry ratio, and serum cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and interleukin [IL]-6), and examination of intraperitoneal and blood bacterial clearance were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Results showed that ORI treatment significantly reduced the lung wet-to-dry ratio, decreased serum TNF-α and IL-6, and improved liver pathology compared with the CLP group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the intraperitoneal and blood bacterial clearance increased markedly after ORI treatment (p < 0.05). The 7-day survival rate in the ORI group was also dramatically higher than in the CLP group (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that ORI can attenuate liver and lung injuries and elevate bacterial clearance to increase the survival rate of sepsis mice. PMID:27638404

  2. Nrf2 Activation Protects against Solar-Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Knatko, Elena V; Ibbotson, Sally H; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity, and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacologic Nrf2 activation by topical biweekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacologic Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors IL6 and IL1β, and COX2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate endpoint for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation.

  3. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  4. Protective effects of apigenin against furan-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enting; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Furan, a food contaminant formed by heating, is possibly carcinogenic to humans. In this study, we discussed the effect of administration of apigenin on furan-induced toxicity by determining the ROS content, oxidative damage, cytokine levels, DNA damage, and the liver and kidney damage in a mouse model. Our data showed that apigenin administered at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) bw per day could decrease the toxicity induced by furan to different extents. On one hand, apigenin has the ability to increase the oxidative damage indexes of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities but decrease myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of mice treated with furan. On the other hand, it could decrease cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and interleukin (IL)-6 but increase interleukin (IL)-10 in the serum of furan-treated mice. At the same time, the three concentrations of apigenin elected in this paper all could decrease the ROS content, DNA damage index of 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the liver and kidney damage indexes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine content in furan-treated mice to different extents. The protective effects of apigenin against furan-induced toxicity damage were mainly due to its excellent ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid oxidation. This is important when considering the use of apigenin as a dietary supplement for beneficial chemoprevention of furan toxicity.

  5. Nrf2 activation protects against solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Knatko, Elena V.; Ibbotson, Sally H.; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S.; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L.; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated, are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacological Nrf2 activation by topical bi-weekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacological Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane, reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate end-point for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen, and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation. PMID:25804610

  6. Beneficial protective effect of pramipexole on light-induced retinal damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibagaki, Keiichi; Okamoto, Kazuyoshi; Katsuta, Osamu; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of pramipexole, a potent dopamine receptor D2/D3 agonist, on light-induced retinal damage in mice, H2O2-induced retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cell injury in humans, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system. Pramipexole (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to mice 1 h before light exposure (5000 lux, 2 h). Electrophysiological and morphologic studies were performed to evaluate the effects of the pramipexole on light-induced retinal damage in mice. Pramipexole significantly prevented the reduction of the a- and b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes caused by light exposure in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel, damage to the inner and outer segments (IS/OS) of the photoreceptors, loss of photoreceptor nuclei, and the number of Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) caused by light exposure were notably ameliorated by pramipexole. Additionally, pramipexole suppressed H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cell death in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of pramipexole was significant at concentrations of 10(-6) M or higher. Pramipexole also significantly prevented H2O2-induced activation of caspases-3/7 and the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Furthermore, pramipexole increased the scavenging activity toward a hydroxyl radical generated from H2O2 in a Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that pramipexole protects against light-induced retinal damage as an antioxidant and that it may be a novel and effective therapy for retinal degenerative disorders, such as dry age-related macular degeneration.

  7. Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Malekinjad, Hassan; Mardani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treated mice. For this purpose, 32 NMRI mice with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks, weight average 26.0 ± 2.0 g, were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (1) received normal saline (0. 1 mL per day) by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Group 2 (PHZ group) was treated with initial dose of PHZ (8 mg 100 g-1, IP) followed by 6 mg 100 g-1 , IP every 48 hr. Group 3, (Group PHZ+EP) received PHZ (according to the previous prescription) with EP (40 mg kg-1, daily, IP). Ethyl pyruvate group (4) received only EP (40 mg kg-1, daily, IP). Treatment period was 35 days. After euthanasia, sperms from caudal region of epididymis were collected and the total mean sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology were determined. Testis tissue MDA and serum testosterone levels of all experimental groups were also evaluated. A considerable reduction in mean percentage of number, natural morphology of sperm, sperm motility and viability and serum testosterone concentration besides DNA injury increment among mice treating with PHZ in comparison with control group were observed. However, in PHZ+EP group the above mentioned parameters were improved. This study showed that PHZ caused induction of toxicity on sperm parameters and reduction of testosterone as well as the increment of MDA level and EP as an antioxidant could reduce destructive effects of PHZ on sperm parameters, testosterone level and lipid peroxidation. PMID:27226889

  8. Protective effect of Artemisia annua L. extract against galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Seo, Ji Yeon; Liu, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao) has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract) against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model.

  9. Protective Effect of Artemisia annua L. Extract against Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Hye; Seo, Ji Yeon; Liu, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao) has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract) against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model. PMID:24988450

  10. Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengfen; Xia, Yujing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Yin, Qin; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Junshan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to study the protective effects and mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice. In this study, pretreatment with NAC ameliorated the histopathological changes and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in ConA-induced hepatitis. The expression of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was significantly reduced in the NAC-treated groups. NAC activated PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibited the activation of NF-κB. Additionally, NAC reduced autophagosome formation, as assessed by detecting the expression of LC3 and Beclin 1. Our results demonstrate that NAC can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and reducing the late stages of autophagy. Our results described a new pharmaceutical to provide more effective therapies for immune hepatitis. PMID:25821351

  11. Protection of mice from endotoxic death by 2-methylthio-ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, R A; Denlinger, L C; Leventhal, P S; Daugherty, S K; van de Loo, J W; Tanke, T; Firestein, G S; Bertics, P J

    1994-01-01

    The lethal effects of endotoxin, a bacterial product shed into the blood during bacteremia, are thought to be due to macrophage release of mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1. Although much is known about the pathophysiology of endotoxemia, relatively little is known about the cellular signaling mechanisms that are involved. The data in this study suggest that extracellular adenine nucleotides can influence the development of endotoxin shock. An adenine nucleotide analog, 2-methylthio-ATP, inhibited the endotoxin-stimulated release of toxic mediators (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1), and it protected mice from endotoxin-induced death. These studies suggest a fundamental and unusual role for adenine nucleotides on endotoxin action, and they provide a potentially new therapeutic approach for the control of the pathophysiology of Gram-negative septicemia. Images PMID:8016108

  12. A pandemic H1N1 influenza virus-like particle vaccine induces cross-protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Gi-Ja; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) represent promising alternative vaccines. However, it is necessary to demonstrate that influenza VLPs confer cross-protection against antigenically distinct viruses. In this study, a VLP vaccine comprising hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) were used and its ability to induce cross-protective efficacy against heterologous viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) in mice was assessed. Vaccination with 2009 H1 VLPs induced significantly higher levels of IgG cross-reactive with these heterologous viruses after the second boost compared to after the prime or first boost. Lung virus titers also decreased significantly and the lung cross-reactive IgG response after lethal virus challenge was significantly greater in immunized mice compared to naïve mice. Vaccinated mice showed 100% protection against A/PR/8/34 and A/Caledonia/20/99 viruses with only moderate body weight loss and induction of cross-reactive recall, IgG antibody-secreting cell responses. The variations in HA amino acid sequences and antigenic sites were determined and correlated with induction of cross-protective immunity. These results indicate that VLPs can be used as an effective vaccine that confers cross-protection against antigenically distinct viruses.

  13. Protective Effects of Polydatin from Polygonum cuspidatum against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Yu, Cheng-Hao; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Peng, Cheng; He, Kun; Tang, Jian-Yuan; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Polydatin is one of main compounds in Polygonum cuspidatum, a plant with both medicinal and nutritional value. The possible hepatoprotective effects of polydatin on acute liver injury mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and the mechanisms involved were investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (50 µl/kg) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), also a marked enhancement in the expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclearfactor-kappa B (NF-κB). On the other hand, decreased glutathione (GSH) content and activities of glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed following CCl4 exposure. Nevertheless, all of these phenotypes were evidently reversed by preadministration of polydatin for 5 continuous days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were enhanced further by polydatin. These results suggest that polydatin protects mice against CCl4-induced liver injury through antioxidant stress and antiinflammatory effects. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a promising candidate for the treatment of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related diseases. PMID:23029551

  14. Aquaporin-1 Deficiency Protects Against Myocardial Infarction by Reducing Both Edema and Apoptosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihua; Weng, Zhiyong; Yao, Chenjuan; Song, Yuanlin; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have determined that AQP1 plays an important role in edema formation and resolution in various tissues via water transport across the cell membrane. The aim of this research was to determine both if and how AQP1 is associated with cardiac ischemic injury, particularly the development of edema following myocardial infarction (MI). AQP1+/+ and AQP1−/− mice were used to create the MI model. Under physiological conditions, AQP1−/− mice develop normally; however, in the setting of MI, they exhibit cardioprotective properties, as shown by reduced cardiac infarct size determined via NBT staining, improved cardiac function determined via left ventricular catheter measurements, decreased AQP1-dependent myocardial edema determined via water content assays, and decreased apoptosis determined via TUNEL analysis. Cardiac ischemia caused by hypoxia secondary to AQP1 deficiency stabilized the expression of HIF-1α in endothelial cells and subsequently decreased microvascular permeability, resulting in the development of edema. The AQP1-dependent myocardial edema and apoptosis contributed to the development of MI. AQP1 deficiency protected cardiac function from ischemic injury following MI. Furthermore, AQP1 deficiency reduced microvascular permeability via the stabilization of HIF-1α levels in endothelial cells and decreased cellular apoptosis following MI. PMID:26348407

  15. Polymeric inhibitor of influenza virus attachment protects mice from experimental influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Gambaryan, A S; Tuzikov, A B; Chinarev, A A; Juneja, L R; Bovin, N V; Matrosovich, M N

    2002-07-01

    Synthetic sialic acid-containing macromolecules inhibit influenza virus attachment to target cells and suppress the virus-mediated hemagglutination and neutralize virus infectivity in cell culture. To test the protective effects of attachment inhibitors in vivo, mice were infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) and treated with synthetic polyacrylamide-based sialylglycopolymer PAA-YDS bearing moieties of (Neu5Acalpha2-6Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1)2-3,6Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc. Single intranasal inoculations with PAA-YDS 30 min before or 10 min after infection increased the survival of mice (P<0.01). Multiple treatments with aerosolized PAA-YDS on days 2-5 post infection also increased survival (P<0.01), alleviated disease symptoms, and decreased lesions in the mouse lungs. These data suggest that synthetic polyvalent inhibitors of virus attachment can be used for prevention and treatment of influenza.

  16. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Material/Methods Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Results Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:26986029

  17. Heat-stable oral alga-based vaccine protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-02-01

    While 15 million deaths per year are caused by communicable pathogens worldwide, health care authorities emphasize the considerable impact of poverty on the incidence of infectious diseases. The emergence of antigen-expressing plant tissues (e.g. rice, tomato, potato) has indicated the potential of land plants for low-cost vaccines in oral immunization programs. In this study, we engineered the chloroplasts of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the stable expression of the D2 fibronectin-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), under the control of rbcL UTRs. Analysis of sera and faeces of mice, fed for 5 weeks with transgenic algae grown in confined Wave Bioreactor, revealed the induction of specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Algae-based vaccination significantly reduced the pathogen load in the spleen and the intestine of treated mice and protected 80% of them against lethal doses of S. aureus. Importantly, the alga vaccine was stable for more than 1.5 years at room temperature. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii may play an important role in molecular pharming, as it combines the beneficial features of land plant vaccines, while offering unmatched ease of growth compared to other members of the plant kingdom.

  18. Protective effect of allyl methyl disulfide on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongchun; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Kaiming; Liu, Guangpu; Yang, Min; Luan, Yuxia; Zhao, Zhongxi

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sulfur compounds of garlic have shown versatile medicinal activities in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS) was identified as one of the bioactive components in fresh garlic paste in our previous study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of AMDS against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver damage in mice. Results reveal that AMDS significantly alleviates APAP-induced elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in mice. Furthermore, AMDS significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level in liver tissues and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-PX and GSH towards normal levels. IL-6 and TNF-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the serum and liver were clearly increased by acetaminophen-damage (p < 0.05) and AMDS intake significantly suppressed acetaminophen-induced increase of the two cytokines (p < 0.05). The immunohistochemical and pathological analyses showed that AMDS could ameliorate the liver injury through the strong attenuation of the CD45 expression and HNE formation. All the results indicate that AMDS had the ability to protect hepatocytes from APAP-induced liver damage.

  19. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus single-chain variable region fragments provide protection against mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent of bovine mastitis, which can result in significant economic losses to the dairy industry. However, available vaccines against bovine mastitis do not confer adequate protection, although passive immunization with antibodies may be useful to prevent disease. Hence, we constructed a bovine single-chain variable region fragment (scFv) phage display library using cDNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cows with S. aureus-induced mastitis. After four rounds of selection, eight scFvs that bound S. aureus antigens with high affinity were obtained. The framework regions of the variable domains (VH and VL) of the eight scFvs were highly conserved, and the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) displayed significant diversity, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. All eight scFvs inhibited S. aureus growth in culture medium. Lactating mice were challenged by injecting S. aureus into the fourth mammary gland. Histopathological analysis showed that treatment with these scFvs prior to bacterial challenge maintained the structure of the mammary acini, decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, increased levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in mammary tissues, as compared with mice treatment with physiological saline (P < 0.05). These novel bovine scFvs may be suitable candidates for therapeutic agents for the prevention of S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.

  20. Aquaporin-1 Deficiency Protects Against Myocardial Infarction by Reducing Both Edema and Apoptosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihua; Weng, Zhiyong; Yao, Chenjuan; Song, Yuanlin; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have determined that AQP1 plays an important role in edema formation and resolution in various tissues via water transport across the cell membrane. The aim of this research was to determine both if and how AQP1 is associated with cardiac ischemic injury, particularly the development of edema following myocardial infarction (MI). AQP1+/+ and AQP1-/- mice were used to create the MI model. Under physiological conditions, AQP1-/- mice develop normally; however, in the setting of MI, they exhibit cardioprotective properties, as shown by reduced cardiac infarct size determined via NBT staining, improved cardiac function determined via left ventricular catheter measurements, decreased AQP1-dependent myocardial edema determined via water content assays, and decreased apoptosis determined via TUNEL analysis. Cardiac ischemia caused by hypoxia secondary to AQP1 deficiency stabilized the expression of HIF-1α in endothelial cells and subsequently decreased microvascular permeability, resulting in the development of edema. The AQP1-dependent myocardial edema and apoptosis contributed to the development of MI. AQP1 deficiency protected cardiac function from ischemic injury following MI. Furthermore, AQP1 deficiency reduced microvascular permeability via the stabilization of HIF-1α levels in endothelial cells and decreased cellular apoptosis following MI. PMID:26348407

  1. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    PubMed

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  2. Heat-stable oral alga-based vaccine protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-02-01

    While 15 million deaths per year are caused by communicable pathogens worldwide, health care authorities emphasize the considerable impact of poverty on the incidence of infectious diseases. The emergence of antigen-expressing plant tissues (e.g. rice, tomato, potato) has indicated the potential of land plants for low-cost vaccines in oral immunization programs. In this study, we engineered the chloroplasts of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the stable expression of the D2 fibronectin-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), under the control of rbcL UTRs. Analysis of sera and faeces of mice, fed for 5 weeks with transgenic algae grown in confined Wave Bioreactor, revealed the induction of specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Algae-based vaccination significantly reduced the pathogen load in the spleen and the intestine of treated mice and protected 80% of them against lethal doses of S. aureus. Importantly, the alga vaccine was stable for more than 1.5 years at room temperature. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii may play an important role in molecular pharming, as it combines the beneficial features of land plant vaccines, while offering unmatched ease of growth compared to other members of the plant kingdom. PMID:19995584

  3. Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract in mice consuming a high saturated fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-cheng; Hsu, Pei-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2013-02-01

    The protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) in mice consuming a high saturated fat diet (HFD) were examined. HCAE, at 0.5, 1, or 2%, was supplied in drinking water for 8 weeks. HCAE was rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids. HCAE intake at 1 and 2% decreased body weight, epididymal fat, insulin resistance, triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in plasma and liver from HFD-treated mice (p < 0.05). HFD enhanced hepatic activity of malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase; and augmented the hepatic level of saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05). HCAE intake at 2% reduced malic enzyme and FAS activities, and lowered saturated fatty acids content in liver (p < 0.05). HCAE suppressed HFD induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in the heart and liver via reducing the malondialdehyde level, retaining glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 production (p < 0.05). These results support that Houttuynia cordata is a potent food against HFD induced obesity, and oxidative and inflammatory injury. PMID:23165792

  4. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on astrocytes and cerebral ischemic-reperfusion mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenghong; Lai, Xinqiang; Huang, Xiuyan; Zeng, Yaoying

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, has been known to regulate many cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Rg1 on apoptosis in mouse cultured astrocytes in vitro and a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. The cell apoptosis was measured by fluorescence microplate reader and xCELLigence system and the Ca(2+) overload was recorded by confocal microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. BALB/c mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and randomly divided into four groups: Sham (sham-operated +0.9% saline), MCAO (MCAO+0.9% saline), Rg1-L (MCAO+Rg1 20 mg/kg) and Rg1-H (MCAO+Rg1 40 mg/kg). Neurological deficit scores, brain water content and infarct volume were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The results showed that Rg1 significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Rg1 efficiently inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) overload, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and ROS production in astrocytes. In vivo study, it was also observed that Rg1 markedly reduced the neurological deficit scores, brain edema, and infarct volume in the model mice. These results suggest that Rg1 possesses significant neuroprotective effects, which might be related to the prevention of astrocytes from apoptosis. PMID:25451838

  5. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weifeng Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  6. Protective effects of icariin on cisplatin-induced acute renal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pei; Zhang, Sen; Su, Xinlin; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy often causes acute kidney injury in cancer patients. Icariin is a bioactive flavonoid, which has renal protection and anti-inflammation effects. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the attenuation of cisplatin-induced renal injury by icariin. BALB/c mice were treated with cisplatin (15 mg/kg) with or without treatment with icariin (30 or 60 mg/kg for 5 days). Renal function, histological changes, degree of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis were examined. The effects of icariin on cisplatin-induced expression of renal TNF-α, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 family proteins were evaluated. Treatment of mice with cisplatin resulted in renal damage, showing an increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, tubular damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These renal changes could be significantly improved by icariin treatment, especially in high dose of icariin group. Examination of molecules involving inflammation and apoptosis of the kidney revealed that treatment of icariin reduced expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax, increased the expression of BCL-2. These results indicate that icariin ameliorates the cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity via improving renal oxidant status, consequent NF-κB activation and inflammation cascade and apoptosis, and the following disturbed expression of apoptosis related proteins. PMID:26692955

  7. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    PubMed

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide. PMID:17980473

  8. Edaravone protect against retinal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongqing; Xu, Yidan; Hang, Hui; Liu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Ping; Yuan, Songtao; Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Xiaojun; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG). RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes.

  9. Transplantation of human dental pulp-derived stem cells protects against heatstroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp (SHED) is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of SHED for the treatment of multiple organ (including brain, particularly hypothalamus) injury in heatstroke mice. ICR male mice were exposed to whole body heating (WBH; 41.2°C, relative humidity 50-55%, for 1 h) and then returned to normal room temperature (26°C). We observed that intravenous administration of SHED immediately post-WBH exhibited the following therapeutic benefits for recovery after heatstroke: (a) inhibition of WBH-induced neurologic and thermoregulatory deficits; (b) reduction of WBH-induced ischemia, hypoxia, and oxidative damage to the brain (particularly the hypothalamus); (c) attenuation of WBH-induced increased plasma levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (d) improvement of WBH-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity (as reflected by enhanced plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone); and (e) attenuation of WBH-induced multiple organ apoptosis as well as lethality. In conclusion, post-WBH treatment with SHED reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals, enhanced plasma induction of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and improved lethality in mouse heatstroke. The protective effect of SHED may be related to a decreased inflammatory response, decreased oxidative stress, and an increased HPA axis activity following the WBH injury.

  10. A genetically adjuvanted influenza B virus vector increases immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Christian; Wressnigg, Nina; Shurygina, Anna Polina; Wolschek, Markus; Stukova, Marina; Romanovskaya-Romanko, Ekatherina; Romanova, Julia; Kiselev, Oleg; Muster, Thomas; Egorov, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    The existence of multiple antigenically distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses allows the construction of a multivalent vector system for the mucosal delivery of foreign sequences. Influenza A viruses have been exploited successfully for the expression of extraneous antigens as well as immunostimulatory molecules. In this study, we describe the development of an influenza B virus vector whose functional part of the interferon antagonist NS1 was replaced by human interleukin 2 (IL2) as a genetic adjuvant. We demonstrate that IL2 expressed by this viral vector displays immune adjuvant activity in immunized mice. Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to construct influenza B vaccine strains expressing immune-potentiating foreign sequences from the NS genomic segment. Based on these data, it is now hypothetically possible to create a trivalent (or quadrivalent) live attenuated influenza vaccine in which each component expresses a selected genetic adjuvant with tailored expression levels.

  11. Probucol-Induced α-Tocopherol Deficiency Protects Mice against Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Herbas, Maria Shirely; Shichiri, Mototada; Ishida, Noriko; Kume, Aiko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of malaria pathogens having resistance against antimalarials implies the necessity for the development of new drugs. Recently, we have demonstrated a resistance against malaria infection of α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout mice showing undetectable plasma levels of α-tocopherol, a lipid-soluble antioxidant. However, dietary restriction induced α-tocopherol deficiency is difficult to be applied as a clinical antimalarial therapy. Here, we report on a new strategy to potentially treat malaria by using probucol, a drug that can reduce the plasma α-tocopherol concentration. Probucol pre-treatment for 2 weeks and treatment throughout the infection rescued from death of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii XL-17 or P. berghei ANKA. In addition, survival was extended when the treatment started immediately after parasite inoculation. The ratio of lipid peroxidation products to parent lipids increased in plasma after 2 weeks treatment of probucol. This indicates that the protective effect of probucol might be mediated by the oxidative stressful environment induced by α-tocopherol deficiency. Probucol in combination with dihydroartemisin suppressed the proliferation of P. yoelii XL-17. These results indicated that probucol might be a candidate for a drug against malaria infection by inducing α-tocopherol deficiency without dietary α-tocopherol restriction. PMID:26296197

  12. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5ml/100g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3days, and animals were euthanized 4h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression.

  13. Probucol-Induced α-Tocopherol Deficiency Protects Mice against Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Noriko; Kume, Aiko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of malaria pathogens having resistance against antimalarials implies the necessity for the development of new drugs. Recently, we have demonstrated a resistance against malaria infection of α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout mice showing undetectable plasma levels of α-tocopherol, a lipid-soluble antioxidant. However, dietary restriction induced α-tocopherol deficiency is difficult to be applied as a clinical antimalarial therapy. Here, we report on a new strategy to potentially treat malaria by using probucol, a drug that can reduce the plasma α-tocopherol concentration. Probucol pre-treatment for 2 weeks and treatment throughout the infection rescued from death of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii XL-17 or P. berghei ANKA. In addition, survival was extended when the treatment started immediately after parasite inoculation. The ratio of lipid peroxidation products to parent lipids increased in plasma after 2 weeks treatment of probucol. This indicates that the protective effect of probucol might be mediated by the oxidative stressful environment induced by α-tocopherol deficiency. Probucol in combination with dihydroartemisin suppressed the proliferation of P. yoelii XL-17. These results indicated that probucol might be a candidate for a drug against malaria infection by inducing α-tocopherol deficiency without dietary α-tocopherol restriction. PMID:26296197

  14. A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo virus when administered up to 48 h after airborne challenge

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Lyn M. Goodchild, Sarah A.; Phillpotts, Robert J.; Perkins, Stuart D.

    2012-05-10

    Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the V{sub H} and V{sub L} domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.

  15. Protective effect of topical application of α-tocopherol and/or N-acetyl cysteine on argemone oil/alkaloid-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anu; Alam, Shamshad; Singhal, Jaya; Kumar, Rahul; Ansari, Kausar M; Das, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Since bioantioxidants in plasma of Epidemic Dropsy patients [a condition caused by consumption of adulterated mustard oil with argemone oil (AO)] were found to be significantly decreased, the beneficial effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and α-tocopherol (TOCO) against AO- or sanguinarine (SANG)-induced tumorigenicity was undertaken in mice. Topical application of TOCO and NAC either alone or in combination showed significant protection against AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-induced skin tumorigenicity. Histopathological findings suggest that papillomatous growth in AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-treated animals were substantially protected following topical application of TOCO or NAC. Further, treatment of TOCO and NAC either alone or in combination to AO/TPA- or SANG/TPA-induced mice significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, along with significant revival in glutathione (GSH) content and activities of tyrosinase, histidase, catalase, SOD, GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase in skin. In vitro studies showed that TOCO and/or NAC significantly decreased the AO and SANG induced cell proliferation and activation of ERK, p38, JNK MAPKs and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells. In summary, TOCO and NAC may be useful in preventing the tumorigenic response of AO and SANG probably by acting as scavenger of free radicals and inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB signaling.

  16. Intermediate rough Brucella abortus S19Δper mutant is DIVA enable, safe to pregnant guinea pigs and confers protection to mice.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Gogia, Neha; Goswami, Tapas K; Singh, R K; Chaudhuri, Pallab

    2015-05-21

    Brucella abortus S19 is a smooth strain used as live vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for its residual virulence and serological interference. Rough mutants defective of LPS are more attenuated but confers lower level of protection. We describe a modified B. abortus S19 strain, named as S19Δper, which exhibits intermediate rough phenotype with residual O-polysaccharide (OPS). Deletion of perosamine synthetase gene resulted in substantial attenuation of S19Δper mutant without affecting immunogenic properties. It mounted strong immune response in Swiss albino mice and conferred protection similar to S19 vaccine. Immunized mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ, IgG2a and thus has immune response inclined towards Th1 cell mediated immunity. Sera from immunized animals did not show agglutination reaction with RBPT antigen and thus could serve as DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine. S19Δper mutant displayed more susceptibility to serum complement mediated killing and sensitivity to polymyxin B. Pregnant guinea pigs injected with S19Δper mutant completed full term of pregnancy and did not cause abortion, still birth or birth of weak offspring. S19Δper mutant with intermediate rough phenotype displayed remarkable resemblance to S19 vaccine strain with improved properties of safety, immunogenicity and DIVA capability for control of bovine brucellosis.

  17. Transgenic expression of proximal tubule peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in mice confers protection during acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenyang; Nagothu, Kiran K; Desai, Varsha; Lee, Taewon; Branham, William; Moland, Carrie; Megyesi, Judit K; Crew, Mark D; Portilla, Didier

    2009-11-01

    Our previous studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) plays a critical role in regulating fatty acid beta-oxidation in kidney tissue and this directly correlated with preservation of kidney morphology and function during acute kidney injury. To further study this, we generated transgenic mice expressing PPARalpha in the proximal tubule under the control of the promoter of KAP2 (kidney androgen-regulated protein 2). Segment-specific upregulation of PPARalpha expression by testosterone treatment of female transgenic mice improved kidney function during cisplatin or ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Ischemia-reperfusion injury or treatment with cisplatin in wild-type mice caused inhibition of fatty-acid oxidation, reduction of mitochondrial genes of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA, fatty-acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Similar injury in testosterone-treated transgenic mice resulted in amelioration of these effects. Similarly, there were increases in the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-derived lipid peroxidation products in wild-type mice, which were also reduced in the transgenic mice. Similarly, necrosis of the S3 segment was reduced in the two injury models in transgenic mice compared to wild type. Our results suggest proximal tubule PPARalpha activity serves as a metabolic sensor. Its increased expression without the use of an exogenous PPARalpha ligand in the transgenic mice is sufficient to protect kidney function and morphology, and to prevent abnormalities in lipid metabolism associated with acute kidney injury.

  18. Critical Role of Interleukin-11 in Isoflurane-mediated Protection against Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Mihwa; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; Yeh, James; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoflurane releases renal tubular transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and protects against ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). Recent studies suggest that TGF-β1 can induce a cytoprotective cytokine interleukin (IL)-11. Here, we tested the hypothesis that isoflurane protects against ischemic AKI by direct induction of renal tubular IL-11 synthesis. Methods Human kidney proximal tubule (HK-2) cells were treated with 1.25-2.5% isoflurane or carrier gas (room air+5% carbon dioxide) for 0-16 h. We also anesthetized C57BL/6 mice with 1.2% isoflurane or with equi-anesthetic dose of pentobarbital for 4 h. In addition, we subjected IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) wild type, IL-11R deficient or IL-11 neutralized mice to 30-min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion under 4 h of pentobarbital or isoflurane (1.2%) anesthesia. Results Isoflurane increased IL-11 synthesis in human (~300-500% increase, N = 6) and mouse (23 ± 4 (mean ± SD) fold over carrier gas group, N = 4) proximal tubule cells that were attenuated by a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Mice anesthetized with isoflurane showed significantly increased kidney IL-11 messenger RNA (13.8 ± 2 fold over carrier gas group, N = 4) and protein (31 ± 9 vs. 18±2 pg/mg protein or ~80% increase, N = 4) expression compared to pentobarbital anesthetized mice and this increase was also attenuated by a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, isoflurane-mediated renal protection in IL-11R wild-type mice were absent in IL-11R deficient mice or in IL-11R wild-type mice treated with IL-11 neutralizing antibody (N = 4-6). Conclusions Our studies suggest that isoflurane induces renal tubular IL-11 via TGF-β1 signaling to protect against ischemic AKI. PMID:24037316

  19. The Phosphocholine-binding Pocket on C-reactive Protein Is Necessary for Initial Protection of Mice against Pneumococcal Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Toh B.; Hammond, David J.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Ferguson, Donald A.; Mishra, Vinod K.; Agrawal, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP) protects mice from lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection when injected into mice within the range of 6 h before to 2 h after the administration of pneumococci. Because CRP binds to phosphocholine-containing substances and subsequently activates the complement system, it has been proposed that the antipneumococcal function of CRP requires the binding of CRP to phosphocholine moieties present in pneumococcal cell wall C-polysaccharide. To test this proposal experimentally, in this study, we utilized a new CRP mutant incapable of binding to phosphocholine. Based on the structure of CRP-phosphocholine complexes, which showed that Phe66, Thr76, and Glu81 formed the phosphocholine-binding pocket, we constructed a CRP mutant F66A/T76Y/E81A in which the pocket was blocked by substituting Tyr for Thr76. When compared with wild-type CRP, mutant CRP bound more avidly to phosphoethanolamine and could be purified by affinity chromatography using phosphoethanolamine-conjugated Sepharose. Mutant CRP did not bind to phosphocholine, C-polysaccharide, or pneumococci. Mutant CRP was free in the mouse serum, and its rate of clearance in vivo was not faster than that of wild-type CRP. When either 25 μg or 150 μg of CRP was administered into mice, unlike wild-type CRP, mutant CRP did not protect mice from lethal pneumococcal infection. Mice injected with mutant CRP had higher mortality rates than mice that received wild-type CRP. Decreased survival was due to the increased bacteremia in mice treated with mutant CRP. We conclude that the phosphocholine-binding pocket on CRP is necessary for CRP-mediated initial protection of mice against lethal pneumococcal infection. PMID:23139417

  20. The phosphocholine-binding pocket on C-reactive protein is necessary for initial protection of mice against pneumococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Gang, Toh B; Hammond, David J; Singh, Sanjay K; Ferguson, Donald A; Mishra, Vinod K; Agrawal, Alok

    2012-12-14

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP) protects mice from lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection when injected into mice within the range of 6 h before to 2 h after the administration of pneumococci. Because CRP binds to phosphocholine-containing substances and subsequently activates the complement system, it has been proposed that the antipneumococcal function of CRP requires the binding of CRP to phosphocholine moieties present in pneumococcal cell wall C-polysaccharide. To test this proposal experimentally, in this study, we utilized a new CRP mutant incapable of binding to phosphocholine. Based on the structure of CRP-phosphocholine complexes, which showed that Phe(66), Thr(76), and Glu(81) formed the phosphocholine-binding pocket, we constructed a CRP mutant F66A/T76Y/E81A in which the pocket was blocked by substituting Tyr for Thr(76). When compared with wild-type CRP, mutant CRP bound more avidly to phosphoethanolamine and could be purified by affinity chromatography using phosphoethanolamine-conjugated Sepharose. Mutant CRP did not bind to phosphocholine, C-polysaccharide, or pneumococci. Mutant CRP was free in the mouse serum, and its rate of clearance in vivo was not faster than that of wild-type CRP. When either 25 μg or 150 μg of CRP was administered into mice, unlike wild-type CRP, mutant CRP did not protect mice from lethal pneumococcal infection. Mice injected with mutant CRP had higher mortality rates than mice that received wild-type CRP. Decreased survival was due to the increased bacteremia in mice treated with mutant CRP. We conclude that the phosphocholine-binding pocket on CRP is necessary for CRP-mediated initial protection of mice against lethal pneumococcal infection. PMID:23139417

  1. Protective Role of Crocin Against Nicotine-induced Damages on Male Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Tabatabaei, Hadis; Kakaberiei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in liver and causes devastating effects. Crocin is the chemical ingredient primarily responsible for the color of saffron. It has different pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anticancer. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of crocin against nicotine on the liver of mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were equally divided into 8 groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin plus nicotine treated groups. Saline, crocin, nicotine and crocin/nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight (48.37%) and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (239%), central hepatic vein (28.45%), liver enzymes level (ALP 29.43%, AST 21.81%, ALT 21.55%), and blood serum nitric oxide level (57.18%) compared to saline group (P < 0.05). However, crocin and crocin plus nicotine administration significantly boosted liver weight (49.54%) and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte (40.48%), central hepatic vein (15.44%), liver enzymes (ALP 22.02%, AST 19.05%, ALT 23.11%), and nitric oxide levels (35.80%) in all groups compared to nicotine group (percentages represent the maximum dose) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Crocin showed its partly protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26442615

  2. A nonreplicating subunit vaccine protects mice against lethal Ebola virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Dye, John M; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Piensook, Khanrat; Pratt, William D; Arntzen, Charles J; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2011-12-20

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute and often deadly disease caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The possible intentional use of this virus against human populations has led to design of vaccines that could be incorporated into a national stockpile for biological threat reduction. We have evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of an EBOV vaccine candidate in which the viral surface glycoprotein is biomanufactured as a fusion to a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in glycoprotein, resulting in the production of Ebola immune complexes (EICs). Although antigen-antibody immune complexes are known to be efficiently processed and presented to immune effector cells, we found that codelivery of the EIC with Toll-like receptor agonists elicited a more robust antibody response in mice than did EIC alone. Among the compounds tested, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC, a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist) was highly effective as an adjuvant agent. After vaccinating mice with EIC plus PIC, 80% of the animals were protected against a lethal challenge with live EBOV (30,000 LD(50) of mouse adapted virus). Surviving animals showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to the antigen, suggesting this may be important for protection. Survival after vaccination with EIC plus PIC was statistically equivalent to that achieved with an alternative viral vector vaccine candidate reported in the literature. Because nonreplicating subunit vaccines offer the possibility of formulation for cost-effective, long-term storage in biothreat reduction repositories, EIC is an attractive option for public health defense measures. PMID:22143779

  3. Epigallocatechin gallate eye drops protect against ultraviolet B–induced corneal oxidative damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight is a known risk factor for human corneal injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on UVB radiation–induced corneal oxidative damage in male imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Methods Corneal oxidative damage was induced by exposure to UVB radiation at 560 μW/cm2. The animals received 0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% EGCG eye drops at a 5 mg/ml dose, twice daily for 8 days. Corneal surface damage was graded according to smoothness and the extent of lissamine green staining. Corneal glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and protein carbonyl levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity in the cornea, were measured to monitor corneal injury. Results UVB radiation caused significant damage to the corneas, including apparent corneal ulceration and severe epithelial exfoliation, leading to a decrease in SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, and GSH activity in the cornea. However, the corneal TBARS and protein carbonyls increased compared with the control group. Treatment with EGCG eye drops significantly (p<0.05) ameliorated corneal damage, increased SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, and GSH activity, and decreased the TBARS and protein carbonyls in the corneas compared with the UVB-treated group. Conclusions EGCG eye drops exhibit potent protective effects on UVB radiation–induced corneal oxidative damage in mice, likely due to the increase in antioxidant defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. PMID:24520184

  4. Protective effect of pretreatment with thymoquinone against Aflatoxin B1 induced liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nili-Ahmadabadi, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, GR.; Rahimi, HR.; Sabzevari, O.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the active components of Nigella sativa. The plant has been used in herbal medicine for treatment of many diseases including liver complications. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of TQ on Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced liver toxicity in mice. Methods Animals were divided into six groups and treated intraperitoneally. Group 1 (blank) served as vehicle, group 2 (positive control) received AFB1, Group 3 was treated with 9 mg/kg of TQ, Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 4.5, 9 and 18 mg/kg of TQ, respectively. After three consecutive days, except for groups 1 and 3, animals were administered with a single dose of AFB1 (2 mg/kg). All the animals were killed 24 hrs following the AFB1 administration under ether anesthesia. Biochemical parameters including AST, ALT and ALP in serum samples and glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver homogenates were determined. Liver sections were collected for histopathological examination. Results Findings of this study showed that AST, ALT, ALP and MDA levels were significantly lower in the TQ treated animals as compared to AFB1 group (group 2). Furthermore, TQ was able to recover glutathione content (GSH) of liver tissue. The best response, however, was observed with the dose of 9 mg/kg. Liver sections of AFB1 intoxicated mice showed inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia of kupffer and infiltration of mononuclear cells, dilation of sinusoids and disruption of hepatocytes, while treatment with TQ helped to normalize liver architecture in accordance to biochemical findings. Conclusion Taken collectively, TQ has a protective role with optimum dose of 9 mg/kg in AFB1 hepatotoxicity. PMID:22615670

  5. Probing the Attenuation and Protective Efficacy of a Candidate Chikungunya Virus Vaccine in Mice with Compromised Interferon (IFN) Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Partidos, Charalambos D.; Weger, James; Brewoo, Joseph; Seymour, Robert; Borland, Erin M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Powers, Ann M.; Weaver, Scott C.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes explosive outbreaks of febrile illness associated with rash, and painful arthralgia. The CHIK vaccine strain 181/clone25 (181/25) developed by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) was shown to be well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in phase I and II clinical trials although it induced transient arthralgia in some healthy adult volunteers. In an attempt to better understand the host factors that are involved in the attenuating phenotype of CHIK 181/25 vaccine virus we conducted studies in interferon (IFN)-compromised mice and also evaluated its immunogenic potential and protective capacity. Infection of AG129 mice (defective in IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor signaling) with CHIK 181/25 resulted in rapid mortality within 3-4 days. In contrast, all infected A129 mice (defective in IFN-α/β receptor signaling) survived with temporary morbidity characterized by ruffled appearance and body weight loss. A129 heterozygote mice that retain partial IFN-α/β receptor signaling activity remained healthy. Infection of A129 mice with CHIK 181/25 induced significant levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 while the inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6 remained low. A single administration of the CHIK 181/25 vaccine provided both short-term and long-term protection (38 days and 247 days post-prime, respectively) against challenge with wt CHIKV-La Reunion (CHIKV-LR). This protection was at least partially mediated by antibodies since passively transferred immune serum protected both A129 and AG129 mice from wt CHIKV-LR and 181/25 virus challenge. Overall, these data highlight the importance of IFNs in controlling CHIK 181/25 vaccine and demonstrate the ability of this vaccine to elicit neutralizing antibody responses that confer short-and long-term protection against wt CHIKV-LR challenge. PMID:21300099

  6. The protective effect of Esculentoside A on experimental acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Xingtong; Qiu, Xiaochen; Wang, Junjie; Fang, He; Wang, Zhihong; Sun, Yu; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The present study is to evaluate the protective effect of EsA on CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. In vitro, CCK-8 assays showed that EsA had no cytotoxicity, while it significantly reduced levels of TNF-α and cell death rate challenged by CCl4. Moreover, EsA treatment up-regulated PPAR-γ expression of LO2 cells and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenged by CCl4. In vivo, EsA prevented mice from CCl4-induced liver histopathological damage. In addition, levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased by EsA treatment. Furthermore, the mice treated with EsA had a lower level of TNF-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mRNA expression. EsA prevented MDA release and increased GSH-Px activity in liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of F4/80 and CD11b were markedly inhibited by EsA. The western bolt results showed that EsA significantly inhibited CCl4-induced phosphonated IkBalpha (P-IκB) and ERK. Furthermore, EsA treatment also alleviated GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury on liver enzyme and histopathological damage. Unfortunately, our results exhibited that EsA had no effects on CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis which were showed by TUNEL staining and Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. Our results proved that EsA treatment attenuated CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and its protective effects might be involved in inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but not apoptosis with its underlying mechanism associated with PPAR-γ, NF-κB and ERK signal

  7. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Kashentseva, Elena A.; Yeh, Anthony J.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Curiel, David T.; Leppla, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  8. Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Matisz, Chelsea E; Leung, Gabriella; Reyes, Jose Luis; Wang, Arthur; Sharkey, Keith A; McKay, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    Infection with helminth parasites and treatment with worm extracts can suppress inflammatory disease, including colitis. Postulating that dendritic cells (DCs) participated in the suppression of inflammation and seeking to move beyond the use of helminths per se, we tested the ability of Hymenolepis diminuta antigen-pulsed DCs to suppress colitis as a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with H. diminuta antigen (HD-DCs), or PBS-, BSA-, or LPS-DCs as controls, were transferred into wild-type (WT), interleukin-10 (IL-10) knock-out (KO), and RAG-1 KO mice, and the impact on dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis and splenic cytokine production assessed 72 h later. Mice receiving HD-DCs were significantly protected from DNBS-induced colitis and of the experimental groups only these mice displayed increased Th2 cytokines and IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of HD-DCs protected neither RAG-1 nor IL-10 KO mice from DNBS-colitis. Furthermore, the transfer of CD4(+) splenocytes from recipients of HD-DCs protected naïve mice against DNBS-colitis, in an IL-10 dependent manner. Thus, HD-DCs are a novel anti-colitic immunotherapy that can educate anti-colitic CD4(+) T cells: mechanistically, the anti-colitic effect of HD-DCs requires that the host has an adaptive immune response and the ability to mobilize IL-10.

  9. Immunization of Mice With Vibrio cholerae Outer-Membrane Vesicles Protects Against Hyperinfectious Challenge and Blocks Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L.; Tarique, Abdullah A.; Patimalla, Bharathi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vibrio cholerae excreted by cholera patients is “hyperinfectious” (HI), which can be modeled by passage through infant mice. Immunization of adult female mice with V. cholerae outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) passively protects suckling mice from challenge. Although V. cholerae is unable to colonize protected pups, the bacteria survive passage and have the potential to be transmitted to susceptible individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of OMV immunization and the HI state on V. cholerae transmission. Methods. Neonatal mice suckled by OMV- or sham-immunized dams were challenged with HI V. cholerae. The infectivity of spatially and temporally separate V. cholerae populations obtained from infected naive or protected pups was tested. Recombination-based in vivo expression technology was used to assess virulence gene expression within these populations. Results. OMV immunization significantly reduced colonization of neonates challenged with HI V. cholerae. Vibrio cholerae that had colonized the naive host was HI, whereas V. cholerae excreted by neonates born to OMV-immunized dams, although viable, was hypoinfectious and failed to fully induce virulence gene expression. Conclusions. OMV immunization can significantly reduce the V. cholerae burden upon challenge with HI V. cholerae and can also block transmission from immune mice by reducing the infectivity of shed bacteria. PMID:22147790

  10. Neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl-2 protooncogene in transgenic mice are protected from axotomy-induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Dauphin, M; Frankowski, H; Tsujimoto, Y; Huarte, J; Martinou, J C

    1994-01-01

    In vitro, the overexpression of the bcl-2 protooncogene in cultured neurons has been shown to prevent apoptosis induced by neurotrophic factor deprivation. We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing the Bcl-2 protein in neurons, including motoneurons of the facial nucleus. We have tested whether Bcl-2 could protect these motoneurons from experimentally induced cell death in new born mice. To address this question, we performed unilateral lesion of the facial nerve of wild-type and transgenic 2-day-old mice. In wild-type mice, the lesioned nerve and the corresponding motoneuron cell bodies in the facial nucleus underwent rapid degeneration. In contrast, in transgenic mice, facial motoneurons survived axotomy. Not only their cell bodies but also their axons were protected up to the lesion site. These results demonstrate that in vivo Bcl-2 protects neonatal motoneurons from degeneration after axonal injury. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 prevents neuronal cell death in vivo could lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of motoneuron degenerative diseases. Images PMID:8159744

  11. Short-Term Long Chain Omega3 Diet Protects from Neuroinflammatory Processes and Memory Impairment in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joffre, Corinne; Costes, Laurence; Aubert, Agnès; Grégoire, Stéphane; Bretillon, Lionel; Layé, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects. PMID:22662127

  12. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelschenbach, Jennifer L; Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Chao, Wei; Bentsman, Galina; Hong, Jessie P; Hanke, Tomas; Sharer, Leroy R; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2012-06-01

    Infection by some viruses induces immunity to reinfection, providing a means to identify protective epitopes. To investigate resistance to reinfection in an animal model of HIV disease and its control, we employed infection of mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV. When immunocompetent mice were infected by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EcoHIV, they resisted subsequent secondary infection by IP injection, consistent with a systemic antiviral immune response. To investigate the potential role of these responses in restricting neurotropic HIV infection, we established a protocol for efficient EcoHIV expression in the brain following intracranial (IC) inoculation of virus. When mice were inoculated by IP injection and secondarily by IC injection, they also controlled EcoHIV replication in the brain. To investigate their role in EcoHIV antiviral responses, CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from spleens of EcoHIV infected and uninfected mice and adoptively transferred to isogenic recipients. Recipients of EcoHIV primed CD8+ cells resisted subsequent EcoHIV infection compared to recipients of cells from uninfected donors. CD8+ spleen cells from EcoHIV-infected mice also mounted modest but significant interferon-γ responses to two HIV Gag peptide pools. These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings.

  13. CD8 Knockout Mice Are Protected from Challenge by Vaccination with WR201, a Live Attenuated Mutant of Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Yingst, Samuel L.; Hoover, David L.

    2013-01-01

    CD8+ T cells have been reported to play an important role in defense against B. abortus infection in mouse models. In the present report, we use CD8 knockout mice to further elucidate the role of these cells in protection from B. melitensis infection. Mice were immunized orally by administration of B. melitensis WR201, a purine auxotrophic attenuated vaccine strain, then challenged intranasally with B. melitensis 16M. In some experiments, persistence of WR201 in the spleens of CD8 knockout mice was slightly longer than that in the spleens of normal mice. However, development of anti-LPS serum antibody, antigen-induced production of γ-interferon (IFN-γ) by immune splenic lymphocytes, protection against intranasal challenge, and recovery of nonimmunized animals from intranasal challenge were similar between normal and knockout animals. Further, primary Brucella infection was not exacerbated in perforin knockout and Fas-deficient mice and these animals' anti-Brucella immune responses were indistinguishable from those of normal mice. These results indicate that CD8+ T cells do not play an essential role as either cytotoxic cells or IFN-γ producers, yet they do participate in a specific immune response to immunization and challenge in this murine model of B. melitensis infection. PMID:24288554

  14. The protective effect of astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Li, Yi; He, Lei; Tang, Yamei; Li, Xiangpen; Shen, Qingyu; Yin, Deling; Peng, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant with the ability of reducing the markers of inflammation. To explore the protective effect of astaxanthin on maternal ethanol induced embryonic deficiency, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we detected the morphology, expression of neural marker genes, oxidative stress indexes, and inflammatory factors in mice model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder with or without astaxanthin pretreatment. Our results showed that astaxanthin blocked maternal ethanol induced retardation of embryonic growth, and the down-regulation of neural marker genes, Otx1 and Sox2. Moreover, astaxanthin also reversed the increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the decrease of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. In addition, maternal ethanol induced up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the down-streaming myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-1β in embryos, and this was inhibited by astaxanthin pretreatment. These results demonstrated a protective effect of astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and suggested that oxidative stress and TLR4 signaling associated inflammatory reaction are involved in this process.

  15. Spirulina maxima and its protein extract protect against hydroxyurea-teratogenic insult in mice.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Jorge; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Pérez-Pastén-Borja, Ricardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2009-11-01

    Congenital malformations are one of the major causes of child mortality all over the world. In order to prevent them it is necessary to find substances that act as anti-teratogenic agents. In this study hydroxyurea (HU), an antineoplastic and teratogenic drug, was administered to pregnant mice because one of its major mechanisms of teratogenesis is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this work was to determine if Spirulina maxima (SP) and its aqueous protein extract could protect against HU-teratogenic insult in mouse embryos. SP has been used for a long time because of its nutritional and pharmacological properties. The antioxidant activity, one of the most important, is related to the protein extract due to its content of phycobiliproteins. It was observed that neither SP nor its extract provoked teratogenic effects at any dose tested and even increased vitelline yolk sac circulation. Dams exposed to HU (30 mg/kg, i.p.) presented embryos with multiple alterations in their development. Groups treated with SP or its extract, before and after HU exposure, showed a protector effect in a dose-dependent manner. TBARS test confirmed that the protection effect was related to the antioxidant activity of both SP and its extract.

  16. Human very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons can protect against endotoxin-induced death in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, H W; Grunfeld, C; Feingold, K R; Rapp, J H

    1990-01-01

    Endotoxemia stimulates many physiologic responses including disturbances in lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this lipemia may be part of a defensive mechanism by which the body combats the toxic effects of circulating endotoxin. We tested the effects of mixtures of endotoxin, lipoproteins, and lipoprotein-free plasma and determined the ability of varying concentrations of human very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, as well as low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL), and of the synthetic lipid emulsion SOYACAL to prevent endotoxin-induced death in mice. This study demonstrates that the triglyceride-rich VLDL and chylomicrons, as well as cholesterol-rich LDL and HDL, and cholesterol-free SOYACAL can protect against endotoxin-induced death. Protection required small amounts of lipoprotein-free plasma, and depended on the incubation time and the concentration of lipoprotein lipid. Despite stringent techniques to prevent exogenous endotoxin contamination eight of ten duplicate VLDL preparations contained endotoxin (5,755 +/- 3,514 ng endotoxin/mg triglyceride, mean +/- SEM) making the isolation of endotoxin-free VLDL difficult. In contrast, simultaneous preparations of LDL and HDL were relatively free of endotoxin contamination (3 +/- 3 and 320 +/- 319 ng/mg total cholesterol, respectively), suggesting that the contamination of VLDL occurs in vivo and not during the isolation procedure. These observations suggest a possible role for increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the host's defense against endotoxemia and infection. Images PMID:2394827

  17. Prolonged treatment of fair-skinned mice with topical forskolin causes persistent tanning and UV protection.

    PubMed

    Spry, Malinda L; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy; Abona-Ama, Osama; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John A

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that topical application of forskolin to the skin of fair-skinned MC1R-defective mice with epidermal melanocytes resulted in accumulation of eumelanin in the epidermis and was highly protective against UV-mediated cutaneous injury. In this report, we describe the long-term effects of chronic topical forskolin treatment in this animal model. Forskolin-induced eumelanin production persisted through 3 months of daily applications, and forskolin-induced eumelanin remained protective against UV damage as assessed by minimal erythematous dose (MED). No obvious toxic changes were noted in the skin or overall health of animals exposed to prolonged forskolin therapy. Body weights were maintained throughout the course of topical forskolin application. Topical application of forskolin was associated with an increase in the number of melanocytes in the epidermis and thickening of the epidermis due, at least in part, to an accumulation of nucleated keratinocytes. Together, these data suggest in this animal model, short-term topical regular application of forskolin promotes eumelanin induction and that over time, topical forskolin treatment is associated with persistent melanization, epidermal cell accumulation, and skin thickening.

  18. Protecting effect of caffeine against vinblastine (an anticancer drug) induced genotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Geriyol, Prakash; Basavanneppa, Hosetti Basaling; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-04-01

    Vinblastine a DNA non-intercalating agent has wide application against several human neoplasms, and found to cause cytogenotoxicity. In this study, clastogenotoxicity of vinblastine (1.5 mg/kg b w) and its prevention by caffeine at different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b w) administered intraperitoneally was assessed in in vivo mice. It was found that micronucleus level had decreased significantly (up to 28.8%) in 100 mg caffeine treated group at 30 h post treatment. However, it did not exhibit protective effect against chromosomal aberration in spaermatogonial cells at 24 h post treatment. The frequencies of aberrant primary spermatocytes had decreased significantly in 25 and 100 mg caffeine at 4th week of post treatment. Similarly, in 100 mg of caffeine administered, abnormal sperm level had reduced (4.01%) significantly at 8th week post treatment. Thus, caffeine decreased the vinblastine induced chromosomal aberrations and mitotic index in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, this study shows that caffeine exerts protective effect against vinblastin induced cytogenotoxicity. Further studies on molecular mechanism are interesting in order to develop it as an effective drug in cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Protective effect of a polysaccharide from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae on acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Gao, Yang; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Lan; Shang, Zuhui; Wang, Shuang; Pei, Jin

    2016-06-01

    A homogeneous polysaccharide was isolated and purified from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM) and named PRAM2. Its average molecular weight was 19.6×10(3)Da and it was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose in a ratio of 1: 1.3: 1.5: 1.8: 2.1: 3.2. In vitro experiments confirmed that PRAM2 presented an obvious effect to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. In vivo experiments confirmed that PRAM2 could reduce the liver weight, liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum; meanwhile, PRAM2 could significantly reduce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in the liver tissues, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. These results suggest that PRAM2 has a significant in vitro antioxidant activity and a protective effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice; the protective effect may be related to its anti-oxidation, its inhibition of NOS activity and NO level and its reduction of the production of free radicals.

  20. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis. PMID:27294161

  1. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses.

  2. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  3. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. PMID:26590117

  4. Self-specific memory regulatory T cells protect embryos at implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Courau, Tristan; Churlaud, Guillaume; Valdivia, Karina; Strominger, Jack L.; Ruocco, Maria Grazia; Chaouat, Gérard; Klatzmann, David

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play crucial roles in both fetal and tumor development. We recently showed that immunosurveillance by pre-existing CD44hiCD62Llow activated/memory Tregs (amTregs) specific for self-antigens protects emergent tumor cells in mice. This Treg response of a memory type is more rapid than and dominates the anti-tumor response of tumor-specific effector T cells. Here, we report striking similarities between the early Treg responses to embryo and tumor implantation. Tregs are (i) rapidly recruited to uterus-draining lymph nodes and activated in the first days after embryo implantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic matings; (ii) they express the markers of the amTreg subset; and (iii) are at least in part self-antigen-specific, as seen in tumor emergence. Unlike in the tumor emergence setting, however, for which pre-immunization against tumor antigens is sufficient for complete tumor eradication even in the presence of Tregs, Treg depletion is additionally required for high frequencies of fetus loss after pre-immunization against paternal tissue antigens. Thus, amTregs play a major role in protecting embryos in both naïve and pre-immune settings. This role and the ensuing therapeutic potential are further highlighted by showing that Treg stimulation, directly by low-dose interleukin-2 or indirectly by Fms-related tyrosine-kinase-3 ligand, lead to normal pregnancy rates in a spontaneous abortion-prone model. PMID:23913969

  5. The small-molecule BGP-15 protects against heart failure and atrial fibrillation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Geeta; Tham, Yow Keat; Cemerlang, Nelly; Matsumoto, Aya; Kiriazis, Helen; Bernardo, Bianca C; Henstridge, Darren C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Pretorius, Lynette; Boey, Esther J H; Lim, Lydia; Sadoshima, Junichi; Meikle, Peter J; Mellet, Natalie A; Woodcock, Elizabeth A; Marasco, Silvana; Ueyama, Tomomi; Du, Xiao-Jun; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2014-12-09

    Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) share common risk factors, frequently coexist and are associated with high mortality. Treatment of HF with AF represents a major unmet need. Here we show that a small molecule, BGP-15, improves cardiac function and reduces arrhythmic episodes in two independent mouse models, which progressively develop HF and AF. In these models, BGP-15 treatment is associated with increased phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), which is depressed in atrial tissue samples from patients with AF. Cardiac-specific IGF1R transgenic overexpression in mice with HF and AF recapitulates the protection observed with BGP-15. We further demonstrate that BGP-15 and IGF1R can provide protection independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and heat-shock protein 70; signalling mediators often defective in the aged and diseased heart. As BGP-15 is safe and well tolerated in humans, this study uncovers a potential therapeutic approach for HF and AF.

  6. Protection of mice against syngeneic C1300 neuroblastoma challenge by immunization with membranes of C1300 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lauro, G; Businaro, R; Butler, R H; Revoltella, R

    1980-05-01

    Male A/J mice 2-3 months old were inoculated sc with membranes from syngeneic C1300 neuroblastoma cells (clone NB6R) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Significant immunoprophylaxis was noted in the sensitized mice upon sc challenge with viable NB6R cells. During the experiment (60 days from viable cell challenge), each control mouse developed a palpable tumor and died within 50 days. Complete protection was obtained with a program of 4 inoculations of NB6R cell membranes. Each mouse given only 1 inoculation of NB6R cell membranes developed a palpable tumor, but afer 60 days only 1 mouse in 7 had died, which indicated a significant degree of protection. With in vitro tests of lymphocyte proliferation, rosette formation, and complement fixation, it was shown that these mice had mounted both cellular and humoral immune response against the tumor cells.

  7. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  8. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    PubMed

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum. PMID:25178969

  9. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    PubMed

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum.

  10. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer: A pharmacological assessment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaccob, Ausama Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Since there is an increasing need for gastric ulcer therapies with optimum benefit-risk profile. This study was conducted to investigate gastro-protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models in mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 mice were allocated into six groups consisted of 7 mice each. Groups 1 (normal control) and 2 (ulcer control) received distilled water at a dose of 10 ml/kg, groups 3, 4 and 5 were given NAC at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and the 6th group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg). All drugs administered orally once daily for 7 days, on the 8th day absolute ethanol (7 ml/kg) was administrated orally to all mice to induce the acute ulcer except normal control group. Then 3 h after, all animals were sacrificed then consequently the stomachs were excised for examination. Results: NAC administration at the tested doses showed a dose-related potent gastro-protective effect with significant increase in curative ratio, PH of gastric juice and mucus content viscosity seen with the highest dose of NAC and it is comparable with that observed in ranitidine group. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that, oral NAC shows significant gastro-protective effects comparable to ranitidine confirmed by anti-secretory, cytoprotective, histological and biochemical data, but the molecular mechanisms behind such protection are complex. PMID:26401392

  11. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitic (NASH) mice are protected from higher hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen upon induction of PPAR{alpha} with clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bhave, Vishakha S.; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-08-01

    The objective was to investigate if the hepatotoxic sensitivity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic mice to acetaminophen (APAP) is due to downregulation of nuclear receptor PPAR{alpha} via lower cell division and tissue repair. Male Swiss Webster mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet for 31 days exhibited NASH. On the 32nd day, a marginally toxic dose of APAP (360 mg/kg, ip) yielded 70% mortality in steatohepatitic mice, while all non steatohepatitic mice receiving the same dose survived. {sup 14}C-APAP covalent binding, CYP2E1 protein, and enzyme activity did not differ from the controls, obviating increased APAP bioactivation as the cause of amplified APAP hepatotoxicity. Liver injury progressed only in steatohepatitic livers between 6 and 24 h. Cell division and tissue repair assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation and PCNA were inhibited only in the steatohepatitic mice given APAP suggesting that higher sensitivity of NASH liver to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was due to lower tissue repair. The hypothesis that impeded liver tissue repair in steatohepatitic mice was due to downregulation of PPAR{alpha} was tested. PPAR{alpha} was downregulated in NASH. To investigate whether downregulation of PPAR{alpha} in NASH is the critical mechanism of compromised liver tissue repair, PPAR{alpha} was induced in steatohepatitic mice with clofibrate (250 mg/kg for 3 days, ip) before injecting APAP. All clofibrate pretreated steatohepatitic mice receiving APAP exhibited lower liver injury, which did not progress and the mice survived. The protection was not due to lower bioactivation of APAP but due to higher liver tissue repair. These findings suggest that inadequate PPAR{alpha} expression in steatohepatitic mice sensitizes them to APAP hepatotoxicity.

  12. T-Cell Immune Response Assessment as a Complement to Serology and Intranasal Protection Assays in Determining the Protective Immunity Induced by Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ausiello, C. M.; Lande, R.; Stefanelli, P.; Fazio, C.; Fedele, G.; Palazzo, R.; Urbani, F.; Mastrantonio, P.

    2003-01-01

    The relative value of antibodies and/or T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens in the immunity induced by acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines is still an open issue, probably due to the incomplete knowledge on the mechanisms of protective immunity to pertussis. The relevance of T-cell immune responses in protection from pertussis has been demonstrated in murine and human models of infection; thus, in this study, the ability of different vaccine preparations of three component (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin) aP vaccines to induce T-cell responses was investigated in mice. All vaccine preparations examined passed the immunogenicity control test, based on antibody titer assessment, according to European Pharmacopoeia standards, and protected mice from B. pertussis intranasal challenge, but not all preparations were able to prime T cells to pertussis toxin, the specific B. pertussis antigen. In particular, one vaccine preparation was unable to induce proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production while the other two gave borderline results. The evaluation of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin antigen may provide information on the protective immunity induced by aP vaccines in animal models. Considering the critical role of the axis interleukin-12-IFN-γ for protection from pertussis, our results suggest that testing the induction of a key protective cytokine such as IFN-γ could be an additional tool for the evaluation of the immune response induced by aP vaccines. PMID:12853397

  13. Modulation of IL-12 and IFNγ by probiotic supplementation promotes protection against Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    de Avila, L F D C; de Leon, P M M; de Moura, M Q; Berne, M E A; Scaini, C J; Leivas Leite, F P

    2016-05-01

    In this study, supplementation with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii promoted a reduction in intensity of infection by Toxocara canis and modulates cytokines mRNA expression in experimentally infected mice. IL-12 gene transcription had 40-fold increase in S. boulardii supplemented uninfected mice and sevenfold increase in supplemented infected mice comparing with not supplemented group. Regarding IFNγ, similar results were observed, since probiotic supplementation induced approximately 43-fold increase, but only in uninfected mice (P < 0·05). T. canis infection upregulated IL-10 expression while S. boulardii downregulated it and no change was observed for IL-4. Thus, based in these findings; we suggest that one possible mechanism responsible for S. boulardii protection effect against T. canis infection is by the modulation of cytokines expression, especially IL-12. PMID:26971490

  14. Liposome-Antigen-Nucleic Acid Complexes Protect Mice from Lethal Challenge with Western and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Aaron T.; Schountz, Tony; Toth, Ann M.; Rico, Amber B.; Jarvis, Donald L.; Powers, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause significant disease in animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), two New World alphaviruses, can cause fatal encephalitis, and EEEV is a select agent of concern in biodefense. However, we have no antiviral therapies against alphaviral disease, and current vaccine strategies target only a single alphavirus species. In an effort to develop new tools for a broader response to outbreaks, we designed and tested a novel alphavirus vaccine comprised of cationic lipid nucleic acid complexes (CLNCs) and the ectodomain of WEEV E1 protein (E1ecto). Interestingly, we found that the CLNC component, alone, had therapeutic efficacy, as it increased survival of CD-1 mice following lethal WEEV infection. Immunization with the CLNC-WEEV E1ecto mixture (lipid-antigen-nucleic acid complexes [LANACs]) using a prime-boost regimen provided 100% protection in mice challenged with WEEV subcutaneously, intranasally, or via mosquito. Mice immunized with LANACs mounted a strong humoral immune response but did not produce neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of serum from LANAC E1ecto-immunized mice to nonimmune CD-1 mice conferred protection against WEEV challenge, indicating that antibody is sufficient for protection. In addition, the LANAC E1ecto immunization protocol significantly increased survival of mice following intranasal or subcutaneous challenge with EEEV. In summary, our LANAC formulation has therapeutic potential and is an effective vaccine strategy that offers protection against two distinct species of alphavirus irrespective of the route of infection. We discuss plausible mechanisms as well the potential utility of our LANAC formulation as a pan-alphavirus vaccine. PMID:24257615

  15. Bacillus anthracis Capsular Conjugates Elicit Chimpanzee Polyclonal Antibodies That Protect Mice from Pulmonary Anthrax.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaochun; Schneerson, Rachel; Lovchik, Julie A; Dai, Zhongdong; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Agulto, Liane; Leppla, Stephen H; Purcell, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    The immunogenicity of Bacillus anthracis capsule (poly-γ-D-glutamic acid [PGA]) conjugated to recombinant B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA) or to tetanus toxoid (TT) was evaluated in two anthrax-naive juvenile chimpanzees. In a previous study of these conjugates, highly protective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PGA were generated. This study examines the polyclonal antibody response of the same animals. Preimmune antibodies to PGA with titers of >10(3) were detected in the chimpanzees. The maximal titer of anti-PGA was induced within 1 to 2 weeks following the 1st immunization, with no booster effects following the 2nd and 3rd immunizations. Thus, the anti-PGA response in the chimpanzees resembled a secondary immune response. Screening of sera from nine unimmunized chimpanzees and six humans revealed antibodies to PGA in all samples, with an average titer of 10(3). An anti-PA response was also observed following immunization with PGA-rPA conjugate, similar to that seen following immunization with rPA alone. However, in contrast to anti-PGA, preimmune anti-PA antibody titers and those following the 1st immunization were ≤300, with the antibodies peaking above 10(4) following the 2nd immunization. The polyclonal anti-PGA shared the MAb 11D epitope and, similar to the MAbs, exerted opsonophagocytic killing of B. anthracis. Most important, the PGA-TT-induced antibodies protected mice from a lethal challenge with virulent B. anthracis spores. Our data support the use of PGA conjugates, especially PGA-rPA targeting both toxin and capsule, as expanded-spectrum anthrax vaccines.

  16. Immunization protected well nourished mice but not undernourished ones from lung injury in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA) has been frequently isolated from endotracheal and lung puncture aspirates in malnourished children with pneumonia. In this work we evaluated the susceptibility of undernourished BALB/c mice and its ability to mount a protective immunity against MRSA with emphasis on the lung involvement. Results BALB/c mice submitted to a 20% dietary restriction during 20 days presented a significant decrease in body weight, lymphocyte number and also atrophy in thymus and intestinal epithelium. Determination of bacterial load by the number of colony forming units (CFU) indicated a similar susceptibility whereas the findings of Gram stain clearly suggested a higher amount of bacteria in the lungs of normal mice than in the undernourished ones. Immunization reduced bacterial growth in the lungs of normal mice but not in the undernourished ones. Histopathological analysis showed that inflammation appeared in the lungs from normal mice only after infection and that immunization prevented this pulmonary inflammatory process. On the other hand, undernourished mice presented lung inflammation even before infection. In addition, the degree of this inflammatory process did not change with infection or previous immunization. Conclusion Our results indicated that lung injury during MRSA infection is prevented by previous immunization in well nourished but not in undernourished mice. PMID:19930660

  17. Allicin protects traumatic spinal cord injury through regulating the HSP70/Akt/iNOS pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shunyi; Ren, Dongliang

    2016-10-01

    Allicin is a major component of garlic, extracted as an oily liquid. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of allicin on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in mice, and whether the effects are mediated via regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. Adult BALB/c mice (30‑40 g) received a laminectomy at the T9 vertebral level as a model of TSCI. In the present study, treatment of the TSCI mice with allicin significantly increased their Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores (P<0.01) and reduced the spinal cord water content (P<0.01). This protective effect was associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in TSCI mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that allicin increased the protein levels of HSP70, increased the phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the iNOS protein expression levels in TSCI mice. Additionally, treatment with allicin significantly reduced the levels of ROS and enhanced the NADH levels in TSCI mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the effects of allicin on TSCI are mediated via regulation of the HSP70, Akt and iNOS pathways in mice. PMID:27573340

  18. Nedd4 haploinsufficient mice display moderate insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, and protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Ferry, Robert J; Diao, Shiyong; Xue, Bingzhong; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2015-04-01

    Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (Nedd4) is the prototypical protein in the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase (E3) family, which governs ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and/or degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Loss of Nedd4 results in embryonic or neonatal lethality in mice and reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling in embryonic fibroblasts. To delineate the roles of Nedd4 in vivo, we examined the phenotypes of heterozygous knockout mice using a high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFDIO) model. We observed that Nedd4+/- mice are moderately insulin resistant but paradoxically protected against HFDIO. After high-fat diet feeding, Nedd4+/- mice showed less body weight gain, less fat mass, and smaller adipocytes vs the wild type. Despite ameliorated HFDIO, Nedd4+/- mice did not manifest improvement in glucose tolerance vs the wild type in both genders. Nedd4+/- male, but not female, mice displayed significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels and serum insulin levels. Under obesogenic conditions, Nedd4+/- mice displayed elevated stimulated lipolytic activity, primarily through a β2-adrenergic receptor. Combined, these data support novel complex roles for Nedd4 in metabolic regulation involving altered insulin and β-adrenergic signaling pathways.

  19. Allicin protects traumatic spinal cord injury through regulating the HSP70/Akt/iNOS pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunyi; Ren, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    Allicin is a major component of garlic, extracted as an oily liquid. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of allicin on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in mice, and whether the effects are mediated via regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. Adult BALB/c mice (30–40 g) received a laminectomy at the T9 vertebral level as a model of TSCI. In the present study, treatment of the TSCI mice with allicin significantly increased their Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores (P<0.01) and reduced the spinal cord water content (P<0.01). This protective effect was associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in TSCI mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that allicin increased the protein levels of HSP70, increased the phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the iNOS protein expression levels in TSCI mice. Additionally, treatment with allicin significantly reduced the levels of ROS and enhanced the NADH levels in TSCI mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the effects of allicin on TSCI are mediated via regulation of the HSP70, Akt and iNOS pathways in mice. PMID:27573340

  20. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  1. Podophyllum hexandrum-Mediated Survival Protection and Restoration of Other Cellular Injuries in Lethally Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Gupta, Manju Lata; Gupta, Vanita; Verma, Savita; Suri, Krishna Avtar; Devi, Memita; Sharma, Punita; Khan, Ehsan Ahmed; Alam, M Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at the development of a safe and effective formulation to counter the effects of lethal irradiation. The sub-fraction (G-001M), prepared from Podophyllum hexandrum has rendered high degree of survival (>90%) at a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) body weight (intramuscular) in lethally irradiated mice. Therapeutic dose of G-001M, at about 20 times lower concentration than its LD(100), has revealed a DRF of 1.62. Comet assay studies in peripheral blood leukocytes have reflected that, treatment of G-001M before irradiation has significantly reduced DNA tail length (P < .001) and DNA damage score (P < .001), as compared to radiation-only group. Spleen cell counts in irradiated animals had declined drastically at the very first day of exposure, and the fall continued till the 5th day (P < .001). In the treated irradiated groups, there was a steep reduction in the counts initially, but this phase did not prolong. More than 60% decline in thymocytes of irradiated group animals was registered at 5 h of irradiation when compared with controls, and the fall progressed further downwards with the similar pace till 5th day of exposure (P < .001). At later intervals, thymus was found fully regressed. In G-001M pre-treated irradiated groups also, thymocytes decreased till the 5th day but thereafter rejuvenated and within 30 days of treatment the values were close to normal. Current studies have explicitly indicated that, G-001M in very small doses has not only rendered high survivability in lethally irradiated mice, but also protected their cellular DNA, besides supporting fast replenishment of the immune system.

  2. Protective effects of fruit extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. against arsenic toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Flora, S J S

    2006-06-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry has a long history of applications as a food and medicinal ingredient in eastern countries. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different fruit extracts of H. rhamnoides on altered biochemical parameters indicative of haematological alterations, tissue oxidative stress, and arsenic concentration in arsenic-exposed mice (2.5 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Two aqueous extracts (at room temperature and under reflux condition) and an ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight were co-administered daily during arsenic exposure in mice for 3 weeks. Exposure to arsenic led to a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, suggesting disturbed haem synthesis pathway. Arsenic also caused significant depletion of reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, while it increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), suggesting liver oxidative stress. Most of the altered biochemical variables responded favorably to the co-supplementation of H. rhamnoides, particularly the aqueous fruit extract, extracted at room temperature (HF-WRT). However, arsenic concentration in blood and tissues remained unchanged, suggesting the lack of chelating property of fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. The present study, thus, led us to conclude that the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides has a significant protective role against arsenic-induced oxidative injury. However, it lacks the ability to remove arsenic from the binding sites, suggesting that the herbal extract could be co-administered with a chelating agent of known efficacy during treatment of arsenic to achieve the optimum effect of chelation treatment.

  3. Intranasal vaccination with adjuvant-free S. aureus antigens effectively protects mice against experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stegmiller, Nataly Pescinalli; Barcelos, Estevão Carlos; Leal, Janine Miranda; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Donatele, Dirlei Molinari; de Matos Guedes, Herbet Leonel; Cunegundes, Marco Cesar; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliviera

    2016-06-24

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive coccal bacterium comprising part of the human skin, nares and gastrointestinal tract normal microbiota. It is also an important cause of nosocomial/community-acquired infections in humans and animals, which can cause a diverse array of infections, including sepsis, which is a progressive systemic inflammation response syndrome that is frequently fatal. The emergence of drug-resistant strains and the high toxicity of the treatments used for these infections point out the need to develop an effective, inexpensive and safe vaccine that can be used prophylactically. In this work, we used an experimental sepsis model to evaluate the effectiveness of whole antigens from S. aureus (SaAg) given by the intranasal route to induce protective immunity against S. aureus infection in mice. BALB/c mice were vaccinated via intranasal or intramuscular route with two doses of SaAg, followed by biocompatibility and immunogenicity evaluations. Vaccinated animals did not show any adverse effects associated with the vaccine, as determined by transaminase and creatinine measurements. Intranasal, but not intramuscular vaccination with SaAg led to a significant reduction in IL-10 production and was associated with increased level of IFN-γ and NO. SaAg intranasal vaccination was able to prime cellular and humoral immune responses and inducing a higher proliferation index and increased production of specific IgG1/IgG2, which contributed to decrease the bacterial load in both liver and the spleen and improve survival during sepsis. These findings present the first evidence of the effectiveness of whole Ag intranasal-based vaccine administration, which expands the vaccination possibilities against S. aureus infection. PMID:27091687

  4. Protective effects of cornus mas extract on in vitro fertilization potential in methotrexate treated male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Leila; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahmadi, Abbas; Bakhtiary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Current study was aimed to evaluating protective effects of cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) in mice treated with methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, 48 young mature male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received only normal saline (0.1 mL per day, intraperitoneally), and the second group was administered MTX (20 mg kg-1 per week, intraperitoneally). The third, fourth and fifth groups received MTX daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 CMFE as well as MTX. The sixth group was only given CMFE with a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 per day, orally, for 35 days. Then, the animals were anesthetically euthanized and the sperms were separated from epididymis. DNA damage level, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as in vitro fertility was evaluated. The number of sperms with damaged DNA and MDA level in MTX-treated group showed a significant increase compared to control group (p < 0.05). In groups receiving CMFE along with MTX, DNA damage level and MDA amount suggested a decrease in comparison with MTX group (p < 0.05). Also, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development in MTX-treated group was significantly lower than the control group, and the level of embryonic arresting was higher (p < 0.05). In groups which received CMFE along with MTX, in vitro fertility and embryonic development was higher than MTX group (p < 0.05) and the arrested embryos showed a decrease. This study suggested that cornus mas is able to ameliorate the side effects of MTX. PMID:25992252

  5. Paeoniflorin Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijing; Yang, Bin; Yu, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Paeoniflorin, a natural product and active ingredient of Paeonia lactiflora, has been demonstrated to have many pharmacological effects including antiinflammatory and antihyperglycemic activity. We investigated the effects of paeoniflorin on NAFLD in mice and its underlying mechanisms. We examined this hypothesis using a well-established animal model of NAFLD. The effects of paeoniflorin on inflammation and glucolipid metabolism disorder were evaluated. The corresponding signaling pathways were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We demonstrated that the mice developed obesity, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver, which formed the NAFLD model. Paeoniflorin attenuated NAFLD and exhibited potential cardiovascular protective effects in vivo by lowering body weight, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance; blocking inflammation; and inhibiting lipid ectopic deposition. Further investigation revealed that the antagonistic effect on hyperlipidemia and lipid ectopic deposition was related to lowering the lipid synthesis pathway (de novo pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR)), promoting fatty acid oxidation [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, etc.] and increasing cholesterol output (PPARγ-liver X receptor-α-ATP-binding cassette transporter-1); the inhibitory effects on inflammation and hyperglycemia were mediated by blocking inflammatory genes activation and reducing gluconeogenic genes expression (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and G6Pase). These results suggest that paeoniflorin prevents the development of NAFLD and reduces the risks of atherosclerosis through multiple intracellular signaling pathways. It may therefore be a potential therapeutic compound for NAFLD. PMID:25972092

  6. Peptide mimics of peptidoglycan are vaccine candidates and protect mice from infection with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiguo; Liu, Beiyi; Yang, Daqing; Li, Xueli; Wen, Liyan; Zhu, Ping; Fu, Ning

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus drug resistance to antibiotics is a serious situation that has drawn greater attention to immunotherapy and prophylaxis. Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a common and conserved component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus. However, PGN, as a thymus-independent antigen, cannot be considered a vaccine candidate because of its very weak immunogenicity. In this study we have attempted to enhance the immunogenicity of PGN by identifying a PGN peptide mimic sequence that would act as a thymus-dependent antigen. Several peptide sequences were obtained from a phage display peptide library using a mAb against S. aureus PGN, and a 12-mer linear single peptide (Sp-31) and a four-branch multiple antigen peptide (MAP) (MAP-P31) were synthesized. Both Sp-31 and MAP-P31 were shown to bind directly to anti-PGN mAb and a polyclonal antibody against S. aureus. These peptides could also inhibit the binding of PGN to a mAb against PGN. Furthermore, MAP-P31 was able to provoke an effective secondary antibody response in mice to PGN and to cell-wall fragments isolated from S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by sonication. In addition, the MAP-P31 antiserum showed a potent bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus in the presence and absence of complement in vitro. Importantly, immunization with MAP-P31 significantly prolonged the survival and enhanced bacterial clearance in BALB/c mice challenged with live S. aureus. In addition, the serum IgG-type antibodies against PGN persisted in mice, demonstrating that MAP-P31, as a peptide mimicking epitopes on PGN, provokes an effective secondary or memory antibody response, which can only be induced by a thymus-dependent antigen and which protects against infection with S. aureus. These results suggest that MAP-31 may be a novel vaccine candidate against S. aureus. PMID:21436375

  7. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene expression studies were performed. Plasma alcohol and ammonia levels were measured using standard assays. Ethanol-fed KO mice exhibited systemic toxicity and early mortality. KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and five to six-fold higher serum ALT and AST levels. KO mice had modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. In WT livers, β-catenin was found to co-precipitate with FoxO3, the upstream regulator of SOD-2. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and expression were lower in KO mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in ethanol-fed WT mice but were nearly undetectable in KO mice. These changes in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes were associated with 30-fold higher blood alcohol levels in KO mice. Conclusion β-catenin is essential for hepatic ethanol metabolism and plays a protective role in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis. Our results strongly suggest that integration of these functions by β-catenin is critical for adaptation to ethanol ingestion in vivo. PMID:22031168

  8. SR-BI in Bone Marrow Derived Cells Protects Mice from Diet Induced Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ying; Chen, Xing; Aboutouk, Dina; Fuller, Mark T.; Dadoo, Omid; Yu, Pei; White, Elizabeth J.; Igdoura, Suleiman A.; Trigatti, Bernardo L.

    2013-01-01

    SR-BI deficient mice that are also hypomorphic for apolipoprotein E expression develop diet induced occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and early death. To test the role of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells, we used bone marrow transplantation to generate SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice in which SR-BI expression was restored solely in bone marrow derived cells. SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice were transplanted with SR-BI+/+apoE-hypomorphic, or control, autologous SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic bone marrow. Four weeks later, mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol, cholate-containing diet to induce coronary artery atherosclerosis. Mice transplanted with autologous bone marrow developed extensive aortic atherosclerosis and severe occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis after 4 weeks of feeding. This was accompanied by myocardial fibrosis and increased heart weights. In contrast, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived-cells reduced diet induced aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis and the increase in heart weights in SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice. Restoration of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells did not, however, affect steady state lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but did reduce plasma levels of IL-6. Monocytes from SR-BI-null mice exhibited a greater capacity to bind to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 than those from SR-BI+/+ mice. Furthermore, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived cells attenuated monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques in mice fed high fat, high cholesterol cholate containing diet. These data demonstrate directly that SR-BI in bone marrow-derived cells protects against both aortic and CA atherosclerosis. PMID:23967310

  9. Do schistosome vaccine trials in mice have an intrinsic flaw that generates spurious protection data?

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Alan; Li, Xiao-Hong; Castro-Borges, William

    2016-02-17

    The laboratory mouse has been widely used to test the efficacy of schistosome vaccines and a long list of candidates has emerged from this work, many of them abundant internal proteins. These antigens do not have an additive effect when co-administered, or delivered as SWAP homogenate, a quarter of which comprises multiple candidates; the observed protection has an apparent ceiling of 40-50%. We contend that the low level of maturation of penetrating cercariae (~32% for Schistosoma mansoni) is a major limitation of the model since 68/100 parasites fail to mature in naïve mice due to natural causes. The pulmonary capillary bed is the obstacle encountered by schistosomula en route to the portal system. The fragility of pulmonary capillaries and their susceptibility to a cytokine-induced vascular leak syndrome have been documented. During lung transit schistosomula burst into the alveolar spaces, and possess only a limited capacity to re-enter tissues. The acquired immunity elicited by the radiation-attenuated (RA) cercarial vaccine relies on a pulmonary inflammatory response, involving cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, to deflect additional parasites into the alveoli. A principal difference between antigen vaccine protocols and the RA vaccine is the short interval between the last antigen boost and cercarial challenge of mice (often two weeks). Thus, after antigen vaccination, challenge parasites will reach the lungs when both activated T cells and cytokine levels are maximal in the circulation. We propose that "protection" in this situation is the result of physiological effects on the pulmonary blood vessels, increasing the proportion of parasites that enter the alveoli. This hypothesis will explain why internal antigens, which are unlikely to interact with the immune response in a living schistosomulum, plus a variety of heterologous proteins, can reduce the level of maturation in a non-antigen-specific way. These proteins are "successful" precisely because they

  10. Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes) Extracts Protect Against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Abnormality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Chin-Chu; Su, Chih-Chung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Phellinus linteus extracts (PLEs) against radiation damage in mice. First, BALB/c mice were irradiated once with γ-rays at 4, 5, 6, or 8 Gy and allowed to recover for 20 days. Results reveal that 8-Gy radiation caused death in 100% of mice on day 13, and 6-Gy radiation caused death in 86.7% of mice (13/15) at the end of the experiment, whereas 4- and 5-Gy radiation did not result in any death. We then used 5-Gy γ-ray radiation to examine the protective effects of PLEs. Mice were orally administered a PLE (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before radiation and for 6 weeks after radiation. γ-Ray radiation significantly decreased body weight starting from week 2 after radiation. Supplementation with a median and high dose of PLE significantly restored body weights starting at weeks 5 and 3, respectively. The radiation-protective agent WR2721 (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) restored body weights starting at week 4. White blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased by radiation, and PLEs (primarily at high doses) and WR2721 significantly prevented hematologic abnormality. These results suggest that PLE has potential as a radioprotective agent. PMID:27649604

  11. Protective effects of recombinant Brucella abortus Omp28 against infection with a virulent strain of Brucella abortus 544 in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Jin Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Min, Wongi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Suk

    2012-09-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Brucella (B.) abortus have been extensively studied, but their immunogenicity and protective ability against B. abortus infection are still unclear. In the present study, B. abortus Omp28, a group 3 antigen, was amplified by PCR and cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system. Recombinant Omp28 (rOmp28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and was then purified. Immunogenicity of rOmp28 was confirmed by Western blot analysis with Brucella-positive mouse serum. Furthermore, humoral- or cell-mediated immune responses measured by the production of IgG1 or IgG2a in rOmp28-immunized mice and the ability of rOmp28 immunization to protect against B. abortus infection were evaluated in a mouse model. In the immunogenicity analysis, the mean titers of IgG1 and IgG2a produced by rOmp28-immunized mice were 20-fold higher than those of PBS-treated mice throughout the entire experimental period. Furthermore, spleen proliferation and bacterial burden in the spleen of rOmp28-immunized mice were approximately 1.5-fold lower than those of PBS-treated mice when challenged with virulent B. abortus. These findings suggest that rOmp28 from B. abortus is a good candidate for manufacturing an effective subunit vaccine against B. abortus infection in animals.

  12. Protective effects of recombinant Brucella abortus Omp28 against infection with a virulent strain of Brucella abortus 544 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Jin Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Min, Wongi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee

    2012-01-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Brucella (B.) abortus have been extensively studied, but their immunogenicity and protective ability against B. abortus infection are still unclear. In the present study, B. abortus Omp28, a group 3 antigen, was amplified by PCR and cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system. Recombinant Omp28 (rOmp28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and was then purified. Immunogenicity of rOmp28 was confirmed by Western blot analysis with Brucella-positive mouse serum. Furthermore, humoral- or cell-mediated immune responses measured by the production of IgG1 or IgG2a in rOmp28-immunized mice and the ability of rOmp28 immunization to protect against B. abortus infection were evaluated in a mouse model. In the immunogenicity analysis, the mean titers of IgG1 and IgG2a produced by rOmp28-immunized mice were 20-fold higher than those of PBS-treated mice throughout the entire experimental period. Furthermore, spleen proliferation and bacterial burden in the spleen of rOmp28-immunized mice were approximately 1.5-fold lower than those of PBS-treated mice when challenged with virulent B. abortus. These findings suggest that rOmp28 from B. abortus is a good candidate for manufacturing an effective subunit vaccine against B. abortus infection in animals. PMID:23000585

  13. The cooperative effects of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma are determining factors in the ability of IL-10 to protect mice from lethal endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Terminelli, C; Kenworthy-Bott, L; Calzetta, A; Donkin, J

    1994-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that interleukin-10 (IL-10) has the capacity to protect mice from the lethal effects of endotoxin. In this investigation, we have examined the ability of IL-10 to protect both normal mice and Corynebacterium parvum-primed mice against endotoxin lethality. In the overwhelming majority of experiments, recombinant murine IL-10 (rMuIL-10) and recombinant human IL-10 (rHuIL-10) did not protect normal BALB/cJ mice from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality at doses up to 10 micrograms/mouse. Despite their inability to protect, both IL-10 preparations were highly effective in preventing the increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that occurred in response to the lethal dose of LPS. Moreover, a neutralizing antibody against TNF-alpha gave only partial protection when administered alone to BALB/cJ mice. Treatment with a combination of neutralizing antibodies against TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) resulted in complete protection. In contrast to BALB/cJ mice, normal BDF1 mice were protected from lethal endotoxemia by treatment with both rMuIL-10 and rHuIL-10. However, IL-10 did not protect C. parvum-primed BDF1 against LPS lethality even though it caused a reduction in the LPS-induced serum TNF-alpha response in C. parvum-primed mice as well as in normal BDF1 mice. Neutralizing antibodies against TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were protective when administered alone to normal BDF1 mice, as previously demonstrated in C. parvum-primed mice. These findings suggest that lethal endotoxemia is a result of the cooperative activities of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in normal mice of the BALB/cJ and BDF1 strains as well as in C. parvum-primed BDF1 mice. IL-10 appears to be less effective in protecting mice from lethal endotoxemia when cooperation between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha is facilitated by high-level production of the cytokines as in C. parvum-primed mice or when there is evidence of strong synergy between them as in normal

  14. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria. PMID:26379714

  15. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  16. Protection against Recurrent Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Disease after Therapeutic Vaccination of Latently Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C. M.; Case, R.; Hirst, T. R.; Hill, T. J.; Williams, N. A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of therapeutic vaccination of animals latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to enhance protective immunity to the virus and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of recurrent ocular disease was assessed in a mouse model. Mice latently infected with HSV-1 were vaccinated intranasally with a mixture of HSV-1 glycoproteins and recombinant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (rEtxB) as an adjuvant. The systemic immune response induced was characterized by high levels of virus-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) in serum and very low levels of IgG2a. Mucosal immunity was demonstrated by high levels of IgA in eye and vaginal secretions. Proliferating T cells from lymph nodes of vaccinated animals produced higher levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) than were produced by such cells from mock-vaccinated animals. This profile suggests that vaccination of latently infected mice modulates the Th1-dominated proinflammatory response usually induced upon infection. After reactivation of latent virus by UV irradiation, vaccinated mice showed reduced viral shedding in tears as well as a reduction in the incidence of recurrent herpetic corneal epithelial disease and stromal disease compared with mock-vaccinated mice. Moreover, vaccinated mice developing recurrent ocular disease showed less severe signs and a quicker recovery rate. Spread of virus to other areas close to the eye, such as the eyelid, was also significantly reduced. Encephalitis occurred in a small percentage (11%) of mock-vaccinated mice, but vaccinated animals were completely protected from such disease. The possible immune mechanisms involved in protection against recurrent ocular herpetic disease in therapeutically vaccinated animals are discussed. PMID:12767989

  17. Early Terminal Complement Blockade and C6 Deficiency Are Protective in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Ida; Rebetz, Johan; Loos, Sebastian; Herthelius, Maria; Kristoffersson, Ann-Charlotte; Englund, Elisabet; Chromek, Milan; Karpman, Diana

    2016-08-15

    Complement activation occurs during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection and may exacerbate renal manifestations. In this study, we show glomerular C5b-9 deposits in the renal biopsy of a child with EHEC-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. The role of the terminal complement complex, and its blockade as a therapeutic modality, was investigated in a mouse model of E. coli O157:H7 infection. BALB/c mice were treated with monoclonal anti-C5 i.p. on day 3 or 6 after intragastric inoculation and monitored for clinical signs of disease and weight loss for 14 d. All infected untreated mice (15 of 15) or those treated with an irrelevant Ab (8 of 8) developed severe illness. In contrast, only few infected mice treated with anti-C5 on day 3 developed symptoms (three of eight, p < 0.01 compared with mice treated with the irrelevant Ab on day 3) whereas most mice treated with anti-C5 on day 6 developed symptoms (six of eight). C6-deficient C57BL/6 mice were also inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and only 1 of 14 developed disease, whereas 10 of 16 wild-type mice developed weight loss and severe disease (p < 0.01). Complement activation via the terminal pathway is thus involved in the development of disease in murine EHEC infection. Early blockade of the terminal complement pathway, before the development of symptoms, was largely protective, whereas late blockade was not. Likewise, lack of C6, and thereby deficient terminal complement complex, was protective in murine E. coli O157:H7 infection. PMID:27421478

  18. A novel snake venom-derived GPIb antagonist, anfibatide, protects mice from acute experimental ischaemic stroke and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting-Ting; Fan, Man-Li; Hou, Shi-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yi; Barry, Devin M; Jin, Hui; Luo, Sheng-Yong; Kong, Feng; Lau, Lit-Fui; Dai, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischaemic stroke is a serious disease with limited therapy options. Glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF) exposed at vascular injury initiates platelet adhesion and contributes to platelet aggregation. GPIb has been suggested as an effective target for antithrombotic therapy in stroke. Anfibatide is a GPIb antagonist derived from snake venom and we investigated its protective effect on experimental brain ischaemia in mice. Experimental Approach Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). These mice were then treated with anfibatide (4, 2, 1 μg·kg−1), injected i.v., after 90 min of MCAO, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Tirofiban, a GPIIb/IIIα antagonist, was used as a positive control. Key Results Twenty-four hours after MCAO, anfibatide-treated mice showed significantly improved ischaemic lesions in a dose-dependent manner. The mice had smaller infarct volumes, less severe neurological deficits and histopathology of cerebrum tissues compared with the untreated MCAO mice. Moreover, anfibatide decreased the amount of GPIbα, vWF and accumulation of fibrin(ogen) in the vasculature of the ischaemic hemisphere. Tirofiban had similar effects on infarct size and fibrin(ogen) deposition compared with the MCAO group. Importantly, the anfibatide-treated mice showed a lower incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage and shorter tail bleeding time compared with the tirofiban-treated mice. Conclusions and Implications Our data indicate anfibatide is a safe GPIb antagonist that exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Anfibatide is a promising candidate that could be beneficial for the treatment of ischaemic stroke. PMID:25917571

  19. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A.; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. PMID:26159696

  20. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tangpu, Vareishang; Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. (Rosaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in Northeast India to treat diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and protective effects of P. fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice. Materials and Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhea in mice, using four experimental models, that is the measurement of fecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enteropooling assay, and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100-3200 mg/kg). In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrheal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared with 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant antidiarrheal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for protection from diarrhea. PMID:26401356

  1. Suppression of sulfoconjugation reduces the protective effect of ortho-aminoazotoluene on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaledin, V I; Il'nitskaya, S I; Popova, N A; Bogdanova, L A

    2014-07-01

    The effects of ortho-aminoazotoluene on carcinogenic activity of diethylnitrosamine were studied in CBA and ICR mice. Injection of ortho-aminoazotoluene before and after diethylnitrosamine led to a significant reduction of its anticarcinogenic effect, judging from significantly lower level of liver tumors. Pentachlorophenol, inhibitor of sulfotransferase (catalyzing the terminal stage of ortho-aminoazotoluene metabolic activity), stimulated its carcinogenic effect on mouse liver. On the other hand, pentachlorophenol reduced the protective effect of ortho-aminoazotoluene on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Presumably, the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of ortho-aminoazotoluene were realized by its initial form or intermediate (non-sulfated) metabolites.

  2. Protective Effect of Procyanidin B2 against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Ya; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Guan, Sheng-Wen; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2015-07-03

    Procyanidin B2 has demonstrated several health benefits and medical properties. However, its protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of procyanidin B2 in CCl4-treated mice. Our data showed that procyanidin B2 significantly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as improved hepatic histopathological abnormalities. Procyanidin B2 also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Further research demonstrated that procyanidin B2 decreased the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 from the cytosol to the nuclear fraction in mouse liver. Moreover, CCl4-induced apoptosis in mouse liver was measured by (terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling) TUNEL assay and the cleaved caspase-3. Meanwhile, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-xL was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that procyanidin B2 significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, markedly suppressed the upregulation of Bax expression and restored the downregulation of Bcl-xL expression. Overall, the findings indicated that procyanidin B2 exhibited a protective effect on CCl4-induced hepatic injury by elevating the antioxidative defense potential and consequently suppressing the inflammatory response and apoptosis of liver tissues.

  3. Protective effects of ghrelin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Takashi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kimura, Toru; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent that has activity against malignant tumors. However, cisplatin causes various adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed that the mechanism of cisplatin nephrotoxicity includes a robust inflammatory response. Since ghrelin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesized that ghrelin might have protective effects against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with ghrelin. Ghrelin (0.8μg/kg/min via osmotic-pump, subcutaneously) or vehicle administration was started one day before cisplatin injection. At 72h after cisplatin administration (20mg/kg, intraperitoneally), we measured serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine, renal mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and histological changes. Ghrelin significantly attenuated the increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine induced by cisplatin. Ghrelin tended to attenuate the increase in urine albumin/creatinine, although not significantly. Cisplatin-induced renal tubular injury and apoptosis were significantly attenuated by ghrelin pretreatment. Consequently, ghrelin significantly attenuated renal mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. In conclusion, ghrelin produces protective effects in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with ghrelin may become a new prophylactic candidate for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27298204

  4. Myricetin protects against diet-induced obesity and ameliorates oxidative stress in C57BL/6 mice*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong-ming; Feng, Li-na; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myricetin is a naturally occurring antioxidant commonly found in various plants. However, little information is available with respect to its direct anti-obesity effects. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of myricetin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Results: Administration of myricetin dramatically reduced the body weight of diet-induced obese mice compared with solely HFD-induced mice. Several parameters related to obesity including serum glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were significantly decreased in myricetin-treated mice. Moreover, obesity-associated oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) were ameliorated in myricetin-treated mice. Further investigation revealed that the protective effect of myricetin against HFD-induced obesity in mice appeared to be partially mediated through the down-regulation of mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Conclusions: Consumption of myricetin may help to prevent obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. PMID:27256677

  5. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils.

  6. Major Basic Protein from Eosinophils and Myeloperoxidase from Neutrophils Are Required for Protective Immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Amy E.; Hess, Jessica A.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.; Lee, James J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils contribute to larval killing during the primary immune response, and neutrophils are effector cells in the secondary response to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms used by eosinophils and neutrophils to control infections with S. stercoralis. Using mice deficient in the eosinophil granule products major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), it was determined that eosinophils kill the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism in the primary immune response if other effector cells are absent. Infecting PHIL mice, which are eosinophil deficient, with S. stercoralis resulted in development of primary and secondary immune responses that were similar to those of wild-type mice, suggesting that eosinophils are not an absolute requirement for larval killing or development of secondary immunity. Treating PHIL mice with a neutrophil-depleting antibody resulted in a significant impairment in larval killing. Naïve and immunized mice with neutrophils deficient in myeloperoxidase (MPO) infected with S. stercoralis had significantly decreased larval killing. It was concluded that there is redundancy in the primary immune response, with eosinophils killing the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism and neutrophils killing the worms through an MPO-dependent mechanism. Eosinophils are not required for the development or function of secondary immunity, but MPO from neutrophils is required for protective secondary immunity. PMID:21482685

  7. Protective action of luminal bile salts in necrotizing acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, G; Townsend, C M; Green, D W; Rajaraman, S; Uchida, T; Greeley, G H; Soloway, R D; Thompson, J C

    1990-01-01

    Bile salts in the intestinal lumen act to inhibit the release of cholecystokinin (CCK). Recent studies have shown that CCK may play a permissive role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In this study, the amount of luminal bile salts in female Swiss Webster mice was either decreased by feeding 4% (wt/wt) cholestyramine or increased by feeding 0.5% sodium taurocholate for 1 wk. Plasma levels of CCK were stimulated by cholestyramine and inhibited by taurocholate. Then, acute pancreatitis was induced either by caerulein injections, or by feeding a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. Feeding of cholestyramine significantly decreased survival from 25% to 0% in the CDE pancreatitis, and increased the magnitude of elevation of serum amylase levels and the extent of pancreatic necrosis in both models of pancreatitis; CCK-receptor blockade with CR-1409 completely abolished the adverse effects of cholestyramine. In contrast, feeding of taurocholate significantly increased survival to 100% and decreased the elevation of serum amylase and pancreatic necrosis; CCK-8 antagonized these actions of taurocholate. Luminal bile salts appear to provide a physiologic protection against necrotizing pancreatitis, at least in part, both by inhibiting the release of CCK and by promoting resistance of the pancreas to CCK excessive stimulation in vivo. Images PMID:1694866

  8. Protective effect of Millettia pulchra polysaccharide on cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Huang, Zhongshi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Rong, Yanping; Zhang, Shijun; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Quanfang; Huang, Renbin

    2014-01-30

    A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301 Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of β-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra.

  9. Stepwise Engineering of Heterodimeric Single Domain Camelid VHH Antibodies That Passively Protect Mice from Ricin Toxin*

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David J.; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to engineer countermeasures for the category B toxin ricin, we produced and characterized a collection of epitopic tagged, heavy chain-only antibody VH domains (VHHs) specific for the ricin enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. Among the 20 unique ricin-specific VHHs we identified, six had toxin-neutralizing activity: five specific for RTA and one specific for RTB. Three neutralizing RTA-specific VHHs were each linked via a short peptide spacer to the sole neutralizing anti-RTB VHH to create VHH “heterodimers.” As compared with equimolar concentrations of their respective monovalent monomers, all three VHH heterodimers had higher affinities for ricin and, in the case of heterodimer D10/B7, a 6-fold increase in in vitro toxin-neutralizing activity. When passively administered to mice at a 4:1 heterodimer:toxin ratio, D10/B7 conferred 100% survival in response to a 10 × LD50 ricin challenge, whereas a 2:1 heterodimer:toxin ratio conferred 20% survival. However, complete survival was achievable when the low dose of D10/B7 was combined with an IgG1 anti-epitopic tag monoclonal antibody, possibly because decorating the toxin with up to four IgGs promoted serum clearance. The two additional ricin-specific heterodimers, when tested in vivo, provided equal or greater passive protection than D10/B7, thereby warranting further investigation of all three heterodimers as possible therapeutics. PMID:24202178

  10. The antidiabetic agent glibenclamide protects airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Zhang, Shufang; Cai, Zhijian; Hu, Xinlei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Wang, Yong; Li, Na; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Gensheng

    2015-04-01

    Glibenclamide has a newly discovered role in inflammation regulation besides its antidiabetic effect. As an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel, glibenclamide antagonizes the relaxation of the tracheal smooth muscle. This indicates that glibenclamide might attenuate airway inflammation while aggravate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatics. Clinically, many diabetics with asthma are prescribed with glibenclamide to control blood glucose. However, whether glibenclamide could exert any effects on asthmatic inflammation remains unknown. Using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma, we evaluated the effects of glibenclamide on the AHR and inflammation. Interestingly, glibenclamide reduced all the cardinal features of asthma in OVA-challenged mice, including AHR, airway inflammation, and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines. Glibenclamide also downregulated OVA-induced expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (p-STAT6) in the lung. In addition, increased sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) expression in the lung was observed after the OVA challenge. These findings suggest that the classic sulfonylurea glibenclamide plays an important protective role in the development of asthma, which not only provides the evidence for the safety of prescribed glibenclamide in diabetics combined with asthma but also indicates a possible new therapeutic for asthma via targeting glibenclamide-related pathways.

  11. [DEMONSTRATION OF LIKELIHOOD OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION DURING TOTAL PROTON IRRADIATION OF MICE].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Bulynina, T M; Molokanov, A G; Vorozhtsova, S V; Utina, D M; Severyukhin, Yu S; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed with outbred CD-1 male mice (SPF category). Total irradiation at 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 Gy by protons with the average energy of 170 MeV was conducted in a level medical beam of the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Investigations. Targets were 2 points of in-depth dose distribution, i.e. beam entrance of the object, and modified Bragg peak. As a physical protector, the comb filter increases linear energy transfer (LET) of 170 MeV entrance protons from 0.49 keV/μm to 1.6 keV/μm and, according to the bone marrow test, doubles the biological effectiveness of protons when comparing radiation doses that cause 37% inhibition of blood cell formation in the bone marrow. Physical protection increases dose rate from 0.37 Gy/min for entrance protons to 0.8 Gy/min for moderated protons which more than in thrice reduces time of irradiation needed to reach an equal radiobiological effect.

  12. Antiaging Glycopeptide Protects Human Islets Against Tacrolimus-Related Injury and Facilitates Engraftment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gala-Lopez, Boris L; Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena L; O'Gorman, Doug; Kin, Tatsuya; Bruni, Antonio; Abualhassan, Nasser; Bral, Mariusz; Bautista, Austin; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Young, Lachlan G; MacDonald, Patrick E; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-02-01

    Clinical islet transplantation has become an established treatment modality for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. However, a large proportion of transplanted islets is lost through multiple factors, including immunosuppressant-related toxicity, often requiring more than one donor to achieve insulin independence. On the basis of the cytoprotective capabilities of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), we hypothesized that supplementation of islets with synthetic AFP analog antiaging glycopeptide (AAGP) would enhance posttransplant engraftment and function and protect against tacrolimus (Tac) toxicity. In vitro and in vivo islet Tac exposure elicited significant but reversible reduction in insulin secretion in both mouse and human islets. Supplementation with AAGP resulted in improvement of islet survival (Tac(+) vs. Tac+AAGP, 31.5% vs. 67.6%, P < 0.01) coupled with better insulin secretion (area under the curve: Tac(+) vs. Tac+AAGP, 7.3 vs. 129.2 mmol/L/60 min, P < 0.001). The addition of AAGP reduced oxidative stress, enhanced insulin exocytosis, improved apoptosis, and improved engraftment in mice by decreasing expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, keratinocyte chemokine, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Finally, transplant efficacy was superior in the Tac+AAGP group and was similar to islets not exposed to Tac, despite receiving continuous treatment for a limited time. Thus, supplementation with AAGP during culture improves islet potency and attenuates long-term Tac-induced graft dysfunction. PMID:26581595

  13. Complement regulator CD59 protects against angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gongxiong; Chen, Ting; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Hu, Weiguo; Bronson, Rod T.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Halperin, Jose A; Aktas, Huseyin; Qin, Xuebin

    2010-01-01

    Background Complement system, an innate immunity, has been well documented to play a critical role in many inflammatory diseases. However, the role of complement in pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which is considered as an immune and inflammatory disease, remains obscure. Methods and Results Here, we evaluated the pathogenic roles of complement membrane attack complex (MAC) and CD59, a key regulator that inhibits MAC, in the development of AAA. We demonstrated that in the angiotensin II-induced AAA model, deficiency of MAC regulator CD59 in ApoE-null mice (mCd59ab−/−/ApoE−/−) accelerated the disease development, while transgenic over-expression of human CD59 (hCD59ICAM-2+/−/ApoE−/−) in this model attenuated progression of AAA. The severity of aneurysm among these three groups positively correlates with C9 deposition, and/or the activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and/or the levels of phosphor (p)-c-Jun, p-c-Fos, p-IKK-α/β, and p-65. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MAC directly induced gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in vitro, which required activation of AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions Together, these results defined the protective role of CD59 and shed light on the important pathogenic role of MAC in AAA. PMID:20212283

  14. Plumbagin Protects Mice from Lethal Sepsis by Modulating Immunometabolism Upstream of PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Deng, Wenjun; Kang, Rui; Xie, Min; Billiar, Timothy; Wang, Haichao; Cao, Lizhi; Tang, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by dysregulated systemic inflammation with release of early (for example, interleukin (IL)-1β) and late (for example, HMGB1) proinflammatory mediators from macrophages. Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone, has been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory activity, but the underling mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that plumbagin inhibits the inflammatory response through interfering with the immunometabolism pathway in activated macrophages. Remarkably, plumbagin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aerobic glycolysis by downregulating the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a protein kinase responsible for the final and rate-limiting reaction step of the glycolytic pathway. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated oxidative stress was required for LPS-induced PKM2 expression, because pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of NOX4 by plumbagin or RNA interference limited LPS-induced PKM2 expression, lactate production and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and HMGB1) release in macrophages. Finally, plumbagin protected mice from lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. These findings identify a new approach for inhibiting the NOX4/PKM2-dependent immunometabolism pathway in the treatment of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26982513

  15. Testing in Mice the Hypothesis That Melanin Is Protective in Malaria Infections

    PubMed Central

    Waisberg, Michael; Vickers, Brandi K.; Yager, Stephanie B.; Lin, Christina K.; Pierce, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria has had the largest impact of any infectious disease on shaping the human genome, exerting enormous selective pressure on genes that improve survival in severe malaria infections. Modern humans originated in Africa and lost skin melanization as they migrated to temperate regions of the globe. Although it is well documented that loss of melanization improved cutaneous Vitamin D synthesis, melanin plays an evolutionary ancient role in insect immunity to malaria and in some instances melanin has been implicated to play an immunoregulatory role in vertebrates. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that melanization may be protective in malaria infections using mouse models. Congenic C57BL/6 mice that differed only in the gene encoding tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, showed no difference in the clinical course of infection by Plasmodium yoelii 17XL, that causes severe anemia, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, that causes severe cerebral malaria or Plasmodium chabaudi AS that causes uncomplicated chronic disease. Moreover, neither genetic deficiencies in vitamin D synthesis nor vitamin D supplementation had an effect on survival in cerebral malaria. Taken together, these results indicate that neither melanin nor vitamin D production improve survival in severe malaria. PMID:22242171

  16. Ephedrine hydrochloride protects mice from LPS challenge by promoting IL-10 secretion and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuejuan; Guo, Ziyi; He, Weigang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuhu; Zheng, Aoxiang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jinzhu; Wen, Mingyue; Yang, Muyi; An, Huazhang; Ji, Guang; Yu, Yizhi

    2012-05-01

    Sepsis and its derivative endotoxic shock are still serious conditions with high mortality in the intensive care unit. The mechanisms that ensure the balance of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine production are of particular importance. As an active α- and β-adrenergic agonist, ephedrine hydrochloride (EH) is a widely used agent for cardiovascular diseases, especially boosting blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that EH increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) through p38 MAPK activation. Simultaneously, EH negatively regulated the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Consistently, EH increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced serum IL-10 and inhibited tumor necrotic factor-α (TNFα) production in vivo. As a result, EH treatment protected mice from endotoxic shock by lethal LPS challenge. In brief, our data demonstrated that EH could contribute to immune homeostasis by balancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine in TLR4 signaling. This study provides a potential usage of EH in autoimmunologic diseases or other severe inflammations.

  17. Protective effect of Millettia pulchra polysaccharide on cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Huang, Zhongshi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Rong, Yanping; Zhang, Shijun; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Quanfang; Huang, Renbin

    2014-01-30

    A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301 Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of β-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra. PMID:24299809

  18. Demethyleneberberine Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice by Modulating NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Zhao, Zheng; Yan, Yan; Qiang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Cuisong; Li, Ruiyan; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yubin

    2016-01-01

    Demethyleneberberine (DMB) is an essential metabolite of Berberine (BBR) in vivo. Recent reports have revealed multiple novel therapeutic applications of BBR. However, the pharmacological activities of DMB remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects of DMB both in vitro and in vivo. Here we showed that DMB protects against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice and exhibits a higher safety profile as compared to BBR. Flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis showed that DMB is able to suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induce cell apoptosis through the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cascade. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated that DMB also has inhibitory effects on collagen synthesis and is able to increase collagen degradation by blocking the transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1)-Smad signaling and reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs). These findings indicate that DMB has the potential to attenuate hepatic fibrosis via suppressing HSC activation. PMID:27376272

  19. Demethyleneberberine Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice by Modulating NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchen; Zhao, Zheng; Yan, Yan; Qiang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Cuisong; Li, Ruiyan; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yubin

    2016-01-01

    Demethyleneberberine (DMB) is an essential metabolite of Berberine (BBR) in vivo. Recent reports have revealed multiple novel therapeutic applications of BBR. However, the pharmacological activities of DMB remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects of DMB both in vitro and in vivo. Here we showed that DMB protects against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice and exhibits a higher safety profile as compared to BBR. Flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis showed that DMB is able to suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induce cell apoptosis through the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cascade. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated that DMB also has inhibitory effects on collagen synthesis and is able to increase collagen degradation by blocking the transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1)-Smad signaling and reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs). These findings indicate that DMB has the potential to attenuate hepatic fibrosis via suppressing HSC activation. PMID:27376272

  20. [DEMONSTRATION OF LIKELIHOOD OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION DURING TOTAL PROTON IRRADIATION OF MICE].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Bulynina, T M; Molokanov, A G; Vorozhtsova, S V; Utina, D M; Severyukhin, Yu S; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed with outbred CD-1 male mice (SPF category). Total irradiation at 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 Gy by protons with the average energy of 170 MeV was conducted in a level medical beam of the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Investigations. Targets were 2 points of in-depth dose distribution, i.e. beam entrance of the object, and modified Bragg peak. As a physical protector, the comb filter increases linear energy transfer (LET) of 170 MeV entrance protons from 0.49 keV/μm to 1.6 keV/μm and, according to the bone marrow test, doubles the biological effectiveness of protons when comparing radiation doses that cause 37% inhibition of blood cell formation in the bone marrow. Physical protection increases dose rate from 0.37 Gy/min for entrance protons to 0.8 Gy/min for moderated protons which more than in thrice reduces time of irradiation needed to reach an equal radiobiological effect. PMID:26554131