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Sample records for subthalamic pgo-like waves

  1. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour.

  2. The subthalamic nucleus. Part I: development, cytology, topography and connections.

    PubMed

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    This monograph (Part I of two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. Part II of the two volumes (volume 199) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models--single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727483

  3. The subthalamic nucleus part II: modelling and simulation of activity.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    Part I of The Subthalamic Nucleus (volume 198) (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections.The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. This monograph (Part II of the two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models - single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727495

  4. Electroencephalographic responses to intraoperative subthalamic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Luana; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Bergamasco, Bruno; Vighetti, Sergio; Zibetti, Maurizio; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2006-10-01

    This study reports the effects of intraoperative stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on brain electrical activity in advanced Parkinson's patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study about electroencephalographic responses in the very early phase of deep brain stimulation, during the implantation of the electrodes. We found an increase of gamma band bilaterally over the sensorimotor cortex in the range 45-55 Hz, which was associated with clinical improvement as assessed by means of muscle rigidity decrease. These results indicate that the electroencephalographic gamma responses to deep brain stimulation are present at the very beginning of the treatment process, and may help better understand the short and long-tem effects of deep brain stimulation.

  5. Zolpidem modulates GABA(A) receptor function in subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xie, Jun-Xia; Fung, Kam-Shuen; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2007-05-01

    The subthalamic nucleus occupies a position in the indirect pathway of basal ganglia circuit, which plays an important role in the movement regulation. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptors containing alpha 1 subunit. Recently, zolpidem has been reported to be useful in treating subgroups of parkinsonian patients. A high density of zolpidem binding sites has been shown in rat subthalamic nucleus. To further investigate the modulation of zolpidem on GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic current in subthalamic nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used in the present study. Zolpidem at 100nM significantly prolonged the decay time and rise time of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, with no effect on the amplitude and frequency. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil could completely block the potentiation induced by zolpidem, confirming the specificity on the benzodiazepine site. At a high concentration of 1 microM, zolpidem significantly increased the decay time, rise time, amplitude and frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In the behaving rats, unilateral microinjection of zolpidem into subthalamic nucleus induced a significant contralateral rotation. The present findings on the effect of zolpidem in subthalamic nucleus provide a rationale for further investigations into its potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:17337310

  6. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  7. Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ballanger, Benedicte; van Eimeren, Thilo; Moro, Elena; Lozano, Andres M.; Hamani, Clement; Boulinguez, Philippe; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Houle, Sylvain; Poon, Yu Yan; Lang, Anthony E.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In Parkinson disease (PD) patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may contribute to certain impulsive behavior during high-conflict decisions. A neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia has recently been proposed that suggests this behavioral aspect may be related to the role played by the STN in relaying a “hold your horses” signal intended to allow more time to settle on the best option. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: 1) to extend these observations by providing evidence that the STN may influence and prevent the execution of any response even during low-conflict decisions; and 2) to identify the neural correlates of this effect. Methods We measured regional cerebral blood flow during a Go/NoGo and a control (Go) task to study the motor improvement and response inhibition deficits associated with STN-DBS in patients with PD. Results Although it improved Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor ratings and induced a global decrease in reaction time during task performance, STN-DBS impaired response inhibition, as revealed by an increase in commission errors in NoGo trials. These behavioral effects were accompanied by changes in synaptic activity consisting of a reduced activation in the cortical networks responsible for reactive and proactive response inhibition. Interpretation The present results suggest that although it improves motor functions in PD patients, modulation of STN hyperactivity with DBS may tend at the same time to favor the appearance of impulsive behavior by acting on the gating mechanism involved in response initiation. PMID:20035509

  8. Tractography patterns of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vanegas-Arroyave, Nora; Lauro, Peter M; Huang, Ling; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Lungu, Codrin

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation therapy is an effective symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects remain unclear. Although the targets of deep brain stimulation are grey matter structures, axonal modulation is known to play an important role in deep brain stimulation's therapeutic mechanism. Several white matter structures in proximity to the subthalamic nucleus have been implicated in the clinical benefits of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. We assessed the connectivity patterns that characterize clinically beneficial electrodes in Parkinson's disease patients, after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We evaluated 22 patients with Parkinson's disease (11 females, age 57 ± 9.1 years, disease duration 13.3 ± 6.3 years) who received bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at the National Institutes of Health. During an initial electrode screening session, one month after deep brain stimulation implantation, the clinical benefits of each contact were determined. The electrode was localized by coregistering preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative computer tomography images and the volume of tissue activated was estimated from stimulation voltage and impedance. Brain connectivity for the volume of tissue activated of deep brain stimulation contacts was assessed using probabilistic tractography with diffusion-tensor data. Areas most frequently connected to clinically effective contacts included the thalamus, substantia nigra, brainstem and superior frontal gyrus. A series of discriminant analyses demonstrated that the strength of connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus and the thalamus were positively associated with clinical effectiveness. The connectivity patterns observed in our study suggest that the modulation of white matter tracts directed to the superior frontal gyrus and the thalamus is associated with favourable clinical

  9. Arachnophobia alleviated by subthalamic nucleus stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Allert, Niels; Gippert, Sabrina M; Sajonz, Bastian E A; Nelles, Christoph; Bewernick, Bettina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Coenen, Volker A

    2016-06-01

    We report on a Parkinson patient with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in whom deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) not only improved motor symptoms but also pre-existing arachnophobia. Arachnophobia had been unchanged by the course of Parkinson's disease but rapidly improved with STN-DBS. Both, motor effects and the improvement of arachnophobia were stable during 2 years follow-up. To our knowledge this is the first report on STN stimulation effects on a specific phobia. PMID:27198699

  10. The subthalamic nucleus exerts opposite control on cocaine and 'natural' rewards.

    PubMed

    Baunez, Christelle; Dias, Carine; Cador, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2005-04-01

    A challenge in treating drug addicts is preventing their pathological motivation for the drug without impairing their general affective state toward natural reinforcers. Here we have shown that discrete lesions of the subthalamic nucleus greatly decreased the motivation of rats for cocaine while increasing it for food reward. The subthalamic nucleus, a key structure controlling basal ganglia outputs, is therefore able to oppositely modulate the effect of 'natural' rewards and drugs of abuse on behavior. Modulating the activity of the subthalamic nucleus might prove to be a new target for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:15793577

  11. Cortically evoked potentials in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zwartjes, Daphne G M; Janssen, Marcus L F; Heida, Tjitske; Van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne; Bour, Lo J; Temel, Yasin; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Veltink, Peter H

    2013-02-28

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, in a substantial number of patients the beneficial effects of STN DBS are overshadowed by psychiatric side effects. We hypothesize that stimulation of the STN motor area will provide the optimal effect on the motor symptoms without inducing these side effects, and expect that motor cortex stimulation (MCS) evokes a spatially specific response within the STN, which identifies the STN motor area. We previously showed that MCS evokes responses in the unit activity specifically within certain areas of the STN. Unit activity is generally considered a measure of the output activity. To gain more insight into the neuronal input into the STN, we describe the results of cortically evoked subthalamic local field potentials (LFPs). We show that the cortically evoked LFPs follow a certain temporal and spatial pattern. The significant peaks of the evoked LFPs coincide with the timing of some of the inhibitions and excitations present in the unit responses. The spatial resolution of responses measured in the LFP to MCS is not high enough to identify the STN motor region. However, we believe that optimizing targeting techniques and the development of novel DBS electrodes will improve STN DBS therapy for PD patients.

  12. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves velocity of ballistic movements in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Punt, T David; Green, Alex L; Jenkinson, Ned; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2012-04-18

    High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can markedly improve motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating these improvements are not well understood. In particular, whether motor function is differentially improved in distal or proximal movements is not fully determined. Also, whether reaction time is improved along with other motor parameters is still a matter of debate. Here, we test patients OFF and ON subthalamic nucleus stimulation by capturing simple ballistic movements across four joints using kinematic motion analysis. We show that velocity, but not reaction time, is significantly improved with stimulation. There was no strong differential effect between joints. These results add evidence that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can enhance performance of ballistic movements in Parkinson's disease, and demonstrate that the subthalamic nucleus may be important in driving parameters of motor control after the response has been initiated.

  13. Cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength predicts interindividual efficacy in stopping a motor response.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Birte U; Keuken, Max C; Jahfari, Sara; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Neumann, Jane; Schäfer, Andreas; Anwander, Alfred; Turner, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small but vitally important structure in the basal ganglia. Because of its small volume, and its localization in the basal ganglia, the STN can best be visualized using ultra-high resolution 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, first we individually segmented 7 T MRI STN masks to generate atlas probability maps. Secondly, the individually segmented STN masks and the probability maps were used to derive cortico-subthalamic white matter tract strength. Tract strength measures were then taken to test two functional STN hypotheses which account for the efficiency in stopping a motor response: the right inferior fronto-subthalamic (rIFC-STN) hypothesis and the posterior medial frontal cortex-subthalamic (pMFC-STN) hypothesis. Results of two independent experiments show that increased white matter tract strength between the pMFC and STN results in better stopping behaviour.

  14. Suppression of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus following cortical stimulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Doyle Gaynor, L M F; Kühn, A A; Dileone, M; Litvak, V; Eusebio, A; Pogosyan, A; Androulidakis, A G; Tisch, S; Limousin, P; Insola, A; Mazzone, P; Di Lazzaro, V; Brown, P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear how subthalamic nucleus activity is modulated by the cerebral cortex. Here we investigate the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the cortex on oscillatory subthalamic local field potential activity in the 8–35 Hz (alpha/beta) band, as exaggerated synchronization in this band is implicated in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism. We studied nine patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to test whether cortical stimulation can modulate synchronized oscillations in the human subthalamic nucleus. With patients at rest, single-pulse TMS was delivered every 5 s over each primary motor area and supplementary motor area at intensities of 85–115% resting motor threshold. Subthalamic local field potentials were recorded from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted into this nucleus for the treatment of PD. Motor cortical stimulation suppressed beta activity in the subthalamic nucleus from ∼0.2 to 0.6 s after TMS (repeated measures anova; main effect of time, P<0.01; main effect of side, P=0.03), regardless of intensity. TMS over the supplementary motor area also reduced subthalamic beta activity at 95% (P=0.05) and 115% resting motor threshold (P=0.01). The oscillatory activity decreased to 80 ± 26% of baseline (averaged across sites and stimulation intensities). Suppression with subthreshold stimuli confirmed that these changes were centrally driven and not due to peripheral afference. The results may have implications for mechanisms underlying the reported therapeutic benefits of cortical stimulation. PMID:18657185

  15. Reduced cortical innervation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Abraham; Ma, Yuxian; Paré, Jean-Francois; Villalba, Rosa M.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry points for cortical information to the basal ganglia. Parkinson’s disease affects not only the function, but also the morphological integrity of some of these inputs and their synaptic targets in the basal ganglia. Significant morphological changes in the cortico-striatal system have already been recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of the disease. To find out whether the primate cortico-subthalamic system is also subject to functionally relevant morphological alterations in parkinsonism, we used a combination of light and electron microscopy anatomical approaches and in vivo electrophysiological methods in monkeys rendered parkinsonian following chronic exposure to low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). At the light microscopic level, the density of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive (i.e. cortico-subthalamic) profiles in the dorsolateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (i.e. its sensorimotor territory) was 26.1% lower in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys than in controls. These results were confirmed by electron microscopy studies showing that the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive terminals and of axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses in the dorsolateral subthalamic nucleus was reduced by 55.1% and 27.9%, respectively, compared with controls. These anatomical findings were in line with in vivo electrophysiology data showing a 60% reduction in the proportion of pallidal neurons that responded to electrical stimulation of the cortico-subthalamic system in parkinsonian monkeys. These findings provide strong evidence for a partial loss of the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic projection in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys.

  16. Reduced cortical innervation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Abraham; Ma, Yuxian; Paré, Jean-Francois; Villalba, Rosa M.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry points for cortical information to the basal ganglia. Parkinson’s disease affects not only the function, but also the morphological integrity of some of these inputs and their synaptic targets in the basal ganglia. Significant morphological changes in the cortico-striatal system have already been recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of the disease. To find out whether the primate cortico-subthalamic system is also subject to functionally relevant morphological alterations in parkinsonism, we used a combination of light and electron microscopy anatomical approaches and in vivo electrophysiological methods in monkeys rendered parkinsonian following chronic exposure to low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). At the light microscopic level, the density of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive (i.e. cortico-subthalamic) profiles in the dorsolateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (i.e. its sensorimotor territory) was 26.1% lower in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys than in controls. These results were confirmed by electron microscopy studies showing that the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive terminals and of axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses in the dorsolateral subthalamic nucleus was reduced by 55.1% and 27.9%, respectively, compared with controls. These anatomical findings were in line with in vivo electrophysiology data showing a 60% reduction in the proportion of pallidal neurons that responded to electrical stimulation of the cortico-subthalamic system in parkinsonian monkeys. These findings provide strong evidence for a partial loss of the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic projection in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys. PMID:25681412

  17. The Subcortical Cocktail Problem; Mixed Signals from the Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra

    PubMed Central

    Forstmann, Birte U.

    2015-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus and the directly adjacent substantia nigra are small and important structures in the basal ganglia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra are selectively involved in response inhibition, conflict processing, and adjusting global and selective response thresholds. However, imaging these nuclei is complex, because they are in such close proximity, they can vary in location, and are very small relative to the resolution of most fMRI sequences. Here, we investigated the consistency in localization of these nuclei in BOLD fMRI studies, comparing reported coordinates with probabilistic atlas maps of young human participants derived from ultra-high resolution 7T MRI scanning. We show that the fMRI signal reported in previous studies is likely not unequivocally arising from the subthalamic nucleus but represents a mixture of subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and surrounding tissue. Using a simulation study, we also tested to what extent spatial smoothing, often used in fMRI preprocessing pipelines, influences the mixture of BOLD signals. We propose concrete steps how to analyze fMRI BOLD data to allow inferences about the functional role of small subcortical nuclei like the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. PMID:25793883

  18. Inhibitory control and error monitoring by human subthalamic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, J; Polosan, M; Benis, D; Goetz, L; Bhattacharjee, M; Piallat, B; Krainik, A; Bougerol, T; Chabardès, S; David, O

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be implicated in the control of voluntary action, especially during tasks involving conflicting choice alternatives or rapid response suppression. However, the precise role of the STN during nonmotor functions remains controversial. First, we tested whether functionally distinct neuronal populations support different executive control functions (such as inhibitory control or error monitoring) even within a single subterritory of the STN. We used microelectrode recordings during deep brain stimulation surgery to study extracellular activity of the putative associative-limbic part of the STN while patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder performed a stop-signal task. Second, 2–4 days after the surgery, local field potential recordings of STN were used to test the hypothesis that STN oscillations may also reflect executive control signals. Extracellular recordings revealed three functionally distinct neuronal populations: the first one fired selectively before and during motor responses, the second one selectively increased their firing rate during successful inhibitory control, and the last one fired selectively during error monitoring. Furthermore, we found that beta band activity (15–35 Hz) rapidly increased during correct and incorrect behavioral stopping. Taken together, our results provide critical electrophysiological support for the hypothesized role of the STN in the integration of motor and cognitive-executive control functions. PMID:25203170

  19. Nonmotor Symptoms and Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Paek, Sun Ha

    2015-05-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is an established treatment for the motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to improvements in motor symptoms, many studies have reported changes in various nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) after STN DBS in patients with PD. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, apathy, anxiety, and impulsivity, can worsen or improve depending on the electrical stimulation parameters, the locations of the stimulating contacts within the STN, and changes in medications after surgery. Global cognitive function is not affected by STN DBS, and there is no increase in the incidence of dementia after STN DBS compared to that after medical treatment, although clinically insignificant declines in verbal fluency have been consistently reported. Pain, especially PD-related pain, improves with STN DBS. Evidence regarding the effects of STN DBS on autonomic symptoms and sleep-related problems is limited and remains conflicting. Many symptoms of nonmotor fluctuations, which are occasionally more troublesome than motor fluctuations, improve with STN DBS. Although it is clear that NMSs are not target symptoms for STN DBS, NMSs have a strong influence on the quality of life of patients with PD, and clinicians should thus be aware of these NMSs when deciding whether to perform surgery and should pay attention to changes in these symptoms after STN DBS to ensure the optimal care for patients. PMID:26090080

  20. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects incentive salience attribution in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen

    2011-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P < .01) and compared with controls (P < .01). The difference between the OFF condition and controls was less pronounced (P < .05). Furthermore, postoperative weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P < .05 compensated for OFF condition). Our results suggest that STN DBS increases activation of the aversive motivational system so that more relevance is attributed to aversive fearful stimuli. In addition, STN DBS-related sensitivity to food reward stimuli cues might drive DBS-treated patients to higher food intake and subsequent weight gain. PMID:21780183

  1. MDMA modulates spontaneous firing of subthalamic nucleus neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Luise; von Ameln-Mayerhofer, Andreas; Hentschke, Harald

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylene-dioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has a broad spectrum of molecular targets in the brain, among them receptors and transporters of the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and noradrenergic systems. Its action on the serotonergic system modulates motor systems in rodents and humans. Although parts of the basal ganglia could be identified as mediators of the motor effects of MDMA, very little is known about the role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Therefore, this study investigated the modulation of spontaneous action potential activity of the STN by MDMA (2.5-20 µM) in vitro. MDMA had very heterogeneous effects, ranging from a complete but reversible inhibition to a more than twofold increase in firing at 5 µM. On average, MDMA excited STN neurons moderately, but lost its excitatory effect in the presence of the 5-HT(2A) antagonist MDL 11,939. 5-HT(1A) receptors did not appear to play a major role. Effects of MDMA on transporters for serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) were investigated by coapplication of the reuptake inhibitors citalopram and desipramine, respectively. Similar to the effects of 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade, antagonism of SERT and NET bestowed an inhibitory effect on MDMA. From these results, we conclude that both the 5-HT and the noradrenergic system mediate MDMA-induced effects on STN neurons.

  2. The Subthalamic Nucleus, Limbic Function, and Impulse Control.

    PubMed

    Rossi, P Justin; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN.

  3. Motor task event detection using Subthalamic Nucleus Local Field Potentials.

    PubMed

    Niketeghad, Soroush; Hebb, Adam O; Nedrud, Joshua; Hanrahan, Sara J; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2015-08-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) provides significant therapeutic benefit for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Current DBS devices lack real-time feedback (thus are open loop) and stimulation parameters are adjusted during scheduled visits with a clinician. A closed-loop DBS system may reduce power consumption and DBS side effects. In such systems, DBS parameters are adjusted based on patient's behavior, which means that behavior detection is a major step in designing such systems. Various physiological signals can be used to recognize the behaviors. Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) Local Field Potential (LFP) is a great candidate signal for the neural feedback, because it can be recorded from the stimulation lead and does not require additional sensors. A practical behavior detection method should be able to detect behaviors asynchronously meaning that it should not use any prior knowledge of behavior onsets. In this paper, we introduce a behavior detection method that is able to asynchronously detect the finger movements of Parkinson patients. As a result of this study, we learned that there is a motor-modulated inter-hemispheric connectivity between LFP signals recorded bilaterally from STN. We used non-linear regression method to measure this connectivity and use it to detect the finger movements. Performance of this method is evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). PMID:26737550

  4. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation of the subthalamic region.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Giorgio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Cinquepalmi, Annina; Fronda, Chiara; Bergamasco, Bruno; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2007-07-15

    We report a case of a Parkinson's disease patient treated by bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, who developed freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation through a left-side misplaced electrode which was more antero-medial than the planned trajectory. Subsequently, correct repositioning of the left electrode afforded complete relief of gait disturbances. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait may be side effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region due to current spreading antero-medially to the subthalamic nucleus. These side effects are not subject to habituation and restrict any increase in stimulation parameters. We hypothesize that pallidal projections to the pedunculopontine nucleus could be responsible for these gait disturbances in our patient.

  5. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in children: a neuroimaging pattern-recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Anghelescu, Cristina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Hoon, Alexander H; Pearl, Phillip L; Craiu, Dana; Johnston, Michael V; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A neuroimaging-based pattern-recognition approach has been shown to be very helpful in the diagnosis of a wide range of pediatric central nervous system diseases. Few disorders may selectively affect the subthalamic nucleus in children including Leigh syndrome, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, kernicterus, chronic end-stage liver failure and near total hypoxic-ischemic injury in the full-term neonates. The consideration of the constellation of clinical history and findings as well as additional neuroimaging findings should allow planning the appropriate diagnostic tests to make the correct diagnosis in children with involvement of the subthalamic nucleus.

  6. Diving Response in Rats: Role of the Subthalamic Vasodilator Area

    PubMed Central

    Golanov, Eugene V.; Shiflett, James M.; Britz, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Diving response (DR) is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans, it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier, we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect, decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces DR in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic [AP, heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF)] and EEG responses to the known DR-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats. Responses in AP, HR, CBF, and EEG to cold stimulation of the forehead and ammonia vapors instillation into the nasal cavity were comparable and differed significantly from responses to the cold stimulation of the tail base. Excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic vasodilator area (SVA), which is known to participate in CBF regulation and to afford neuroprotection upon excitation, failed to affect autonomic components of the DR evoked by forehead cold stimulation or nasal mucosa ammonia stimulation. We conclude that cold stimulation of the forehead triggers physiological response comparable to the response evoked by ammonia vapor instillation into nasal cavity, which is considered as stimulus triggering protective DR. These observations may explain the neuroprotective effect of the forehead stimulation. Data demonstrate that SVA does not directly participate in the autonomic adjustments accompanying DR; however, it is involved in diving-evoked modulation of EEG. We suggest that forehead stimulation can be employed as a stimulus capable of triggering oxygen-conserving DR and can be used for neuroprotective therapy. PMID:27708614

  7. Functional anatomy of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Black, Kathleen D.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Lugar, Heather M.; Ushe, Mwiza; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Hershey, Tamara; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Black, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We developed a novel method to map behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) across a 3D brain region and to assign statistical significance after stringent Type I error correction. This method was applied to behavioral changes in Parkinson disease (PD) induced by subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS to determine whether these responses depended on anatomical location of DBS. Method Fifty-one PD participants with STN DBS were evaluated off medication, with DBS off and during unilateral STN DBS with clinically optimized settings. Dependent variables included DBS-induced changes in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) subscores, kinematic measures of bradykinesia and rigidity, working memory, response inhibition, mood, anxiety, and akathisia. Weighted t-tests at each voxel produced p images showing where DBS most significantly affected each dependent variable based on outcomes of participants with nearby DBS. Finally, a permutation test computed the probability that this p image indicated significantly different responses based on stimulation site. Results Most motor variables improved with DBS anywhere in the STN region, but several motor, cognitive and affective responses significantly depended on precise location stimulated, with peak p values in superior STN/zona incerta (quantified bradykinesia), dorsal STN (mood, anxiety), and inferior STN/substantia nigra (UPDRS tremor, working memory). Interpretation Our method identified DBS-induced behavioral changes that depended significantly on DBS site. These results do not support complete functional segregation within STN, since movement improved with DBS throughout, and mood improved with dorsal STN DBS. Rather, findings support functional convergence of motor, cognitive and limbic information in STN. PMID:24953991

  8. Task specific inter-hemispheric coupling in human subthalamic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Darvas, Felix; Hebb, Adam O.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical networks and quantitative measures of connectivity are integral to the study of brain function. Despite lack of direct connections between left and right subthalamic nuclei (STN), there are apparent physiological connections. During clinical examination of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), this connectivity is exploited to enhance signs of PD, yet our understanding of this connectivity is limited. We hypothesized that movement leads to synchronization of neural oscillations in bilateral STN, and we implemented phase coherence, a measure of phase-locking between cortical sites in a narrow frequency band, to demonstrate this synchronization. We analyzed task specific phase synchronization and causality between left and right STN local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from both hemispheres simultaneously during a cued movement task in four subjects with PD who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery. We used a data driven approach to determine inter-hemispheric channel pairs and frequencies with a task specific increase in phase locking.We found significant phase locking between hemispheres in alpha frequency (8–12 Hz) in all subjects concurrent with movement of either hand. In all subjects, phase synchronization increased over baseline upon or prior to hand movement onset and lasted until the motion ceased. Left and right hand movement showed similar patterns. Granger causality (GC) at the phase-locking frequencies between synchronized electrodes revealed a unidirectional causality from right to left STN regardless of which side was moved.Phase synchronization across hemispheres between basal ganglia supports existence of a bilateral network having lateralized regions of specialization for motor processing. Our results suggest this bilateral network is activated by a unilateral motor program. Understanding phase synchronization in natural brain functions is critical to development of future DBS systems that augment goal directed behavioral

  9. Modulation of Human Time Processing by Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Timmermann, Lars; Reck, Christiane; Maarouf, Mohammad; Jörgens, Silke; Ploner, Markus; Südmeyer, Martin; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Sturm, Volker; Niedeggen, Michael; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG) oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD) is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-)production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-)production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds. PMID:21931767

  10. Phase response curves of subthalamic neurons measured with synaptic input and current injection

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Infinitesimal phase response curves (iPRCs) provide a simple description of the response of repetitively firing neurons and may be used to predict responses to any pattern of synaptic input. Their simplicity makes them useful for understanding the dynamics of neurons when certain conditions are met. For example, the sizes of evoked phase shifts should scale linearly with stimulus strength, and the form of the iPRC should remain relatively constant as firing rate varies. We measured the PRCs of rat subthalamic neurons in brain slices using corticosubthalamic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs; mediated by both AMPA- and NMDA-type receptors) and injected current pulses and used them to calculate the iPRC. These were relatively insensitive to both the size of the stimulus and the cell's firing rate, suggesting that the iPRC can predict the response of subthalamic nucleus cells to extrinsic inputs. However, the iPRC calculated using EPSPs differed from that obtained using current pulses. EPSPs (normalized for charge) were much more effective at altering the phase of subthalamic neurons than current pulses. The difference was not attributable to the extended time course of NMDA receptor-mediated currents, being unaffected by blockade of NMDA receptors. The iPRC provides a good description of subthalamic neurons' response to input, but iPRCs are best estimated using synaptic inputs rather than somatic current injection. PMID:22786957

  11. Subthalamic nucleus phase–amplitude coupling correlates with motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Beudel, Martijn; Jha, Ashwani; Oswal, Ashwini; Foltynie, Tom; Hariz, Marwan I.; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Green, Alexander L.; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Objective High-amplitude beta band oscillations within the subthalamic nucleus are frequently associated with Parkinson’s disease but it is unclear how they might lead to motor impairments. Here we investigate a likely pathological coupling between the phase of beta band oscillations and the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations around 300 Hz. Methods We analysed an extensive data set comprising resting-state recordings obtained from deep brain stimulation electrodes in 33 patients before and/or after taking dopaminergic medication. We correlated mean values of spectral power and phase–amplitude coupling with severity of hemibody bradykinesia/rigidity. In addition, we used simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalography to look at functional interactions between the subthalamic nucleus and ipsilateral motor cortex. Results Beta band power and phase–amplitude coupling within the subthalamic nucleus correlated positively with severity of motor impairment. This effect was more pronounced within the low-beta range, whilst coherence between subthalamic nucleus and motor cortex was dominant in the high-beta range. Conclusions We speculate that the beta band might impede pro-kinetic high-frequency activity patterns when phase–amplitude coupling is prominent. Furthermore, results provide evidence for a functional subdivision of the beta band into low and high frequencies. Significance Our findings contribute to the interpretation of oscillatory activity within the cortico-basal ganglia circuit. PMID:26971483

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson's Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson's disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought.

  13. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation and Dysarthria in Parkinson's Disease: A PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Serge; Thobois, Stephane; Costes, Nicolas; Le Bars, Didier; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Pollak, Pierre; Gentil, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, functional imaging studies during limb motor tasks reveal cerebral activation abnormalities that can be reversed by subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The effect of STN stimulation on parkinsonian dysarthria has not, however, been investigated using PET. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of STN…

  14. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    PubMed

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. PMID:25194209

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson's Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson's disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought. PMID:27624437

  16. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Changes Velopharyngeal Control in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Michael J.; Barlow, Steven M.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Adequate velopharyngeal control is essential for speech, but may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) improves limb function in PD, but the effects on velopharyngeal control remain unknown. We tested whether STN DBS would change aerodynamic measures of velopharyngeal…

  17. [Influence of Medication on the Oscillatory and Dynamic Characteristics of Subthalamic Local Field Potentials in Patients with Parkinson's Disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Geng, Xinyi; Huang, Yongzhi; Wang, Shouyan

    2016-02-01

    The dysfunction of subthalamic nucleus is the main cause of Parkinson's disease. Local field potentials in human subthalamic nucleus contain rich physiological information. The present study aimed to quantify the oscillatory and dynamic characteristics of local field potentials of subthalamic nucleus, and their modulation by the medication therapy for Parkinson's disease. The subthalamic nucleus local field potentials were recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease at the states of on and off medication. The oscillatory features were characterised with the power spectral analysis. Furthermore, the dynamic features were characterised with time-frequency analysis and the coefficient of variation measure of the time-variant power at each frequency. There was a dominant peak at low beta-band with medication off. The medication significantly suppressed the low beta component and increased the theta component. The amplitude fluctuation of neural oscillations was measured by the coefficient of variation. The coefficient of variation in 4-7 Hz and 60-66 Hz was increased by medication. These effects proved that medication had significant modulation to subthalamic nucleus neural oscillatory synchronization and dynamic features. The subthalamic nucleus neural activities tend towards stable state under medication. The findings would provide quantitative biomarkers for studying the mechanisms of Parkinson's disease and clinical treatments of medication or deep brain stimulation. PMID:27382739

  18. Distinct roles of dopamine and subthalamic nucleus in learning and probabilistic decision making

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal; Javed, Shazia; Mooney, Lucy K.; Murphy, Gillian; Keeley, Sophie; Whone, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    Even simple behaviour requires us to make decisions based on combining multiple pieces of learned and new information. Making such decisions requires both learning the optimal response to each given stimulus as well as combining probabilistic information from multiple stimuli before selecting a response. Computational theories of decision making predict that learning individual stimulus–response associations and rapid combination of information from multiple stimuli are dependent on different components of basal ganglia circuitry. In particular, learning and retention of memory, required for optimal response choice, are significantly reliant on dopamine, whereas integrating information probabilistically is critically dependent upon functioning of the glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (computing the ‘normalization term’ in Bayes’ theorem). Here, we test these theories by investigating 22 patients with Parkinson’s disease either treated with deep brain stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus and dopaminergic therapy or managed with dopaminergic therapy alone. We use computerized tasks that probe three cognitive functions—information acquisition (learning), memory over a delay and information integration when multiple pieces of sequentially presented information have to be combined. Patients performed the tasks ON or OFF deep brain stimulation and/or ON or OFF dopaminergic therapy. Consistent with the computational theories, we show that stopping dopaminergic therapy impairs memory for probabilistic information over a delay, whereas deep brain stimulation to the region of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts decision making when multiple pieces of acquired information must be combined. Furthermore, we found that when participants needed to update their decision on the basis of the last piece of information presented in the decision-making task, patients with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus region did not slow down appropriately to revise their

  19. Distinct roles of dopamine and subthalamic nucleus in learning and probabilistic decision making.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Elizabeth J; Bogacz, Rafal; Javed, Shazia; Mooney, Lucy K; Murphy, Gillian; Keeley, Sophie; Whone, Alan L

    2012-12-01

    Even simple behaviour requires us to make decisions based on combining multiple pieces of learned and new information. Making such decisions requires both learning the optimal response to each given stimulus as well as combining probabilistic information from multiple stimuli before selecting a response. Computational theories of decision making predict that learning individual stimulus-response associations and rapid combination of information from multiple stimuli are dependent on different components of basal ganglia circuitry. In particular, learning and retention of memory, required for optimal response choice, are significantly reliant on dopamine, whereas integrating information probabilistically is critically dependent upon functioning of the glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (computing the 'normalization term' in Bayes' theorem). Here, we test these theories by investigating 22 patients with Parkinson's disease either treated with deep brain stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus and dopaminergic therapy or managed with dopaminergic therapy alone. We use computerized tasks that probe three cognitive functions-information acquisition (learning), memory over a delay and information integration when multiple pieces of sequentially presented information have to be combined. Patients performed the tasks ON or OFF deep brain stimulation and/or ON or OFF dopaminergic therapy. Consistent with the computational theories, we show that stopping dopaminergic therapy impairs memory for probabilistic information over a delay, whereas deep brain stimulation to the region of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts decision making when multiple pieces of acquired information must be combined. Furthermore, we found that when participants needed to update their decision on the basis of the last piece of information presented in the decision-making task, patients with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus region did not slow down appropriately to revise their plan, a

  20. Anatomy of the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Massey, L A; Yousry, T A

    2010-02-01

    The substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus are two key structures in the midbrain that are very important in movement disorders, particularly those associated with parkinsonism. Using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the anatomic description of both these structures can be challenging. This article describes the importance of understanding the underlying anatomy and some of the changes associated with pathology in these structures. Advances in MR imaging are discussed, including high-field MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, inversion-recovery imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging, with particular reference to the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus. Understanding of MR imaging features of these nuclei needs to be firmly based on underlying knowledge of anatomy and pathology from postmortem studies, and more work is needed in this field.

  1. Equilibrium potential of GABA(A) current and implications for rebound burst firing in rat subthalamic neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bevan, M D; Wilson, C J; Bolam, J P; Magill, P J

    2000-05-01

    Reciprocally connected glutamatergic subthalamic and GABAergic globus pallidus neurons have recently been proposed to act as a generator of low-frequency oscillatory activity in Parkinson's disease. To determine whether GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic potentials could theoretically generate rebound burst firing in subthalamic neurons, a feature that is central to the proposed oscillatory mechanism, we determined the equilibrium potential of GABA(A) current (E(GABA(A))) and the degree of hyperpolarization required for rebound firing using perforated-patch recording. In the majority of neurons that fired rebounds, E(GABA(A)) was equal to or more hyperpolarized than the hyperpolarization required for rebound burst firing. These data suggest that synchronous activity of pallidal inputs could underlie rhythmic bursting activity of subthalamic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:10805713

  2. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus transiently enhances loss-chasing behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert D; Wielenberg, Birgit; Wojtecki, Lars; Elben, Saskia; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-09-01

    Dopaminergic treatments are associated with impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling in a subset of patients with Parkinson's Disease. While deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has been reported to reduce symptoms of impulse control disorders in some Parkinson's Disease patients, little is known about its specific effects on gambling behaviour. In this experiment, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on one of the central features of pathological gambling: the tendency to chase losses. Loss-chasing is associated with impaired control over gambling behaviour and it is one of the most salient features of pathological gambling as it presents in the clinic. Twenty two patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and chronically implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes for deep brain stimulation completed a simple laboratory model of loss-chasing behaviour twice: once with and once without stimulation. Exploratory analysis indicated that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increased the value of losses chased by patients with Parkinson's Disease when shifting from off- to on-stimulation. These effects were not attributable to changes in state affect or to the motor impairments produced by the withdrawal of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. The effects of the stimulation on the value of losses chased were more pronounced in female than in male patients and reduced in patients taking dopamine receptor agonists. Collectively, these results suggest that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can transiently alter the evaluation of accumulated losses during gambling episodes in idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. PMID:21726554

  4. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico

  5. Activity of neurons of the subthalamic nucleus in relation to motor performance in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cheruel, F; Dormont, J F; Farin, D

    1996-03-01

    The activity of subthalamic nucleus neurons related to motor performance was studied in three unrestrained cats operantly conditioned to perform a lever-release movement. The movement was initiated either rapidly after the trigger stimulus (a brief sound) in a simple reaction-time paradigm or after a delay in trials identified by a tone cue. These paradigms were randomly presented. The activity of 171 neurons was recorded in the contralateral and in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus, with respect to the performing limb. The mean spontaneous activity of cells in the ipsilateral side (18.5 +/- 13.8 imp/s, mean +/- SD) was higher than that in the contralateral side (8.5 +/- 8.1 imp/s). A total of 145 cells (85%) presented significant changes in activity in relation to the lever-release movement (task-related cells). The remaining 26 cells were either related to other events of the task (n = 15; lever-press or reinforcement occurrence) or not related at all to the task performance (n = 11). The majority of changes of activity of task-related cells were initial increases in discharge, which started on average, 127 ms before movement onset and lasted several hundreds of milliseconds. These increases in discharge were more frequent in the contralateral side (75 of 80 task-related cells, 94%) than in the ipsilateral side (43 of 65 task-related cells, 66%). The changes in activity, either increases or decreases, occurred early after the trigger stimulus, since 62% of them had a latency of less than 100 ms. Although the mean latency of initial increases was rather similar in both sides (97 ms contralateral versus 104 ms ipsilateral), the contralateral side was characterized by a high proportion of very early responses (less than 20 ms). For most neurons, the early changes in activity described above were absent after the trigger stimulus in the delayed condition. For certain neurons, the changes in activity prior to movement were different in reaction-time condition and in

  6. Cognitive and behavioural effects of chronic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, A; Albanese, A; Contarino, M; Zinzi, P; Barbier, A; Gasparini, F; Romito, L; Bentivoglio, A; Scerrati, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cognitive and behavioural effects of bilateral lead implants for high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease; and to discriminate between HFS and the effects of surgical intervention on cognitive function by carrying out postoperative cognitive assessments with the stimulators turned on or off. Methods: Motor, cognitive, behavioural, and functional assessments were undertaken in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease before implantation and then at three, six, and 12 months afterwards. Nine patients were also examined 18 months after surgery. Postoperative cognitive assessments were carried out with stimulators turned off at three and 18 months, and turned on at six and 12 months. Results: Cognitive assessment showed a significant postoperative decline in performance on tasks of letter verbal fluency (across all postoperative assessments, but more pronounced at three months) and episodic verbal memory (only at three months, with stimulators off). At three, six, and 12 months after surgery, there was a significant improvement in the mini-mental state examination and in a task of executive function (modified Wisconsin card sorting test). On all postoperative assessments, there was an improvement in parkinsonian motor symptoms, quality of life, and activities of daily living while off antiparkinsonian drugs. A significant postoperative decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms was observed across all assessments. Similar results were seen in the subgroup of nine patients with an 18 month follow up. Following implantation, three patients developed transient manic symptoms and one showed persistent psychic akinesia. Conclusions: Bilateral HFS of the subthalamic nucleus is a relatively safe procedure with respect to long term cognitive and behavioural morbidity, although individual variability in postoperative cognitive and behavioural outcome invites caution. Stimulation of the subthalamic

  7. Mood Response to Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Meghan C.; Black, Kevin J.; Weaver, Patrick M.; Lugar, Heather M.; Videen, Tom O.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) improves motor function but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. We identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with the Visual Analog Scale in 24 STN DBS PD patients. Participants reported greater positive mood, decreased anxiety and apathy with bilateral and unilateral stimulation. Left DBS improved mood more than right DBS. Right DBS-induced increase in positive mood was related to more medial and dorsal contact locations. These results highlight the functional heterogeneity of the STN. PMID:22450611

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Arjun S; Bynevelt, Michael; Lind, Christopher R P

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the most important stereotactic targets in neurosurgery, and its accurate imaging is crucial. With improving MRI sequences there is impetus for direct targeting of the STN. High-quality, distortion-free images are paramount. Image reconstruction techniques appear to show the greatest promise in balancing the issue of geometrical distortion and STN edge detection. Existing spin echo- and susceptibility-based MRI sequences are compared with new image reconstruction methods. Quantitative susceptibility mapping is the most promising technique for stereotactic imaging of the STN.

  9. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson’s Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought. PMID:27624437

  10. Neuronal activity correlated with checking behaviour in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Burbaud, Pierre; Clair, Anne-Hélène; Langbour, Nicolas; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Goillandeau, Michel; Michelet, Thomas; Bardinet, Eric; Chéreau, Isabelle; Durif, Franck; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; Fontaine, Denys; Magnié-Mauro, Marie-Noelle; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Bataille, Benoît; Millet, Bruno; Vérin, Marc; Baup, Nicolas; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Cornu, Philippe; Pelissolo, Antoine; Arbus, Christophe; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Yelnik, Jérôme; Welter, Marie-Laure; Mallet, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Doubt, and its behavioural correlate, checking, is a normal phenomenon of human cognition that is dramatically exacerbated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation in the associative-limbic area of the subthalamic nucleus, a central core of the basal ganglia, improved obsessive-compulsive disorder. To understand the physiological bases of symptoms in such patients, we recorded the activity of individual neurons in the therapeutic target during surgery while subjects performed a cognitive task that gave them the possibility of unrestricted repetitive checking after they had made a choice. We postulated that the activity of neurons in this region could be influenced by doubt and checking behaviour. Among the 63/87 task-related neurons recorded in 10 patients, 60% responded to various combinations of instructions, delay, movement or feedback, thus highlighting their role in the integration of different types of information. In addition, task-related activity directed towards decision-making increased during trials with checking in comparison with those without checking. These results suggest that the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus plays a role in doubt-related repetitive thoughts. Overall, our results not only provide new insight into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in human cognition but also support the fact that subthalamic nucleus modulation by deep brain stimulation reduced compulsive behaviour in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  11. Subthalamic stimulation modulates self-estimation of patients with Parkinson's disease and induces risk-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Florin, Esther; Müller, Désirée; Pfeifer, Johannes; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus postoperatively often display higher impulsivity and therefore may experience difficulties in social interactions. Here, we examined social interactions of patients with Parkinson's disease with and without deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus in competitive situations. We hypothesized altered self-estimation and risk-seeking behaviour in this patient group induced by deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. To test the hypothesis, an experimental setting was used in which participants performed a calculation task and chose their preferred compensation. Based on their actual calculation performance, more patients with Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation chose a competitive tournament compensation. Assuming rational behaviour, this self-selection pattern reflects increased risk tolerance. Since patients who performed in the lowest quartile chose the tournament option, the data suggest that deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus results in a loss of the correct reference frame against which patients with Parkinson's disease evaluate their performance. The stimulation-induced combination of overestimation of their own performance, increased risk-taking, and preference for competitive environments despite poor performance is likely to impact considerably on the patients' social and work life.

  12. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  13. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  14. Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT[R]LOUD) for Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Jennifer; Mahler, Leslie; Halpern, Angela; Gilley, Phllip; Klepitskaya, Olga; Ramig, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensive voice therapy (LSVT[R]LOUD) can effectively manage voice and speech symptoms associated with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). This small-group study evaluated voice and speech in individuals with and without deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) before and after LSVT LOUD, to determine whether outcomes…

  15. Neuronal activity correlated with checking behaviour in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Burbaud, Pierre; Clair, Anne-Hélène; Langbour, Nicolas; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Goillandeau, Michel; Michelet, Thomas; Bardinet, Eric; Chéreau, Isabelle; Durif, Franck; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; Fontaine, Denys; Magnié-Mauro, Marie-Noelle; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Bataille, Benoît; Millet, Bruno; Vérin, Marc; Baup, Nicolas; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Cornu, Philippe; Pelissolo, Antoine; Arbus, Christophe; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Yelnik, Jérôme; Welter, Marie-Laure; Mallet, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Doubt, and its behavioural correlate, checking, is a normal phenomenon of human cognition that is dramatically exacerbated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation in the associative-limbic area of the subthalamic nucleus, a central core of the basal ganglia, improved obsessive-compulsive disorder. To understand the physiological bases of symptoms in such patients, we recorded the activity of individual neurons in the therapeutic target during surgery while subjects performed a cognitive task that gave them the possibility of unrestricted repetitive checking after they had made a choice. We postulated that the activity of neurons in this region could be influenced by doubt and checking behaviour. Among the 63/87 task-related neurons recorded in 10 patients, 60% responded to various combinations of instructions, delay, movement or feedback, thus highlighting their role in the integration of different types of information. In addition, task-related activity directed towards decision-making increased during trials with checking in comparison with those without checking. These results suggest that the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus plays a role in doubt-related repetitive thoughts. Overall, our results not only provide new insight into the role of the subthalamic nucleus in human cognition but also support the fact that subthalamic nucleus modulation by deep brain stimulation reduced compulsive behaviour in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:23365104

  16. Sensory contribution to vocal emotion deficit in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Péron, Julie; Cekic, Sezen; Haegelen, Claire; Sauleau, Paul; Patel, Sona; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease induces modifications in the recognition of emotion from voices (or emotional prosody). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood, and the role of acoustic features in these deficits has yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to identify the influence of acoustic features on changes in emotional prosody recognition following STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease. To this end, we analysed the performances of patients on vocal emotion recognition in pre-versus post-operative groups, as well as of matched controls, entering the acoustic features of the stimuli into our statistical models. Analyses revealed that the post-operative biased ratings on the Fear scale when patients listened to happy stimuli were correlated with loudness, while the biased ratings on the Sadness scale when they listened to happiness were correlated with fundamental frequency (F0). Furthermore, disturbed ratings on the Happiness scale when the post-operative patients listened to sadness were found to be correlated with F0. These results suggest that inadequate use of acoustic features following subthalamic stimulation has a significant impact on emotional prosody recognition in patients with Parkinson's disease, affecting the extraction and integration of acoustic cues during emotion perception.

  17. Conflict-dependent dynamic of subthalamic nucleus oscillations during moral decisions.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Giannicola, Gaia; Rosa, Manuela; Marceglia, Sara; Lucchiari, Claudio; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Servello, Domenico; Pacchetti, Claudio; Porta, Mauro; Sassi, Marco; Zangaglia, Roberta; Franzini, Angelo; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi; Piacentini, Sylvie; Zago, Stefano; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Although lesional, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies have provided an insight into the neural mechanisms of judgement and decision-making, all these works focused on the cerebral cortex, without investigating the role of subcortical structures such as the basal ganglia. Besides being an effective therapeutic tool, deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows local field potential (LFP) recordings through the stimulation electrodes thus providing a physiological "window" on human subcortical structures. In this study we assessed whether subthalamic nucleus LFP oscillations are modulated by processing of moral conflictual, moral nonconflictual, and neutral statements. To do so, in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (8 men) bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) electrodes for DBS, we recorded STN LFPs 4 days after surgery during a moral decision task. During the task, recordings from the STN showed changes in LFP oscillations. Whereas the 14--30 Hz band (beta) changed during the movement executed to perform the task, the 5--13 Hz band (low-frequency) changed when subjects evaluated the content of statements. Low-frequency band power increased significantly more during conflictual than during nonconflictual or neutral sentences. We conclude that STN responds specifically to conflictual moral stimuli, and could be involved in conflictual decisions of all kinds, not only those for moral judgment. LFP oscillations provide novel direct evidence that the neural processing of conflictual decision-making spreads beyond the cortex to the basal ganglia and encompasses a specific subcortical conflict-dependent component. PMID:21061226

  18. Subthalamic, not striatal, activity correlates with basal ganglia downstream activity in normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Deffains, Marc; Iskhakova, Liliya; Katabi, Shiran; Haber, Suzanne N; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitute the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG) network and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. Comparison of the neuronal activity in BG input and downstream structures reveals that subthalamic, not striatal, activity fluctuations correlate with modulations in the increase/decrease discharge balance of BG downstream neurons during temporal discounting classical condition task. After induction of parkinsonism with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), abnormal low beta (8-15 Hz) spiking and local field potential (LFP) oscillations resonate across the BG network. Nevertheless, LFP beta oscillations entrain spiking activity of STN, striatal cholinergic interneurons and BG downstream structures, but do not entrain spiking activity of striatal projection neurons. Our results highlight the pivotal role of STN divergent projections in BG physiology and pathophysiology and may explain why STN is such an effective site for invasive treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease and other BG-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16443.001 PMID:27552049

  19. The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Zénon, Alexandre; Duclos, Yann; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana; Baunez, Christelle; Régis, Jean; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus—the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease—in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for adjusting behaviour to conflict. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses by recording the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease during an effort-based decision task. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of 12 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (mean age 63.8 years ± 6.8; mean disease duration 9.4 years ± 2.5) both OFF and ON levodopa while they had to decide whether to engage in an effort task based on the level of effort required and the value of the reward promised in return. The data were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and cluster-based permutation methods. Behaviourally, the probability of trial acceptance increased with the reward value and decreased with the required effort level. Dopamine replacement therapy increased the rate of acceptance for efforts associated with low rewards. When recording the subthalamic nucleus activity, we found a clear neural response to both reward and effort cues in the 1–10 Hz range. In addition these responses were informative of the subjective value of reward and level of effort rather than their actual quantities, such that they were predictive of the participant’s decisions. OFF levodopa, this link with acceptance was weakened. Finally, we found that these responses did not index conflict, as they did not vary as a function of the distance from indifference in the acceptance decision. These findings show

  20. NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2D Subunit Control Neuronal Function in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Vance, Katie M.; Pare, Jean-François; Sotty, Florence; Fog, Karina; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)–P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN. Using subunit-selective allosteric modulators of NMDA receptors (TCN-201, ifenprodil, CIQ, and DQP-1105), we provide evidence that receptors containing the GluN2B and GluN2D subunits mediate responses to exogenously applied NMDA and glycine, as well as synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the STN of rat brain slices. EPSCs in the STN were mediated primarily by AMPA and NMDA receptors and GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors controlled the slow deactivation time course of EPSCs in the STN. In vivo recordings from the STN of anesthetized adult rats demonstrated that the spike firing rate was increased by the GluN2C/D potentiator CIQ and decreased by the GluN2C/D antagonist DQP-1105, suggesting that NMDA receptor activity can influence STN output. These data indicate that the GluN2B and GluN2D NMDA receptor subunits contribute to synaptic activity in the STN and may represent potential therapeutic targets for modulating subthalamic neuron activity in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that control movement and are dysregulated in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Subthalamic neurons receive direct excitatory input, but the pharmacology of excitatory

  1. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is efficacious in Parkin disease.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M A; Contarino, Maria F; Ghezzi, Daniele; Franzini, Angelo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Albanese, Alberto

    2005-02-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficacious symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. We have analysed the genetic status of a series of consecutive parkinsonian patients implanted for STN HFS and compared the outcome of five carrying mutations in the parkin gene with that of the non-parkin group. All patients obtained sustained control of PD symptoms and achieved functional improvement; in the parkin group the UPDRS motor score improved by 56.4%, the levodopa equivalent daily dosage was reduced by 75.5%. Postoperative medications were reduced more in parkin than in non-parkin patients. We confirm that the current inclusion criteria for STN HFS do not exclude patients carrying mutations in the parkin gene; their clinical outcome is comparable to that of the non-parkin group.

  2. The effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on metaphor comprehension and language abilities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Christina; Macoir, Joël; Langlois, Mélanie; Cantin, Léo; Prud'homme, Michel; Monetta, Laura

    2015-02-01

    The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) on different language abilities are still controversial and its impact on high-level language abilities such as metaphor comprehension has been overlooked. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of STN electrical stimulation on metaphor comprehension and language abilities such as lexical and semantic capacities. Eight PD individuals with bilateral STN-DBS were first evaluated OFF-DBS and, at least seven weeks later, ON-DBS. Performance on metaphor comprehension, lexical decision, word association and verbal fluency tasks were compared ON and OFF-DBS in addition to motor symptoms evaluation. STN stimulation had a significant beneficial effect on motor symptoms in PD. However, this stimulation did not have any effect on metaphor comprehension or any other cognitive ability evaluated in this study. These outcomes suggest that STN stimulation may have dissociable effects on motor and language functions. PMID:25577507

  3. The effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on metaphor comprehension and language abilities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Christina; Macoir, Joël; Langlois, Mélanie; Cantin, Léo; Prud'homme, Michel; Monetta, Laura

    2015-02-01

    The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) on different language abilities are still controversial and its impact on high-level language abilities such as metaphor comprehension has been overlooked. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of STN electrical stimulation on metaphor comprehension and language abilities such as lexical and semantic capacities. Eight PD individuals with bilateral STN-DBS were first evaluated OFF-DBS and, at least seven weeks later, ON-DBS. Performance on metaphor comprehension, lexical decision, word association and verbal fluency tasks were compared ON and OFF-DBS in addition to motor symptoms evaluation. STN stimulation had a significant beneficial effect on motor symptoms in PD. However, this stimulation did not have any effect on metaphor comprehension or any other cognitive ability evaluated in this study. These outcomes suggest that STN stimulation may have dissociable effects on motor and language functions.

  4. Heterosynaptic regulation of external globus pallidus inputs to the subthalamic nucleus by the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hong-Yuan; Atherton, Jeremy F; Wokosin, David; Surmeier, D James; Bevan, Mark D

    2015-01-21

    The two principal movement-suppressing pathways of the basal ganglia, the so-called hyperdirect and indirect pathways, interact within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). An appropriate level and pattern of hyperdirect pathway cortical excitation and indirect pathway external globus pallidus (GPe) inhibition of the STN are critical for normal movement and are greatly perturbed in Parkinson's disease. Here we demonstrate that motor cortical inputs to the STN heterosynaptically regulate, through activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, the number of functional GABAA receptor-mediated GPe-STN inputs. Therefore, a homeostatic mechanism, intrinsic to the STN, balances cortical excitation by adjusting the strength of GPe inhibition. However, following the loss of dopamine, excessive cortical activation of STN NMDA receptors triggers GPe-STN inputs to strengthen abnormally, contributing to the emergence of pathological, correlated activity.

  5. Effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on pain in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dellapina, Estelle; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Regragui, Wafa; Thalamas, Claire; Lazorthes, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Payoux, Pierre; Brefel-Courbon, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Painful sensations are common in Parkinson's disease. In many patients, such sensations correspond to neuropathic pain and could be related to central alterations of pain processing. Subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation improves motor function in Parkinson's disease. Several structures of the basal ganglia are involved in nociceptive function, and deep brain stimulation could thus also modify pain perception in Parkinson's disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared subjective heat pain thresholds, in deep brain stimulation OFF and ON conditions in 2 groups of Parkinson's disease patients with or without neuropathic pain. We also compared pain-induced cerebral activations during experimental nociceptive stimulations using H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography in both deep brain stimulation OFF and ON conditions. Correlation analyses were performed between clinical and neuroimaging results. Deep brain stimulation significantly increased subjective heat pain threshold (from 40.3 ± 4.2 to 41.6 ± 4.3, P=.03) and reduced pain-induced cerebral activity in the somatosensory cortex (BA 40) in patients with pain, whereas it had no effect in pain-free patients. There was a significant negative correlation in the deep brain stimulation OFF condition between pain threshold and pain-induced activity in the insula of patients who were pain free but not in those who had pain. There was a significant positive correlation between deep brain stimulation-induced changes in pain threshold and in pain-induced cerebral activations in the primary somatosensory cortex and insula of painful patients only. These results suggest that subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation raised pain thresholds in Parkinson's disease patients with pain and restored better functioning of the lateral discriminative pain system.

  6. A novel lead design enables selective deep brain stimulation of neural populations in the subthalamic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease are sensitive to the location of the DBS lead within the STN. New high density (HD) lead designs have been created which are hypothesized to provide additional degrees of freedom in shaping the stimulating electric field. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of a new HD lead with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. Approach. A computational model, consisting of a finite element electric field model combined with multi-compartment neuron and axon models representing different neural populations in the subthalamic region, was used to evaluate the two leads. We compared ring-mode and steering-mode stimulation with the HD lead to single contact stimulation with the CC lead. These stimulation modes were tested for the lead: (1) positioned in the centroid of the STN, (2) shifted 1 mm towards the internal capsule (IC), and (3) shifted 2 mm towards the IC. Under these conditions, we quantified the number of STN neurons that were activated without activating IC fibers, which are known to cause side-effects. Main results. The modeling results show that the HD lead is able to mimic the stimulation effect of the CC lead. Additionally, in steering-mode stimulation there was a significant increase of activated STN neurons compared to the CC mode. Significance. From the model simulations we conclude that the HD lead in steering-mode with optimized stimulation parameter selection can stimulate more STN cells. Next, the clinical impact of the increased number of activated STN cells should be tested and balanced across the increased complexity of identifying the optimized stimulation parameter settings for the HD lead.

  7. Bilateral subthalamic stimulation monotherapy in advanced Parkinson's disease: long-term follow-up of patients.

    PubMed

    Valldeoriola, Francesc; Pilleri, Manuela; Tolosa, Eduardo; Molinuevo, José L; Rumià, Jordi; Ferrer, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to improve parkinsonian symptoms and attenuate levodopa-induced motor complications. In some patients, such clinical improvement allows antiparkinsonian medication (ApMed) withdrawal. We show the clinical outcome at the long-term follow-up of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) in which STN-DBS was used in monotherapy, and compare the clinical results of patients without medication with those obtained in parkinsonian patients in which ApMed were reduced but could not be totally displaced after surgery. We analyzed clinical outcome of ten patients with PD in which all ApMed was withdrawn after bilateral subthalamic stimulation and 16 parkinsonian patients still taking antiparkinsonian medication after surgery. After 1.5 years, STN-DBS monotherapy produced UPDRS motor scores similar to those observed in the on-drug condition before surgery without the inconvenience of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. No significant differences were seen in most of clinical outcome measures when comparing patients still taking ApMed with patients in STN-DBS monotherapy but a few patients still taking ApMed presented mild dyskinesias and motor fluctuations and patients with STN-DBS monotherapy did not. STN-DBS is useful in the treatment of advanced PD and in some patients it is possible to maintain this therapy alone in the long term. The therapeutic effect of STN-DBS on motor signs can be equipotent to that of levodopa with the additional benefit of avoiding motor fluctuations and dyskinesias.

  8. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evaluation of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Thobois, S; Mertens, P; Guenot, M; Hermier, M; Mollion, H; Bouvard, M; Chazot, G; Broussolle, E; Sindou, M

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of chronic subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 consecutive severely affected PD patients were included (mean age, SD: 56.9+/-6 years; mean disease duration: 13.5+/-4.4 years). All the patients were evaluated clinically before and 6 months after the surgical procedure using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Additionally, a 12 months follow-up was available in 14 patients. The target coordinates were determined by ventriculography under stereotactic conditions, followed by electrophysiology and intraoperative stimulation. After surgery, continuous monopolar stimulation was applied bilaterally in 17 patients at 2.9+/-0.4 V through 1 (n = 31) or 2 contacts (n = 3). One patient had bilateral bipolar stimulation. The mean frequency of stimulation was 140+/-16 Hz and pulse width 68+/-13 micros. Off medication, the UPDRS part III score (max = 108) was reduced by 55 % during on stimulation (score before surgery: 44.9+/-13.4 vs at 6 months: 20.2+/-10; p < 0.001). In the on medication state, no difference was noted between the preoperative and the postoperative off stimulation conditions (scores were respectively: 17.9+/-9.2 and 23+/-12.6). The severity of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias assessed by UPDRS IV was reduced by 76 % at 6 months (scores were respectively: 10.3+/-3 and 2.5+/-3; p < 0.001). Off medication, the UPDRS II or ADL score was reduced by 52.8 % during on stimulation (26.9+/-6.5 preop versus 12.7+/-7 at 6 months). The daily dose of antiparkinsonian treatment was diminished by 65.5 % (levodopa equivalent dose -- mg/D -- was 1045 +/- 435 before surgery and 360 +/- 377 at 6 months; p < 0.01). These results remained stable at 12 months for the 14 patients studied. Side effects comprised lower limb phlebitis (n = 2), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), depression (n = 6), dysarthria and freezing (n = 1), sialorrhea and

  9. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evaluation of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Thobois, S; Mertens, P; Guenot, M; Hermier, M; Mollion, H; Bouvard, M; Chazot, G; Broussolle, E; Sindou, M

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of chronic subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 consecutive severely affected PD patients were included (mean age, SD: 56.9+/-6 years; mean disease duration: 13.5+/-4.4 years). All the patients were evaluated clinically before and 6 months after the surgical procedure using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Additionally, a 12 months follow-up was available in 14 patients. The target coordinates were determined by ventriculography under stereotactic conditions, followed by electrophysiology and intraoperative stimulation. After surgery, continuous monopolar stimulation was applied bilaterally in 17 patients at 2.9+/-0.4 V through 1 (n = 31) or 2 contacts (n = 3). One patient had bilateral bipolar stimulation. The mean frequency of stimulation was 140+/-16 Hz and pulse width 68+/-13 micros. Off medication, the UPDRS part III score (max = 108) was reduced by 55 % during on stimulation (score before surgery: 44.9+/-13.4 vs at 6 months: 20.2+/-10; p < 0.001). In the on medication state, no difference was noted between the preoperative and the postoperative off stimulation conditions (scores were respectively: 17.9+/-9.2 and 23+/-12.6). The severity of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias assessed by UPDRS IV was reduced by 76 % at 6 months (scores were respectively: 10.3+/-3 and 2.5+/-3; p < 0.001). Off medication, the UPDRS II or ADL score was reduced by 52.8 % during on stimulation (26.9+/-6.5 preop versus 12.7+/-7 at 6 months). The daily dose of antiparkinsonian treatment was diminished by 65.5 % (levodopa equivalent dose -- mg/D -- was 1045 +/- 435 before surgery and 360 +/- 377 at 6 months; p < 0.01). These results remained stable at 12 months for the 14 patients studied. Side effects comprised lower limb phlebitis (n = 2), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), depression (n = 6), dysarthria and freezing (n = 1), sialorrhea and

  10. Spatiotemporal visualization of deep brain stimulation-induced effects in the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Nada; Borisyuk, Roman; Pavese, Nicola; Nandi, Dipankar; Bain, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a successful surgical therapy used to treat the disabling symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. It involves the chronic stimulation of disorder-specific nuclei. However, the mechanisms that lead to clinical improvements remain unclear. Consequently, this slows the optimization of present-day DBS therapy and hinders its future development and application. We used a computational model to calculate the distribution of electric potential induced by DBS and study the effect of stimulation on the spiking activity of a subthalamic nucleus (STN) projection neuron. We previously showed that such a model can reveal detailed spatial effects of stimulation in the vicinity of the electrode. However, this multi-compartmental STN neuron model can fire in either a burst or tonic mode and, in this study, we hypothesized that the firing mode of the cell will have a major impact on the DBS-induced effects. Our simulations showed that the bursting model exhibits behaviour observed in studies of high-frequency stimulation of STN neurons, such as the presence of a silent period at stimulation offset and frequency-dependent stimulation effects. We validated the model by simulating the clinical parameter settings used for a Parkinsonian patient and showed, in a patient-specific anatomical model, that the region of affected tissue is consistent with clinical observations of the optimal DBS site. Our results demonstrated a method of quantitatively assessing neuronal changes induced by DBS, to maximize therapeutic benefit and minimize unwanted side effects. PMID:22805069

  11. Effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on blink abnormalities of 6-OHDA lesioned rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaminer, Jaime; Thakur, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat model share blink abnormalities. In view of the evolutionarily conserved organization of blinking, characterization of blink reflex circuits in rodents may elucidate the neural mechanisms of PD reflex abnormalities. We examine the extent of this shared pattern of blink abnormalities by measuring blink reflex excitability, blink reflex plasticity, and spontaneous blinking in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. We also investigate whether 130-Hz subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) affects blink abnormalities, as it does in PD patients. Like PD patients, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats exhibit reflex blink hyperexcitability, impaired blink plasticity, and a reduced spontaneous blink rate. At 130 Hz, but not 16 Hz, STN DBS eliminates reflex blink hyperexcitability and restores both short- and long-term blink plasticity. Replicating its lack of effect in PD patients, 130-Hz STN DBS does not reinstate a normal temporal pattern or rate to spontaneous blinking in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. These data show that the 6-OHDA lesioned rat is an ideal model system for investigating the neural bases of reflex abnormalities in PD and highlight the complexity of PD's effects on motor control, by showing that dopamine depletion does not affect all blink systems via the same neural mechanisms. PMID:25673748

  12. The Striatum and Subthalamic Nucleus as Independent and Collaborative Structures in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Alia; Jog, Rachna; Jog, Mandar S

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are two separate input structures into the basal ganglia (BG). Accordingly, research to date has primarily focused on the distinct roles of these structures in motor control and cognition, often through investigation of Parkinson's disease (PD). Both structures are divided into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic subdivisions based on cortical connectivity. The more recent discovery of the STN as an input structure into the BG drives comparison of these two structures and their respective roles in cognition and motor control. This review compares the role of the striatum and STN in motor response inhibition and execution, competing motor programs, feedback based learning, and response planning. Through comparison, it is found that the striatum and STN have highly independent roles in motor control but also collaborate in order to execute desired actions. There is also the possibility that inhibition or activation of one of these structures indirectly contributes to the function of other connected anatomical structures. Both structures contribute to selective motor response inhibition, which forms the basis of many tasks, but the STN additionally contributes to global inhibition through the hyperdirect pathway. Research is warranted on the functional connectivity of the network for inhibition involving the rIFG, preSMA, striatum, and STN.

  13. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeredo, Jorge L.; Toda, Kazuo; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA), a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth) and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space). Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g) might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter. PMID:25370031

  14. Sparse representation of MER signals for localizing the Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson's disease surgery.

    PubMed

    Vargas Cardona, Hernán Darío; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco, Álvaro A

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) is the best method for treating advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to striking improvements in motor function and quality of life of PD patients. During DBS, online analysis of microelectrode recording (MER) signals is a powerful tool to locate the STN. Therapeutic outcomes depend of a precise positioning of a stimulator device in the target area. In this paper, we show how a sparse representation of MER signals allows to extract discriminant features, improving the accuracy in identification of STN. We apply three techniques for over-complete representation of signals: Method of Frames (MOF), Best Orthogonal Basis (BOB) and Basis Pursuit (BP). All the techniques are compared to classical methods for signal processing like Wavelet Transform (WT), and a more sophisticated method known as adaptive Wavelet with lifting schemes (AW-LS). We apply each processing method in two real databases and we evaluate its performance with simple supervised classifiers. Classification outcomes for MOF, BOB and BP clearly outperform WT and AW-LF in all classifiers for both databases, reaching accuracy values over 98%.

  15. Pseudobulbar crying induced by stimulation in the region of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Okun, M S; Raju, D V; Walter, B L; Juncos, J L; DeLong, M R; Heilman, K; McDonald, W M; Vitek, J L

    2004-06-01

    We describe a case of pseudobulbar crying associated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the region of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Patients with pseudobulbar crying show no other evidence of subjective feelings of depression such as dysphoria, anhedonia, or vegetative signs. This may be accompanied by other symptoms of pseudobulbar palsy and has been reported to occur with ischaemic or structural lesions in both cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. Although depression has been observed to result from DBS in the region of the STN, pseudobulbar crying has not been reported. A single patient who reported the symptoms of pseudobulbar crying after placement of an STN DBS was tested in the off DBS and on DBS conditions. The patient was tested using all four DBS lead contacts and the observations and results of the examiners were recorded. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to evaluate for depression in all of the conditions. The patient exhibited pseudobulbar crying when on monopolar stimulation at all four lead contacts. The pseudobulbar crying resolved off stimulation. This case describes another type of affective change that may be associated with stimulation in the region of or within the STN. Clinicians should be aware of this potential complication, the importance of differentiating it from stimulation induced depression, and its response to a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, such as sertraline.

  16. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa on the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Janne; Remien, Piet; Guballa, Christoph; Binder, Andreas; Binder, Sabine; Schattschneider, Jörn; Herzog, Jan; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Regarding motor disability, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment option in long lasting PD. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation has an influence on functions of the ANS and to compare these effects to those induced by levodopa. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during rest and orthostatic conditions, HR variability (HRV) and breathing‐induced cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstriction (CVC) were tested in 14 PD patients treated with STN stimulation during “ON” and “OFF” condition of the stimulator. The effects of a single dose of levodopa on ANS were tested in 15 PD patients without DBS. STN stimulation had no influence on cardiovascular ANS functions, whereas CVC was significantly increased. In contrast, levodopa significantly lowered BP and HR at rest and enhanced orthostatic hypotension. Further, HRV, skin perfusion and temperature increased after administration of levodopa. Our results suggest that in contrast to levodopa, STN stimulation has only minor effects on autonomic functions. Since less pharmacotherapy is needed after STN stimulation, reduced levodopa intake results in relative improvement of autonomic function in deep brain stimulated PD patients. PMID:17371906

  17. Serotonin-dependent depression in Parkinson's disease: a role for the subthalamic nucleus?

    PubMed

    Tan, Sonny K H; Hartung, Henrike; Sharp, Trevor; Temel, Yasin

    2011-09-01

    Depression is the most common neuropsychiatric co-morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD). The underlying mechanism of depression in PD is complex and likely involves biological, psychosocial and therapeutic factors. The biological mechanism may involve changes in monoamine systems, in particular the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. It is well established that the 5-HT system is markedly affected in the Parkinsonian brain, with evidence including pathological loss of markers of 5-HT axons as well as cell bodies in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the midbrain. However, it remains unresolved whether alterations to the 5-HT system alone are sufficient to confer vulnerability to depression. Here we propose low 5-HT combined with altered network activity within the basal ganglia as critically involved in depression in PD. The latter hypothesis is derived from a number of recent findings that highlight the close interaction between the basal ganglia and the 5-HT system, not only in motor but also limbic functions. These findings include evidence that clinical depression is a side effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a treatment option in advanced PD. Further, it has recently been demonstrated that STN DBS in animal models inhibits 5-HT neurotransmission, and that this change may underpin depressive-like side effects. This review provides an overview of 5-HT alterations in PD and a discussion of how these changes might combine with altered basal ganglia network activity to increase depression vulnerability.

  18. Changes in Vowel Articulation with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Dysarthric Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Mélanie; Prud'Homme, Michel; Cantin, Léo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate changes in vowel articulation with the electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Eight Quebec-French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who had undergone STN DBS were evaluated ON-stimulation and OFF-stimulation (1 hour after DBS was turned off). Vowel articulation was compared ON-simulation versus OFF-stimulation using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio, calculated with the first (F1) and second formant (F2) of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/. The impact of the preceding consonant context on articulation, which represents a measure of coarticulation, was also analyzed as a function of the stimulation state. Results. Maximum vowel articulation increased during ON-stimulation. Analyses also indicate that vowel articulation was modulated by the consonant context but this relationship did not change with STN DBS. Conclusions. Results suggest that STN DBS may improve articulation in dysarthric speakers with PD, in terms of range of movement. Optimization of the electrical parameters for each patient is important and may lead to improvement in speech fine motor control. However, the impact on overall speech intelligibility may still be small. Clinical considerations are discussed and new research avenues are suggested. PMID:25400977

  19. Stimulation of contacts in ventral but not dorsal subthalamic nucleus normalizes response switching in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, Ian; Gould, Sherrie; Houser, Melissa; Aron, Adam R

    2013-06-01

    Switching between responses is a key executive function known to rely on the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Here we aimed to establish with greater anatomical specificity whether such switching could be mediated via different possible frontal-basal-ganglia circuits. Accordingly, we stimulated dorsal vs. ventral contacts of electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's patients during switching performance, and also studied matched controls. The patients underwent three sessions: once with bilateral dorsal contact stimulation, once with bilateral ventral contact stimulation, and once Off stimulation. Patients Off stimulation showed abnormal patterns of switching, and stimulation of the ventral contacts but not the dorsal contacts normalized the pattern of behavior relative to controls. This provides some of the first evidence in humans that stimulation of dorsal vs. ventral STN DBS contacts has differential effects on executive function. As response switching is an executive function known to rely on prefrontal cortex, these results suggest that ventral contact stimulation affected an executive/associative cortico-basal ganglia circuit.

  20. Subthalamic Nucleus Local Field Potential Activity Helps Encode Motor Effort Rather Than Force in Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Alek; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Cheeran, Binith; FitzGerald, James J.; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that frequency-specific activities correlate with force or effort, but previous studies have not been able to disambiguate the two. Here, we dissociated effort from actual force generated by contrasting the force generation of different fingers while recording LFP activity from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while on their normal dopaminergic medication. We investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activity in the STN and voluntary flexion of either the index or little finger at different effort levels. At each tested effort level (10%, 25%, and 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction force of each individual finger), the index finger generated larger force than the little finger. Movement-related suppression of beta-band power in the STN LFP was significantly modulated by effort, but not by which finger was used, suggesting that the beta suppression in the STN LFP during sustained contraction serves as a proxy for effort. The absolute force scaled with beta power suppression, but with the scaling determined by the maximal voluntary contraction force of the motor effector. Our results argue against the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are directly involved in the parameterization of force during movement and support a role of the STN in the control of motor effort to be attributed to a response. PMID:25878267

  1. Oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during arm reaching in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2012-08-01

    Oscillatory activities in the brain within the beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (70-90 Hz) ranges have been implicated in the generation of voluntary movement. However, their roles remain unclear. Here, we record local field potential activity from the region of the subthalamic nucleus during movement of the contralateral limb in 11 patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients were on their normal dopaminergic medication and were cued to perform arm-reaching movements after a delay period at three different speeds: 'slow', 'normal', and 'fast'. Beta activity desynchronized earlier in response to the cue indicating an upcoming fast reach than to the cues for slow or normal speed movement. There was no difference in the degree of beta desynchronization between reaching speeds and beta desynchronization was established prior to movement onset in all cases. In contrast, synchronization in the gamma range developed during the reaching movement, and was especially pronounced during fast reaching. Thus the timing of suppression in the beta band depended on task demands, whereas the degree of increase in gamma oscillations depended on movement speed. These findings point to functionally segregated roles for different oscillatory frequencies in motor preparation and performance.

  2. Replacement of dopaminergic medication with subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: long-term observation.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Vanacore, Nicola; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Scerrati, Massimo; Albanese, Alberto

    2009-03-15

    Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but the medication requirements after implant are poorly known. We performed a long-term prospective evaluation of 20 patients maintained at stable dopaminergic therapy for 5 years after bilateral STN implants, who were evaluated 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after surgery. We measured, during the entire observation period, the effect of deep brain stimulation on motor and functional outcome measures, the levodopa equivalent daily dose and the total electrical energy delivered. At 5 years, the UPDRS motor score had improved by 54.2% and levodopa equivalent dose was reduced by 61.9%, compared with preimplant. Dopaminergic medication remained stable during the observation period, but energy was progressively increased over time. Rest tremor, rigidity, gait, lower and upper limb akinesia, and total axial score were improved in decreasing order. Postural stability and speech improved transiently, whereas on-period freezing of gait, motor fluctuations and dyskinesias recovered durably. Functional measures did not show improvement in autonomy and daily living activities after STN implant. Chronic STN stimulation allows to replace for dopaminergic medications in the long-term at the expense of an increase of the total energy delivered. This is associated with marked improvement of motor features without a matching benefit in functional measures.

  3. Factors Related to Outcomes of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Yu; Chang, Won Seok; Kang, Dong Wan; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Sik

    2013-01-01

    Objective Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment of choice for patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) who have motor complication with medication. The objectives of this study are to analyze long-term follow-up data of STN DBS cases and to identify the factors related to outcomes. Methods Fifty-two PD patients who underwent STN DBS were followed-up for more than 3 years. The Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and other clinical profiles were assessed preoperatively and during follow-up. A linear regression model was used to analyze whether factors predict the results of STN DBS. We divided the study individuals into subgroups according to several factors and compared subgroups. Results Preoperative activity of daily living (ADL) and the magnitude of preoperative levodopa response were shown to predict the improvement in UPDRS part II without medication, and preoperative ADL and levodopa equivalent dose (LED) were shown to predict the improvement in UPDRS part II with medication. In UPDRS part III with medication, the magnitude of preoperative levodopa response was a predicting factor. Conclusion The intensity of preoperative levodopa response was a strong factor for motor outcome. And preoperative ADL and LED were strong factors for ADL improvement. More vigorous studies should be conducted to elucidate how levodopa-induced motor complications are ameliorated after STN DBS. PMID:24175026

  4. Rapid assessment of gait and speech after subthalamic deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sierra M.; Giroux, Monique L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Describe a rapid assessment for patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus reporting worsening speech and/or gait problems. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients that had improvement in gait and/or speech within 30 min after turning stimulation off. Clinical data analyzed include unified PD rating scale motor scores and stimulation parameters before and after adjusting stimulation. All patients received electrode efficacy and side effect threshold testing. Stimulation parameters were adjusted to maximize efficacy, avoid side effects, and maximize battery longevity. Results: Turning stimulation off revealed reversible speech and/or gait stimulation side effects within 30 min. Focusing on six factors revealed stimulation modifications that improved motor symptoms, eliminated stimulation side effects, and reduced battery drain. Primary stimulation parameters modified were cathode selection and pulse width reduction. Conclusions: Stimulation-induced side effects impacting gait and speech can be identified within 30 min. A systematic evaluation can distinguish disease progression from reversible stimulation side effects and improve motor outcomes over the long term. PMID:27583181

  5. Effect of unilateral versus bilateral electrostimulation in subthalamic nucleus on speech in Parkinsons disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Bakay, Roy; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan

    2001-05-01

    Previously, it was found that 16 right-handed patients with idiopathic Parkinsons disease who underwent unilateral implantation of deep brain stimulator in subthalamic nucleus (STN) showed significant improvement in their nonspeech motor functions. Eight of the 16 patients had stimulator in the left STN and eight in the right STN. In contrast, their speech function showed very mild improvement that was limited to the respiratory/phonotory subsystems. Further, there seemed a trend that the patients with right STN stimulation did better than those with left STN stimulation. It was speculated that the difference might be due to a micro lesion caused by the surgical procedure to the corticobulbar fibers run in the left internal capsule. This paper reports speech changes associated with bilateral DBS in STN in four of the 16 subjects who elected to have deep brain stimulator implanted in STN on the opposite side of the brain at a later time. Results show negative changes in speech after bilateral DBS in STN. The changes were not limited to the micro lesion effect due to the surgery itself, but also related to the active stimulation on the dominant hemisphere for speech processing. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Lexical Switching in Parkinsons Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vonberg, Isabelle; Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Kühn, Andrea A.; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Reduced verbal fluency (VF) has been reported in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS. Method Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i.e., ‘clusters’ as correlates of automatic activation spread within lexical fields) from slower cluster transitions (i.e., ‘switches’ reflecting set-shifting towards new lexical fields). The results were compared to those of eleven healthy control subjects. Results PD patients produced significantly more switches accompanied by shorter switch times in the STN DBS ON compared to the STN DBS OFF condition. The number of clusters and time intervals between words within clusters were not affected by the treatment state. Although switch behavior in patients with DBS ON improved, their task performance was still lower compared to that of healthy controls. Discussion Beyond impacting on motor symptoms, STN DBS seems to influence the dynamics of cognitive procedures. Specifically, the results are in line with basal ganglia roles for cognitive switching, in the particular case of VF, from prevailing lexical concepts to new ones. PMID:27575379

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus facilitates coordination of hand preshaping in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schettino, L F; Van Erp, E; Hening, W; Lessig, S; Song, D; Barba, D; Poizner, H

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have found that Parkinson's disease (PD) disrupts the organization of complex motor sequences regardless of the influence of parkinsonian medications. A clear candidate for the neural bases of such deficits, which we term "coordinative," is the failure to integrate propioceptive and visual information by cortico-striatal circuits in a timed fashion. Recent reports, however, have indicated that deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) may result in an improvement in coordinative deficits beyond the amelioration of "intensive deficits" such as bradykinesia and scaling errors. The present study examined the spatio-temporal organization underlying the shaping of the hand during reaching to grasp objects differing in shape. Six PD patients ON and OFF their STN DBS when OFF their concomitant medications and six age-matched controls participated in this study. STN DBS improved the coordination involved in preshaping the hand while grasping. We discuss these results in light of our earlier work with PD patients on and off dopamine replacement therapy. PMID:19922392

  8. Motivational tuning of fronto-subthalamic connectivity facilitates control of action impulses.

    PubMed

    Herz, Damian M; Christensen, Mark S; Bruggemann, Norbert; Hulme, Oliver J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-02-26

    It is critical for survival to quickly respond to environmental stimuli with the most appropriate action. This task becomes most challenging when response tendencies induced by relevant and irrelevant stimulus features are in conflict, and have to be resolved in real time. Inputs from the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are thought to support this function, but the connectivity and causality of these regions in calibrating motor control has not been delineated. In this study, we combined off-line noninvasive brain stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging, while young healthy human participants performed a modified version of the Simon task. We show that impairing pre-SMA function by noninvasive brain stimulation improved control over impulsive response tendencies, but only when participants were explicitly rewarded for fast and accurate responses. These effects were mediated by enhanced activation and connectivity of the IFG-STN pathway. These results provide causal evidence for a pivotal role of the IFG-STN pathway during action control. Additionally, they suggest a parallel rather than hierarchical organization of the pre-SMA-STN and IFG-STN pathways, since interruption of pre-SMA function can enhance IFG-STN connectivity and improve control over inappropriate responses.

  9. Thyroid-Induced Worsening of Parkinsonian Tremor Resistant to Drugs and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Minár, Michal; Valkovič, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Symptoms of both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis can be easily overlooked in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a patient whose parkinsonian tremor worsened and proved refractory not only to common treatment, but also to deep brain stimulation (DBS). Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman with advanced PD underwent bilateral subthalamic DBS, with an excellent outcome. Twenty-one months after the surgery, however, patient's resting/postural tremor markedly worsened. There was a slight improvement for 1 month after repeated adjustments of DBS parameters, but then the tremor worsened again. Since even a minimal increase of the dose of dopaminergic drugs caused extremely severe dyskinesias, an anticholinergic drug biperiden and benzodiazepine clonazepam were introduced, what helped for another month. With the onset of severe diarrhoea, a laboratory workup was performed. Thyrotoxicosis was detected. During treatment with the antithyroid agent carbimazole, the parkinsonian tremor clearly improved within two weeks. Conclusion. A hyperthyroid state can markedly exaggerate all forms of tremor, as well as other types of movement disorders. This condition can be overlooked or masked by other symptoms. Therefore, if the tremor in a patient with PD gradually worsens and proves resistant to the usual treatment, examine the thyroid gland. PMID:25628904

  10. The Striatum and Subthalamic Nucleus as Independent and Collaborative Structures in Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Alia; Jog, Rachna; Jog, Mandar S.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are two separate input structures into the basal ganglia (BG). Accordingly, research to date has primarily focused on the distinct roles of these structures in motor control and cognition, often through investigation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Both structures are divided into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic subdivisions based on cortical connectivity. The more recent discovery of the STN as an input structure into the BG drives comparison of these two structures and their respective roles in cognition and motor control. This review compares the role of the striatum and STN in motor response inhibition and execution, competing motor programs, feedback based learning, and response planning. Through comparison, it is found that the striatum and STN have highly independent roles in motor control but also collaborate in order to execute desired actions. There is also the possibility that inhibition or activation of one of these structures indirectly contributes to the function of other connected anatomical structures. Both structures contribute to selective motor response inhibition, which forms the basis of many tasks, but the STN additionally contributes to global inhibition through the hyperdirect pathway. Research is warranted on the functional connectivity of the network for inhibition involving the rIFG, preSMA, striatum, and STN. PMID:26973474

  11. Comparative cognitive effects of bilateral subthalamic stimulation and subcutaneous continuous infusion of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alegret, Montse; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Martí, MaJosé; Pilleri, Manuela; Junqué, Carme; Rumià, Jordi; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and continuous subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine (APM-csi) can provide a comparable improvement on motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms by which both therapies exert their effects are different. We analyzed the cognitive effects of APM-csi. We also compared neuropsychological effects induced by STN-DBS and APM-csi in advanced PD to ascertain the neuropsychological aspects relevant in determining the therapeutic procedure that is the most appropriate in a particular patient. We studied 9 patients treated with STN-DBS and 7 patients with APM-csi. Neuropsychological measures included Rey's Auditory-Verbal Learning, Stroop, Trail Making, phonetic verbal fluency, and Judgment of Line Orientation tests. In the APM-csi group, significant changes were not observed in the neuropsychological tests performance. By contrast, in the STN-DBS group, moderate worsening was found in phonetic verbal fluency and Stroop Naming scores that was partially reversible at long-term follow-up and did not have consequences on regular activities. Consequently, these findings could be interpreted as being not relevant in deciding the most suitable treatment in a given patient.

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. PMID:25929662

  13. Aggressive behavior as a rare side effect of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has a well-established position in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), it may be accompanied by different side effects including behavioral changes. We present a patient with advanced PD after bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) who developed attacks of aggressive behavior. The patient with a 12 year history of PD underwent the procedure of DBS with one-stage bilateral stereotactic approach using the Leksel G stereotactic frame. For STN identification microrecording technique was applied (5 microelectrodes). Four weeks after surgery STN stimulation was switched on. With increasing the amplitude of stimulation on the right (active contacts 1 and 2) the patient experienced transient episodes of aggression. Change of stimulation mode led to withdrawal of all side effects. We hypothesize that aggression episodes in the patient were caused by stimulation of limbic circuit probable within STN although we cannot exclude simultaneous stimulation of neighboring structures. Aggression episodes are rare side effect of STN-DBS, nevertheless they may be expected in more posteromedial placement of the electrode within STN. The presented case extends the evidence for non-motor functions of STN and highlights its role as an integrating structure within the basal ganglia system.

  14. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zeredo, Zeredo L; Toda, Kazuo; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-04

    The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA), a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to partial gravity. "Partial gravity" is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth) and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space). Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2-0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g) might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  15. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects orbitofrontal cortex in facial emotion recognition: a pet study

    PubMed Central

    Le Jeune, F.; Péron, J.; Biseul, I.; Fournier, S.; Sauleau, P.; Drapier, S.; Haegelen, C.; Drapier, D.; Millet, B.; Garin, E.; Herry, J.-Y.; Malbert, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease is thought to produce adverse events such as emotional disorders, and in a recent study, we found fear recognition to be impaired as a result. These changes have been attributed to disturbance of the STN's limbic territory and would appear to confirm that the negative emotion recognition network passes through the STN. In addition, it is now widely acknowledged that damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), especially the right side, can result in impaired recognition of facial emotions (RFE). In this context, we hypothesized that this reduced recognition of fear is correlated with modifications in the cerebral glucose metabolism of the right OFC. The objective of the present study was first, to reinforce our previous results by demonstrating reduced fear recognition in our Parkinson's disease patient group following STN DBS and, second, to correlate these emotional performances with glucose metabolism using 18FDG-PET. The 18FDG-PET and RFE tasks were both performed by a cohort of 13 Parkinson's disease patients 3 months before and 3 months after surgery for STN DBS. As predicted, we observed a significant reduction in fear recognition following surgery and obtained a positive correlation between these neuropsychological results and changes in glucose metabolism, especially in the right OFC. These results confirm the role of the STN as a key basal ganglia structure in limbic circuits. PMID:18490359

  16. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

    2011-05-03

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8 Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology.

  17. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

    2011-01-01

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8 Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology. PMID:22832400

  18. Capgras Syndrome in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Stahl, Mark C.; Eslinger, Paul; Subramanian, Thyagarajan; Lucassen, Elisabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is a delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS) which can be seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as Lewy body dementia and, to a lesser extent, in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report the case of a 78-year-old man with a history of idiopathic PD who developed Capgras syndrome following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation. As the risk of DMS has been related to deficits in executive, memory, and visuospatial function preoperatively, this case highlights the importance of continuing to improve patient selection for DBS surgery. Capgras syndrome is a rare potential complication of DBS surgery in PD patients with preexisting cognitive decline. PMID:26078747

  19. Parkinsonian beta oscillations in the external globus pallidus and their relationship with subthalamic nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Nicolas; Pogosyan, Alek; Márton, László F; Bolam, J Paul; Brown, Peter; Magill, Peter J

    2008-12-24

    Inappropriately synchronized beta (beta) oscillations (15-30 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accompany movement difficulties in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The cellular and network substrates underlying these exaggerated beta oscillations are unknown but activity in the external globus pallidus (GP), which forms a candidate pacemaker network with STN, might be of particular importance. Using a clinically relevant rat model of PD, we demonstrate that oscillatory activity in GP neuronal networks becomes excessively and selectively synchronized at beta frequencies in a spatially widespread and brain state-dependent manner after lesion of dopamine neurons. Although synchronization of GP unit activity increased by almost 100-fold during beta oscillations, the mean firing rate of GP neurons decreased compared with controls. Importantly, in parkinsonian animals, two main types of GP neuron were identified according to their distinct and inversely related firing rates and patterns. Moreover, neurons of the same type tended to fire together, with small phase differences, whereas different types of neuron tended not to do so. This functional dichotomy in temporal coupling persisted across extreme brain states, suggesting that maladaptive interactions are dominated by hardwiring. Finally, the precisely timed discharges of GP and STN neurons indicated that rhythmic sequences of recurrent excitation and inhibition in the STN-GP network, and lateral inhibition between GP neurons, could actively support abnormal beta oscillations. We propose that GP neurons, by virtue of their spatiotemporal synchronization, widespread axon collaterals and feed-back/feed-forward mechanisms, are well placed to orchestrate and propagate exaggerated beta oscillations throughout the entire basal ganglia in PD. PMID:19109506

  20. The subthalamic nucleus keeps you high on emotion: behavioral consequences of its inactivation.

    PubMed

    Pelloux, Yann; Meffre, Julie; Giorla, Elodie; Baunez, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) belongs to the basal ganglia and is the current target for the surgical treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), but also a proposed site for the treatment of addiction. It is therefore very important to understand its functions in order to anticipate and prevent possible side-effects in the patients. Although the involvement of the STN is well documented in motor, cognitive and motivational processes, less is known regarding emotional processes. Here we have investigated the direct consequences of STN inactivation by excitotoxic lesions on emotional processing and reinforcement in the rat. We have used various behavioral procedures to assess affect for neutral, positive and negative reinforcers in STN lesioned rats. STN lesions reduced affective responses for positive (sweet solutions) and negative (electric foot shock, Lithium Chloride-induced sickness) reinforcers while they had no effect on responses for a more neutral reinforcer (novelty induced place preference (NIPP)). Furthermore, when given the choice between saccharine, a sweet but non caloric solution, and glucose, a more bland but caloric solution, in contrast to sham animals that preferred saccharine, STN lesioned animals preferred glucose over saccharine. Taken altogether these results reveal that STN plays a critical role in emotional processing. These results, in line with some clinical observations in PD patients subjected to STN surgery, suggest possible emotional side-effects of treatments targeting the STN. They also suggest that the increased motivation for sucrose previously reported cannot be due to increased pleasure, but could be responsible for the decreased motivation for cocaine reported after STN inactivation.

  1. Recognition of emotional prosody is altered after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Le Jeune, Florence; Sauleau, Paul; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Vérin, Marc

    2010-03-01

    The recognition of facial emotions is impaired following subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). These changes have been linked to a disturbance in the STN's limbic territory, which is thought to be involved in emotional processing. This was confirmed by a recent PET study where these emotional modifications were correlated with changes in glucose metabolism in different brain regions, including the amygdala and the orbitofrontal regions that are well known for their involvement in emotional processing. Nevertheless, the question as to whether these emotional changes induced by STN DBS in PD are modality-specific has yet to be answered. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effects of STN DBS in PD on the recognition of emotional prosody. An original emotional prosody paradigm was administered to twenty-one post-operative PD patients, twenty-one pre-operative PD patients and twenty-one matched controls. Results showed that both the pre- and post-operative groups differed from the healthy controls. There was also a significant difference between the pre and post groups. More specifically, an analysis of their continuous judgments revealed that the performance of the post-operative group compared with that of the other two groups was characterized by a systematic emotional bias whereby they perceived emotions more strongly. These results suggest that the impaired recognition of emotions may not be specific to the visual modality but may also be present when emotions are expressed through the human voice, implying the involvement of the STN in the brain network underlying the recognition of emotional prosody.

  2. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Impacts Language in Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lara; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A.; Pelster, Michael; Gelfand, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia improves motor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on cognition, including language, remain unclear. This study examined the impact of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS on two fundamental capacities of language, grammatical and lexical functions. These functions were tested with the production of regular and irregular past-tenses, which contrast aspects of grammatical (regulars) and lexical (irregulars) processing while controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Aspects of the motor system were tested by contrasting the naming of manipulated (motor) and non-manipulated (non-motor) objects. Performance was compared between healthy controls and early-stage PD patients treated with either DBS/medications or medications alone. Patients were assessed on and off treatment, with controls following a parallel testing schedule. STN-DBS improved naming of manipulated (motor) but not non-manipulated (non-motor) objects, as compared to both controls and patients with just medications, who did not differ from each other across assessment sessions. In contrast, STN-DBS led to worse performance at regulars (grammar) but not irregulars (lexicon), as compared to the other two subject groups, who again did not differ. The results suggest that STN-DBS negatively impacts language in early PD, but may be specific in depressing aspects of grammatical and not lexical processing. The finding that STN-DBS affects both motor and grammar (but not lexical) functions strengthens the view that both depend on basal ganglia circuitry, although the mechanisms for its differential impact on the two (improved motor, impaired grammar) remain to be elucidated. PMID:22880117

  3. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation modulates neuronal reactivity to cocaine within the reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Hachem-Delaunay, Sabira; Fournier, Marie-Line; Cohen, Candie; Bonneau, Nicolas; Cador, Martine; Baunez, Christelle; Le Moine, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical component of a complex network controlling motor, associative and limbic functions. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN is an effective therapy for motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients and can also reduce their treatment-induced addictive behaviors. Preclinical studies have shown that STN HFS decreases motivation for cocaine while increasing that for food, highlighting its influence on rewarding and motivational circuits. However, the cellular substrates of these effects remain unknown. Our objectives were to characterize the cellular consequences of STN HFS with a special focus on limbic structures and to elucidate how STN HFS may interfere with acute cocaine effects in these brain areas. Male Long-Evans rats were subjected to STN HFS (130 Hz, 60 μs, 50-150 μA) for 30 min before an acute cocaine injection (15 mg/kg) and sacrificed 10 min following the injection. Neuronal reactivity was analyzed through the expression of two immediate early genes (Arc and c-Fos) to decipher cellular responses to STN HFS and cocaine. STN HFS only activated c-Fos in the globus pallidus and the basolateral amygdala, highlighting a possible role on emotional processes via the amygdala, with a limited effect by itself in other structures. Interestingly, and despite some differential effects on Arc and c-Fos expression, STN HFS diminished the c-Fos response induced by acute cocaine in the striatum. By preventing the cellular effect of cocaine in the striatum, STN HFS might thus decrease the reinforcing properties of the drug, which is in line with the inhibitory effect of STN HFS on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine.

  4. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia.

  5. Subthalamic and Cortical Local Field Potentials Associated with Pilocarpine-Induced Oral Tremor in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lauren L.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Haque, Aileen F.; Errante, Emily L.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Tremulous jaw movements (TJMs) are rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at any particular stimulus. In rodents, TJMs are induced by neurochemical conditions that parallel those seen in human Parkinsonism, including neurotoxic or pharmacological depletion of striatal dopamine (DA), DA antagonism, and cholinomimetic administration. Moreover, TJMs in rodents can be attenuated by antiparkinsonian agents, including levodopa (L-DOPA), DA agonists, muscarinic antagonists, and adenosine A2A antagonists. In human Parkinsonian patients, exaggerated physiological synchrony is seen in the beta frequency band in various parts of the cortical/basal ganglia/thalamic circuitry, and activity in the tremor frequency range (3–7 Hz) also has been recorded. The present studies were undertaken to determine if tremor-related local field potential (LFP) activity could be recorded from motor cortex (M1) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) during the TJMs induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, which is a well-known tremorogenic agent. Pilocarpine induced a robust TJM response that was marked by rhythmic electromyographic (EMG) activity in the temporalis muscle. Compared to periods with no tremor activity, TJM epochs were characterized by increased LFP activity in the tremor frequency range in both neocortex and STN. Tremor activity was not associated with increased synchrony in the beta frequency band. These studies identified tremor-related LFP activity in parts of the cortical/basal ganglia circuitry that are involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism. This research may ultimately lead to identification of the oscillatory neural mechanisms involved in the generation of tremulous activity, and promote development of novel treatments for tremor disorders. PMID:27378874

  6. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation May Reduce Medication Costs in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Mallory L.; Currie, Amanda D.; Molinari, Anna L.; Turchan, Maxim; Millan, Sarah M.; Heusinkveld, Lauren E.; Roach, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter E.; Davis, Thomas L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Byrne, Daniel W.; Charles, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is well-known to reduce medication burden in advanced stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preliminary data from a prospective, single blind, controlled pilot trial demonstrated that early stage PD subjects treated with STN-DBS also required less medication than those treated with optimal drug therapy (ODT). Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze medication cost and utilization from the pilot trial of DBS in early stage PD and to project 10 year medication costs. Methods: Medication data collected at each visit were used to calculate medication costs. Medications were converted to levodopa equivalent daily dose, categorized by medication class, and compared. Medication costs were projected to advanced stage PD, the time when a typical patient may be offered DBS. Results: Medication costs increased 72% in the ODT group and decreased 16% in the DBS+ODT group from baseline to 24 months. This cost difference translates into a cumulative savings for the DBS+ODT group of $7,150 over the study period. Projected medication cost savings over 10 years reach $64,590. Additionally, DBS+ODT subjects were 80% less likely to require polypharmacy compared with ODT subjects at 24 months (p <  0.05; OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.04–0.97). Conclusions: STN-DBS in early PD reduced medication cost over the two-year study period. DBS may offer substantial long-term reduction in medication cost by maintaining a simplified, low dose medication regimen. Further study is needed to confirm these findings, and the FDA has approved a pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating STN-DBS in early PD. PMID:26967937

  7. Effect of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods A retrospective review was conducted on patients who underwent STN DBS for PD from May 2000 to July 2012. Only patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia prior to surgery and more than 1 year of available follow-up data after DBS were included. The outcome measures included the dyskinesia subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part IV (items 32 to 34 of UPDRS part IV) and the levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). The patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative to postoperative LEDD change at 12 months after the surgery: Group 1, LEDD decrease >15%; Group 2, all other patients. Group 2 was further divided by the location of DBS leads. Results Of the 100 patients enrolled, 67 were in Group 1, while those remaining were in Group 2. Twelve months after STN DBS, Groups 1 and 2 showed improvements of 61.90% and 57.14%, respectively, in the dyskinesia subscore. Group 1 was more likely to experience dyskinesia suppression; however, the association between the groups and dyskinesia suppression was not statistically significant (p=0.619). In Group 2, dyskinesia was significantly decreased by stimulation of the area above the STN in 18 patients compared to stimulation of the STN in 15 patients (p=0.048). Conclusion Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is attenuated by STN DBS without reducing the levodopa dosage. PMID:26256974

  8. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. PMID:26231574

  9. The subthalamic nucleus keeps you high on emotion: behavioral consequences of its inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pelloux, Yann; Meffre, Julie; Giorla, Elodie; Baunez, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) belongs to the basal ganglia and is the current target for the surgical treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), but also a proposed site for the treatment of addiction. It is therefore very important to understand its functions in order to anticipate and prevent possible side-effects in the patients. Although the involvement of the STN is well documented in motor, cognitive and motivational processes, less is known regarding emotional processes. Here we have investigated the direct consequences of STN inactivation by excitotoxic lesions on emotional processing and reinforcement in the rat. We have used various behavioral procedures to assess affect for neutral, positive and negative reinforcers in STN lesioned rats. STN lesions reduced affective responses for positive (sweet solutions) and negative (electric foot shock, Lithium Chloride-induced sickness) reinforcers while they had no effect on responses for a more neutral reinforcer (novelty induced place preference (NIPP)). Furthermore, when given the choice between saccharine, a sweet but non caloric solution, and glucose, a more bland but caloric solution, in contrast to sham animals that preferred saccharine, STN lesioned animals preferred glucose over saccharine. Taken altogether these results reveal that STN plays a critical role in emotional processing. These results, in line with some clinical observations in PD patients subjected to STN surgery, suggest possible emotional side-effects of treatments targeting the STN. They also suggest that the increased motivation for sucrose previously reported cannot be due to increased pleasure, but could be responsible for the decreased motivation for cocaine reported after STN inactivation. PMID:25538581

  10. Non-stationary discharge patterns in motor cortex under subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly modulates the basal ganglia (BG), but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rodents and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated. We use point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of two non-human primates during STN DBS. These features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, while high-frequency (HF) DBS (i.e., ≥100 Hz) strongly reduces the short-term patterns (period: 3-7 ms) both before and after MPTP treatment, and elicits a short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (i.e., ≤50 Hz), instead, has negligible effects on the non-stationary features. Finally, by using tools from the information theory [i.e., receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and information rate (IR)], we show that the predictive power of these models is dependent on the DBS settings, i.e., the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons (which is captured by the point process models) is significantly conditioned on the timely delivery of the DBS input. This dependency increases with the DBS frequency and is significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that HF STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the BG-thalamo-cortical loop.

  11. Delayed synchronization of activity in cortex and subthalamic nucleus following cortical stimulation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Peter J; Sharott, Andrew; Bolam, J Paul; Brown, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oscillations may play a role in the functional organization of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, and it is important to understand their underlying mechanisms. The cortex often drives basal ganglia (BG) activity, and particularly, oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, the STN may also indirectly influence cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize the delayed (>200 ms) responses of STN neurons to synchronized cortical inputs, focusing on their relationship with oscillatory cortical activity. We recorded the short-latency and delayed responses of STN units and frontal electrocorticogram (ECoG) to cortical stimulation in anaesthetized rats. Similar to previous studies, stimulation of ipsilateral frontal cortex, but not temporal cortex, evoked a short-latency triphasic response, followed by a sustained reduction or pause in firing, in rostral STN units. Caudal STN units did not show the short-latency triphasic response but often displayed a prolonged firing reduction. Oscillations in STN unit activity and ECoG were common after this sustained firing reduction, particularly between 200 and 600 ms after frontal cortical stimulation. These delayed oscillations were significantly coherent in a broad frequency band of 5–30 Hz. Coherence with ECoG at 5–15 Hz was observed throughout STN, though coherence at 15–30 Hz was largely restricted to rostral STN. Furthermore, oscillatory responses at 5–30 Hz in rostral STN predominantly led those in cortex (mean latency of 29 ms) after frontal cortical stimulation. These findings suggest that STN neurons responding to corticosubthalamic inputs may provide a delayed input to cortex, via BG output nuclei, and thence, thalamocortical pathways. PMID:16709634

  12. Improved Sequence Learning with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: Evidence for Treatment-Specific Network Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Mure, Hideo; Tang, Chris C.; Argyelan, Miklos; Ghilardi, Maria-Felice; Kaplitt, Michael G.; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2015-01-01

    We used a network approach to study the effects of anti-parkinsonian treatment on motor sequence learning in humans. Eight Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation underwent H2 15Opositron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) while they performed kinematically matched sequence learning and movement tasks at baseline and during stimulation. Network analysis revealed a significant learning-related spatial covariance pattern characterized by consistent increases in subject expression during stimulation (p = 0.008, permutation test). The network was associated with increased activity in the lateral cerebellum, dorsal premotor cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus, with covarying reductions in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and orbitofrontal cortex. Stimulation-mediated increases in network activity correlated with concurrent improvement in learning performance (p < 0.02). To determine whether similar changes occurred during dopaminergic pharmacotherapy, we studied the subjects during an intravenous levodopa infusion titrated to achieve a motor response equivalent to stimulation. Despite consistent improvement in motor ratings during infusion, levodopa did not alter learning performance or network activity. Analysis of learning-related rCBF in network regions revealed improvement in baseline abnormalities with STN stimulation but not levodopa. These effects were most pronounced in the SMA. In this region, a consistent rCBF response to stimulation was observed across subjects and trials (p = 0.01), although the levodopa response was not significant. These findings link the cognitive treatment response in PD to changes in the activity of a specific cerebello-premotor cortical network. Selective modulation of overactive SMA–STN projection pathways may underlie the improvement in learning found with stimulation. PMID:22357863

  13. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  14. Transient gender-related effects in Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi Michele; Contarino, Fiorella Maria; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about the gender-related long-term efficacy and safety after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD), although some differences could be expected as recently stated in a short-term report. We assessed the possible gender-related differences in clinical outcome and disease progression along a 5-year period after STN DBS for PD. A prospective cohort of PD patients who underwent STN DBS and reached the 5-year follow-up (FU) was considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery. Eleven men and nine women were included in the study. At baseline, no inter-gender difference of age at implant, disease duration and severity or levodopa responsiveness was detected. A higher motor responsiveness in men compared to women was detected only at 1-year FU: this difference was mainly related to worse lower limb akinesia and gait score in women. The difference was not confirmed at 3 and 5 years. Antiparkinsonian drugs reduction, improvement in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and progression of underlying PD, were comparable in both groups. Women had persistent adverse events comparable to men. The present long-term observation confirms the occurrence of slight gender-related differences in PD patients treated with STN DBS, indicating a transient poorer outcome in women. Further observational time and a wider number of patients are needed to better analyze the dimension of long-term gender-related differences.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases premature responding in a rat gambling task.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Lily R; Creed, Meaghan C; Fletcher, Paul J; Lobo, Daniela S S; Hamani, Clement; Nobrega, José N

    2013-05-15

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a treatment option for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, several recent studies have found an association between STN-DBS and increased impulsivity. Currently, it is not clear whether the observed increase in impulsivity results from STN-DBS per se, or whether it involves an interaction with the underlying PD neuropathology and/or intake of dopaminergic drugs. We investigated the effects of STN-DBS on performance of intact rats on two tasks measuring impulsive responding: a novel rat gambling task (rGT) and a differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL20s) schedule. Following initial behavioural training, animals received electrode implantation into the STN (n=24) or sham surgery (n=24), and were re-tested on their assigned behavioural task, with or without STN-DBS. Bilateral STN-DBS administered for two hours immediately prior to testing, had no effects on rGT choice behaviour or on DRL response inhibition (p>0.05). However, STN-DBS significantly increased premature responding in the rGT task (p=0.0004), an effect that took several sessions to develop and persisted in subsequent trials when no stimulation was given. Consistent with the notion of distinct facets of impulsivity with unique neurochemical underpinnings, we observed differential effects of STN-DBS in the two tasks employed. These results suggest that STN-DBS in the absence of parkinsonism may not lead to a general loss of inhibitory control, but may instead affect impulsivity under specific conditions. PMID:23434606

  16. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation modulates neuronal reactivity to cocaine within the reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Hachem-Delaunay, Sabira; Fournier, Marie-Line; Cohen, Candie; Bonneau, Nicolas; Cador, Martine; Baunez, Christelle; Le Moine, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical component of a complex network controlling motor, associative and limbic functions. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN is an effective therapy for motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients and can also reduce their treatment-induced addictive behaviors. Preclinical studies have shown that STN HFS decreases motivation for cocaine while increasing that for food, highlighting its influence on rewarding and motivational circuits. However, the cellular substrates of these effects remain unknown. Our objectives were to characterize the cellular consequences of STN HFS with a special focus on limbic structures and to elucidate how STN HFS may interfere with acute cocaine effects in these brain areas. Male Long-Evans rats were subjected to STN HFS (130 Hz, 60 μs, 50-150 μA) for 30 min before an acute cocaine injection (15 mg/kg) and sacrificed 10 min following the injection. Neuronal reactivity was analyzed through the expression of two immediate early genes (Arc and c-Fos) to decipher cellular responses to STN HFS and cocaine. STN HFS only activated c-Fos in the globus pallidus and the basolateral amygdala, highlighting a possible role on emotional processes via the amygdala, with a limited effect by itself in other structures. Interestingly, and despite some differential effects on Arc and c-Fos expression, STN HFS diminished the c-Fos response induced by acute cocaine in the striatum. By preventing the cellular effect of cocaine in the striatum, STN HFS might thus decrease the reinforcing properties of the drug, which is in line with the inhibitory effect of STN HFS on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine. PMID:25982833

  17. Deep-brain stimulation associates with improved microvascular integrity in the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Lee, Cecilia Heyne; Elson, Joanna L; McGuinness, Louisa; Gentleman, Stephen M; Kalaria, Raj N; Dexter, David T

    2015-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become an accepted treatment for motor symptoms in a subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The mechanisms why DBS is effective are incompletely understood, but previous studies show that DBS targeted in brain structures other than the STN may modify the microvasculature. However, this has not been studied in PD subjects who have received STN-DBS. Here we investigated the extent and nature of microvascular changes in post-mortem STN samples from STN-DBS PD patients, compared to aged controls and PD patients who had not been treated with STN-DBS. We used immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods to assess serial STN-containing brain sections from PD and STN-DBS PD cases, compared to similar age controls using specific antibodies to detect capillaries, an adherens junction and tight junction-associated proteins as well as activated microglia. Cellular features in stained sections were quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and stereological methods in conjunction with in vitro imaging tools. We found significant upregulation of microvessel endothelial cell thickness, length and density but lowered activated microglia density and striking upregulation of all analysed adherens junction and tight junction-associated proteins in STN-DBS PD patients compared to non-DBS PD patients and controls. Moreover, in STN-DBS PD samples, expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was significantly upregulated compared to the other groups. Our findings suggest that overexpressed VEGF and downregulation of inflammatory processes may be critical mechanisms underlying the DBS-induced microvascular changes. PMID:25533682

  18. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging-guided subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: Patient selection

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Hooman; Gupta, Fiona; Vukic, Mario; Kreitner, Jason; Kera, Elizabeth; Nicola, Gregory; Pierce, Sean; Panush, David; Cohen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) guided deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been shown to be effective. The costs of a dedicated intraoperative MRI may be prohibitive. The procedure can also be performed in a diagnostic scanner, however this presents challenges for utilization of time when the scanner is used both as a diagnostic and an interventional unit. This report outlines our novel methodology for patient selection for implantation in a diagnostic MR scanner, as an attempt to streamline the use of resources. A retrospective review of our outcomes is also presented. Methods: DBS candidacy evaluation included a PD questionnaire-39. Anxiety, age, difficulties in communication and body habitus were factors that were assessed in selecting patients for this technique. Eleven patients underwent iMRI-guided DBS implantation in the subthalamic nucleus. All patients were implanted bilaterally. Unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) part III and L-dopa dose were compared pre- and post-stimulation. A cohort of 11 DBS patients not selected for iMRI-guided DBS were also reported for comparison. Results: For the iMRI-guided patients, mean “Off” UPDRS III score was 47.6 (standard deviation [SD] 8.26). Postoperative “On” medication, “On” stimulation UPDRS III was 13.6 (SD 5.23). Mean preoperative L-dopa dose was 1060 mg (SD 474.3) and mean postoperative L-dopa dose was 320 (SD 298.3). Conclusion: iMRI-guided DBS is a newly emerging technique for surgical treatment of patients with PD. We present a novel scoring system for patient selection assessing anxiety, age, ability to communicate, and body habitus to identify patients who will be benefited most from this technique. PMID:27583183

  19. Sixty Hertz Neurostimulation Amplifies Subthalamic Neural Synchrony in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Zack; Velisar, Anca; Miller Koop, Mandy; Hill, Bruce C.; Shreve, Lauren A.; Quinn, Emma J.; Kilbane, Camilla; Yu, Hong; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Brontë-Stewart, Helen

    2015-01-01

    High frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the cardinal motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and attenuates STN alpha/beta band neural synchrony in a voltage-dependent manner. While there is a growing interest in the behavioral effects of lower frequency (60 Hz) DBS, little is known about its effect on STN neural synchrony. Here we demonstrate for the first time that during intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS, one or more bands of resting state neural synchrony were amplified in the STN in PD. We recorded intra-operative STN resting state local field potentials (LFPs) from twenty-eight STNs in seventeen PD subjects after placement of the DBS lead (model 3389, Medtronic, Inc.) before and during three randomized neurostimulation sets (130 Hz/1.35V, 130 Hz/2V, 60 Hz/2V). During 130 Hz/2V DBS, baseline (no DBS) STN alpha (8 – 12 Hz) and beta (13 – 35 Hz) band power decreased (N=14, P < 0.001 for both), whereas during 60 Hz/2V DBS, alpha band and peak frequency power increased (P = 0.012, P = 0.007, respectively). The effect of 60 Hz/2V DBS opposed that of power-equivalent (130 Hz/1.35V) DBS (alpha: P < 0.001, beta: P = 0.006). These results show that intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS amplified whereas 130 Hz STN DBS attenuated resting state neural synchrony in PD; the effects were frequency-specific. We demonstrate that neurostimulation may be useful as a tool to selectively modulate resting state resonant bands of neural synchrony and to investigate its influence on motor and non-motor behaviors in PD and other neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25807463

  20. Dopamine-dependent non-linear correlation between subthalamic rhythms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Marceglia, S; Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Tamma, F; Egidi, M; Priori, A

    2006-01-01

    The basic information architecture in the basal ganglia circuit is under debate. Whereas anatomical studies quantify extensive convergence/divergence patterns in the circuit, suggesting an information sharing scheme, neurophysiological studies report an absence of linear correlation between single neurones in normal animals, suggesting a segregated parallel processing scheme. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and in parkinsonian patients single neurones become linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between neurones. Here we propose a possible integrative solution to this debate, by extending the concept of functional segregation from the cellular level to the network level. To this end, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian patients. By applying bispectral analysis, we found that in the absence of dopamine stimulation STN LFP rhythms became non-linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between rhythms. Non-linear correlation was particularly consistent between the low-beta rhythm (13–20 Hz) and the high-beta rhythm (20–35 Hz). Levodopa administration significantly decreased these non-linear correlations, therefore increasing segregation between rhythms. These results suggest that the extensive convergence/divergence in the basal ganglia circuit is physiologically necessary to sustain LFP rhythms distributed in large ensembles of neurones, but is not sufficient to induce correlated firing between neurone pairs. Conversely, loss of dopamine generates pathological linear correlation between neurone pairs, alters the patterns within LFP rhythms, and induces non-linear correlation between LFP rhythms operating at different frequencies. The pathophysiology of information processing in the human basal ganglia therefore involves not only activities of individual rhythms, but also

  1. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in elderly patients – analysis of outcome and complications

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Jan; Haak, Susanne; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing discussion about age limits for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Current indications for DBS are tremor-dominant disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Electrode implantation for DBS with analgesia and sedation makes surgery more comfortable, especially for elderly patients. However, the value of DBS in terms of benefit-risk ratio in this patient population is still uncertain. Methods Bilateral electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was performed in a total of 73 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Patients were analyzed retrospectively. For this study they were divided into two age groups: group I (age <65 years, n = 37) and group II (age ≥ 65 years, n = 36). Examinations were performed preoperatively and at 6-month follow-up intervals for 24 months postoperatively. Age, UPDRS motor score (part III) on/off, Hoehn & Yahr score, Activity of Daily Living (ADL), L-dopa medication, and complications were determined. Results Significant differences were found in overall performance determined as ADL scores (group I: 48/71 points, group II: 41/62 points [preoperatively/6-month postoperatively]) and in the rate of complications (group I: 4 transient psychosis, 4 infections in a total of 8 patients, group II: 2 deaths [unrelated to surgery], 1 intracerebral hemorrhage, 7 transient psychosis, 3 infections, 2 pneumonia in a total of 13 patients), (p < 0.05). Interestingly, changes in UPDRS scores, Hoehn & Yahr scores, and L-dopa medication were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusion DBS of the STN is clinically as effective in elderly patients as it is in younger ones. However, a more careful selection and follow-up of the elderly patients are required because elderly patients have a higher risk of surgery-related complications and a higher morbidity rate. PMID:17367531

  2. No Effect of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Intertemporal Decision-Making in Parkinson Patients123

    PubMed Central

    Wojtecki, Lars; Storzer, Lena; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). DBS or pharmacological treatment is believed to modulate the tendency to, or reverse, impulse control disorders. Several brain areas involved in impulsivity and reward valuation, such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum, are linked to the STN, and activity in these areas might be affected by STN-DBS. To investigate the effect of STN-DBS on one type of impulsive decision-making—delay discounting (i.e., the devaluation of reward with increasing delay until its receipt)—we tested 40 human PD patients receiving STN-DBS treatment and medication for at least 3 months. Patients were pseudo-randomly assigned to one of four groups to test the effects of DBS on/off states as well as medication on/off states on delay discounting. The delay-discounting task consisted of a series of choices among a smaller. sooner or a larger, later monetary reward. Despite considerable effects of DBS on motor performance, patients receiving STN-DBS did not choose more or less impulsively compared with those in the off-DBS group, as well as when controlling for risk attitude. Although null results have to be interpreted with caution, our findings are of significance to other researchers studying the effects of PD treatment on impulsive decision-making, and they are of clinical relevance for determining the therapeutic benefits of using STN-DBS. PMID:27257622

  3. Electrophysiological properties of thalamic, subthalamic and nigral neurons during the anti-parkinsonian placebo response

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Lanotte, Michele; Colloca, Luana; Ducati, Alessandro; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Placebo administration to Parkinson patients is known to induce dopamine release in the striatum and to affect the activity of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons. By using intraoperative single-neuron recording techniques in awake patients, here we extend our previous study on STN recording, and characterize part of the neuronal circuit which is affected by placebos. In those patients who showed a clinical placebo response, there was a decrease in firing rate in STN neurons that was associated with a decrease in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and an increase in the ventral anterior (VA) and anterior ventral lateral (VLa) thalamus. These data show that placebo decreases STN and SNr activity whereas it increases VA/VLa activity. By contrast, placebo non-responders showed either a lack of changes in this circuit or partial changes in the STN only. Thus, changes in activity in the whole basal ganglia–VA/VLa circuit appear to be important in order to observe a clinical placebo improvement, although the involvement of other circuits, such as the direct pathway bypassing the STN, cannot be ruled out. The circuit we describe in the present study is likely to be a part of a more complex circuitry, including the striatum and the internal globus pallidus (GPi), that is modified by placebo administration. These findings indicate that a placebo treatment, which is basically characterized by verbal suggestions of benefit, can reverse the malfunction of a complex neuronal circuit, although these placebo-associated neuronal changes are short-lasting and occur only in some patients but not in others. PMID:19546163

  4. Electrophysiological properties of thalamic, subthalamic and nigral neurons during the anti-parkinsonian placebo response.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Lanotte, Michele; Colloca, Luana; Ducati, Alessandro; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2009-08-01

    Placebo administration to Parkinson patients is known to induce dopamine release in the striatum and to affect the activity of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons. By using intraoperative single-neuron recording techniques in awake patients, here we extend our previous study on STN recording, and characterize part of the neuronal circuit which is affected by placebos. In those patients who showed a clinical placebo response, there was a decrease in firing rate in STN neurons that was associated with a decrease in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and an increase in the ventral anterior (VA) and anterior ventral lateral (VLa) thalamus. These data show that placebo decreases STN and SNr activity whereas it increases VA/VLa activity. By contrast, placebo non-responders showed either a lack of changes in this circuit or partial changes in the STN only. Thus, changes in activity in the whole basal ganglia-VA/VLa circuit appear to be important in order to observe a clinical placebo improvement, although the involvement of other circuits, such as the direct pathway bypassing the STN, cannot be ruled out. The circuit we describe in the present study is likely to be a part of a more complex circuitry, including the striatum and the internal globus pallidus (GPi), that is modified by placebo administration. These findings indicate that a placebo treatment, which is basically characterized by verbal suggestions of benefit, can reverse the malfunction of a complex neuronal circuit, although these placebo-associated neuronal changes are short-lasting and occur only in some patients but not in others.

  5. Localization and function of dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus of normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xing; Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Pare, Jean-Francois; Khan, Zafar U.; Smith, Yoland; Wichmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives a dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra pars compacta, but the role of this projection remains poorly understood, particularly in primates. To address this issue, we used immuno-electron microscopy to localize D1, D2, and D5 dopamine receptors in the STN of rhesus macaques and studied the electrophysiological effects of activating D1-like or D2-like receptors in normal and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian monkeys. Labeling of D1 and D2 receptors was primarily found presynaptically, on preterminal axons and putative glutamatergic and GABAergic terminals, while D5 receptors were more significantly expressed postsynaptically, on dendritic shafts of STN neurons. The electrical spiking activity of STN neurons, recorded with standard extracellular recording methods, was studied before, during, and after intra-STN administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF82958, the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control injections). In normal animals, administration of SKF82958 significantly reduced the spontaneous firing but increased the rate of intraburst firing and the proportion of pause-burst sequences of firing. Quinpirole only increased the proportion of such pause-burst sequences in STN neurons of normal monkeys. In MPTP-treated monkeys, the D1-like receptor agonist also reduced the firing rate and increased the proportion of pause-burst sequences, while the D2-like receptor agonist did not change any of the chosen descriptors of the firing pattern of STN neurons. Our data suggest that dopamine receptor activation can directly modulate the electrical activity of STN neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms in both normal and parkinsonian states, predominantly via activation of D1 receptors. PMID:24760789

  6. High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Diane; de Solages, Camille; Hill, Bruce; Yu, Hong; Henderson, Jaimie M; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by excessive synchronous activity in the beta (8-35 Hz) band throughout the cortico-basal ganglia network. The optimal location of high frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS) within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) region and the location of maximal beta hypersynchrony are currently matters of debate. Additionally, the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony in functionally connected regions of motor cortex is unknown and is of great interest. Scalp EEG studies demonstrated that stimulation of the STN can activate motor cortex antidromically, but the spatial specificity of this effect has not been examined. The present study examined the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony within the cortico-basal ganglia network in patients with PD. We measured local field potentials dorsal to and within the STN of PD patients, and additionally in the motor cortex in a subset of these patients. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to guide the placement of subdural cortical surface electrodes over the DTI-identified origin of the hyperdirect pathway (HDP) between motor cortex and the STN. The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN. The degree of attenuation was monotonic with increased DBS voltages in both locations, but this voltage-dependent effect was greater in the central STN than dorsal to the STN (p < 0.05). Cortical signals over the estimated origin of the HDP also demonstrated attenuation of beta hypersynchrony during DBS dorsal to or within STN, whereas signals from non-specific regions of motor cortex were not attenuated. The spatially-specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchrony in the functionally connected sensorimotor network. PMID:22675296

  7. The subthalamic nucleus keeps you high on emotion: behavioral consequences of its inactivation.

    PubMed

    Pelloux, Yann; Meffre, Julie; Giorla, Elodie; Baunez, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) belongs to the basal ganglia and is the current target for the surgical treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), but also a proposed site for the treatment of addiction. It is therefore very important to understand its functions in order to anticipate and prevent possible side-effects in the patients. Although the involvement of the STN is well documented in motor, cognitive and motivational processes, less is known regarding emotional processes. Here we have investigated the direct consequences of STN inactivation by excitotoxic lesions on emotional processing and reinforcement in the rat. We have used various behavioral procedures to assess affect for neutral, positive and negative reinforcers in STN lesioned rats. STN lesions reduced affective responses for positive (sweet solutions) and negative (electric foot shock, Lithium Chloride-induced sickness) reinforcers while they had no effect on responses for a more neutral reinforcer (novelty induced place preference (NIPP)). Furthermore, when given the choice between saccharine, a sweet but non caloric solution, and glucose, a more bland but caloric solution, in contrast to sham animals that preferred saccharine, STN lesioned animals preferred glucose over saccharine. Taken altogether these results reveal that STN plays a critical role in emotional processing. These results, in line with some clinical observations in PD patients subjected to STN surgery, suggest possible emotional side-effects of treatments targeting the STN. They also suggest that the increased motivation for sucrose previously reported cannot be due to increased pleasure, but could be responsible for the decreased motivation for cocaine reported after STN inactivation. PMID:25538581

  8. Subthalamic nucleus activity in the awake hemiparkinsonian rat: relationships with motor and cognitive networks.

    PubMed

    Delaville, Claire; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin M; Cruz, Ana V; Walters, Judith R

    2015-04-29

    Oscillatory activity in both beta and gamma ranges has been recorded in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and linked to motor function, with beta activity considered antikinetic, and gamma activity, prokinetic. However, the extent to which nonmotor networks contribute to this activity is unclear. This study uses hemiparkinsonian rats performing a treadmill walking task to compare synchronized STN local field potential (LFP) activity with activity in motor cortex (MCx) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), areas involved in motor and cognitive processes, respectively. Data show increases in STN and MCx 29-36 Hz LFP spectral power and coherence after dopamine depletion, which are reduced by apomorphine and levodopa treatments. In contrast, recordings from mPFC 3 weeks after dopamine depletion failed to show peaks in 29-36 Hz LFP power. However, mPFC and STN both showed peaks in the 45-55 Hz frequency range in LFP power and coherence during walking before and 21 days after dopamine depletion. Interestingly, power in this low gamma range was transiently reduced in both mPFC and STN after dopamine depletion but recovered by day 21. In contrast to the 45-55 Hz activity, the amplitude of the exaggerated 29-36 Hz rhythm in the STN was modulated by paw movement. Furthermore, as in PD patients, after dopamine treatment a third band (high gamma) emerged in the lesioned hemisphere. The results suggest that STN integrates activity from both motor and cognitive networks in a manner that varies with frequency, behavioral state, and the integrity of the dopamine system.

  9. The Good and Bad Differentially Encoded within the Subthalamic Nucleus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Emmanuel; Pelloux, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been added into the reward circuit. It has been shown to encode information regarding rewards (4% sucrose, 32% cocaine). To investigate the encoding of negative value, STN neurons were recorded in rats performing a task using discriminative stimuli predicting various rewards and especially during the replacement of a positive reinforcer (4% sucrose) by an aversive reinforcer (quinine). The results show that STN neurons encode information relative to both positive and aversive reinforcers via specialized subpopulations. The specialization is reset when the context is modified (change from a favorable context (4% vs 32% sucrose) to an unfavorable context (quinine vs 32% sucrose). An excitatory response to the cue light predicting the reward seems to be associated with the preferred situation, suggesting that STN plays a role in encoding the relative value of rewards. STN also seems to play a critical role in the encoding of execution error. Indeed, various subpopulations of neurons responding exclusively at early (i.e., “oops neurons”) or at correct lever release were identified. The oops neurons respond mostly when the preferred reward (32% sucrose) is missed. Furthermore, STN neurons respond to reward omission, suggesting a role in reward prediction error. These properties of STN neurons strengthen its position in the reward circuit as a key cerebral structure through which reward-related processes are mediated. It is particularly important given the fact that STN is the target of surgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease and obsessive compulsive disorders, and has been suggested for the treatment of addiction as well. PMID:26478913

  10. Unilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Has a Measurable Ipsilateral Effect on Rigidity And Bradykinesia in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tabbal, Samer D.; Ushe, Mwiza; Mink, Jonathan W.; Revilla, Fredy J.; Wernle, Angie R.; Hong, Minna; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. Methods In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n= 42), bradykinesia (n= 38), and gait speed (n= 45). Subjects were tested in four DBS conditions: both on, left on, right on and both off. A force transducer was used to measure rigidity across the elbow, and gyroscopes were used to measure angular velocity of hand rotations for bradykinesia. About half of the subjects were rated using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (part III) motor scores for arm rigidity and repetitive hand rotation simultaneously during the kinematic measurements. Subjects were timed walking 25 feet. Results All subjects had significant improvement with bilateral STN DBS. Contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation significantly reduced rigidity and bradykinesia. Bilateral stimulation improved rigidity more than unilateral stimulation of either side, but there was no significant difference between ipsilateral and contralateral stimulation. Although bilateral stimulation also increased hand rotation velocity more than unilateral stimulation of either side, contralateral stimulation increased hand rotation significantly more than ipsilateral stimulation. All stimulation conditions improved walking time but bilateral stimulation provided the greatest improvement. Conclusions Unilateral STN DBS decreased rigidity and bradykinesia contralaterally as well ipsilaterally. As expected, bilateral DBS improved gait more than unilateral DBS. These findings suggest that unilateral STN DBS alters pathways that affect rigidity and bradykinesia bilaterally but do not support the clinical use of unilateral STN DBS since bilateral DBS clearly provides greater benefit. PMID:18329019

  11. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  12. Effects of Medication and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Tongue Movements in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease Using Electropalatography: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartinger, Mariam; Tripoliti, Elina; Hardcastle, William J.; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects speech in the majority of patients. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in reducing tremor and rigidity. However, its effect on speech is variable. The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the effects of bilateral STN-DBS and medication on articulation, using…

  13. [Single and Network Neuron Activity of Subthalamic Nucleus at Impulsive and Delayed (Self-Control) Reactions in Choice Behavior].

    PubMed

    Sidorina, V V; Gerasimova, Yu A; Kuleshova, E P; Merzhanova, G Kh

    2015-01-01

    During our experiments on cats was investigated the subthalamic neuron activity at different types of behavior in case of reinforcement choice depending on its value and availability. In chronic experiences the multiunit activity in subthalamic nucleus (STN) and orbitofrontal cortex (FC) has been recorded. Multiunit activity was analyzed over frequency and network properties of spikes. It was shown, that STN neurons reaction to different reinforcements and conditional stimulus at short- or long-delay reactions was represented by increasing or decreasing of frequency of single neurons. However the same STN neu- rons responded with increasing of frequency of single neuron during expectation of mix-bread-meat and decreasing--during the meat expectation. It has been revealed, that the number of STN interneuron interactions was authentic more at impulsive behavior than at self-control choice of behavior. The number of interactions between FC and STN neurons within intervals of 0-30 Ms was authentic more at display impulsive than during self-control behavior. These results suppose that FC and STN neurons participate in integration of reinforcement estimation; and distinctions in a choice of behavior are defined by the local and distributed interneuron interactions of STN and FC. PMID:26601504

  14. [Single and Network Neuron Activity of Subthalamic Nucleus at Impulsive and Delayed (Self-Control) Reactions in Choice Behavior].

    PubMed

    Sidorina, V V; Gerasimova, Yu A; Kuleshova, E P; Merzhanova, G Kh

    2015-01-01

    During our experiments on cats was investigated the subthalamic neuron activity at different types of behavior in case of reinforcement choice depending on its value and availability. In chronic experiences the multiunit activity in subthalamic nucleus (STN) and orbitofrontal cortex (FC) has been recorded. Multiunit activity was analyzed over frequency and network properties of spikes. It was shown, that STN neurons reaction to different reinforcements and conditional stimulus at short- or long-delay reactions was represented by increasing or decreasing of frequency of single neurons. However the same STN neu- rons responded with increasing of frequency of single neuron during expectation of mix-bread-meat and decreasing--during the meat expectation. It has been revealed, that the number of STN interneuron interactions was authentic more at impulsive behavior than at self-control choice of behavior. The number of interactions between FC and STN neurons within intervals of 0-30 Ms was authentic more at display impulsive than during self-control behavior. These results suppose that FC and STN neurons participate in integration of reinforcement estimation; and distinctions in a choice of behavior are defined by the local and distributed interneuron interactions of STN and FC.

  15. Functional localization and visualization of the subthalamic nucleus from microelectrode recordings acquired during DBS surgery with unsupervised machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S.; Baltuch, G. H.; Jaggi, J. L.; Danish, S. F.

    2009-04-01

    Microelectrode recordings are a useful adjunctive method for subthalamic nucleus localization during deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease. Attempts to quantitate and standardize this process, using single computational measures of neural activity, have been limited by variability in patient neurophysiology and recording conditions. Investigators have suggested that a multi-feature approach may be necessary for automated approaches to perform within acceptable clinical standards. We present a novel data visualization algorithm and several unique features that address these shortcomings. The algorithm extracts multiple computational features from the microelectrode neurophysiology and integrates them with tools from unsupervised machine learning. The resulting colour-coded map of neural activity reveals activity transitions that correspond to the anatomic boundaries of subcortical structures. Using these maps, a non-neurophysiologist is able to achieve sensitivities of 90% and 95% for STN entry and exit, respectively, to within 0.5 mm accuracy of the current gold standard. The accuracy of this technique is attributed to the multi-feature approach. This activity map can simplify and standardize the process of localizing the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for neurostimulation. Because this method does not require a stationary electrode for careful recording of unit activity for spike sorting, the length of the operation may be shortened.

  16. Defining a role for the subthalamic nucleus within operative theoretical models of subcortical participation in language

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, B; Murdoch, B; Theodoros, D; Hall, B; Silburn, P

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of bilateral, surgically induced functional inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on general language, high level linguistic abilities, and semantic processing skills in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods:Comprehensive linguistic profiles were obtained up to one month before and three months after bilateral implantation of electrodes in the STN during active deep brain stimulation (DBS) in five subjects with Parkinson's disease (mean age, 63.2 years). Equivalent linguistic profiles were generated over a three month period for a non-surgical control cohort of 16 subjects with Parkinson's disease (NSPD) (mean age, 64.4 years). Education and disease duration were similar in the two groups. Initial assessment and three month follow up performance profiles were compared within subjects by paired t tests. Reliability change indices (RCI), representing clinically significant alterations in performance over time, were calculated for each of the assessment scores achieved by the five STN-DBS cases and the 16 NSPD controls, relative to performance variability within a group of 16 non-neurologically impaired adults (mean age, 61.9 years). Proportions of reliable change were then compared between the STN-DBS and NSPD groups. Results:Paired comparisons within the STN-DBS group showed prolonged postoperative semantic processing reaction times for a range of word types coded for meanings and meaning relatedness. Case by case analyses of reliable change across language assessments and groups revealed differences in proportions of change over time within the STN-DBS and NSPD groups in the domains of high level linguistics and semantic processing. Specifically, when compared with the NSPD group, the STN-DBS group showed a proportionally significant (p<0.05) reliable improvement in postoperative scores achieved on the word test-revised (TWT-R), as well as a reliable decline (p<0.01) in the accuracy of lexical decisions

  17. Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this feature uniquely codes for effort and whether such a coding mechanism holds true over a range of efforts is unclear. Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts. The latter were self-rated using the 10 level Borg scale ranging from 0 (no effort) to 10 (maximal effort). STN LFP activities were recorded in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while motor performance was improved by dopaminergic medication. In line with previous studies we observed power increase in the theta/alpha band (4-12 Hz), power suppression in the beta band (13-30 Hz) and power increase in the gamma band (55-90 Hz) and high frequency band (101-375 Hz) during voluntary grips. Beta suppression deepened, and then reached a floor level as effort increased. Conversely, gamma and high frequency power increases were enhanced during grips made with greater effort. Multiple regression models incorporating the four different spectral changes confirmed that the modulation of power in the beta band was the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts rated <5. In contrast, increases in gamma band activity were the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts ≥5. Accordingly, the difference between power changes in the gamma and beta bands correlated with effort across all effort levels. These findings suggest complementary roles for changes in beta and gamma band activities in the STN in motor effort coding. The latter function

  18. The Involvement of Oxytocin in the Subthalamic Nucleus on Relapse to Methamphetamine-Seeking Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Baracz, Sarah Jane; Everett, Nicholas Adams; Cornish, Jennifer Louise

    2015-01-01

    The psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive drug of abuse. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate METH-related reward and METH-seeking behaviour. Recent findings implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STh) as a key brain region in oxytocin modulation of METH-induced reward. However, it is unclear if oxytocin acts in this region to attenuate relapse to METH-seeking behaviour, and if this action is through the oxytocin receptor. We aimed to determine whether oxytocin pretreatment administered into the STh would reduce reinstatement to METH use in rats experienced at METH self-administration, and if this could be reversed by the co-administration of the oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent surgery to implant an intravenous jugular vein catheter and bilateral microinjection cannulae into the STh under isoflourane anaesthesia. Rats were then trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) by lever press during 2-hour sessions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 20 days. Following extinction of lever press activity, the effect of microinjecting saline, oxytocin (0.2 pmol, 0.6 pmol, 1.8 pmol, 3.6 pmol) or co-administration of oxytocin (3.6 pmol) and desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (3 nmol) into the STh (200 nl/side) was examined on METH-primed reinstatement (1 mg/kg; i.p.). We found that local administration of the highest oxytocin dose (3.6 pmol) into the STh decreased METH-induced reinstatement and desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT had a non-specific effect on lever press activity. These findings highlight that oxytocin modulation of the STh is an important modulator of relapse to METH abuse. PMID:26284529

  19. Grammar improvement following deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic and the pedunculopontine nuclei in advanced Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Moschella, Vincenzo; Stefani, Alessandro; Peppe, Antonella; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Galati, Salvatore; Costa, Alberto; Mazzone, Paolo; Stanzione, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Combined deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic (STN) and pedunculopontine (PPN) nuclei has been recently proposed as surgical treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. STN stimulation alone has been shown to provide selective improvement of the grammatical aspect of language. We studied five advanced Parkinson's disease patients who underwent combined deep brain stimulation (STN + PPN). Overall cognitive profile did not change. On the contrary, an interesting trend towards reduction of ungrammatical errors (particularly substitution of free and inflectional morphemes) was found when stimulating the STN, and also the PPN, when the STN was switched off. These findings replicate previous observations on the STN, and provide the rationale for further investigation of the role of the PPN in processing linguistic grammar.

  20. Differential effects of L-dopa and subthalamic stimulation on depressive symptoms and hedonic tone in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Herzog, Jan; Lorenz, Delia; Volkmann, Jens; Reiff, Julia; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Deuschl, Günther; Krack, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease frequently have mild to moderate depression and exhibit low hedonic tone. The authors investigate the impact of a single L-dopa challenge and the acute effects of electric stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on symptoms of depression and hedonic tone. Depressive symptoms improved with L-dopa and STN stimulation to the same extent. However, hedonic tone improved only with L-dopa. Most of the emotional changes did not correlate with changes in motor performance, indicating they were not just reactive but specific to the treatment. These results demonstrate a single dissociation of depressive symptoms and anhedonia in response to an acute L-dopa and STN-stimulation challenge.

  1. Older Candidates for Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease Have a Higher Incidence of Psychiatric Serious Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Cozac, Vitalii V.; Ehrensperger, Michael M.; Gschwandtner, Ute; Hatz, Florian; Meyer, Antonia; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schuepbach, Michael; Taub, Ethan; Fuhr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE) of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We investigated a group of 26 patients with PD who underwent STN-DBS at mean age 63.2 ± 3.3 years. The operated patients from the EARLYSTIM study (mean age 52.9 ± 6.6) were used as a comparison group. Incidences of SAE were compared between these groups. Results: A higher incidence of psychosis and hallucinations was found in these elderly patients compared to the younger patients in the EARLYSTIM study (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The higher incidence of STN-DBS-related psychiatric complications underscores the need for comprehensive psychiatric pre- and postoperative assessment in older DBS candidates. However, these psychiatric SAE were transient, and the benefits of DBS clearly outweighed its adverse effects. PMID:27375478

  2. Limiting glutamate transmission in a Vglut2-expressing subpopulation of the subthalamic nucleus is sufficient to cause hyperlocomotion

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Nadine; Pupe, Stéfano; Arvidsson, Emma; Nordenankar, Karin; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Mahmoudi, Souha; Andrén, Anna; Dumas, Sylvie; Rajagopalan, Aparna; Lévesque, Daniel; Leão, Richardson N.; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key area of the basal ganglia circuitry regulating movement. We identified a subpopulation of neurons within this structure that coexpresses Vglut2 and Pitx2, and by conditional targeting of this subpopulation we reduced Vglut2 expression levels in the STN by 40%, leaving Pitx2 expression intact. This reduction diminished, yet did not eliminate, glutamatergic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus, two major targets of the STN. The knockout mice displayed hyperlocomotion and decreased latency in the initiation of movement while preserving normal gait and balance. Spatial cognition, social function, and level of impulsive choice also remained undisturbed. Furthermore, these mice showed reduced dopamine transporter binding and slower dopamine clearance in vivo, suggesting that Vglut2-expressing cells in the STN regulate dopaminergic transmission. Our results demonstrate that altering the contribution of a limited population within the STN is sufficient to achieve results similar to STN lesions and high-frequency stimulation, but with fewer side effects. PMID:24821804

  3. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on inhibitory and executive control over prepotent responses in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of inappropriate, habitual or prepotent responses is an essential component of executive control and a cornerstone of self-control. Via the hyperdirect pathway, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives inputs from frontal areas involved in inhibition and executive control. Evidence is reviewed from our own work and the literature suggesting that in Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN has an impact on executive control during attention-demanding tasks or in situations of conflict when habitual or prepotent responses have to be inhibited. These results support a role for the STN in an inter-related set of processes: switching from automatic to controlled processing, inhibitory and executive control, adjusting response thresholds and influencing speed-accuracy trade-offs. Such STN DBS-induced deficits in inhibitory and executive control may contribute to some of the psychiatric problems experienced by a proportion of operated cases after STN DBS surgery in PD. However, as no direct evidence for such a link is currently available, there is a need to provide direct evidence for such a link between STN DBS-induced deficits in inhibitory and executive control and post-surgical psychiatric complications experienced by operated patients. PMID:24399941

  4. Interactions of the subthalamic nucleus and the subpallidal area in oro-facial dyskinesia: role of GABA and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Spooren, W P; Helfrich, S E; Cools, A R

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that lowering the GABAergic activity in the sub-pallidal area (SP) in the cat results in the display of oro-facial dyskinesia (OFD). There exists an intense, mutual anatomical connection between the SP and the subthalamic nucleus and the adjoining lateral hypothalamic area (STH). The present study investigated whether the STH is also involved in OFD. Once this turned out to be true (see below), it was investigated whether the SP-specific OFD is funneled via the STH, or vice versa. Bilateral injections of low doses (50-250 ng) of picrotoxin, a non-competitive GABA antagonist, into the STH were found to elicit OFD. This effect which was quantified in terms of numbers of tongue protrusions, was dose-dependent: a bell-shaped dose-response was found (50-500 ng). The OFD elicited by the most effective dose of picrotoxin (250 ng) was significantly antagonized by muscimol, a specific GABAA agonist, in a dose (50 ng) which itself was ineffective, indicating GABA specificity. In addition, it was found that OFD elicited by local injections of picrotoxin (250 ng) into the STH was significantly attenuated by SP injections of the broad spectrum glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid in a dose (1000 ng) which itself was ineffective, but not by muscimol (100 ng), indicating that the STH-elicited OFD needs an intact and functioning glutaminergic, but not GABAergic, transmission process in the SP for its expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7675945

  5. Frequency Matters: Beta Band Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Induces Parkinsonian-like Blink Abnormalities in Normal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaminer, Jaime; Thakur, Pratibha; Evinger, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The synchronized beta band oscillations in the basal ganglia-cortical networks in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be responsible for PD motor symptoms or an epiphenomenon of dopamine loss. We investigated the causal role of beta band activity in PD motor symptoms by testing the effects of beta frequency subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) on blink reflex excitability, amplitude, and plasticity in normal rats. Delivering 16 Hz STN DBS produced the same increase in blink reflex excitability and impairment in blink reflex plasticity in normal rats as occurs in rats with 6-OHDA lesions and PD patients. These deficits were not an artifact of STN DBS because when these normal rats received 130 Hz STN DBS, their blink characteristics were the same as without STN DBS. To demonstrate the blink reflex disturbances with 16 Hz STN DBS were frequency specific, we tested the same rats with 7 Hz STN DBS, a theta band frequency typical of dystonia. In contrast to beta stimulation, 7 Hz DBS exaggerated blink reflex plasticity as occurs in focal dystonia. Thus, without destroying dopamine neurons or blocking dopamine receptors, frequency specific STN DBS can be used to create PD- or dystonic-like symptoms in a normal rat. PMID:25146113

  6. Changes of oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Julien; Polosan, Mircea; Piallat, Brigitte; Krack, Paul; Bougerol, Thierry; Chabardès, Stéphan; David, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has positive and negative effects on mood and cognition, as shown in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and severe obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Such behavioural and clinical effects suggest that the STN has an important function in limbic circuitry, which still needs to be clarified from electrophysiological recordings. Here we report two exceptional cases of OCD patients in whom local field potentials (LFP) of the anterior STN were directly recorded during acute obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We found significant symptom-related changes in different frequency bands, with no clear preferential oscillatory pattern. The overall modified STN activity during OCD symptoms suggests a mixture of both pathological and compensatory mechanisms that would reflect the maintenance of an over stable motor/cognitive/emotional set. Whether this activity propagates throughout the entire cognitive-limbic loops that are impaired in OCD is an interesting question for future research in larger series of patients. PMID:24552693

  7. The influence of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on impulsivity and prepulse inhibition in Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Lucy; Smith, Heather; Cruz, Priscilla De La; Campbell, Joannalee; Fama, Chris; Haller, Jessica; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Durphy, Jennifer; Hanspal, Era; Molho, Eric; Barba, Anne; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background At least 14% of Parkinson disease (PD) patients develop impulse control disorders (ICDs). The pathophysiology behind these behaviors and the impact of deep brain stimulation in a real-life setting remains unclear. Objectives We prospectively examined the impact of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on ICDs in PD patients, as well as the relationship between impaired sensorimotor gaiting and impulsivity. Methods Patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS were assessed for ICDs preoperatively and 1-year postoperatively using a validated questionnaire (QUIP-RS). A subset of patients completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) and auditory pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) testing. Results Analysis revealed 12 patients had an improvement in score assessing ICDs (“good responders” – GR; p = 0.006) while 4 had a worse or stable score (“poor responders” – PR; p > 0.05). GR further exemplified a significant decrease in hypersexual behavior (p = 0.005) and binge eating (p = 0.01). Impaired PPI responses also significantly correlated with impulsivity in BART (r = −0.72, p = 0.044). Discussion Following bilateral STN-DBS 75% of our cohort had a reduction in ICDs, thus suggesting deep brain stimulation effectively manages ICDs in PD. The role of impaired PPI in predisposition to ICDs in PD warrants further investigation. PMID:26066569

  8. A point process approach to identifying and tracking transitions in neural spiking dynamics in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinyi; Eskandar, Emad N.; Eden, Uri T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of rhythmic dynamics in normal and diseased brain function is an important area of research in neural electrophysiology. Identifying and tracking changes in rhythms associated with spike trains present an additional challenge, because standard approaches for continuous-valued neural recordings—such as local field potential, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography data—require assumptions that do not typically hold for point process data. Additionally, subtle changes in the history dependent structure of a spike train have been shown to lead to robust changes in rhythmic firing patterns. Here, we propose a point process modeling framework to characterize the rhythmic spiking dynamics in spike trains, test for statistically significant changes to those dynamics, and track the temporal evolution of such changes. We first construct a two-state point process model incorporating spiking history and develop a likelihood ratio test to detect changes in the firing structure. We then apply adaptive state-space filters and smoothers to track these changes through time. We illustrate our approach with a simulation study as well as with experimental data recorded in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients performing an arm movement task. Our analyses show that during the arm movement task, neurons underwent a complex pattern of modulation of spiking intensity characterized initially by a release of inhibitory control at 20-40 ms after a spike, followed by a decrease in excitatory influence at 40-60 ms after a spike.

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Reward-Based Decision-Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; van den Wildenberg, W. P. M.; Band, G. P. H.; Abisogun, A.; Elias, W. J.; Frysinger, R.; Wylie, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD). We determined computational measures of outcome evaluation and reward prediction from PD patients who performed a probabilistic reward-based decision-learning task. In previous work, these measures covaried with activation in the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning) and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning). We observed that stimulation of the STN motor regions in PD patients served to improve reward-based decision-learning, probably through its effect on activity in frontostriatal motor loops (prominently involving the putamen and, hence, reward prediction). In a subset of relatively younger patients with relatively shorter disease duration, the effects of DBS appeared to spread to more cognitive regions of the STN, benefiting loops that connect the caudate to various prefrontal areas importantfor outcome evaluation. These results highlight positive effects of STN stimulation on cognitive functions that may benefit PD patients in daily-life association-learning situations. PMID:21519377

  10. Impulsivities and Parkinson's disease: delay aversion is not worsened by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Torta, Diana M E; Vizzari, Vincenzo; Castelli, Lorys; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Lopiano, Leonardo; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but can exert detrimental effects on impulsivity. These effects are especially related to the inability to slow down when high-conflict choices have to be made. However, the influence that DBS has on delay aversion is still under-investigated. Here, we tested a group of 21 PD patients on and off stimulation (off medication) by using the Cambridge Gamble Task (CGT), a computerized task that allows the investigation of risk-related behaviours and delay aversion, and psychological questionnaires such as the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), the Sensitivity to Punishment and to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), and the Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ). We found that delay aversion scores on the CGT were no higher when patients were on stimulation as compared to when they were off stimulation. In contrast, PD patients reported feeling more impulsive in the off stimulation state, as revealed by significantly higher scores on the BIS. Higher scores on the sensitivity to punishment subscale of the SPSRQ highlighted that possible punishments influence patients' behaviours more than possible rewards. Significant correlations between delay aversion scores on the CGT and QDQ delay aversion subscale suggest that these two instruments can be used in synergy to reach a convergent validity. In conclusion, our results show that not all impulsivities are detrimentally affected by DBS of the STN and that the joint use of experimental paradigms and psychological questionnaires can provide useful insights in the study of impulsivity. PMID:22984415

  11. A Kv3-like persistent, outwardly rectifying, Cs+-permeable, K+ current in rat subthalamic nucleus neurones

    PubMed Central

    Wigmore, Mark A; Lacey, Michael G

    2000-01-01

    A persistent outward K+ current (IPO), activated by depolarization from resting potential, has been identified and characterized in rat subthalamic nucleus (SThN) neurones using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in brain slices.IPO both rapidly activated (τ= 8 ms at +5 mV) and deactivated (τ= 2 ms at −68 mV), while showing little inactivation. Tail current reversal potentials varied with extracellular K+ concentration in a Nernstian manner.Intracellular Cs+ did not alter either IPO amplitude or the voltage dependence of activation, but blocked transient (A-like) outward currents activated by depolarization. When extracellular K+ was replaced with Cs+, IPO tail current reversal potentials were dependent upon the extracellular Cs+ concentration, indicating an ability to conduct Cs+, as well as K+.IPO was blocked by Ba2+ (1 mm), 4-aminopyridine (1 mm) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 20 mm), with an IC50 for TEA of 0.39 mm.The IPO conductance appeared maximal (38 nS) at around +27 mV, half-maximal at −13 mV, with the threshold for activation at around −38 mV.TEA (1 mm) blocked the action potential after-hyperpolarization and permitted accommodation of action potential firing at frequencies greater than around 200 Hz.We conclude that IPO, which shares many characteristics of currents attributable to Kv3.1 K+ channels, enables high-frequency spike trains in SThN neurones. PMID:10990536

  12. Decision-making under risk is improved by both dopaminergic medication and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boller, Jana K; Barbe, Michael T; Pauls, K Amande M; Reck, Christiane; Brand, Matthias; Maier, Franziska; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars; Kalbe, Elke

    2014-04-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the effects of dopaminergic medication (MED) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on decision making processes and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have been reported. This study investigated the influence of MED and STN-DBS on decision-making under risk. Eighteen non-demented PD patients, treated with both MED and STN-DBS (64.3±10.2years, UPDRS III MED off, DBS off 45.5±17.1) were tested with the Game of Dice Task (GDT) which probes decision-making under risk during four conditions: MED on/DBS on, MED on/DBS off, MED off/DBS on, and MED off/DBS off. Task performance across conditions was compared analyzing two GDT-parameters: (i) the "net score" indicating advantageous decisions, and (ii) the patient's ability to use negative feedback. Significantly higher GDT net scores were observed in Med on in contrast to Med off conditions as well as in DBS on versus DBS off conditions. However, no effect of therapy for the patient's ability to make use of negative feedback could be detected. The data suggest a positive influence of both MED and STN-DBS on making decisions under risk in PD patients, an effect which seems to be mediated by mechanisms other than the use of negative feedback. PMID:24444545

  13. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition. PMID:24342106

  14. Emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: differential effects of microlesion and STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Lettieri, Christian; Mondani, Massimo; D'Auria, Stanislao; Belgrado, Enrico; Piani, Antonella; De Simone, Luca; Rinaldo, Sara; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has acquired a relevant role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite being a safe procedure, it may expose patients to an increased risk to experience cognitive and emotional difficulties. Impairments in emotion recognition, mediated both by facial and prosodic expressions, have been reported in PD patients treated with such procedure. However, it is still unclear whether the STN per se is responsible for such changes or whether others factors like the microlesion produced by the electrode implantation may also play a role. In this study we evaluated facial emotions discrimination and emotions recognition using both facial and prosodic expressions in 12 patients with PD and 13 matched controls. Patients' were tested in four conditions: before surgery, both in on and off medication, and after surgery, respectively few days after STN implantation before turning stimulator on and few months after with stimulation on. We observed that PD patients were impaired in discriminating and recognizing facial emotions, especially disgust, even before DBS implant. Microlesion caused by surgical procedure was found to influence patients' performance on the discrimination task and recognition of sad facial expression while, after a few months of STN stimulation, impaired disgust recognition was again prominent. No impairment in emotional prosody recognition was observed both before and after surgery. Our study confirms that PD patients may experience a deficit in disgust recognition and provides insight into the differential effect of microlesion and stimulation of STN on several tasks assessing emotion recognition.

  15. Structural and resting state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: identification of motor STN parts and the hyperdirect pathway.

    PubMed

    Brunenberg, Ellen J L; Moeskops, Pim; Backes, Walter H; Pollo, Claudio; Cammoun, Leila; Vilanova, Anna; Janssen, Marcus L F; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle E R M; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Platel, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease often alleviates the motor symptoms, but causes cognitive and emotional side effects in a substantial number of cases. Identification of the motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as part of the presurgical workup could minimize these adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the STN's connectivity to motor, associative, and limbic brain areas, based on structural and functional connectivity analysis of volunteer data. For the structural connectivity, we used streamline counts derived from HARDI fiber tracking. The resulting tracks supported the existence of the so-called "hyperdirect" pathway in humans. Furthermore, we determined the connectivity of each STN voxel with the motor cortical areas. Functional connectivity was calculated based on functional MRI, as the correlation of the signal within a given brain voxel with the signal in the STN. Also, the signal per STN voxel was explained in terms of the correlation with motor or limbic brain seed ROI areas. Both right and left STN ROIs appeared to be structurally and functionally connected to brain areas that are part of the motor, associative, and limbic circuit. Furthermore, this study enabled us to assess the level of segregation of the STN motor part, which is relevant for the planning of STN DBS procedures. PMID:22768059

  16. High resolution MR anatomy of the subthalamic nucleus: imaging at 9.4 T with histological validation.

    PubMed

    Massey, L A; Miranda, M A; Zrinzo, L; Al-Helli, O; Parkes, H G; Thornton, J S; So, P-W; White, M J; Mancini, L; Strand, C; Holton, J L; Hariz, M I; Lees, A J; Revesz, T; Yousry, T A

    2012-02-01

    Using conventional MRI the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is not clearly defined. Our objective was to define the anatomy of the STN using 9.4 T MRI of post mortem tissue with histological validation. Spin-echo (SE) and 3D gradient-echo (GE) images were obtained at 9.4 T in 8 post mortem tissue blocks and compared directly with corresponding histological slides prepared with Luxol Fast Blue/Cresyl Violet (LFB/CV) in 4 cases and Perl stain in 3. The variability of the STN anatomy was studied using internal reference points. The anatomy of the STN and surrounding structures was demonstrated in all three anatomical planes using 9.4 T MR images in concordance with LFB/CV stained histological sections. Signal hypointensity was seen in 6/8 cases in the anterior and medial STN that corresponded with regions of more intense Perl staining. There was significant variability in the volume, shape and location of the borders of the STN. Using 9.4 T MRI, the internal signal characteristics and borders of the STN are clearly defined and significant anatomical variability is apparent. Direct visualisation of the STN is possible using high field MRI and this is particularly relevant, given its anatomical variability, for planning deep brain stimulation.

  17. Interleaved programming of subthalamic deep brain stimulation to avoid adverse effects and preserve motor benefit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kahn, Max; Campbell, Joannalee; DeLaCruz, Priscilla; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2015-03-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most common surgical treatment for managing motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ultimately, outcomes depend on a variety of factors including lead location, access and expertize in programming and PD medical management. Nevertheless, achieving ideal programming settings can be difficult in certain patients, leading to suboptimal control of symptoms and stimulation-induced side effects, notably dysarthria and dyskinesia. Interleaved stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that attempts to optimize the stimulation field, improving control of symptoms while minimizing stimulation-induced adverse effects. A retrospective chart review was performed on PD patients receiving STN DBS over the past 12 months. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patients identified as having received ILS. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Nine patients received ILS due to incomplete PD symptom control or stimulation-induced side effects after attempting multiple programming options. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative MRI except in one case. Following ILS, patients reported improvement in symptoms and resolution of side effects, while preserving adequate control in Parkinsonism with a mean improvement in UPDRS-MOTOR scores of 51.2 %. ILS continues to emerge as a safe and effective programming strategy for maximizing symptom control in PD while diminishing stimulation-induced side effects.

  18. Beta-coupled high-frequency activity and beta-locked neuronal spiking in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew I; Vanegas, Nora; Lungu, Codrin; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2014-09-17

    Beta frequency (13-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been shown to influence the temporal dynamics of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 200-500 Hz) and single neurons, potentially compromising the functional flexibility of the motor circuit. We examined these interactions by simultaneously recording both local field potential and single-unit activity from the basal ganglia of 15 patients with PD during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery of the bilateral STN. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in the STN was specific to beta phase and HFO amplitude, and this coupling was strongest at the dorsal STN border. We found higher beta-HFO PAC near DBS lead contacts that were clinically effective compared with the remaining non-effective contacts, indicating that PAC may be predictive of response to STN DBS. Neuronal spiking was locked to the phase of 8-30 Hz oscillations, and the spatial topography of spike-phase locking (SPL) was similar to that of PAC. Comparisons of PAC and SPL showed a lack of spatiotemporal correlations. Beta-coupled HFOs and field-locked neurons had different preferred phase angles and did not co-occur within the same cycle of the modulating oscillation. Our findings provide additional support that beta-HFO PAC may be central to the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that field-locked neurons alone are not sufficient for the emergence of beta-coupled HFOs. PMID:25232117

  19. Camptocormia and deep brain stimulation: The interesting overlapping etiologies and the therapeutic role of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease with camptocormia

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekci, Hakan; Kaptan, Hulagu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Camptocormia is known as “bent spine syndrome” and defined as a forward hyperflexion. The most common etiologic factor is related with the movement disorders, mainly in Parkinson's disease (PD). Case Description: We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who has been followed with PD for the last 10 years, and also under the therapy for PD. An unappreciated correlation low back pain with camptocormia developed. She underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally and improved her bending posture. Conclusion: The relationship between the DBS and camptocormia is discussed in this unique condition. PMID:26958425

  20. Neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments following bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Aono, Michitaka; Iga, Jun-Ichi; Ueno, Shu-Ichi; Agawa, Masahito; Tsuda, Toshio; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    The physical benefits of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are well documented, but the mental benefits are uncertain, particularly in Japanese patients. This study evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics before and after STN-DBS surgery in Japanese PD patients. PD patients (n=13, age 67.0 ± 7.8 years) were evaluated pre-surgery (baseline) and at 1 and 6 months post-surgery by two trained psychiatrists. The motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. The neuropsychological and psychiatric tests performed were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The UPDRS motor score (p<0.001) and HAM-A score (p=0.004) showed significant improvement at 1 month post-surgery, but a significant decline was observed in the WCST total error (p=0.005) and the semantic VFT score (p<0.001). The phonetic VFT also showed a substantial decline (p=0.015) at 1 month post-surgery. At 6 months post-surgery, the improvement in the UPDRS motor score was maintained, and the scores on the neuropsychological and psychiatric tests had returned to baseline. Although bilateral STN-DBS did not appear to have long-term effects on neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes, the microlesion effects associated with STN-DBS appear to increase the risk of transient cognitive and psychiatric complications. These complications should be monitored by careful observation of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.

  1. Movement-related discharge in the macaque globus pallidus during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zimnik, Andrew J; Nora, Gerald J; Desmurget, Michel; Turner, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has largely replaced ablative therapies for Parkinson's disease. Because of the similar efficacies of the two treatments, it has been proposed that DBS acts by creating an "informational lesion," whereby pathologic neuronal firing patterns are replaced by low-entropy, stimulus-entrained firing patterns. The informational lesion hypothesis, in its current form, states that DBS blocks the transmission of all information from the basal ganglia, including both pathologic firing patterns and normal, task-related modulations in activity. We tested this prediction in two healthy rhesus macaques by recording single-unit spiking activity from the globus pallidus (232 neurons) while the animals completed choice reaction time reaching movements with and without STN-DBS. Despite strong effects of DBS on the activity of most pallidal cells, reach-related modulations in firing rate were equally prevalent in the DBS-on and DBS-off states. This remained true even when the analysis was restricted to cells affected significantly by DBS. In addition, the overall form and timing of perimovement modulations in firing rate were preserved between DBS-on and DBS-off states in the majority of neurons (66%). Active movement and DBS had largely additive effects on the firing rate of most neurons, indicating an orthogonal relationship in which both inputs contribute independently to the overall firing rate of pallidal neurons. These findings suggest that STN-DBS does not act as an indiscriminate informational lesion but rather as a filter that permits task-related modulations in activity while, presumably, eliminating the pathological firing associated with parkinsonism.

  2. Movement-Related Discharge in the Macaque Globus Pallidus during High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zimnik, Andrew J.; Nora, Gerald J.; Desmurget, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has largely replaced ablative therapies for Parkinson's disease. Because of the similar efficacies of the two treatments, it has been proposed that DBS acts by creating an “informational lesion,” whereby pathologic neuronal firing patterns are replaced by low-entropy, stimulus-entrained firing patterns. The informational lesion hypothesis, in its current form, states that DBS blocks the transmission of all information from the basal ganglia, including both pathologic firing patterns and normal, task-related modulations in activity. We tested this prediction in two healthy rhesus macaques by recording single-unit spiking activity from the globus pallidus (232 neurons) while the animals completed choice reaction time reaching movements with and without STN-DBS. Despite strong effects of DBS on the activity of most pallidal cells, reach-related modulations in firing rate were equally prevalent in the DBS-on and DBS-off states. This remained true even when the analysis was restricted to cells affected significantly by DBS. In addition, the overall form and timing of perimovement modulations in firing rate were preserved between DBS-on and DBS-off states in the majority of neurons (66%). Active movement and DBS had largely additive effects on the firing rate of most neurons, indicating an orthogonal relationship in which both inputs contribute independently to the overall firing rate of pallidal neurons. These findings suggest that STN-DBS does not act as an indiscriminate informational lesion but rather as a filter that permits task-related modulations in activity while, presumably, eliminating the pathological firing associated with parkinsonism. PMID:25740526

  3. A new biomarker for subthalamic deep brain stimulation for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease—a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmel, Gerrit E.; Hamilton, Tara J.; Obradovic, Milan; Gorman, Robert B.; Single, Peter S.; Chenery, Helen J.; Coyne, Terry; Silburn, Peter A.; Parker, John L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the standard treatment for advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other motor disorders. Although the surgical procedure has improved in accuracy over the years thanks to imaging and microelectrode recordings, the underlying principles that render DBS effective are still debated today. The aim of this paper is to present initial findings around a new biomarker that is capable of assessing the efficacy of DBS treatment for PD which could be used both as a research tool, as well as in the context of a closed-loop stimulator. Approach. We have used a novel multi-channel stimulator and recording device capable of measuring the response of nervous tissue to stimulation very close to the stimulus site with minimal latency, rejecting most of the stimulus artefact usually found with commercial devices. We have recorded and analyzed the responses obtained intraoperatively in two patients undergoing DBS surgery in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for advanced PD. Main results. We have identified a biomarker in the responses of the STN to DBS. The responses can be analyzed in two parts, an initial evoked compound action potential arising directly after the stimulus onset, and late responses (LRs), taking the form of positive peaks, that follow the initial response. We have observed a morphological change in the LRs coinciding with a decrease in the rigidity of the patients. Significance. These initial results could lead to a better characterization of the DBS therapy, and the design of adaptive DBS algorithms that could significantly improve existing therapies and help us gain insights into the functioning of the basal ganglia and DBS.

  4. Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: effects on EMG signals of lower limb muscles during walking.

    PubMed

    Ferrarin, Maurizio; Carpinella, Ilaria; Rabuffetti, Marco; Rizzone, Mario; Lopiano, Leonardo; Crenna, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on the spatio-temporal organization of locomotor commands directed to lower limb muscles were studied in subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) by recording the EMG activity produced during steady-state walking in representative thigh (rectus femoris, RF, and semimembranosus, SM) and leg (gatrocnemius medialis, GAM, and tibialis anterior, TA) muscles, under four experimental conditions: basal stimulation OFF, unilateral (right and left) stimulation ON, and bilateral stimulation ON. Locomotor profiles of all of the muscles tested were found to be substantially affected by STN stimulation, either in terms of restoration/enhancement of the main activity bursts or normalization of recruitment timing thereof. Responses showed relatively higher statistical significance in the distal groups (GAM and TA) and, within them, for the EMG components called into action over the ground-contact (ankle dorsiflexors) and midstance (ankle plantarflexors) phases of the stride cycle. In line with data obtained from clinical rating, unilateral stimulation produced less consistent EMG changes compared with bilateral stimulation. However, at variance with clinical effects, which prevailed on the side of the body contralateral to stimulation, EMG responses to unilateral stimulation were usually symmetrical. Results indicate that the impact of STN stimulation on locomotor activation of lower limb muscles in PD is characterized by: 1) substantial effects exhibiting differential topographical (distal versus proximal) and stride-phase (stance versus swing) consistency and 2) absence of the lateralized actions typically observed for the clinical signs of the disease. Interaction with the activity of functionally different executive systems might account for the observed pattern of responsiveness.

  5. Modulation of motor cortex neuronal activity and motor behavior during subthalamic nucleus stimulation in the normal primate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Luke A; Xu, Weidong; Baker, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2015-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established surgical therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). An emerging hypothesis is that the therapeutic benefit of DBS is derived from direct modulation of primary motor cortex (M1), yet little is known about the influence of STN DBS on individual neurons in M1. We investigated the effect of STN DBS, delivered at discrete interval intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) of corticospinal tract threshold (CSTT), on motor performance and M1 neuronal activity in a naive nonhuman primate. Motor performance during a food reach and retrieval task improved during low-intensity stimulation (20% CSTT) but worsened as intensity approached the threshold for activation of corticospinal fibers (80% and 100% CSTT). To assess cortical effects of STN DBS, spontaneous, extracellular neuronal activity was collected from M1 neurons before, during, and after DBS at the same CSTT stimulus intensities. STN DBS significantly modulated the firing of a majority of M1 neurons; however, the direction of effect varied with stimulus intensity such that, at 20% CSTT, most neurons were suppressed, whereas at the highest stimulus intensities the majority of neurons were activated. At a population level, firing rates increased as stimulus intensity increased. These results show that STN DBS influences both motor performance and M1 neuronal activity systematically according to stimulus intensity. In addition, the unanticipated reduction in reach times suggests that STN DBS, at stimulus intensities lower than typically used for treatment of PD motor signs, can enhance normal motor performance.

  6. Dopamine Release in the Nonhuman Primate Caudate and Putamen Depends upon Site of Stimulation in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hoon-Ki; Ross, Erika K.; Jo, Hang Joon; Cho, Shinho; Settell, Megan L.; Jeong, Ju Ho; Duffy, Penelope S.; Chang, Su-Youne; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for medically refractory Parkinson's disease. Although DBS has recognized clinical utility, its biologic mechanisms are not fully understood, and whether dopamine release is a potential factor in those mechanisms is in dispute. We tested the hypothesis that STN DBS-evoked dopamine release depends on the precise location of the stimulation site in the STN and the site of recording in the caudate and putamen. We conducted DBS with miniature, scaled-to-animal size, multicontact electrodes and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the best dopamine recording site in the brains of nonhuman primates (rhesus macaques), which are highly representative of human brain anatomy and circuitry. Real-time stimulation-evoked dopamine release was monitored using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. This study demonstrates that STN DBS-evoked dopamine release can be reduced or increased by redirecting STN stimulation to a slightly different site. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Electrical stimulation of deep structures of the brain, or deep brain stimulation (DBS), is used to modulate pathological brain activity. However, technological limitations and incomplete understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS prevent personalization of this therapy and may contribute to less-than-optimal outcomes. We have demonstrated that DBS coincides with changes in dopamine neurotransmitter release in the basal ganglia. Here we mapped relationships between DBS and changes in neurochemical activity. Importantly, this study shows that DBS-evoked dopamine release can be reduced or increased by refocusing the DBS on a slightly different stimulation site. PMID:27251623

  7. Elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Deng, Jianxin; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xueen

    2016-11-01

    Corresponding to pre-puncture and post-puncture insertion, elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation are investigated, respectively. Elastic mechanical properties in pre-puncture are investigated through pre-puncture needle insertion experiments using whole porcine brains. A linear polynomial and a second order polynomial are fitted to the average insertion force in pre-puncture. The Young's modulus in pre-puncture is calculated from the slope of the two fittings. Viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues in post-puncture insertion are investigated through indentation stress relaxation tests for six interested regions along a planned trajectory. A linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation is fitted to the average load trace of each region using Boltzmann hereditary integral. Shear relaxation moduli of each region are calculated using the parameters of the Prony series approximation. The results show that, in pre-puncture insertion, needle force almost increases linearly with needle displacement. Both fitting lines can perfectly fit the average insertion force. The Young's moduli calculated from the slope of the two fittings are worthy of trust to model linearly or nonlinearly instantaneous elastic responses of brain tissues, respectively. In post-puncture insertion, both region and time significantly affect the viscoelastic behaviors. Six tested regions can be classified into three categories in stiffness. Shear relaxation moduli decay dramatically in short time scales but equilibrium is never truly achieved. The regional and temporal viscoelastic mechanical properties in post-puncture insertion are valuable for guiding probe insertion into each region on the implanting trajectory. PMID:27646405

  8. D2 dopamine receptors modulate neuronal resonance in subthalamic nucleus and cortical high-voltage spindles through HCN channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Julei; Gao, Guodong; Zhu, Junling; Wang, Wenting

    2016-06-01

    The high-voltage spindles (HVSs), one of the characteristic oscillations that include theta frequencies in the basal ganglia (BG)-cortical system, are involved in immobile behavior and show increasing power in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous results suggested that the D2 dopamine receptor might be involved in HVSs modulations in a rat model of PD. Membrane resonance is one of the cellular mechanisms of network oscillation; therefore, we investigated how dopamine modulates the theta frequency membrane resonance of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central pacemaker of BG, and whether such changes in STN neurons subsequently alter HVSs in the BG-cortical system. In particular, we tested whether dopamine modulates HVSs through hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels-dependent membrane resonance in STN neurons. We found that an antagonist of D2 receptors, but not of D1 receptors, inhibited membrane resonance and HCN currents of STN neurons through a G-protein activity in acute brain slices. Our further in vivo experiments using local injection of a D2 receptor antagonist or an HCN blocker in STNs of free-moving rats showed an increase in HVSs power and correlation in the BG-cortical system. Local injection of lamotrigine, an HCN agonist, counteracted the effect induced by the D2 antagonist. Taken together, our results revealed a potential cellular mechanism underlying HVSs activity modulation in the BG-cortical system, i.e. tuning HCN activities in STN neurons through dopamine D2 receptors. Our findings might lead to a new direction in PD treatment by providing promising new drug targets for HVSs activity modulation.

  9. Elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Deng, Jianxin; Zhou, Jun; Li, Xueen

    2016-11-01

    Corresponding to pre-puncture and post-puncture insertion, elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues on the implanting trajectory of sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation are investigated, respectively. Elastic mechanical properties in pre-puncture are investigated through pre-puncture needle insertion experiments using whole porcine brains. A linear polynomial and a second order polynomial are fitted to the average insertion force in pre-puncture. The Young's modulus in pre-puncture is calculated from the slope of the two fittings. Viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissues in post-puncture insertion are investigated through indentation stress relaxation tests for six interested regions along a planned trajectory. A linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation is fitted to the average load trace of each region using Boltzmann hereditary integral. Shear relaxation moduli of each region are calculated using the parameters of the Prony series approximation. The results show that, in pre-puncture insertion, needle force almost increases linearly with needle displacement. Both fitting lines can perfectly fit the average insertion force. The Young's moduli calculated from the slope of the two fittings are worthy of trust to model linearly or nonlinearly instantaneous elastic responses of brain tissues, respectively. In post-puncture insertion, both region and time significantly affect the viscoelastic behaviors. Six tested regions can be classified into three categories in stiffness. Shear relaxation moduli decay dramatically in short time scales but equilibrium is never truly achieved. The regional and temporal viscoelastic mechanical properties in post-puncture insertion are valuable for guiding probe insertion into each region on the implanting trajectory.

  10. Therapeutic subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation reverses cortico-thalamic coupling during voluntary movements in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Josh; Mancini, Laura; Urner, Maren; Friston, Karl; Hariz, Marwan; Holl, Etienne; White, Mark; Ruge, Diane; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Boertien, Tessel; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Foltynie, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has become an accepted treatment for patients experiencing the motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD). While its successes are becoming increasingly apparent, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. Multiple studies using radiotracer-based imaging have investigated DBS-induced regional changes in neural activity. However, little is known about the effect of DBS on connectivity within neural networks; in other words, whether DBS impacts upon functional integration of specialized regions of cortex. In this work, we report the first findings of fMRI in 10 subjects with PD and fully implanted DBS hardware receiving efficacious stimulation. Despite the technical demands associated with the safe acquisition of fMRI data from patients with implanted hardware, robust activation changes were identified in the insula cortex and thalamus in response to therapeutic STN DBS. We then quantified the neuromodulatory effects of DBS and compared sixteen dynamic causal models of effective connectivity between the two identified nodes. Using Bayesian model comparison, we found unequivocal evidence for the modulation of extrinsic (between region), i.e. cortico-thalamic and thalamo-cortical connections. Using Bayesian model parameter averaging we found that during voluntary movements, DBS reversed the effective connectivity between regions of the cortex and thalamus. This casts the therapeutic effects of DBS in a fundamentally new light, emphasising a role in changing distributed cortico-subcortical interactions. We conclude that STN DBS does impact upon the effective connectivity between the cortex and thalamus by changing their sensitivities to extrinsic afferents. Furthermore, we confirm that fMRI is both feasible and is tolerated well by these patients provided strict safety measures are adhered to.

  11. Therapeutic Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Reverses Cortico-Thalamic Coupling during Voluntary Movements in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Josh; Mancini, Laura; Urner, Maren; Friston, Karl; Hariz, Marwan; Holl, Etienne; White, Mark; Ruge, Diane; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Boertien, Tessel; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S.; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Foltynie, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has become an accepted treatment for patients experiencing the motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD). While its successes are becoming increasingly apparent, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. Multiple studies using radiotracer-based imaging have investigated DBS-induced regional changes in neural activity. However, little is known about the effect of DBS on connectivity within neural networks; in other words, whether DBS impacts upon functional integration of specialized regions of cortex. In this work, we report the first findings of fMRI in 10 subjects with PD and fully implanted DBS hardware receiving efficacious stimulation. Despite the technical demands associated with the safe acquisition of fMRI data from patients with implanted hardware, robust activation changes were identified in the insula cortex and thalamus in response to therapeutic STN DBS. We then quantified the neuromodulatory effects of DBS and compared sixteen dynamic causal models of effective connectivity between the two identified nodes. Using Bayesian model comparison, we found unequivocal evidence for the modulation of extrinsic (between region), i.e. cortico-thalamic and thalamo-cortical connections. Using Bayesian model parameter averaging we found that during voluntary movements, DBS reversed the effective connectivity between regions of the cortex and thalamus. This casts the therapeutic effects of DBS in a fundamentally new light, emphasising a role in changing distributed cortico-subcortical interactions. We conclude that STN DBS does impact upon the effective connectivity between the cortex and thalamus by changing their sensitivities to extrinsic afferents. Furthermore, we confirm that fMRI is both feasible and is tolerated well by these patients provided strict safety measures are adhered to. PMID:23300524

  12. Quantitative analysis of axon bouton distribution of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the rat by single neuron visualization with a viral vector.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Yoshinori; Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2013-06-15

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia plays a key role in motor control, and STN efferents are known to mainly target the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), entopeduncular nucleus (Ep), and substantia nigra (SN) with some axon collaterals to the other regions. However, it remains to be clarified how each STN neuron projects axon fibers and collaterals to those target nuclei of the STN. Here we visualized the whole axonal arborization of single STN neurons in the rat brain by using a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein, and examined the distribution of axon boutons in those target nuclei. The vast majority (8-9) of 10 reconstructed STN neurons projected to the GPe, SN, caudate-putamen (CPu), and Ep, which received, on average ± SD, 457 ± 425, 400 ± 347, 126 ± 143, and 106 ± 100 axon boutons per STN neuron, respectively. Furthermore, the density of axon boutons in the GPe was highest among these nuclei. Although these target nuclei were divided into calbindin-rich and -poor portions, STN projection showed no exclusive preference for those portions. Since STN neurons mainly projected not only to the GPe, SN, and Ep but also to the CPu, the subthalamostriatal projection might serve as a positive feedback path for the striato-GPe-subthalamic disinhibitory pathway, or work as another route of cortical inputs to the striatum through the corticosubthalamostriatal disynaptic excitatory pathway.

  13. Subthalamic 6-OHDA-induced lesion attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesias in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C; Obeso, J A

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives direct dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra pars compacta that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the role of dopaminergic denervation of STN in the origin of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Rats were distributed in four groups which were concomitantly lesioned with 6-OHDA or vehicle (sham) in the STN and in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as follows: a) MFB-sham plus STN-sham, b) MFB-sham plus STN-lesion, c) MFB-lesion plus STN-sham, and d) MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion. Four weeks after lesions, animals were treated with levodopa (6mg/kg with 15mg/kg benserazide i.p.) twice daily for 22 consecutive days. Abnormal involuntary movements were measured. In situ hybridization was performed measuring the expression of striatal preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, STN cytochrome oxidase (CO) and nigral GAD67 mRNAs. STN 6-OHDA denervation did not induce dyskinesias in levodopa-treated MFB-sham animals but attenuated axial (p<0.05), limb (p<0.05) and orolingual (p<0.01) dyskinesias in rats with a concomitant lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The attenuation of dyskinesias was associated with a decrease in the ipsilateral STN CO mRNA levels (p<0.05). No significant differences between MFB-lesion plus STN-sham and MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion groups in the extent of STN dopaminergic denervation were observed. Moreover, intrasubthalamic microinfusion of dopamine in the MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion group triggered orolingual (p<0.01), but not axial or limb, dyskinesias. These results suggest that dopaminergic STN innervation influences the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesias but also the existence of non dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms. STN noradrenergic depletion induced by 6-OHDA in the STN needs to be taken in account as a possible mechanism explaining the attenuation of dyskinesias in the combined lesion group.

  14. Subthalamic 6-OHDA-induced lesion attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesias in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C; Obeso, J A

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives direct dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra pars compacta that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the role of dopaminergic denervation of STN in the origin of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Rats were distributed in four groups which were concomitantly lesioned with 6-OHDA or vehicle (sham) in the STN and in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as follows: a) MFB-sham plus STN-sham, b) MFB-sham plus STN-lesion, c) MFB-lesion plus STN-sham, and d) MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion. Four weeks after lesions, animals were treated with levodopa (6mg/kg with 15mg/kg benserazide i.p.) twice daily for 22 consecutive days. Abnormal involuntary movements were measured. In situ hybridization was performed measuring the expression of striatal preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, STN cytochrome oxidase (CO) and nigral GAD67 mRNAs. STN 6-OHDA denervation did not induce dyskinesias in levodopa-treated MFB-sham animals but attenuated axial (p<0.05), limb (p<0.05) and orolingual (p<0.01) dyskinesias in rats with a concomitant lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The attenuation of dyskinesias was associated with a decrease in the ipsilateral STN CO mRNA levels (p<0.05). No significant differences between MFB-lesion plus STN-sham and MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion groups in the extent of STN dopaminergic denervation were observed. Moreover, intrasubthalamic microinfusion of dopamine in the MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion group triggered orolingual (p<0.01), but not axial or limb, dyskinesias. These results suggest that dopaminergic STN innervation influences the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesias but also the existence of non dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms. STN noradrenergic depletion induced by 6-OHDA in the STN needs to be taken in account as a possible mechanism explaining the attenuation of dyskinesias in the combined lesion group. PMID:24140562

  15. Investigation of morphometric variability of subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra in advanced Parkinson's disease patients using automatic segmentation and PCA-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yiming; Jannin, Pierre; D'Albis, Tiziano; Guizard, Nicolas; Haegelen, Claire; Lalys, Florent; Vérin, Marc; Collins, D Louis

    2014-09-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). Conventional methods employ standard atlas coordinates to target the STN, which, along with the adjacent red nucleus (RN) and substantia nigra (SN), are not well visualized on conventional T1w MRIs. However, the positions and sizes of the nuclei may be more variable than the standard atlas, thus making the pre-surgical plans inaccurate. We investigated the morphometric variability of the STN, RN and SN by using label-fusion segmentation results from 3T high resolution T2w MRIs of 33 advanced PD patients. In addition to comparing the size and position measurements of the cohort to the Talairach atlas, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to acquire more intuitive and detailed perspectives of the measured variability. Lastly, the potential correlation between the variability shown by PCA results and the clinical scores was explored.

  16. Stimulation at dorsal and ventral electrode contacts targeted at the subthalamic nucleus has different effects on motor and emotion functions in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, Ian; Gould, Sherrie; Houser, Melissa; Hicks, Gayle; Gross, James; Aron, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Motor and emotion processing depend on different fronto-basal ganglia circuits. Distinct sub-regions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may modulate these circuits. We evaluated whether stimulation targeted at separate territories in the STN region would differentially affect motor and emotion function. In a double-blind design, we studied twenty Parkinson's disease patients who had deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted bilaterally in the STN. We stimulated either dorsal or ventral contacts of the STN electrodes on separate days in each patient and acquired behavioral measures. Dorsal contact stimulation improved motor function by reducing scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and by reducing both reaction time and reaction time variability compared to ventral contact stimulation. By contrast, ventral contact stimulation led to an increase in positive emotion compared to dorsal contact stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that different territories within the STN region implement motor and emotion functions. PMID:21184765

  17. Unilateral asterixis, thalamic astasia and vertical one and half syndrome in a unilateral posterior thalamo-subthalamic paramedian infarct: An interesting case report.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Subasree; Narayanaswamy, Veera Rajkumar

    2013-04-01

    A 42-year-old young lady presented with acute onset of dizziness, drooping of left eye with binocular diplopia and inability to walk unassisted. She had past history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and hypertension. On examination, she had left fascicular type of third nerve palsy, vertical one and half syndrome (VOHS), left internuclear ophthalmoplegia and skew deviation with ipsilesional hypertropia. She also had thalamic astasia and right unilateral asterixis. Her MRI revealed T2 and Flair hyper intense signal changes with restricted diffusion in the left thalamus, subthalamus and left midbrain. MR Angiography was normal. Thalamic-subthalamic paramedian territory infarct is relatively uncommon. It can present with oculomotor abnormalities including vertical one and half syndrome, skew deviation, thalamic astasia and asterixis. This case is reported for the rarity of the presenting clinical findings in unilateral thalamo-mesencephalic infarcts.

  18. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the subthalamic microlesion and stimulation effects in Parkinson's disease: Indications of a principal role of the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Holiga, Štefan; Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen; Schroeter, Matthias L; Jech, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During implantation of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the target structure, neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly observe a "microlesion effect" (MLE), which occurs well before initiating subthalamic DBS. This phenomenon typically leads to a transitory improvement of motor symptoms of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). Mechanisms behind MLE remain poorly understood. In this work, we exploited the notion of ranking to assess spontaneous brain activity in PD patients examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in response to penetration of DBS electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus. In particular, we employed a hypothesis-free method, eigenvector centrality (EC), to reveal motor-communication-hubs of the highest rank and their reorganization following the surgery; providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the direct impact of disrupting the PD motor circuitry in vivo without prior assumptions. Penetration of electrodes was associated with increased EC of functional connectivity in the brainstem. Changes in connectivity were quantitatively related to motor improvement, which further emphasizes the clinical importance of the functional integrity of the brainstem. Surprisingly, MLE and DBS were associated with anatomically different EC maps despite their similar clinical benefit on motor functions. The DBS solely caused an increase in connectivity of the left premotor region suggesting separate pathophysiological mechanisms of both interventions. While the DBS acts at the cortical level suggesting compensatory activation of less affected motor regions, the MLE affects more fundamental circuitry as the dysfunctional brainstem predominates in the beginning of PD. These findings invigorate the overlooked brainstem perspective in the understanding of PD and support the current trend towards its early diagnosis. PMID:26509113

  19. Thalamic lesion and epilepsy with generalized seizures, ESES and spike-wave paroxysms--report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Anna; Barsi, Péter; Gyorsok, Zsuzsanna; Sarac, Judit; Szucs, Anna; Halász, Péter

    2006-09-01

    We report three patients, who have thalamic lesion and secondary generalized epilepsy with generalized spike wave pattern. The first two patients have unilateral perinatal lesion, one with generalized tonic-clonic seizures on awakening the other with Landau-Kleffner-like syndrome. During the course of the disease both children developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The third patient has a dominantly unilateral thalamic tumor and epilepsy that mimics juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. All the patients have a lesion located in the inferior-medial-posterior part of the thalamus. The role of some thalamic and subthalamic nuclei in the generalized spike-wave electrical pattern patophysiology is discussed, with emphasis on the possible role of the inhibitory system from the zona incerta.

  20. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Modulate Catecholamine Levels with Significant Relations to Clinical Outcome after Surgery in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Asahina, Masato; Hirano, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is effective in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), its physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Because STN-DBS is effective in patients with PD whose motor symptoms are dramatically alleviated by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment, the higher preoperative catecholamine levels might be related to the better clinical outcome after surgery. We aimed to examine the correlation between the preoperative catecholamine levels and postoperative clinical outcome after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The effectiveness of STN-DBS in the patient who responded well to dopaminergic medication suggest the causal link between the dopaminergic system and STN-DBS. We also examined how catecholamine levels were modulated after subthalamic stimulation. Methods In total 25 patients with PD were enrolled (Mean age 66.2 ± 6.7 years, mean disease duration 11.6 ± 3.7 years). Mean levodopa equivalent doses were 1032 ± 34.6 mg before surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma catecholamine levels were measured an hour after oral administration of antiparkinsonian drugs before surgery. The mean Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores (UPDRS) and the Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) were obtained before and after surgery. Of the 25 patients, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were collected an hour after oral administration of antiparkinsonian drugs during on stimulation at follow up in 11 patients. Results Mean levodopa equivalent doses significantly decreased after surgery with improvement in motor functions and quality of life. The preoperative catecholamine levels had basically negative correlations with postoperative motor scores and quality of life, suggesting that higher preoperative catecholamine levels were related to better outcome after STN-DBS. The preoperative plasma levels of L-DOPA had significantly negative correlations with

  1. Dominant efficiency of nonregular patterns of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a data-driven computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Deligiannis, Nick G.; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stephan; David, Olivier; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Boviatsis, Efstathios J.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Polychronaki, Georgia E.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Almost 30 years after the start of the modern era of deep brain stimulation (DBS), the subthalamic nucleus (STN) still constitutes a standard stimulation target for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the use of STN-DBS is also now supported by level I clinical evidence for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Disruption of neural synchronization in the STN has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms of action of standard and alternative patterns of STN-DBS at a local level. Meanwhile, recent experimental and computational modeling evidence has signified the efficiency of alternative patterns of stimulation; however, no indications exist for treatment-refractory OCD. Here, we comparatively simulate the desynchronizing effect of standard (regular at 130 Hz) versus temporally alternative (in terms of frequency, temporal variability and the existence of bursts or pauses) patterns of STN-DBS for PD and OCD, by means of a stochastic dynamical model and two microelectrode recording (MER) datasets. Approach. The stochastic model is fitted to subthalamic MERs acquired during eight surgical interventions for PD and eight surgical interventions for OCD. For each dynamical system simulated, we comparatively assess the invariant density (steady-state phase distribution) as a measure inversely related to the desynchronizing effect yielded by the applied patterns of stimulation. Main results. We demonstrate that high (130 Hz)—and low (80 Hz)—frequency irregular patterns of stimulation, and low-frequency periodic stimulation interrupted by bursts of pulses, yield in both pathologic conditions a significantly stronger desynchronizing effect compared with standard STN-DBS, and distinct alternative patterns of stimulation. In PD, values of the invariant density measure are proven to be optimal at the dorsolateral oscillatory region of the STN including sites with the optimal therapeutic window. Significance. In addition to providing

  2. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases c-fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal raphe nucleus and afferent brain regions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sonny K H; Janssen, Marcus L F; Jahanshahi, Ali; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Lim, Lee Wei; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Sharp, Trevor; Temel, Yasin

    2011-10-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the neurosurgical therapy of choice for the management of motor deficits in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, but this treatment can elicit disabling mood changes. Our recent experiments show that in rats, HFS of the STN both inhibits the firing of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and elicits 5-HT-dependent behavioral effects. The neural circuitry underpinning these effects is unknown. Here we investigated in the dopamine-denervated rat the effect of bilateral HFS of the STN on markers of neuronal activity in the DRN as well as DRN input regions. Controls were sham-stimulated rats. HFS of the STN elicited changes in two 5-HT-sensitive behavioral tests. Specifically, HFS increased immobility in the forced swim test and increased interaction in a social interaction task. HFS of the STN at the same stimulation parameters, increased c-fos immunoreactivity in the DRN, and decreased cytochrome C oxidase activity in this region. The increase in c-fos immunoreactivity occurred in DRN neurons immunopositive for the GABA marker parvalbumin. HFS of the STN also increased the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the lateral habenula nucleus, medial prefrontal cortex but not significantly in the substantia nigra. Collectively, these findings support a role for circuitry involving DRN GABA neurons, as well as DRN afferents from the lateral habenula nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, in the mood effects of HFS of the STN.

  3. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Counteracts Cortical Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; von Nicolai, Constantin; Streichert, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schulte, Alexander; Westphal, Manfred; Lamszus, Katrin; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) is widely used as therapeutic intervention in patients suffering from advanced Parkinson’s disease. STN-HFS exerts a powerful modulatory effect on cortical motor control by orthodromic modulation of basal ganglia outflow and via antidromic activation of corticofugal fibers. However, STN-HFS-induced changes of the sensorimotor cortex are hitherto unexplored. To address this question at a genomic level, we performed mRNA expression analyses using Affymetrix microarray gene chips and real-time RT-PCR in sensorimotor cortex of parkinsonian and control rats following STN-HFS. Experimental parkinsonism was induced in Brown Norway rats by bilateral nigral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine and was assessed histologically, behaviorally, and electrophysiologically. We applied prolonged (23h) unilateral STN-HFS in awake and freely moving animals, with the non-stimulated hemisphere serving as an internal control for gene expression analyses. Gene enrichment analysis revealed strongest regulation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) related genes. STN-HFS led to a cortical downregulation of several MHC class II (RT1-Da, Db1, Ba, and Cd74) and MHC class I (RT1CE) encoding genes. The same set of genes showed increased expression levels in a comparison addressing the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Hence, our data suggest the possible association of altered microglial activity and synaptic transmission by STN-HFS within the sensorimotor cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats. PMID:24621597

  4. The Effects of Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation on Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Functions in Parkinson’s Disease: A Case-Control Study #

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Reza; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Parvaresh-Rizi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson's disease is one of the most disabling diseases which by electrode implantation and stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN), much progress has been made in the treatment of drug resistant patient. This new method of neurosurgery may have some neuropsychological side effects on the patients. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of this kind of treatment on the different neuropsychological aspect of patients. Methods The case-control study designed for comparing two groups of patients with Parkinson's disease. Thirty patients, who underwent electrode implantation and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), compare with 60 patients treated with antiparkinson's drugs. These two groups matched in age, sex, Parkinson's disease duration and Parkinson's severity scores. Measurements: the UPDR scale was used to assess the severity of the Parkinson's severity. Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale questionnaire (HARS) were used to evaluate the depression and anxiety consequences of DBS. Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were used to evaluate the cognitive and executive function of the study subjects. Results Patients with STN stimulation showed lower level of anxiety and depression, however, the cognitive status were more deteriorated in study subjects than control group. Discussion Patient with DBS surgery have to be followed up for neuropsychiatric symptoms particularly for the cognitive deterioration in long term period. PMID:25337350

  5. Frequency-Specific Synchronization in the Bilateral Subthalamic Nuclei Depending on Voluntary Muscle Contraction and Relaxation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kenji; Yokochi, Fusako; Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Hamada, Kohichi; Isoo, Ayako; Kimura, Katsuo; Okiyama, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Ushiba, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    The volitional control of muscle contraction and relaxation is a fundamental component of human motor activity, but how the processing of the subcortical networks, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), is involved in voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) and voluntary muscle relaxation (VMR) remains unclear. In this study, local field potentials (LFPs) of bilateral STNs were recorded in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) while performing externally paced VMC and VMR tasks of the unilateral wrist extensor muscle. The VMC- or VMR-related oscillatory activities and their functional couplings were investigated over the theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (14–35 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz) frequency bands. Alpha and beta desynchronizations were observed in bilateral STNs at the onset of both VMC and VMR tasks. On the other hand, theta and gamma synchronizations were prominent in bilateral STNs specifically at the onset of the VMC task. In particular, just after VMC, theta functional coupling between the bilateral STNs increased, and the theta phase became coupled to the gamma amplitude within the contralateral STN in a phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupled manner. On the other hand, the prominent beta-gamma cross-frequency couplings observed in the bilateral STNs at rest were reduced by the VMC and VMR tasks. These results suggest that STNs are bilaterally involved in the different performances of muscle contraction and relaxation through the theta-gamma and beta-gamma networks between bilateral STNs in patients with PD. PMID:27064969

  6. Maximal subthalamic beta hypersynchrony of the local field potential in Parkinson's disease is located in the central region of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    de Solages, Camille; Hill, Bruce C; Yu, Hong; Henderson, Jaimie M; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2011-12-01

    A pathological marker of Parkinson's disease is the existence of abnormal synchrony of neuronal activity within the beta frequency range (13-35 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Recent studies examining the topography of this rhythm have located beta hypersynchrony in the most dorsal part of the STN. In contrast, this study of the topography of the local field potential beta oscillations in 18 STNs with a 1 mm spatial resolution revealed that the point of maximal beta hypersynchrony was located at 53 ± 24% of the trajectory span from the dorsal to the ventral borders of the STN (corresponding to a 3.0 ± 1.6 mm depth for a 5.9 ± 0.75 mm STN span). This suggests that maximal beta hypersynchrony is located in the central region of the nucleus and that further investigation should be done before using STN spectral profiles as an indicator for guiding placement of deep brain stimulation leads. PMID:21205981

  7. Making Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClark, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity on waves that addresses the state standards and benchmarks of Michigan. Demonstrates waves and studies wave's medium, motion, and frequency. The activity is designed to address different learning styles. (YDS)

  8. Betting on DBS: Effects of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jason; Rogerson, Mark; Al-Joudi, Haya; Reckess, Gila; Shpritz, Barnett; Umeh, Chizoba C.; Aljehani, Noha; Mills, Kelly; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) increases impulsivity and/or induces excessive reward-seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on three laboratory tasks of risk-taking and decision-making. They are compared to PD patients maintained on medication and normal control subjects. Methods and Results In the Game of Dice Task, a test of “risky” decision-making, PD patients with or without DBS made highest-risk bets more often, and ended up with less money, than normal controls. There was a trend for DBS stimulation to ameliorate this effect. Deal or No-Deal is an “ambiguous” decision-making task that assessed preference for risk (holding on to one’s briefcase) over a “sure thing” (accepting the banker’s offer). Here, DBS patients were more conservative with stimulation on than off. They accepted smaller offers from the banker and won less money in the DBS-on condition. Overall, the two PD groups won less money than healthy participants. The Framing Paradigm assessed willingness to gamble on a fixed (unambiguous) prize depending on whether the reward was “framed” as a loss or a gain. Nonsurgical PD patients tended to be more risk-averse than normal subjects, whereas DBS patients were more willing to gamble for gains as well as losses both on and off stimulation. Conclusions On “risky” decision-making tasks, DBS patients were more risk-taking than normal, but stimulation may temper this tendency. In contrast, in an “ambiguous risk” situation, DBS patients were more risk-averse (conservative) than normal, and this tendency was greatest with stimulation. PMID:25486385

  9. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  10. Resiliency in adolescents at high-risk for substance abuse: flexible adaptation via subthalamic nucleus and linkage to drinking and drug use in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Barbara J.; Nigg, Joel T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A.; Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The personality trait resiliency is the ability to flexibly adapt impulse control relative to contextual demand. Low resiliency has been linked to later alcohol/drug problems. The underlying psychological and neural mechanisms are unknown but neurocomputational models suggested relations between resiliency and working memory. Cortical-striatal connectivity has been proposed to underlie adaptive switches between cautious and risky behaviors. Methods Working memory was probed in sixty-seven 18–22 year olds from a larger community study of alcoholism, using the n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional connectivity between task-related regions was investigated with psychophysiological interaction analysis. Resiliency was measured in early teen years and related to early adulthood measures of drinking/drug use, task activation and connectivity. Relationships with risk factors, including family history, age of drinking onset and number of alcohol problems were also investigated. Results Higher resiliency was related to lower levels of substance use, fewer alcohol problems and better working memory performance. Whole brain regression revealed resiliency negatively correlated with activation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidum during the n-back. High and Low resiliency quartile groups (n=17 each) differed in coupling strength between STN and median cingulate cortex, a region of reduced activation during working memory. The High resiliency group had later onset of drinking, fewer alcohol problems, had used fewer illicit drugs and were less likely to smoke cigarettes than their Low resiliency counterparts, Conclusions These findings suggest that resiliency in early adolescence may protect against alcohol problems and drug use, though the direction of this effect is currently unknown. This protective factor may relate to executive functioning as supported by the finding of a neural link shared between resiliency and working

  11. Predictive timing functions of cortical beta oscillations are impaired in Parkinson's disease and influenced by L-DOPA and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Gulberti, A.; Moll, C.K.E.; Hamel, W.; Buhmann, C.; Koeppen, J.A.; Boelmans, K.; Zittel, S.; Gerloff, C.; Westphal, M.; Schneider, T.R.; Engel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Cortex-basal ganglia circuits participate in motor timing and temporal perception, and are important for the dynamic configuration of sensorimotor networks in response to exogenous demands. In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) induces motor performance benefits. Hitherto, little is known concerning contributions of the basal ganglia to sensory facilitation and cortical responses to RAS in PD. Therefore, we conducted an EEG study in 12 PD patients before and after surgery for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and in 12 age-matched controls. Here we investigated the effects of levodopa and STN-DBS on resting-state EEG and on the cortical-response profile to slow and fast RAS in a passive-listening paradigm focusing on beta-band oscillations, which are important for auditory–motor coupling. The beta-modulation profile to RAS in healthy participants was characterized by local peaks preceding and following auditory stimuli. In PD patients RAS failed to induce pre-stimulus beta increases. The absence of pre-stimulus beta-band modulation may contribute to impaired rhythm perception in PD. Moreover, post-stimulus beta-band responses were highly abnormal during fast RAS in PD patients. Treatment with levodopa and STN-DBS reinstated a post-stimulus beta-modulation profile similar to controls, while STN-DBS reduced beta-band power in the resting-state. The treatment-sensitivity of beta oscillations suggests that STN-DBS may specifically improve timekeeping functions of cortical beta oscillations during fast auditory pacing. PMID:26594626

  12. Relationship between subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity and electrocorticogram is altered in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Joshua W; Abercrombie, Elizabeth D

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder in which impairments in the processing of information between the cortex and basal ganglia are fundamental to the onset and progression of the HD phenotype. The corticosubthalamic hyperdirect pathway plays a pivotal role in motor selection and blockade of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) results in a hyperkinetic movement syndrome, similar to the HD phenotype. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between neuronal activity in the STN and cortex in an animal model of HD. We performed in vivo extracellular recordings in the STN to measure single-unit activity and local field potentials in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. These recordings were obtained during epochs of simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG) in discrete brain states representative of global cortical network synchronization or desynchronization. Cortically patterned STN neuronal activity was less phase-locked in R6/2 mice, which is likely to result in less efficient coding of cortical inputs by the basal ganglia. In R6/2 mice, the power of the ECoG in lower frequencies (0.5–4 Hz) was diminished while the power expressed in higher frequencies (13–100 Hz) was increased. In addition, the spontaneous activity of STN neurons in R6/2 mice was reduced and neurons exhibited a more irregular firing pattern. Glutamatergic STN neurons provide the major excitatory drive to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia and altered discharge patterns could lead to aberrant basal ganglia output and disordered motor control in HD. PMID:25952461

  13. Age-dependent alterations in the cortical entrainment of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joshua W; Abercrombie, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that results in motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Dysfunction in neuronal processing between the cortex and the basal ganglia is fundamental to the onset and progression of the HD phenotype. The corticosubthalamic hyperdirect pathway plays a crucial role in motor selection and blockade of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) results in hyperkinetic movement abnormalities, similar to the motor symptoms associated with HD. The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in the fidelity of information transmission between the cortex and the STN emerge as a function of phenotypic severity in the YAC128 mouse model of HD. We obtained in vivo extracellular recordings in the STN and concomitant electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings during discrete brain states that reflected global cortical network synchronization or desynchronization. At early ages in YAC128 mice, both the cortex and the STN exhibited patterns of hyperexcitability. As symptom severity progressed, cortical entrainment of STN activity was disrupted and there was an increase in the proportion of non-oscillating, tonically firing STN neurons that were less phase-locked to cortical activity. Concomitant to the dissipation of STN entrainment, there was a reduction in the evoked response of STN neurons to focal cortical stimulation. The spontaneous discharge of STN neurons in YAC128 mice also decreased with age and symptom severity. These results indicate dysfunction in the flow of information within the corticosubthalamic circuit and demonstrate progressive age-related disconnection of the hyperdirect pathway in a transgenic mouse model of HD.

  14. Raclopride or high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus stops cocaine-induced motor stereotypy and restores related alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Aliane, Verena; Pérez, Sylvie; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Kemel, Marie-Louise

    2012-11-01

    Motor stereotypy is a key symptom of various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroleptics or the promising treatment using deep brain stimulation stops stereotypies but the mechanisms underlying their actions are unclear. In rat, motor stereotypies are linked to an imbalance between prefrontal and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Indeed, cortico-nigral transmission was reduced in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor basal ganglia circuits and dopamine and acetylcholine release was altered in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor territory of the dorsal striatum. Furthermore, cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in the arrest of motor stereotypy. Here we found that, as previously observed for raclopride, high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS STN) rapidly stopped cocaine-induced motor stereotypies in rat. Importantly, raclopride and HFS STN exerted a strong effect on cocaine-induced alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. Raclopride restored the cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum and the cortico-nigral information transmissions in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. HFS STN also restored the N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-evoked release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum. However, in contrast to raclopride, HFS STN did not restore the cortico-substantia nigra pars reticulata transmissions but exerted strong inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity in the prefrontal subdivision of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, both raclopride and HFS STN stop cocaine-induced motor stereotypy, but exert different effects on the related alterations in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits.

  15. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  16. Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: a meta-analytic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jordan L; Parkinson, Amy L; Larson, Charles R; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Corcos, Daniel M; Robin, Donald A

    2014-07-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia connections are involved in a range of behaviors within motor, cognitive, and emotional domains; however, the whole-brain functional connections of individual nuclei are poorly understood in humans. The first aim of this study was to characterize and compare the connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling. Structure-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed for STN and GPi seeds using archived functional imaging coordinates from the BrainMap database. Both regions coactivated with caudate, putamen, thalamus, STN, GPi, and GPe, SMA, IFG, and insula. Contrast analyses also revealed coactivation differences within SMA, IFG, insula, and premotor cortex. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between the connectivity maps derived for STN and GPi and a functional activation map representing the speech network. To do this, we examined the intersection of coactivation maps and their respective contrasts (STN > GPi and GPi > STN) with a coordinate-based meta-analysis of speech function. In conjunction with the speech map, both STN and GPi coactivation maps revealed overlap in the anterior insula with GPi map additionally showing overlap in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Among cortical regions activated by speech tasks, STN was found to have stronger connectivity than GPi with regions involved in cognitive linguistic processes (pre-SMA, dorsal anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus), while GPi demonstrated stronger connectivity to regions involved in motor speech processes (middle insula, SMA, and premotor cortex). PMID:25050431

  17. Cognition and Depression Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Combs, Hannah L; Folley, Bradley S; Berry, David T R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Han, Dong Y; Anderson-Mooney, Amelia J; Walls, Brittany D; van Horne, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Individuals experience predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, cognitive impairment, depression, and neurobehavioral concerns. Cognitive impairments associated with PD are diverse, including difficulty with attention, processing speed, executive functioning, memory recall, visuospatial functions, word-retrieval, and naming. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) is FDA approved and has been shown to be effective in reducing motor symptoms of PD. Studies have found that stimulating STN and GPi are equally effective at improving motor symptoms and dyskinesias; however, there has been discrepancy as to whether the cognitive, behavioral, and mood symptoms are affected differently between the two targets. The present study used random-effects meta-analytic models along with a novel p-curve analytic procedure to compare the potential cognitive and emotional impairments associated with STN-DBS in the current literature to those associated with GPi-DBS. Forty-one articles were reviewed with an aggregated sample size of 1622 patients. Following STN-DBS, small declines were found in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, executive functions, and overall cognition; and moderate declines were found in both semantic and phonemic fluency. However, GPi-DBS resulted in fewer neurocognitive declines than STN-DBS (small declines in attention and small-moderate declines in verbal fluency). With regards to its effect on depression symptomatology, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS resulted in lower levels of depressive symptoms post-surgery. From a neurocognitive standpoint, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS produce subtle cognitive declines but appears to be relatively well tolerated. PMID:26459361

  18. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  19. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  20. Modulatory Effect of Subthalamic Nucleus on the Development of Fatigue During Exhausting Exercise: An in Vivo Electrophysiological and Microdialysis Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dalei; Liu, Xiaoli; Qiao, Decai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the modulatory effect of changes of subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity on the development of central fatigue during exhausting exercise, and reveal the possible mechanism that might affect STN activity from the perspective of neurotransmitters. Rats were randomly divided into electrophysiology and microdialysis study groups. For electrophysiological study, electrical activity in sensorimotor cortex and STN were simultaneously recorded before, during and 90min after the exhausting exercise. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe and glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were subsequently detected with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The behavioral studies showed that rats ran well initiatively with the treadmill exercise in the beginning, 45 ± 11.5min later, movement capacity reduced obviously (which was termed as ‘early fatigue’). Correspondingly, STN activity increased significantly compared with rest condition (p < 0.05), while, cortex activity decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Subsequently, rats continued their exercise with minor external stimulation till exhaustion. Cortex activity reached the minimum value under exhaustion condition, while STN activity changed insignificantly (p > 0.05). For microdialysis study, the dynamic change of Glu/GABA ratio was consistent with the change of STN activity during the development of ‘early fatigue’ rather than the development of exhaustion. In conclusion, the present study shows that, the development of the cortex fatigue during exhausting exercise consists of two phases, ‘early fatigue’ and exhaustion. Our results suggest that, dynamic changes of STN activity are closely relevant to the development of ‘early fatigue’ rather than exhaustion, and the changes of STN activity during the development of ‘early fatigue’ might be partly related to the variance of

  1. Deep brain stimulation of pallidal versus subthalamic for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Ma, Wenbin; Huang, Yongmin; Qiu, Zhihai; Sun, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects many people every year. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective nonpharmacological method to treat PD motor symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS versus globus pallidus internus (GPi)-DBS in treating advanced PD. Methods Controlled clinical trials that compared STN-DBS to GPi-DBS for short-term treatment of PD in adults were researched up to November 2015. The primary outcomes were the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Section (UPDRS) III score and the levodopa-equivalent dosage (LED) after DBS. The secondary outcomes were the UPDRS II score and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Results Totally, 13 studies containing 1,148 PD patients were included in this meta-analysis to compare STN-DBS versus GPi-DBS. During the off-medication state, the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of UPDRS III and II scores were −2.18 (95% CI =−5.11 to 0.74) and −1.96 (95% CI =−3.84 to −0.08), respectively. During the on-medication state, the pooled WMD of UPDRS III and II scores were 0.15 (95% CI =−1.14 to 1.44) and 1.01 (95% CI =0.12 to 1.89), respectively. After DBS, the pooled WMD of LED and BDI were −254.48 (95% CI =−341.66) and 2.29 (95% CI =0.83 to 3.75), respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that during the off-medication state, the STN-DBS might be superior to GPi-DBS in improving the motor function and activities of daily living for PD patients; but during the on-medication state, the opposite result is observed. Meanwhile, the STN-DBS is superior at reducing the LED, whereas the GPi-DBS shows a significantly greater reduction in BDI score after DBS. PMID:27382286

  2. Comparative effects of unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, blinded study.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Jagid, Jonathan R; Luca, Corneliu C

    2016-08-01

    Gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) does not always respond to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Since right hemisphere motor networks may be dominant for gait control, identical stimulation of asymmetric circuits could account for gait dysfunction. We compared the effects of bilateral and unilateral STN-DBS on gait kinematics in PD patients who developed gait impairment after STN-DBS. Twenty-two PD patients with >50 % improvement in motor scores, but dopamine-resistant gait dysfunction 6-12 months after bilateral STN-DBS were blindly tested off dopaminergic effects in four randomly assigned DBS conditions: bilateral, right-sided, left-sided and off stimulation. Motor scores (MDS-UPDRS III), gait scores (MDS-UPRDS 2.11-2.13 + 3.9-3.13), turning time (seconds), stride length (meters) and velocity (meters/second) were measured 1 h after DBS changes. Motor and gait scores significantly improved with bilateral versus unilateral STN-DBS. Stride length and velocity (0.95 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.07) significantly improved with bilateral (1.09 ± 0.04, 0.95 ± 0.05), right-sided (1.06 ± 0.04, 0.92 ± 0.05) and left-sided stimulation (1.01 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.05) (p < 0.05). Stride length significantly improved with right-sided versus left-sided (0.05 ± 0.02) and bilateral versus left-sided stimulation (0.07 ± 0.02) (p < 0.05). Turning time (4.89 ± 0.6) tended to improve with bilateral (4.13 ± 0.5) (p = 0.15) and right-sided (4.27 ± 0.6) (p = 0.2) more than with left STN-DBS (4.69 ± 0.5) (p = 0.5). Bilateral STN-DBS yields greater improvement in motor and gait scores in PD patients. Yet, unilateral stimulation has similar effects on gait kinematics. Particularly, right-sided stimulation might produce slightly greater improvements. Although the clinical relevance of differential programming of right versus left-sided STN-DBS is unclear, this approach could be considered in the management of

  3. Efficacies of globus pallidus stimulation and subthalamic nucleus stimulation for advanced Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the most targeted locations for the procedure. To investigate the variable efficiencies for the two different locations, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare both stimulation sites. Materials and methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacies of GPi and STN DBS were included. Clinical outcomes of motor function, nonmotor function, and quality of life (QOL) were collected for the meta-analysis. Results Ten eligible trials with 1,034 patients were included in the analysis. Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale III (UPDRS-III) scores were collected at 6, 12, and 24 months postsurgery separately to assess the motor function of the patients. A statistically significant effect in favor of the GPi DBS was obtained in the off-medication/on-stimulation phase of UPDRS-III at 12 months (mean difference [MD] =6.87, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.00–10.74, P=0.57, I2=0%). However, GPi DBS showed an opposite result at 24 months (MD =−2.46, 95% CI: −4.91 to −0.02, P=0.05, I2=0%). In the on-medication/on-stimulation phase, GPi DBS obtained a worse outcome compared with STN DBS (MD =−2.90, 95% CI: −5.71 to −0.09, P=0.05, I2=0%). Compared with STN DBS, increased dosage of levodopa equivalent doses was needed in GPi DBS (standardized MD =0.60, 95% CI: 0.46–0.74, P<0.00001, I2=24%). Meanwhile, Beck Depression Inventory II scores demonstrated that STN has a better performance (standardized MD =−0.31, 95% CI: −0.51 to −0.12, P=0.002, I2=0%). As for neurocognitive phase postsurgery, GPi DBS showed better performance in three of the nine tests, especially in verbal fluency. Use of GPi DBS was associated with a greater effect in eight of the nine subscales of QOL. Conclusion

  4. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  5. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  6. Moreton Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    "Moreton waves," named for the observer who popularized them, are a solar phenomenon also known in scientific literature as "Moreton-Ramsey wave," "flare waves," "flare-associated waves," "MHD blast waves," "chromospheric shock fronts" and various other combinations of terms which connote violently propagating impulsive disturbances. It is unclear whether all of the observations to which these terms have been applied pertain to a single physical phenomenon: there has perhaps been some overlap between the observations and the assumed physical properties of the observed occurrence. Moreton waves are ideally observed in the wings of H alpha, and appear as semi-circular fronts propagating at speeds ranging from several hundred to over a thousand km/sec. They form an arc, or "brow shape" which can span up to 180 degrees. Extrapolating the speed and locations of the arc indicates that the phenomenon's origin intersects well with the impulsive phase of the associated H alpha flare (if the flare exhibits an impulsive phase). However, the arc may not form or may not be observable until it is tens of megameters from the flaring region, and subsequently can propagate to distances exceeding 100 megameters. The high speeds and distances of propagation, plus the associated radio and energetic particle observations, provided strong evidence of a coronal, rather than a chromospheric origin. The H alpha manifestation of the wave is assumed to be the "ground track" or "skirt" of a three-dimensional disturbance.

  7. The NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, corrects the l-DOPA-induced deficit of bilateral movement and reduces c-Fos expression in the subthalamic nucleus of hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Masakazu; Habata, Toshiya; Akita, Hisanao; Noda, Kazuko; Ogata, Masanori; Saji, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The use of NR2B antagonists in Parkinsonism is still controversial. To examine their anti-parkinsonian effects, the NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, and L-DOPA were administered together and separately in hemiparkinsonian rats (hemi-PD) that were subjected to a cylinder test. Recovery from hypoactivity was achieved by single administration of 3-7 mg/kg of L-DOPA; however, improvement in the deficit of bilateral forelimb use was not observed. When administered alone, ifenprodil had no anti-parkinsonian effects; however, combined administration of ifenprodil and 7 mg/kg of L-DOPA significantly reversed the deficit of bilateral forelimb use without adversely affecting the L-DOPA-induced improvement in motor activity. Next, in order to identify the brain area influenced by L-DOPA and ifenprodil, quantitative analysis of L-DOPA-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity was performed in various brain areas of hemi-PD following administration of L-dopa with and without ifenprodil. Among brain areas with robust c-Fos expression within the motor loop circuit in dopamine-depleted hemispheres, co-administered ifenprodil markedly attenuated L-DOPA-induced c-Fos expression in only the subthalamic nucleus (STN), suggesting that the STN is the primary target for the anti-parkinsonian action of NR2B antagonists.

  8. On neutron surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2009-01-15

    It is shown that neutron surface waves do not exist. The difference between the neutron wave mechanics and the wave physics of electromagnetic and acoustic processes, which allows the existence of surface waves, is analyzed.

  9. Relativistic spherical plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-02-01

    Tightly focused laser pulses that diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we study theoretically and numerically relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking.

  10. Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Alan C.; Rumpf, Benno

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we state and review the premises on which a successful asymptotic closure of the moment equations of wave turbulence is based, describe how and why this closure obtains, and examine the nature of solutions of the kinetic equation. We discuss obstacles that limit the theory's validity and suggest how the theory might then be modified. We also compare the experimental evidence with the theory's predictions in a range of applications. Finally, and most importantly, we suggest open challenges and encourage the reader to apply and explore wave turbulence with confidence. The narrative is terse but, we hope, delivered at a speed more akin to the crisp pace of a Hemingway story than the wordjumblingtumbling rate of a Joycean novel.

  11. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  12. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  13. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  14. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system. PMID:27699212

  15. Reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 Gene Expression Levels throughout the Mouse Subthalamic Nucleus Cause Cell Loss and Structural Disorganization Followed by Increased Motor Activity and Decreased Sugar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Anttila, Casey J.A.; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Mahmoudi, Souha; Zampera, André; Wärner Jonsson, Hanna; Bergquist, Jonas; Lévesque, Daniel; Andersson, Malin; Dumas, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN. Recent studies in rodent STN models have exposed different roles for STN neurons in reward-related functions. We have previously shown that the majority of STN neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene (Vglut2/Slc17a6) and that reduction of Vglut2 mRNA levels within the STN of mice [conditional knockout (cKO)] causes reduced postsynaptic activity and behavioral hyperlocomotion. The cKO mice showed less interest in fatty rewards, which motivated analysis of reward-response. The current results demonstrate decreased sugar consumption and strong rearing behavior, whereas biochemical analyses show altered dopaminergic and peptidergic activity in the striatum. The behavioral alterations were in fact correlated with opposite effects in the dorsal versus the ventral striatum. Significant cell loss and disorganization of the STN structure was identified, which likely accounts for the observed alterations. Rare genetic variants of the human VGLUT2 gene exist, and this study shows that reduced Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene expression levels exclusively within the STN of mice is sufficient to cause strong modifications in both the STN and the mesostriatal dopamine system.

  16. Head waves, diving waves, and interface waves at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Ralph A.

    2005-09-01

    Brekhovskikh (1960) summarizes the system of waves that arises from reflection and refraction of spherical waves at the interface between homogeneous solid half-spaces. By eliminating the shear wave potential in one half-space, the system for fluid-solid half-spaces like the seafloor is obtained. There are two cases: one where the shear speed in the bottom is less than the compressional speed in the fluid (soft sediments), and the other where the shear speed in the bottom is greater than the compressional speed in the fluid (hard volcanic basement). This model is the basis for defining interface phenomena such as evanescent waves, head waves, pseudo-Rayleigh waves, and Stoneley/Scholte waves. If a positive gradient is introduced into the compressional and shear sound speeds in the bottom, one obtains diving waves and interference head waves (Cerveny and Ravindra, 1971). There are two types of interface waves: pseudo-Rayleigh waves that are evanescent in the bottom but propagate in the water, and Stoneley/Scholte waves that are evanescent in both media. In multi-interface models there are of course normal modes. In actual seafloors, low speed layers, sound and shear speed gradients, and interface and volume lateral heterogeneities affect the characteristics of propagation and scattering. [Work supported by ONR.

  17. Waves and Tsunami Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  18. Geometrical versus wave optics under gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit

    2015-06-01

    We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely, null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics—rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches—we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic fields all experience the same phase modulation. Applying such a phase modulation to a superposition of plane waves corresponding to a Gaussian wave packet leads to time delays.

  19. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  20. Teleseismic S wave microseisms.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota

    2016-08-26

    Although observations of microseisms excited by ocean swells were firmly established in the 1940s, the source locations remain difficult to track. Delineation of the source locations and energy partition of the seismic wave components are key to understanding the excitation mechanisms. Using a seismic array in Japan, we observed both P and S wave microseisms excited by a severe distant storm in the Atlantic Ocean. Although nonlinear forcing of an ocean swell with a one-dimensional Earth model can explain P waves and vertically polarized S waves (SV waves), it cannot explain horizontally polarized S waves (SH waves). The precise source locations may provide a new catalog for exploring Earth's interior.

  1. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  2. Three-dimensional SPACE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery at 3 T to improve subthalamic nucleus lead placement for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from preclinical to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Senova, Suhan; Hosomi, Koichi; Gurruchaga, Jean-Marc; Gouello, Gaëtane; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Beaugendre, Yara; Lepetit, Hélène; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Badin, Romina Aron; Dauguet, Julien; Jan, Caroline; Hantraye, Philippe; Brugières, Pierre; Palfi, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for motor symptoms in patients with pharmacoresistant Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the procedure, which requires multimodal perioperative exploration such as imaging, electrophysiology, or clinical examination during macrostimulation to secure lead positioning, remains challenging because the STN cannot be reliably visualized using the gold standard, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) at 1.5 T. Thus, there is a need to improve imaging tools to better visualize the STN, optimize DBS lead implantation, and enlarge DBS diffusion. METHODS Gradient-echo sequences such as those used in T2WI suffer from higher distortions at higher magnetic fields than spin-echo sequences. First, a spin-echo 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions) FLAIR sequence at 3 T was designed, validated histologically in 2 nonhuman primates, and applied to 10 patients with PD; their data were clinically compared in a double-blind manner with those of a control group of 10 other patients with PD in whom STN targeting was performed using T2WI. RESULTS Overlap between the nonhuman primate STNs segmented on 3D-histological and on 3D-SPACE-FLAIR volumes was high for the 3 most anterior quarters (mean [± SD] Dice scores 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.74 ± 0.06, and 0.60 ± 0.09). STN limits determined by the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence were more consistent with electrophysiological edges than those determined by T2WI (0.9 vs 1.4 mm, respectively). The imaging contrast of the STN on the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence was 4 times higher (p < 0.05). Improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score (off medication, on stimulation) 12 months after the operation was higher for patients who underwent 3D-SPACE-FLAIR-guided implantation than for those in whom T2WI was used (62.2% vs 43.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). The total electrical energy

  3. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  4. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  5. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion. PMID:26509428

  6. Instability of Wave Trains and Wave Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanin, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Centre for Ocean Engineering, Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, ababanin@swin.edu.au Design criteria in ocean engineering, whether this is one in 50 years or one in 5000 years event, are hardly ever based on measurements, and rather on statistical distributions of relevant metocean properties. Of utmost interest is the tail of distribution, that is rare events such as the highest waves with low probability. Engineers have long since realised that the superposition of linear waves with narrow-banded spectrum as depicted by the Rayleigh distribution underestimates the probability of extreme wave heights and crests, which is a critical shortcoming as far as the engineering design is concerned. Ongoing theoretical and experimental efforts have been under way for decades to address this issue. Typical approach is the treating all possible waves in the ocean or at a particular location as a single ensemble for which some comprehensive solution can be obtained. The oceanographic knowledge, however, now indicates that no single and united comprehensive solution is available. We would expect the probability distributions of wave height to depend on a) whether the waves are at the spectral peak or at the tail; b) on wave spectrum and mean steepness in the wave field; c) on the directional distribution of the peak waves; d) on whether the waves are in deep water, in intermediate depth or in shallow water; e) on wave breaking; f) on the wind, particularly if it is very strong, and on the currents if they have suitable horizontal gradients. Probability distributions in the different circumstances according to these groups of conditions should be different, and by combining them together the inevitable scatter is introduced. The scatter and the accuracy will not improve by increasing the bulk data quality and quantity, and it hides the actual distribution of extremes. The groups have to be separated and their probability

  7. Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Merlino, Robert L.

    2009-11-10

    A historical overview of some of the early theoretical and experimental work on dust acoustic waves is given. The basic physics of the dust acoustic wave and some of the theoretical refinements that have been made, including the effects of collisions, plasma absorption, dust charge fluctuations, particle drifts and strong coupling effects are discussed. Some recent experimental findings and outstanding problems are also presented.

  8. Detonation Wave Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  9. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  10. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  11. Oceanic wave measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An oceanic wave measured system is disclosed wherein wave height is sensed by a barometer mounted on a buoy. The distance between the trough and crest of a wave is monitored by sequentially detecting positive and negative peaks of the output of the barometer and by combining (adding) each set of two successive half cycle peaks. The timing of this measurement is achieved by detecting the period of a half cycle of wave motion.

  12. Waves of Hanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Guillermo

    2003-03-01

    A spatially extended model of the hantavirus infection in deer mice is analyzed. Traveling waves solutions of the infected and susceptible populations are studied in different regimes, controlled by an environmental parameter. The wave of infection is shown to lag behind the wave of susceptible population, and the delay between the two is analyzed numerically and through a piecewise linearization.

  13. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  14. Waves of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.W.; Charlier, R.H.

    1981-05-01

    Possible means for harnessing the energy contained in ocean waves are considered. Problems associated with the low-grade nature of wave energy and the rate at which wave crests approach are pointed out, and simple devices already in use for the supply of energy to bell buoys, whistle buoys and lighted buoys are noted. Attention is then given to wave energy conversion systems based on the focusing of waves onto a narrow ramp leading to a reservoir from which water is released to power a turbine generator: a slightly submerged circular shell which directs waves into its center cavity where waves act to turn a turbine (the Dam-Atoll), a long vertical pipe with an internal valve allowing water to move in an upward direction (the Isaacs wave-energy pump), a turbine located at the bottom of an open-topped pipe (the Masuda buoy), a completely submerged closed air chamber from which runs a large pipe open to the sea, a wave piston which acts by the compression of air to drive a turbine, a massive structure with upper and lower reservoirs (the Russel rectifier), and devices which consist of floating or submerged objects which transfer wave energy to pumps (the Salter duck and Cockerell raft). It is concluded that although wave-powered generators are not likely to become competitive in the near future or provide more than a small portion of world demand, they may be found useful under special conditions.

  15. Waves of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-06-01

    Possible means for harnessing the energy contained in ocean waves are considered. Problems associated with the low-grade nature of wave energy and the rate at which wave crests approach are pointed out, and simple devices already in use for the supply of energy to bell buoys, whistle buoys and lighted buoys are noted. Attention is then given to wave energy conversion systems based on the focusing of waves onto a narrow ramp leading to a reservoir from which water is released to power a turbine generator; a slightly submerged circular shell which directs waves into its center cavity where waves act to turn a turbine (the Dam-Atoll); a long vertical pipe with an internal valve allowing water to move in an upward direction (the Isaacs wave-energy pump); a turbine located at the bottom of an open-topped pipe (the Masuda buoy); a completely submerged closed air chamber from which runs a large pipe open to the sea; a wave piston which acts by the compression of air to drive a turbine; a massive structure with upper and lower reservoirs (the Russel rectifier); and devices which consist of floating or submerged objects which transfer wave energy to pumps (the Salter duck and Cockerell raft.) It is concluded that although wave-powered generators are not likely to become competitive in the near future or provide more than a small portion of world demand, they may be found useful under special conditions.

  16. Bound infragravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihiro, Michele; Guza, R. T.; Seymour, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    Model predictions of bound (i.e., nonlinearly forced by and coupled to wave groups) infragravity wave energy are compared with about 2 years of observations in 8- to 13-m depths at Imperial Beach, California, and Barbers Point, Hawaii. Frequency-directional spectra of free waves at sea and swell frequencies, estimated with a small array of four pressure sensors, are used to predict the bound wave spectra below 0.04 Hz. The predicted total bound wave energy is always less than the observed infragravity energy, and the underprediction increases with increasing water depth and especially with decreasing swell energy. At most half, and usually much less, of the observed infragravity energy is bound. Bound wave spectra are also predicted with data from a single wave gage in 183-m depth at Point Conception, California, and the assumption of unidirectional sea and swell. Even with energetic swell, less than 10% of the total observed infragravity energy in 183-m depth is bound. Free waves, either leaky or edge waves, are more energetic than bound waves at both the shallow and deep sites. The low level of infragravity energy observed in 183-m depth compared with 8- to 13-m depths, with similarly moderate sea and swell energy, suggests that leaky (and very high-mode edge) waves contribute less than 10% of the infragravity energy in 8-13 m. Most of the free infragravity energy in shallow water is refractively trapped and does not reach deep water.

  17. Teleseismic S wave microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota

    2016-08-01

    Although observations of microseisms excited by ocean swells were firmly established in the 1940s, the source locations remain difficult to track. Delineation of the source locations and energy partition of the seismic wave components are key to understanding the excitation mechanisms. Using a seismic array in Japan, we observed both P and S wave microseisms excited by a severe distant storm in the Atlantic Ocean. Although nonlinear forcing of an ocean swell with a one-dimensional Earth model can explain P waves and vertically polarized S waves (SV waves), it cannot explain horizontally polarized S waves (SH waves). The precise source locations may provide a new catalog for exploring Earth’s interior.

  18. Blast wave energy diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Thomas E; Tierney, Heidi E; Idzorek, George C; Watt, Robert G; Peterson, Robert R; Peterson, Darrell L; Fryer, Christopher L; Lopez, Mike R; Jones, Michael C; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, James E

    2008-10-01

    The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations. PMID:19044574

  19. Teleseismic S wave microseisms.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota

    2016-08-26

    Although observations of microseisms excited by ocean swells were firmly established in the 1940s, the source locations remain difficult to track. Delineation of the source locations and energy partition of the seismic wave components are key to understanding the excitation mechanisms. Using a seismic array in Japan, we observed both P and S wave microseisms excited by a severe distant storm in the Atlantic Ocean. Although nonlinear forcing of an ocean swell with a one-dimensional Earth model can explain P waves and vertically polarized S waves (SV waves), it cannot explain horizontally polarized S waves (SH waves). The precise source locations may provide a new catalog for exploring Earth's interior. PMID:27563094

  20. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  1. Water wave metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjeans, Philippe; Palacios, Carmen; Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The phenomenon of water wave deviation in a bended wave-guide has been studied experimentally. We propose a theoretical analogy to electromagnetism, from which we derive the mathematical tools to design a water wave-deviator. To obtain the effect of metamaterial in the case of surface waves, one has to design a water-bed consisting of periodic layers of two different heights inclined with a specific angle with respect to the direction of propagation of waves. We designed and built (using rapid prototyping) deviators with progressively increasing angles of bending, and their homologue wave-guides with a flat bottom. The wave elevation was measured with good accuracy in time and in space by an optical method. Results show a good efficiency of the wave-deviator. The wavefront maintains its original inclination once the wave crosses the bend (in contrary to the wave-guide with a flat bottom), however departs from the predicted behavior as the wavefront advances. The analysis of harmonics shows a reduction of backwards reflection and a strong decrease in higher modes excitation after the bend. The results are optimistic and might open new possibilities; ultimately those regarding the cloaking of floating structures which could, in the future, be used for coastal protection.

  2. Gravitational Wave Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio

    2005-02-01

    There is only one experimental proof that gravitational waves exist. With such a limitation, it may seem premature to suggest the possibility that gravitational waves can became a preferred space propulsion technique. The present understanding of the problem indicates that this is not the case. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been confirmed by observation, the respective detection at large distance from the source is difficult and actually we have no confirmation of a successful detection. Therefore the required preliminary discovery has been already made. This opinion is enforced by many different proposals for building the required powerful gravitational wave generators that have recently appeared in the literature and discussed at conferences. It is no longer reasonable to wait for additional confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves to start a program for building generators and testing their possible application to space travel. A vast literature shows that gravitational waves can be employed for space propulsion. Gravitational wave rockets have been proposed, non-linearity of Einstein equations allows the conversion of gravitational waves to a static gravitational field and ``artificial gravity assist'' may become a new way of travelling in space-time. Different approaches to gravitational wave propulsion are reviewed and compared. Gravitational wave propulsion is also compared to traditional rocket propulsion and an undeniable advantage can be demonstrated in terms of efficiency and performance. Testing the predictions will require gravitational wave generators with high power and wavelength short enough for producing high energy densities. Detectors designed for the specific application must be developed, taking into account that non-linearity effects are expected. The study and development of Gravitational wave propulsion is a very challenging endeavor, involving the most complex theories, sophisticated

  3. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  4. Hysteresis of ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dinklage, A.; Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H.; Wilke, C.

    2008-06-15

    A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general--so-called universal--approach from bifurcation theory.

  5. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  6. Internal Waves, Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This photograph, taken in sunglint conditions, captures open ocean internal waves which are diffracting around shoals south of the Seychelle islands (4.5S, 55.5E) and recombining to form interference patterns. The clouds to the north of the waves cover two of the Seychelle islands: Silhouette and Mahe. Mahe is the main island of the archipelago. The small rocky island surrounded by reef around which the waves diffract is Platte Island.

  7. Optical rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Solli, D R; Ropers, C; Koonath, P; Jalali, B

    2007-12-13

    Recent observations show that the probability of encountering an extremely large rogue wave in the open ocean is much larger than expected from ordinary wave-amplitude statistics. Although considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the physics behind these mysterious and potentially destructive events, the complete picture remains uncertain. Furthermore, rogue waves have not yet been observed in other physical systems. Here, we introduce the concept of optical rogue waves, a counterpart of the infamous rare water waves. Using a new real-time detection technique, we study a system that exposes extremely steep, large waves as rare outcomes from an almost identically prepared initial population of waves. Specifically, we report the observation of rogue waves in an optical system, based on a microstructured optical fibre, near the threshold of soliton-fission supercontinuum generation--a noise-sensitive nonlinear process in which extremely broadband radiation is generated from a narrowband input. We model the generation of these rogue waves using the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and demonstrate that they arise infrequently from initially smooth pulses owing to power transfer seeded by a small noise perturbation.

  8. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  9. Transient Wave Envelope Elements for Wave Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, R. J.

    1996-04-01

    A novel family of infinite wave envelope elements is described which can be used in conjunction with conventional finite elements to model the transient wave equation in unbounded regions. The elements are obtained by applying an inverse Fourier transformation to a mapped wave envelope formulation in the frequency domain. The discrete transient equations obtained in this way can be applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems without restriction, being valid over a full range of excitation frequencies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in application to simple test cases which involve the calculation of transient sound fields generated by pulsating spheres and cylinders excited from rest in an unbounded region. Test solutions are compared to analytic solutions and to finite element solutions obtained by using large computational grids which extend beyond the region influenced by the transient disturbance.

  10. Modal Waves Solved in Complex Wave Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.-J.; Jenot, F.; Ourak, M.

    2005-04-01

    A numerical algorithm is proposed for the resolution in complex domain of the ultrasonic modal waves from the characteristic equation of elastic structures. The method is applicable to any numerically available function given explicitly or implicitly. The complex root loci of the modal waves are constructed by varying other parameters. Different situations which can cause the roots searching and following failure are analysed and the corresponding solutions are proposed. The computation examples are given for a three layered adhesive joint and a composite plate.

  11. Oceanic-wave-measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Barometer mounted on bouy senses wave heights. As wave motion raises and lowers barometer, pressure differential is proportional to wave height. Monitoring circuit samples barometer output every half cycle of wave motion and adds magnitudes of adjacent positive and negative peaks. Resulting output signals, proportional to wave height, are transmitted to central monitoring station.

  12. The 2003 heat wave.

    PubMed

    Sardon, J-P

    2007-03-01

    The July-August 2005 issue of Eurosurveillance focused on the impact on mortality of the 2003 heat wave in Europe, with articles that were based on various methods and looked at different time periods [1]. The subject of this letter is to assess, using a unique methodology, the excess mortality related to the 2003 heat wave across the continent. PMID:17439811

  13. Waves on Ice

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Waves on White: Ice or Clouds?     ... detecting clouds over snow and ice, but also works well over ocean and land. The rippled area on the surface which could have been mistaken ... date:  Dec 16, 2004 Images:  Waves on Ice location:  Antarctica thumbnail:  ...

  14. Slow frictional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  15. Gravitational waves from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  16. Thermal-Wave Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosencwaig, Allan

    1982-01-01

    Thermal features of and beneath the surface of a sample can be detected and imaged with a thermal-wave microscope. Various methodologies for the excitation and detection of thermal waves are discussed, and several applications, primarily in microelectronics, are presented. (Author)

  17. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  18. The Relativistic Wave Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2009-01-01

    The Lorentz transformation applies directly to the kinematics of moving particles viewed as geometric points. Wave propagation, on the other hand, involves moving planes which are extended objects defined by simultaneity. By treating a plane wave as a geometric object moving at the phase velocity, novel results are obtained that illustrate the…

  19. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  20. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  1. Sculpting Waves (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader

    2015-09-01

    In electronics controlling and manipulating flow of charged carriers has led to design of numerous functional devices. In photonics, by analogy, this is done through controlling photons and optical waves. However, the challenges and opportunities are different in these two fields. Materials control waves, and as such they can tailor, manipulate, redirect, and scatter electromagnetic waves and photons at will. Recent development in condensed matter physics, nanoscience, and nanotechnology has made it possible to tailor materials with unusual parameters and extreme characteristics and with atomic precision and thickness. One can now construct structures much smaller than the wavelengths of visible light, thus ushering in unprecedented possibilities and novel opportunities for molding fields and waves at the nanoscale with desired functionalities. At such subwavelength scales, sculpting optical fields and waves provides a fertile ground for innovation and discovery. I will discuss some of the exciting opportunities in this area, and forecast some future directions and possibilities.

  2. Project GlobWave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busswell, Geoff; Ash, Ellis; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Poulter, David J. S.; Snaith, Helen; Collard, Fabrice; Sheera, Harjit; Pinnock, Simon

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GlobWave project is a three year initiative, funded by ESA and CNES, to service the needs of satellite wave product users across the globe. Led by Logica UK, with support from CLS, IFREMER, SatOC and NOCS, the project will provide free access to satellite wave data and products in a common format, both historical and in near real time, from various European and American SAR and altimeter missions. Building on the successes of similar projects for Sea Surface Temperature and ocean colour, the project aims to stimulate increased use and analysis of satellite wave products. In addition to common-format satellite data the project will provide comparisons with in situ measurements, interactive data analysis tools and a pilot spatial wave forecast verification scheme for operational forecast production centres. The project will begin operations in January 2010, with direction from regular structured user consultation.

  3. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  4. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  5. Wave propagation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenenboom, P. H. L.

    The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.

  6. Spin-Wave Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jin; Yu, Weichao; Wu, Ruqian; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  7. Wave - current interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugan, I.; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2012-04-01

    The problem of wave interaction with current is still a big challenge in physical oceanography. In spite of numerous numbers of papers devoting to the analysis of the phenomenon some very strong effects are still waiting for its clear description. One of the problems here is the Benjamin-Feir instability in the presence of variable current. Modulation instability is one of the most ubiquitous types of instabilities in nature. In modern nonlinear physics, it is considered as a basic process that classifies the qualitative behavior of modulated waves (``envelope waves'') and may initialize the formation of stable entities such as envelope solitons. We theoretically describe the explosion instability of waves on the adverse blocking current and corresponding frequency downshifting. Waves can be blocked only partly and overpass the opposite current barrier at the lower side band resonance frequency. Theoretical results are compared with available experiments.

  8. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

    1958-08-01

    An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages from the square wave amplifiers.

  9. THz-wave sensing via pump and signal wave detection interacted with evanescent THz waves.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Takuya; Kaneko, Naoya; Suizu, Koji; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2013-09-15

    We report a novel sensing technique that uses an evanescent terahertz (THz) wave, without detecting the THz wave directly. When a THz wave generated by Cherenkov phase matching via difference frequency generation undergoes total internal reflection, the evanescent THz wave is subject to a phase change and an amplitude decrease. The reflected THz wave, under the influence of the sample, interferes with the propagating THz wave and the changing electric field of the THz wave interacts with the electric field of the pump waves. We demonstrate a sensing technique for detecting changes in the electric field of near-infrared light, transcribed from changes in the electric field of a THz wave.

  10. Standing Waves on a Shoestring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Describes the construction of a wave generator used to review the algebraic relationships of wave motion. Students calculate and measure the weight needed to create tension to generate standing waves at the first eight harmonics. (MDH)

  11. Multisatellite studies of ULF waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Kazue

    1988-01-01

    Multisatellite studies of ULF waves are reviewed, with a special emphasis on compressional Pc 5 waves. The observations of the radial extent, azimuthal wave number and the field-aligned standing wave structure of the waves are described. When combined with plasma data, the waves appear to be consistent with drift-mirror waves originating from the pressure anisotropy of the ring current plasma. The most recent observations revealed some features not considered in previous theories of the drift-mirror wave: antisymmetric standing wave structure and rather small pressure anisotropy that can drive the waves to instability. Recent theoretical work shows that these observations can be explained if the coupling of the drift-mirror wave to the shear Alfven wave is properly treated in a realistic magnetic field geometry.

  12. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  13. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  14. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  15. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  16. Glutamatergic Retinal Waves

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous activity patterns propagate through many parts of the developing nervous system and shape the wiring of emerging circuits. Prior to vision, waves of activity originating in the retina propagate through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus to primary visual cortex (V1). Retinal waves have been shown to instruct the wiring of ganglion cell axons in LGN and of thalamocortical axons in V1 via correlation-based plasticity rules. Across species, retinal waves mature in three stereotypic stages (I–III), in which distinct circuit mechanisms give rise to unique activity patterns that serve specific functions in visual system refinement. Here, I review insights into the patterns, mechanisms, and functions of stage III retinal waves, which rely on glutamatergic signaling. As glutamatergic waves spread across the retina, neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON vs. OFF) are activated sequentially. Recent studies identified lateral excitatory networks in the inner retina that generate and propagate glutamatergic waves, and vertical inhibitory networks that desynchronize the activity of ON and OFF cells in the wavefront. Stage III wave activity patterns may help segregate axons of ON and OFF ganglion cells in the LGN, and could contribute to the emergence of orientation selectivity in V1. PMID:27242446

  17. Atmospheric waves and the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, T.

    1972-01-01

    A review of evidence supporting the existence of atmospheric waves is presented, and a simple, theoretical approach for describing them is shown. Suggestions for gravity wave sources include equatorial and auroral electrojet, auroral and polar substorm heating, atmospheric jet streams, and large oceanic tides. There are reviewed previous studies dealing with the interaction between ionization and atmospheric waves believed to exist at ionospheric heights. These waves include acoustic waves, evanescent waves, and internal atmospheric gravity waves. It is explained that mode analysis, often employed when an increased number of layers is used for a more complete profile, is inapplicable for waves very close to a source.

  18. Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-02-11

    The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.

  19. Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, Donald

    2008-11-01

    Although low-frequency radio waves of extra-terrestrial origin were known over a century ago, it wasn't until the beginning of the space era fifty years ago that the origin of these waves could be adequately investigated. Since then spacecraft-borne instruments have shown that space plasmas exhibit an almost bewildering variety of wave phenomena, sometimes referred to as the plasma wave zoo. In this talk I will focus on two types of waves that occur in the magnetospheres of the strongly magnetized planets. They are whistler mode emissions and cyclotron maser radiation. Whistler mode emissions are generated in the now famous plasma wave mode known as the whistler mode, and cyclotron maser radiation is emitted mainly in the right-hand polarized free space mode. Both involve a cyclotron resonant interaction and require a perpendicular anisotropy to achieve wave growth. However, the origin of the anisotropy is different in the two cases. Whistler mode emissions occur in planetary radiation belts and are driven by the loss-cone anisotropy imposed by the planet. The resulting waves play a major role in the scattering and loss of radiation belt electrons. In contrast, the cyclotron maser radiation is generated in the auroral regions where parallel electric fields accelerate down-going electrons to high energies. The wave growth is driven by the shell distribution that arises from a combination of the parallel electric field and the magnetic mirror force. The resulting radiation is extremely intense and can be detected at great distances as an escaping radio emission. Both the whistler mode emissions and the cyclotron maser radiation display an amazing amount of fine structure. This structure is thought to be due to nonlinear trapping of the resonant electrons. The exact nonlinear mechanisms involved are still a topic of current study.

  20. Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.

  1. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  2. Dark- and bright-rogue-wave solutions for media with long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of intricate structures are presented for the long-wave-short-wave resonance equation. These vector parametric solutions feature coupled dark- and bright-field counterparts of the Peregrine soliton. Numerical simulations show the robustness of dark and bright rogue waves in spite of the onset of modulational instability. Dark fields originate from the complex interplay between anomalous dispersion and the nonlinearity driven by the coupled long wave. This unusual mechanism, not available in scalar nonlinear wave equation models, can provide a route to the experimental realization of dark rogue waves in, for instance, negative index media or with capillary-gravity waves.

  3. Dark- and bright-rogue-wave solutions for media with long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of intricate structures are presented for the long-wave-short-wave resonance equation. These vector parametric solutions feature coupled dark- and bright-field counterparts of the Peregrine soliton. Numerical simulations show the robustness of dark and bright rogue waves in spite of the onset of modulational instability. Dark fields originate from the complex interplay between anomalous dispersion and the nonlinearity driven by the coupled long wave. This unusual mechanism, not available in scalar nonlinear wave equation models, can provide a route to the experimental realization of dark rogue waves in, for instance, negative index media or with capillary-gravity waves. PMID:24580164

  4. Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.

    2008-05-15

    If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision.

  5. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  6. Traveling-wave photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1992-12-31

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  7. Nonspreading Wave Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Balazs, N. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains properties of the Airy packet that show that quantum wave functions correspond to a family of orbits and not to a single particle. Introducing the Airy packet into elementary quantum mechanics courses is recommended. (HM)

  8. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... Below are symptoms of cold wave lotion poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Mouth irritation Burning and redness of the eyes Possibly serious damage to ...

  9. Heat Wave Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat has caused more deaths than all other weather events, including floods. A heat wave is a ... care for heat- related emergencies … ❏ Listen to local weather forecasts and stay aware of upcoming temperature changes. ❏ ...

  10. Coupled wedge waves.

    PubMed

    Abell, Bradley C; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J

    2013-11-01

    The interface between two wedges can be treated as a displacement discontinuity characterized by elastic stiffnesses. By representing the boundary between the two quarter-spaces as a displacement discontinuity, coupled wedge waves were determined theoretically to be dispersive and to depend on the specific stiffness of the non-welded contact between the two wedges. Laboratory experiments on isotropic and anisotropic aluminum confirmed the theoretical prediction that the velocity of coupled wedge waves, for a non-welded interface, ranged continuously from the single wedge wave velocity at low stress to the Rayleigh velocity as the load applied normal to the interface was increased. Elastic waves propagating along the coupled wedges of two quarter-spaces in non-welded contact are found to exist theoretically even when the material properties of the two quarter-spaces are the same.

  11. Sound wave transmission (image)

    MedlinePlus

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  12. Gravitational-wave joy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    seyithocuk; jjeherrera; eltodesukane; GrahamRounce; rloldershaw; Beaker, Dr; Sandhu, G. S.; Ophiuchi

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on the LIGO collaboration's groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves, first predicted by Einstein 100 years ago, from two black holes colliding (pp5, 6-7 and http://ow.ly/Ylsyt).

  13. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  14. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  15. Turbulence generation by waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S.

    1995-12-31

    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  16. Inventing the Wave Catchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Arthur

    1983-01-01

    Physicists and engineers advance the state of several arts in the design of gravitational-wave detection equipment. Provides background information and discusses the equipment (including laser interferometer), its use, and results of several experimental studies. (JN)

  17. Attosecond shock waves.

    PubMed

    Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M

    2013-05-01

    Shock-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond shock transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197

  18. Hysteretic Faraday waves.

    PubMed

    Périnet, Nicolas; Falcón, Claudio; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2016-06-01

    We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results.

  19. Sound Waves Levitate Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    System recently tested uses acoustic waves to levitate liquid drops, millimeter-sized glass microballoons, and other objects for coating by vapor deposition or capillary attraction. Cylindrical contactless coating/handling facility employs a cylindrical acoustic focusing radiator and a tapered reflector to generate a specially-shaped standing wave pattern. Article to be processed is captured by the acoustic force field under the reflector and moves as reflector is moved to different work stations.

  20. Wave Propagation Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCandless, Kathleen; Petersson, Anders; Nilsson, Stefan; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2007-01-08

    WPP is a massively parallel, 3D, C++, finite-difference elastodynamic wave propagation code. Typical applications for wave propagation with WPP include: evaluation of seismic event scenarios and damage from earthquakes, non-destructive evaluation of materials, underground facility detection, oil and gas exploration, predicting the electro-magnetic fields in accelerators, and acoustic noise generation. For more information, see User’s Manual [1].

  1. Vortex waves in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Ariste, A.; Centeno, R.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere are one of the favourite means of transferring and depositing energy into the solar corona. The study of waves brings information not just on the dynamics of the magnetized plasma, but also on the possible ways in which the corona is heated. Aims: The identification and analysis of the phase singularities or dislocations provide us with a complementary approach to the magnetoacoustic and Aflvén waves propagating in the solar atmosphere. They allow us to identify individual wave modes, shedding light on the probability of excitation or the nature of the triggering mechanism. Methods: We use a time series of Doppler shifts measured in two spectral lines, filtered around the three-minute period region. The data show a propagating magnetoacoustic slow mode with several dislocations and, in particular, a vortex line. We study under what conditions the different wave modes propagating in the umbra can generate the observed dislocations. Results: The observed dislocations can be fully interpreted as a sequence of sausage and kink modes excited sequentially on average during 15 min. Kink and sausage modes appear to be excited independently and sequentially. The transition from one to the other lasts less than three minutes. During the transition we observe and model the appearance of superoscillations inducing large phase gradients and phase mixing. Conclusions: The analysis of the observed wave dislocations leads us to the identification of the propagating wave modes in umbrae. The identification in the data of superoscillatory regions during the transition from one mode to the other may be an important indicator of the location of wave dissipation.

  2. Imploding conical shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, R. T.; Skews, B. W.; Rubidge, S.; Snow, J.

    2013-07-01

    The behaviour of conical shock waves imploding axisymmetrically was first studied numerically by Hornung (J Fluid Mech 409:1-12, 2000) and this prompted a limited experimental investigation into these complex flow patterns by Skews et al. (Shock Waves 11:323-326, 2002). Modification of the simulation boundary conditions, resulting in the loss of self-similarity, was necessary to image the flow experimentally. The current tests examine the temporal evolution of these flows utilising a converging conical gap of fixed width fed by a shock wave impinging at its entrance, supported by CFD simulations. The effects of gap thickness, angle and incident shock strength were investigated. The wave initially diffracts around the outer lip of the gap shedding a vortex which, for strong incident shock cases, can contain embedded shocks. The converging shock at exit reflects on the axis of symmetry with the reflected wave propagating outwards resulting in a triple point developing on the incident wave together with the associated shear layer. This axisymmetric shear layer rolls up into a mushroom-shaped toroidal vortex ring and forward-facing jet. For strong shocks, this deforms the Mach disk to the extent of forming a second triple point with the primary shock exhibiting a double bulge. Separate features resembling the Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were noted in some tests. Aside from the incident wave curvature, the reflection patterns demonstrated correspond well with the V- and DV-types identified by Hornung although type S was not clearly seen, possibly due to the occlusion of the reflection region by the outer diffraction vortex at these early times. Some additional computational work explicitly exploring the limits of the parameter space for such systems has demonstrated the existence of a possible further reflection type, called vN-type, which is similar to the von Neumann reflection for plane waves. It is recommended that the parameter space be

  3. Hysteretic Faraday waves.

    PubMed

    Périnet, Nicolas; Falcón, Claudio; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2016-06-01

    We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results. PMID:27415365

  4. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  5. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  6. Ion acoustic traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Burrows, R. H.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.; Zank

    2014-04-01

    Models for traveling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the traveling waves can be reduced to a single first-order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron-proton or an electron-positron plasma). Besides its intrinsic interest, the integral equation solution provides a useful analytical test for numerical codes that include a proton-electron mass ratio as a fundamental constant, such as for particle in cell (PIC) codes. The integral equation is used to delineate the physical characteristics of ion acoustic traveling waves consisting of hot electron and cold proton fluids.

  7. The gravitational wave decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John

    2016-03-01

    With the expected direct detection of gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO and pulsar timing arrays in the near future, and with the recent launch of LISA Pathfinder this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Low frequency gravitational waves in the mHz range, which can only be observed from space, provide the richest science and complement high frequency observatories on the ground. A space-based observatory will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, and enable searches for new physics. LISA, by far the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, has consistently ranked among the nation's top priority large science missions. In 2013, ESA selected the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for its third large mission, L3, under the Cosmic Visions Program, with a planned launch date of 2034. NASA has decided to join with ESA on the L3 mission as a junior partner and has recently assembled a study team to provide advice on how NASA might contribute to the European-led mission. This talk will describe these efforts and the activities of the Gravitational Wave Science Interest Group and the L3 Study Team, which will lead to the first space-based gravitational wave observatory.

  8. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2002-12-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace structures using traditional methods is a complex, time-consuming process critical to maintaining mission readiness and flight safety. Limited access to corrosion-prone structure and the restricted applicability of available NDE techniques for the detection of hidden corrosion or other damage often compound the challenge. In this paper we discuss our recent work using ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography to address this pressing NDE technology need. Lamb waves are ultrasonic guided waves, which allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected for structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion and delaminations. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our work focuses on tomographic reconstruction to produce quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians or fed directly into structural integrity and lifetime prediction codes. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using a square perimeter array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography is appropriate for detecting flaws in aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this paper.

  9. Rain waves-wind waves interaction application to scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharif, C.; Giovanangeli, J. P.; Bliven, L.

    1989-01-01

    Modulation of a rain wave pattern by longer waves has been studied. An analytical model taking into account capillarity effects and obliquity of short waves has been developed. Modulation rates in wave number and amplitude have been computed. Experiments were carried out in a wave tank. First results agree with theoretical models, but higher values of modulation rates are measured. These results could be taken into account for understanding the radar response from the sea surface during rain.

  10. Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.

  11. Partial-wave expansions of angular spectra of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Lock, James A

    2006-11-01

    Focused electromagnetic beams are frequently modeled by either an angular spectrum of plane waves or a partial-wave sum of spherical multipole waves. The connection between these two beam models is explored here. The partial-wave expansion of an angular spectrum containing evanescent components is found to possess only odd partial waves. On the other hand, the partial-wave expansion of an alternate angular spectrum constructed so as to be free of evanescent components contains all partial waves but describes a propagating beam with a small amount of standing-wave component mixed in. A procedure is described for minimizing the standing-wave component so as to more accurately model a purely forward propagating experimental beam.

  12. Partial-wave expansions of angular spectra of plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, James A.

    2006-11-01

    Focused electromagnetic beams are frequently modeled by either an angular spectrum of plane waves or a partial-wave sum of spherical multipole waves. The connection between these two beam models is explored here. The partial-wave expansion of an angular spectrum containing evanescent components is found to possess only odd partial waves. On the other hand, the partial-wave expansion of an alternate angular spectrum constructed so as to be free of evanescent components contains all partial waves but describes a propagating beam with a small amount of standing-wave component mixed in. A procedure is described for minimizing the standing-wave component so as to more accurately model a purely forward propagating experimental beam.

  13. Longitudinal shear wave and transverse dilatational wave in solids.

    PubMed

    Catheline, S; Benech, N

    2015-02-01

    Dilatation wave involves compression and extension and is known as the curl-free solution of the elastodynamic equation. Shear wave on the contrary does not involve any change in volume and is the divergence-free solution. This letter seeks to examine the elastodynamic Green's function through this definition. By separating the Green's function in divergence-free and curl-free terms, it appears first that, strictly speaking, the longitudinal wave is not a pure dilatation wave and the transverse wave is neither a pure shear wave. Second, not only a longitudinal shear wave but also a transverse dilatational wave exists. These waves are shown to be a part of the solution known as coupling terms. Their special motion is carefully described and illustrated.

  14. Optical Dark Rogue Wave.

    PubMed

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system. PMID:26864099

  15. Bent Marshak Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A; Hammer, J H

    2005-10-11

    Radiation driven heat waves (Marshak Waves) are ubiquitous in astrophysics and terrestrial laser driven high energy density plasma physics (HEDP) experiments. Generally, the equations describing Marshak waves are so nonlinear, that solutions involving more than one spatial dimension require simulation. However, in this paper we show how one may analytically solve the problem of the two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of a Marshak wave, bounded by lossy walls, using an asymptotic expansion in a parameter related to the wall albedo and a simplification of the heat front equation of motion. Three parameters determine the nonlinear evolution, a modified Markshak diffusion constant, a smallness parameter related to the wall albedo, and the spacing of the walls. The final nonlinear solution shows that the Marshak wave will be both slowed and bent by the non-ideal boundary. In the limit of a perfect boundary, the solution recovers the original diffusion-like solution of Marshak. The analytic solution will be compared to a limited set of simulation results and experimental data.

  16. Optical Dark Rogue Wave

    PubMed Central

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system. PMID:26864099

  17. Optical Dark Rogue Wave.

    PubMed

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system.

  18. Dynamics of coupled light waves and electron-acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Stenflo, L; Hellberg, M

    2002-08-01

    The nonlinear interaction between coherent light waves and electron-acoustic waves in a two-electron plasma is considered. The interaction is governed by a pair of equations comprising a Schrödinger-like equation for the light wave envelope and a driven (by the light pressure) electron-acoustic wave equation. The newly derived nonlinear equations are used to study the formation and dynamics of envelope light wave solitons and light wave collapse. The implications of our investigation to space and laser-produced plasmas are pointed out.

  19. Upstream waves at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Eroshenko, E.

    1992-01-01

    Weak, about 0.15 nT, narrow band emissions at the proton gyro frequency are observed by the Phobos magnetometer MAGMA, upstream from the bow shock of Mars. These waves are left-hand elliptically polarized. They may be associated with the pick up of protons from the Martian hydrogen exosphere. Strong turbulence, similar to that observed at the terrestrial bow shock, is found on occasion in the upstream region when the IMF connects to the bow shock. On two occasions this turbulence occurred when the spacecraft crossed the orbit of Phobos. This coincidence raises the possibility that material in the orbits of Phobos interacts with the solar wind in such a way to either affect the direction of the IMF or to cause instabilities in the solar wind plasma. However, since on a third occasion these waves did not occur, these waves may be shock associated rather than Phobos associated.

  20. Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.

  1. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOEpatents

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  2. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  3. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  4. Electromagnetic wave test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. K.; Stepanek, S. A.

    Electromagnetic wave testing, which represents a relatively new test technique that involves the union of several disciplines (aerothermodynamics, electromagnetics, materials/structures, and advanced diagnostics) is introduced. The essence of this new technique deals with the transmission and possible distortion of electromagnetic waves (RF or IR) as they pass through the bow shock, flow field, and electromagnetic window of a missile flying at hypersonic speeds. Variations in gas density along the optical path can cause significant distortion of the electromagnetic waves and, therefore the missile seeker system may not effectively track the target. Two specific test techniques are described. The first example deals with the combining of a wind tunnel and an RF range while the second example discusses the complexities of evaluating IR seeker system performance.

  5. Planetary radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    Three planets, the earth, Jupiter and Saturn are known to emit nonthermal radio waves which require coherent radiation processes. The characteristic features (frequency spectrum, polarization, occurrence probability, radiation pattern) are discussed. Radiation which is externally controlled by the solar wind is distinguished from internally controlled radiation which only originates from Jupiter. The efficiency of the externally controlled radiation is roughly the same at all three planets (5 x 10 to the -6th) suggesting that similar processes are active there. The maser radiation mechanism for the generation of the radio waves and general requirements for the mechanism which couples the power generator to the region where the radio waves are generated are briefly discussed.

  6. CRRES plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Odem, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    The CRRES plasma wave experiment is designed to provide information on the plasma wave environment and the total plasma density in the Earth's radiation belts and throughout the CRRES orbit. This information is valuable both for studying the naturally occurring wave-particle interactions affecting the plasma and particle environment in the plasmasphere and magnetosphere as well as for studying the chemical releases. The electric field sensors for this instrument consist of two long electric dipole antennas (about 100 m tip-to-tip), and the magnetic field sensor is a search coil magnetometer mounted at the end of a 6-m boom. The instrument has a 14-channel spectrum analyzer covering the frequency range from 5.6 Hz to 10 kHz, and a 128-step sweep frequency receiver covering the frequency range from 100 Hz to 400 kHz.

  7. Traveling wave tube circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A traveling wave tube (TWT) has a slow wave structure (SWS) which is severed into two or more sections. A signal path, connects the end of an SWS section to the beginning of the following SWS section. The signal path comprises an impedance matching coupler (IMC), followed by an isolator, a variable phase shifter, and a second IMC. The aggregate band pass characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, all frequencies outside the desired operating frequency range of the TWT and yet pass, with minimal attenuation in the forward direction, all frequencies within the desired operating frequency range. The isolator is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, waves, of all frequencies, which propagate in the backward direction. The aggregate phase shift characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to apply signal power to the beginning of the following SWS section with the phase angle yielding maximum efficiency.

  8. Solitary water wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, W.; Guyenne, P.; Hammack, J.; Henderson, D.; Sulem, C.

    2006-05-01

    This article concerns the pairwise nonlinear interaction of solitary waves in the free surface of a body of water lying over a horizontal bottom. Unlike solitary waves in many completely integrable model systems, solitary waves for the full Euler equations do not collide elastically; after interactions, there is a nonzero residual wave that trails the post-collision solitary waves. In this report on new numerical and experimental studies of such solitary wave interactions, we verify that this is the case, both in head-on collisions (the counterpropagating case) and overtaking collisions (the copropagating case), quantifying the degree to which interactions are inelastic. In the situation in which two identical solitary waves undergo a head-on collision, we compare the asymptotic predictions of Su and Mirie [J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980)] and Byatt-Smith [J. Fluid Mech. 49, 625 (1971)], the wavetank experiments of Maxworthy [J. Fluid Mech. 76, 177 (1976)], and the numerical results of Cooker, Weidman, and Bale [J. Fluid Mech. 342, 141 (1997)] with independent numerical simulations, in which we quantify the phase change, the run-up, and the form of the residual wave and its Fourier signature in both small- and large-amplitude interactions. This updates the prior numerical observations of inelastic interactions in Fenton and Rienecker [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 411 (1982)]. In the case of two nonidentical solitary waves, our precision wavetank experiments are compared with numerical simulations, again observing the run-up, phase lag, and generation of a residual from the interaction. Considering overtaking solitary wave interactions, we compare our experimental observations, numerical simulations, and the asymptotic predictions of Zou and Su [Phys. Fluids 29, 2113 (1986)], and again we quantify the inelastic residual after collisions in the simulations. Geometrically, our numerical simulations of overtaking interactions fit into the three categories of Korteweg-deVries two

  9. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  10. The gravitational wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

  11. Standing wave compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  12. Human waves in stadiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  13. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  14. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  15. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  16. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; VWO Team

    2008-12-01

    Heliophysics wave data are currently not easily searchable by computers, making identifying pertinent wave data features for analyses and cross comparisons difficult and laborious. Since wave data analysis requires specialized knowledge about waves, which spans the spectrum of microphysics to macrophysics, researchers having varied expertise cannot easily use wave data. To resolve these difficulties and to allow wave data to contribute more fully to Heliophysics research, we are developing a Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) whose goal is to enable all Heliophysics wave data to become searchable, understandable and usable by the Heliosphysics community. The VWO objective is to enable search of multiple and distributed wave data (from both active and passive measurements). This presentation provides and overview of the VWO, a new VxO component within the emerging distributed Heliophysics data and model environment.

  19. Shock wave treatment in medicine.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, S K; Kailash

    2005-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics and traumatology is still a young therapy method. Since the last few years the development of shock wave therapy has progressed rapidly. Shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially. Today shock waves are the first choice to treat kidney and urethral stones. Urology has long been the only medical field for shock waves in medicine. Meanwhile shock waves have been used in orthopedics and traumatology to treat insertion tendinitis, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Another field of shock wave application is the treatment of tendons, ligaments and bones on horses in veterinary medicine. In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. PMID:15933416

  20. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  1. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  2. THERMOPLASTIC WAVES IN MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Levin, Yuri E-mail: yuri.levin@monash.edu.au

    2014-10-20

    Magnetar activity is generated by shear motions of the neutron star surface, which relieve internal magnetic stresses. An analogy with earthquakes and faults is problematic, as the crust is permeated by strong magnetic fields which greatly constrain crustal displacements. We describe a new deformation mechanism that is specific to strongly magnetized neutron stars. The magnetically stressed crust begins to move because of a thermoplastic instability, which launches a wave that shears the crust and burns its magnetic energy. The propagating wave front resembles the deflagration front in combustion physics. We describe the conditions for the instability, the front structure, and velocity, and discuss implications for observed magnetar activity.

  3. Quantum wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeri, M. B.; Putterman, S. J.; Garcia, A.; Roberts, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear quantum kinetic equation for the interaction of sound waves is solved via analytic and numerical techniques. In the classical regime energy cascades to higher frequency (ω) according to the steady-state power law ω-3/2. In the quantum limit, the system prefers a reverse cascade of energy which follows the power law ω-6. Above a critical flux, a new type of spectrum appears which is neither self-similar nor close to equilibrium. This state of nonlinear quantum wave turbulence represents a flow of energy directly from the classical source to the quantum degrees of freedom.

  4. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  5. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  6. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A. |

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  7. Scalar Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottola, Emil

    2016-03-01

    General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degree of freedom in the extended effective field theory (EFT) of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. Linearized around flat space this quantum scalar degree of freedom combines with the conformal part of the metric and predicts the existence of scalar spin-0 ``breather'' propagating gravitational waves in addition to the transverse tensor spin-2 waves of classical General Relativity. Estimates of the expected strength of scalar gravitational radiation from compact astrophysical sources are given.

  8. Wave Motion Electric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, E. F.; Winkler, R. J.

    1983-12-27

    Set out herein is an electrical generator conformed for installation in a buoy, the generator comprising an inverted pendulum having two windings formed at the free end thereof and aligned to articulate between two end stops each provided with a magnetic circuit. As the loops thus pass through the magnetic circuit, electrical current is induced which may be rectified through a full way rectifier to charge up a storage battery. The buoy itself may be ballasted to have its fundamental resonance at more than double the wave frequency with the result that during each passing of a wave at least two induction cycles occur.

  9. Standing waves braneworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Mantidze, Irakli; Sakhelashvili, Otari; Shengelia, Tsotne

    2016-05-01

    The class of nonstationary braneworld models generated by the coupled gravitational and scalar fields is reviewed. The model represents a brane in a spacetime with single time and one large (infinite) and several small (compact) spacelike extra dimensions. In some particular cases the model has the solutions corresponding to the bulk gravi-scalar standing waves bounded by the brane. Pure gravitational localization mechanism of matter particles on the node of standing waves, where the brane is placed, is discussed. Cosmological applications of the model is also considered.

  10. On the generation of internal wave modes by surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Uwe; Kirschner, Ian; Maas, Christian; Zaussinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves play an important role in the ocean since they transport energy and momentum and the can lead to mixing when they break. Surface waves and internal gravity waves can interact. On the one hand, long internal waves imply a slow varying shear current that modifies the propagation of surface waves. Surface waves generated by the atmosphere can, on the other hand, excite internal waves by nonlinear interaction. Thereby a surface wave packet consisting of two close frequencies can resonate with a low frequency internal wave (Phillips, 1966). From a theoretical point of view, the latter has been studied intensively by using a 2-layer model, i.e. a surface layer with a strong density contrast and an internal layer with a comparable weak density contrast (Ball, 1964; Craig et al., 2010). In the present work we analyse the wave coupling for a continuously stratified fluid using a fully non-linear 2D numerical model (OpenFoam) and compare this with laboratory experiments (see Lewis et al. 1974). Surface wave modes are used as initial condition and the time development of the dominant surface and internal waves are studied by spectral and harmonic analysis. For the simple geometry of a box, the results are compared with analytical spectra of surface and gravity waves. Ball, F.K. 1964: Energy transfer between external and internal gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech. 19, 465. Craig, W., Guyenne, P., Sulem, C. 2010: Coupling between internal and surface waves. Natural Hazards 57, 617-642. Lewis, J.E., Lake, B.M., Ko, D.R.S 1974: On the interaction of internal waves and surfacr gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech. 63, 773-800. Phillips, O.M. 1966: The dynamics of the upper ocean, Cambridge University Press, 336pp.

  11. Shear wave transmissivity measurement by color Doppler shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuminaka, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography is a useful method for evaluating tissue stiffness. We have proposed a novel shear wave imaging method (color Doppler shear wave imaging: CD SWI), which utilizes a signal processing unit in ultrasound color flow imaging in order to detect the shear wave wavefront in real time. Shear wave velocity is adopted to characterize tissue stiffness; however, it is difficult to measure tissue stiffness with high spatial resolution because of the artifact produced by shear wave diffraction. Spatial average processing in the image reconstruction method also degrades the spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement method for the shear wave transmissivity of a tissue boundary. Shear wave wavefront maps are acquired by changing the displacement amplitude of the shear wave and the transmissivity of the shear wave, which gives the difference in shear wave velocity between two mediums separated by the boundary, is measured from the ratio of two threshold voltages required to form the shear wave wavefronts in the two mediums. From this method, a high-resolution shear wave amplitude imaging method that reconstructs a tissue boundary is proposed.

  12. The role of Biot slow waves in electroseismic wave phenomena.

    PubMed

    Pride, Steven R; Garambois, Stéphane

    2002-02-01

    The electromagnetic fields that are generated as a spherical seismic wave (either P or S) traverses an interface separating two porous materials are numerically modeled both with and without the generation of Biot slow waves at the interface. In the case of an incident fast-P wave, the predicted electric-field amplitudes when slow waves are neglected can easily be off by as much as an order of magnitude. In the case of an incident S wave, the error is much smaller (typically on the order of 10% or less) because not much S-wave energy gets converted into slow waves. In neglecting the slow waves, only six plane waves (reflected and transmitted fast-P, S, and EM waves) are available with which to match the eight continuity conditions that hold at each interface. This overdetermined problem is solved by placing weights on the eight continuity conditions so that those conditions that are most important for obtaining the proper response are emphasized. It is demonstrated that when slow waves are neglected, it is best to also neglect the continuity of the Darcy flow and fluid pressure across an interface. The principal conclusion of this work is that to properly model the electromagnetic (EM) fields generated at an interface by an incident seismic wave, the full Biot theory that allows for generation of slow waves must be employed.

  13. Wave "Coherency" and Implications for Wave-Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Lakhina, Gurbax; Remya, Banhu; Lee, Lou

    2016-04-01

    Wave "coherency" was introduced in 2009 by Tsurutani et al. (JGR, doi:10.1029/2008JA013353, 2009) to describe the waves detected in the ~10 to 100 ms duration subelements which are the fundamental components of ~0.1 to 0.5 s chorus "elements". In this talk we will show examples of what we mean by coherency and quasicoherency for: electromagnetic whistler mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and plasmaspheric hiss waves. We will show how to measure coherency/quasicoherency quantitatively. This will be important for modeling purposes. Perhaps even more important is how coherent waves affect wave-particle interactions. Specific wave examples will be used to show that the pitch angle scattering rate for energetic electrons is roughly 3 orders of magnitude faster than Kennel-Petschek diffusion (which assumes incoherent waves).

  14. Continuous-wave Submillimeter-wave Gyrotrons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seong-Tae; Griffin, Robert G.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Joye, Colin D.; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Torrezan, Antonio C.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP/NMR) has emerged as a powerful technique to obtain significant enhancements in spin spectra from biological samples. For DNP in modern NMR systems, a high power continuous-wave source in the submillimeter wavelength range is necessary. Gyrotrons can deliver tens of watts of CW power at submillimeter wavelengths and are well suited for use in DNP/NMR spectrometers. To date, 140 GHz and 250 GHz gyrotrons are being employed in DNP spectrometer experiments at 200 MHz and 380 MHz at MIT. A 460 GHz gyrotron, which has operated with 8 W of CW output power, will soon be installed in a 700 MHz NMR spectrometer. High power radiation with good spectral and spatial resolution from these gyrotrons should provide NMR spectrometers with high signal enhancement through DNP. Also, these tubes operating at submillimeter wavelengths should have important applications in research in physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and medicine. PMID:17404605

  15. Generating electromagnetic waves from gravity waves in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, P. A.; O'Farrell, S.

    2009-05-15

    Examples of test electromagnetic waves on a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background are constructed from explicit perturbations of the FLRW space-times describing gravitational waves propagating in the isotropic universes. A possible physical mechanism for the production of the test electromagnetic waves is shown to be the coupling of the gravitational waves with a test magnetic field, confirming the observation of Marklund, Dunsby and Brodin [Phys. Rev. D 62, 101501(R) (2000)].

  16. Submillimeter wave heterodyne receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Ward, John (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In an embodiment, a submillimeter wave heterodyne receiver includes a finline ortho-mode transducer comprising thin tapered metallic fins deposited on a thin dielectric substrate to separate a vertically polarized electromagnetic mode from a horizontally polarized electromagnetic mode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  17. Twisting Neutron Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, Dmitry

    Most waves encountered in nature can be given a ``twist'', so that their phase winds around an axis parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Such waves are said to possess orbital angular momentum (OAM). For quantum particles such as photons, atoms, and electrons, this corresponds to the particle wavefunction having angular momentum of Lℏ along its propagation axis. Controlled generation and detection of OAM states of photons began in the 1990s, sparking considerable interest in applications of OAM in light and matter waves. OAM states of photons have found diverse applications such as broadband data multiplexing, massive quantum entanglement, optical trapping, microscopy, quantum state determination and teleportation, and interferometry. OAM states of electron beams have been used to rotate nanoparticles, determine the chirality of crystals and for magnetic microscopy. Here I discuss the first demonstration of OAM control of neutrons. Using neutron interferometry with a spatially incoherent input beam, we show the addition and conservation of quantum angular momenta, entanglement between quantum path and OAM degrees of freedom. Neutron-based quantum information science heretofore limited to spin, path, and energy degrees of freedom, now has access to another quantized variable, and OAM modalities of light, x-ray, and electron beams are extended to a massive, penetrating neutral particle. The methods of neutron phase imprinting demonstrated here expand the toolbox available for development of phase-sensitive techniques of neutron imaging. Financial support provided by the NSERC Create and Discovery programs, CERC and the NIST Quantum Information Program is acknowledged.

  18. Characteristics of pressure waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Air blast characteristics generated by most types of explosions are discussed. Data cover both negative and positive blast load phases and net transverse pressure as a function of time. The effects of partial or total confinement, atmospheric propagation, absorption of energy by ground shock or cratering, and transmission over irregular terrain on blast wave properties were also considered.

  19. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  20. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  1. mm-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, H. P.

    1985-07-01

    The present low profile seeker front end's slotted waveguide antenna was primarily developed to investigate the feasibility of the application of standard manufacturing techniques to mm-wave hardware. A dual plane monopulse comparator was constructed to mate with the antenna via integrated packaging techniques. The comparator was fabricated by CAD/CAM milling operations.

  2. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  3. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  4. Waves and Crops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses wave patterns on the surfaces of ripening wheat and barley crops when the wind is moderately strong. Examines the structure of the turbulence over such natural surfaces and conditions under which the crop may be damaged by the wind. (JR)

  5. Oblique detonation wave ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Two conceptual designs of the oblique detonation wave ramjet are presented. The performance is evaluated for stoichiometric hydrogen-air equivalence ratios of phi = 1/3, 2/3 and 1 for a range of flight Mach numbers from 6 to 10.

  6. Surface gravity-wave lensing.

    PubMed

    Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-02-01

    Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water. PMID:25353576

  7. Surface gravity-wave lensing.

    PubMed

    Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-02-01

    Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.

  8. Localized coherence of freak waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.

  9. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  10. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  11. Quantum wave packet revivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2004-03-01

    The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet (‘minipackets’ or ‘clones’) is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum wave packet construction leading to the existence of revivals and fractional revivals, in systems with one (or more) quantum number(s), as well as discussing how information on the classical period and revival time is encoded in the energy eigenvalue spectrum. We discuss a number of one-dimensional model systems which exhibit revival behavior, including the infinite well, the quantum bouncer, and others, as well as several two-dimensional integrable quantum billiard systems. Finally, we briefly review the experimental evidence for wave packet revivals in atomic, molecular, and other systems, and related revival phenomena in condensed matter and optical systems.

  12. Selection of Spiral Waves in Excitable Media with a Phase Wave at the Wave Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykov, V. S.; Oikawa, N.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2011-12-01

    Universal relationships between the medium excitability and the angular velocity and the core radius of rigidly rotating spiral waves in excitable media are derived for situations where the wave front is a trigger wave and the wave back is a phase wave. Two universal limits restricting the region of existence of spiral waves in the parameter space are demonstrated. The predictions of the free-boundary approach are in good quantitative agreement with results from numerical reaction-diffusion simulations performed on the Kessler-Levine model.

  13. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  14. Ion Cyclotron Waves at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Cowee, M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The observation of ion cyclotron waves was generally expected well before Cassini arrived at Titan in 2004, because strong ion cyclotron waves were seen at Io where its atmosphere interacted with the corotating magnetospheric plasma. However, the region of the interaction of the Saturnian magnetospheric plasma with the Titan atmosphere has been quite devoid of ion cyclotron waves. Finally, on pass T63, ion cyclotron waves were seen briefly. More recently, on pass T98, a longer sequence of ion cyclotron waves also occurred. On pass T63, the pick-up ion signature is that of both H+ and H2+, while on pass T98, only H+ ion cyclotron waves are observed. We examine the strength of these waves and their region of occurrence in the light of our previous work on the expected occurrence of these waves.

  15. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  16. ULF waves in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazue )

    1991-01-01

    Research efforts in the area of magnetospheric ULF waves in the 1987-1990 period are reviewed. Attention is given to externally excited hydromagnetic waves including field line resonance, the global cavity mode, bow-shock-associated upstream waves, and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. Consideration is given to internally excited Pc 4-5 pulsations and the role of these pulsations in the diffusion of ring-current ions based on the observed properties of the pulsations. 154 refs.

  17. Transient Wave Rotor Performance Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is investigating the wave rotor for use as a core gas generator in future gas turbine engines. The device, which uses gas-dynamic waves to transfer energy directly to and from the working fluid through which the waves travel, consists of a series of constant-area passages that rotate about an axis. Through rotation, the ends of the passages are periodically exposed to various circumferentially arranged ports that initiate the traveling waves within the passages.

  18. Mirages with atmospheric gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Lehn, W H; Silvester, W K; Fraser, D M

    1994-07-20

    The temperature inversions that produce superior mirages are capable of supporting gravity (buoyancy) waves of very low frequency and long wavelength. This paper describes the optics of single mode gravity waves that propagate in a four-layer atmosphere. Images calculated by ray tracing show that (1) relatively short waves add a fine structure to the basic static mirage, and (2) long waves produce cyclic images, similar to those observed in the field, that display significant variation from a base image.

  19. ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT MODELS FOR SURFACE WAVE AND PLATE WAVE INSPECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Sedov, Alexander

    2010-02-22

    A complete ultrasonic measurement model for surface and plate wave inspections is obtained, where all the electrical, electromechanical, and acoustic/elastic elements are explicitly described. Reciprocity principles are used to describe the acoustic/elastic elements specifically in terms of an integral of the incident and scattered wave fields over the surface of the flaw. As with the case of bulk waves, if one assumes the incident surface waves or plate waves are locally planar at the flaw surface, the overall measurement model reduces to a very modular form where the far-field scattering amplitude of the flaw appears explicitly.

  20. Waves In Space Plasmas (WISP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Topics included in the WISP science objectives are: (1) VLF wave injection experiments; (2) traveling ionospheric disturbances and atmospheric gravity waves; (3) ionospheric bubbles; and (4) plasma wave physics. Flow charts of the WISP investigation organization, the project life cycle and the instrumentation are given.

  1. Energy in a String Wave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  2. Cardiac R-wave detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.

    1968-01-01

    Cardiac R wave detector obtains the systolic contraction signal of the human heart and uses it as a reference signal for the heart-assist pump cycle. It processes the electrocardiac signal /QRS wave complex/ of the natural heart in a sequence of operations which essentially elimates all components from the input signal except the R wave.

  3. Wave/current interaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    The wave-current interaction for the application to remote sensing data via numerical simulations and data comparison is modelled. Using the field data of surface current shear, wind condition and ambient wave spectrum, the numerical simulations of directional wave spectrum evolution were used to interpret and to compare with the aircraft data from Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) and Surface Contour Radar (SCR) across the front during Frontal Air Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX). The wave-ice interaction was inspired by the observation of large amplitude waves hundreds of kms inside the ice pack in the Weddell Sea, resulting in breakup of the ice pack. The developed analysis of processes includes the refraction of waves at the pack edge, the effects of pack compression on wave propagation, wave train stability and buckling stability in the ice pack. Sources of pack compression and interaction between wave momentum and pack compression are investigated. Viscous camping of propagating waves in the marginal ice zone are also studied. The analysis suggests an explanation for the change in wave dispersion observed from the ship and the sequence of processes that cause ice pack breakup, pressure ridge formation and the formation of open bands of water.

  4. The Detection of Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David G.

    2005-10-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Waves and Methods for their Detection: 1. Gravitational waves in general relativity D. G. Blair; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair; Part II. Gravitational Wave Detectors: 4. Resonant-bar detectors D. G. Blair; 5. Gravity wave dewars W. O. Hamilton; 6. Internal friction in high Q materials J. Ferreirinko; 7. Motion amplifiers and passive transducers J. P. Richard; 8. Parametric transducers P. J. Veitch; 9. Detection of continuous waves K. Tsubono; 10. Data analysis and algorithms for gravitational wave-antennas G. V. Paalottino; Part III. Laser Interferometer Antennas: 11. A Michelson interferometer using delay lines W. Winkler; 12. Fabry-Perot cavity gravity-wave detectors R. W. P. Drever; 13. The stabilisation of lasers for interferometric gravitational wave detectors J. Hough; 14. Vibration isolation for the test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors N. A. Robertson; 15. Advanced techniques A. Brillet; 16. Data processing, analysis and storage for interferometric antennas B. F. Schutz; 17. Gravitational wave detection at low and very low frequencies R. W. Hellings.

  5. Generation of long subharmonic internal waves by surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvildari, Navid; Kaihatu, James M.; Saric, William S.

    2016-10-01

    A new set of Boussinesq equations is derived to study the nonlinear interactions between long waves in a two-layer fluid. The fluid layers are assumed to be homogeneous, inviscid, incompressible, and immiscible. Based on the Boussinesq equations, an analytical model is developed using a second-order perturbation theory and applied to examine the transient evolution of a resonant triad composed of a surface wave and two oblique subharmonic internal waves. Wave damping due to weak viscosity in both layers is considered. The Boussinesq equations and the analytical model are verified. In contrast to previous studies which focus on short internal waves, we examine long waves and investigate some previously unexplored characteristics of this class of triad interaction. In viscous fluids, surface wave amplitudes must be larger than a threshold to overcome viscous damping and trigger internal waves. The dependency of this critical amplitude as well as the growth and damping rates of internal waves on important parameters in a two-fluid system, namely the directional angle of the internal waves, depth, density, and viscosity ratio of the fluid layers, and surface wave amplitude and frequency is investigated.

  6. The wave and wave forecasting in the China Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fuxiang

    1993-12-31

    The China Seas located at the Southeastern part of the large Eurasia continent, and beside the largest ocean, the Pacific. They are greatly influenced by continent and the ocean. Due to it across the tropical zone, the subtropical zone and the extropical zone, the cold and warm air circulation in Northsouth is a very active exchange. In the summer, the South China Sea and the East China Sea are frequently hit by typhoon waves. In spring and autumn, the bohai sea, the Yellow sea and the East China Seas had series disasters caused by the extropical cyclone wave and the cold air wave. In this paper the time-space distribution and formative cases of wave disaster in the China Seas, and the wave monitoring and prediction system, the wave prediction method, and two automatic systems of numerical wave forecasting are briefly introduced.

  7. The Wave Carpet: An Omnidirectional and Broadband Wave Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.-Reza

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by the strong attenuation of ocean surface waves by muddy seafloors, we have designed, theoretically investigated the performance, and experimentally tested the ``Wave Carpet:'' a mud-resembling synthetic seabed-mounted mat composed of vertically-acting linear springs and generators that can be used as an efficient wave energy absorption device. The Wave Carpet is completely under the water surface hence imposes minimal danger to boats and the sea life (i.e. no mammal entanglement). It is survivable against the high momentum of storm surges and in fact can perform even better under very energetic (e.g. stormy) sea conditions when most existing wave energy devices are needed to shelter themselves by going into an idle mode. In this talk I will present an overview of analytical results for the linear problem, direct simulation of highly nonlinear wave fields, and results of the experimental wave tank investigation.

  8. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  9. Gravity wave initiated convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

  10. Sources of gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bernard F.

    1989-01-01

    Sources of low frequency gravitational radiation are reviewed from an astrophysical point of view. Cosmological sources include the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei, the capture by such holes of neutron stars, the coalescence of orbiting pairs of giant black holes, and various means of producing a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the early universe. Sources local to our Galaxy include various kinds of close binaries and coalescing binaries. Gravitational wave astronomy can provide information that no other form of observing can supply; in particular, the positive identification of a cosmological background originating in the early universe would be an event as significant as was the detection of the cosmic microwave background.

  11. Wave activated generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neuenschwander, V. L.

    1985-09-03

    A wave activated generator utilizes the principle of providing relative movement between a permanent magnet and a coil to induce an electrical current in the coil. The coil is situated in a static tube anchored to the sea bed by means of a ballast tank at the base of the tube and guy wires extending from the tube. A plunger with permanent magnets is mounted in the tube for vertical reciprocation of the plunger, the plunger projecting outwardly from the upper end of the tube and terminating in a hull-shaped float which rides the water surface and provides vertical reciprocation of the plunger responsive to wave motion in order to move the magnets relative to the coil and generate current in the coil.

  12. Millimeter wave nonreciprocal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group within the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics proposed a three year research program aimed at developing coherent magnetic wave signal-processing techniques for microwave energy which may form either the primary signal or else the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation of millimeter wavelength signals-especially at frequencies in the 50-94 GHz. range. Emphasis has been placed upon developing advanced types of signal processors that make use of quasi-optical propagation of electromagnetic and magnetostatic waves propagating in high quality single crystal ferrite thin films. A strong theoretical effort is required in order to establish valid models useful for predicting device performance. We emphasized new filter and circulator designs that employ combinations of the Faraday effect, field displacement nonreciprocity and magnetostatic resonance and periodic structures.

  13. Gravitational wave astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, L. S.

    Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

  14. Supersymmetric string waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bergshoeff, E.A. ); Kallosh, R.; Ortin, T. )

    1993-06-15

    We present plane-wave-type solutions of the lowest-order superstring effective action which have unbroken space-time supersymmetries. They are given by a stringy generalization of the Brinkmann metric, dialton, axion, and gauge fields. Some conspiracy between the metric and the axion field is required. The [alpha][prime] stringy corrections to the effective on-shell action, to the equations of motion (and therefore to the solutions themselves), and to the supersymmetry transformations are shown to vanish for a special class of these solutions that we call supersymmetric string waves (SSW's). In the SSW solutions, there exists a conspiracy not only between the metric and the axion field, but also between the gauge fields and the metric, since the embedding of the spin connection in the gauge group is required.

  15. Waves in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Eugene R

    2009-09-21

    Quadratic corrections to the metaplectic formulation of mode conversions. In this work we showed how to systematically deal with quadratic corrections beyond the usual linearization of the dispersion matrix at a conversion. The linearization leads to parabolic cylinder functions as the local approximation to the full-wave behavior, but these do not include the variation in amplitude associated with ray refraction in the neighborhood of the conversion. Hence, the region over which they give a good fit to the incoming and outgoing WKB solutions is small. By including higher order corrections it is possible to provide a much more robust matching. We also showed that it was possible, in principle, to extend these methods to arbitrary order. A new normal form for mode conversion. This is based upon our earlier NSF-DOE-funded work on ray helicity. We have begun efforts to apply these new ideas in practical ray tracing algorithms. Group theoretical foundation of path integrals and phase space representations of wave problems. Using the symbol theory of N. Zobin, we developed a new understanding of path integrals on phase space. The initial goal was to find practical computational tools for dealing with non-standard mode conversions. Along the way we uncovered a new way to represent wave functions directly on phase space without the intermediary of a Wigner function. We are exploring the use of these ideas for numerical studies of conversion, with the goal of eventually incorporating kinetic effects. Wave packet studies of gyroresonance crossing. In earlier work, Huanchun Ye and Allan Kaufman -- building upon ideas due to Lazar Friedland -- had shown that gyroresonance crossings could be treated as a double conversion. This perspective is one we have used for many of our papers since then. We are now performing a detailed numerical comparison between full-wave and ray tracing approaches in the study of minority-ion gyroresonance crossing. In this study, a fast magnetosonic

  16. Internal Ocean Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1

  17. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  18. Snell's Law for Spin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  19. Rogue waves in oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    A stochastic model of wave groups is presented to explain the occurrence of exceptionally large waves, usually referred to as rogue waves. The model leads to the description of the non-Gaussian statistics of large waves in oceanic turbulence and to a new asymptotic distribution of their crest heights in a form that generalizes the Tayfun model. The new model explains the unusually large crests observed in flume experiments of narrow-band waves. However, comparisons with realistic oceanic measurements gathered in the North Sea during an intense storm indicate that the generalized model agrees with the original Tayfun distribution.

  20. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  1. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of datamore » from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.« less

  2. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.

  3. Water wave energy transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, J.

    1980-01-22

    A water wave energy transducer for converting the motion of a water wave into a controlled mechanical movement such as rotational motion suitable for actuating an electrical generator is disclosed. The transducer comprises a float member floatingly moored in a water body having waves and/or tidal movement, such as a seashore. A power gear is rotatably mounted in a swing block on the float with a power shaft extending from the power gear to laterally spaced drive bevel gears mounted for rotation with the power gear. These drive bevel gears are coupled to a transmission on the float comprising one-way drive clutches transmitting rotational energy to the drive shaft of a generator or the like to provide rotational energy on both up and down movement of the float. A rack is pivotally anchored in the water body, extends up through the float and is slideable with respect to the power gear of the swing block, so that movement of the float with respect to the rack will provide rotation of the power gear.

  4. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  5. Transhorizon propagation of decameter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. K.; Shchelkalin, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    Solutions to the problem of the point source field in a spherically layered medium are analyzed. For a three-layer waveguide model, a solution in the form of the Watson integral was used. A consideration of the singularities in the plane of the integration variable made it possible to represent the integral as a superposition of three waves. Two of them are connected with the interaction of the primary spherical wave with the lower convex and upper concave interfaces. The third wave is connected with the alternate action with both interfaces. The fourth wave is caused by the interaction between the primary wave and random inhomogeneities of the external medium (the ionosphere). Here, simulation was carried out based on Green equations. The considered unique data of flight measurements of the point source field strength indicate the efficiency of simulating the transhorizon propagation of decameter waves based on the superposition of all four aforesaid wave packets.

  6. Waves in Solar Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    The corona is visible in the optical band only during a total solar eclipse or with a coronagraph. Coronal loops are believed to be plasma-filled closed magnetic flux anchored in the photosphere. Based on the temperature regime, they are generally classified into cool, warm, and hot loops. The magnetized coronal structures support propagation of various types of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves. This chapter reviews the recent progress made in studies based on observations of four types of wave phenomena mainly occurring in coronal loops of active regions, including: flare-excited slow-mode waves; impulsively excited kink-mode waves; propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves; and ubiquitous propagating kink (Alfvénic) waves. This review not only comprehensively discusses these waves and coronal seismology but also topics that are newly emerging or hotly debated in order to provide the reader with useful guidance on further studies.

  7. Tamm-Langmuir surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenitskii, K. Â. Yu.; Koshelev, K. Â. L.; Bogdanov, A. Â. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states—we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.

  8. Langmuir circulations beneath growing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2000-11-01

    The instability of a weakly sheared density stratified two dimensional wavy flow to longitudinal vortices is considered. The instability mechanism is Craik-Leibovich type 2, or CL2, and the problem is posited in the context of Langmuir circulations beneath irrotational wind driven surface waves. Of interest is the influence to the instability of growing or decaying waves according to linear theory. The basis for the study is an initial value problem posed by Leibovich & Paolucci (1981) in which the liquid substrate is of semi-infinite extent and the wind driven current is permitted to grow. At zero Richardson number, relative to the solution for neutral waves, it is found that growing waves act to stabilize the instability while decaying waves are destablizing. Furthemore while growing waves act to increase the spanwise wavenumber at onset, decaying waves act to decrease it. The influence of Prandtl and Richardson numbers is also discussed.

  9. Electromagnetic inhomogeneous waves at planar boundaries: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    In this review paper, we summarize the fundamental properties of inhomogeneous waves at the planar interface between two media. We point out the main differences between the wave types: lateral waves, surface waves, and leaky waves. We analyze each kind of inhomogeneous wave, giving a quasi-optical description and explaining the physical origin of some of their properties.

  10. Wave-function functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xiaoyin; Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    2010-04-15

    We extend our prior work on the construction of variational wave functions {psi} that are functionals of functions {chi}:{psi}={psi}[{chi}] rather than simply being functions. In this manner, the space of variations is expanded over those of traditional variational wave functions. In this article we perform the constrained search over the functions {chi} chosen such that the functional {psi}[{chi}] satisfies simultaneously the constraints of normalization and the exact expectation value of an arbitrary single- or two-particle Hermitian operator, while also leading to a rigorous upper bound to the energy. As such the wave function functional is accurate not only in the region of space in which the principal contributions to the energy arise but also in the other region of the space represented by the Hermitian operator. To demonstrate the efficacy of these ideas, we apply such a constrained search to the ground state of the negative ion of atomic hydrogen H{sup -}, the helium atom He, and its positive ions Li{sup +} and Be{sup 2+}. The operators W whose expectations are obtained exactly are the sum of the single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i{delta}}(r{sub i}), W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i{nabla}i}{sup 2}, and the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|. Comparisons with the method of Lagrangian multipliers and of other constructions of wave-function functionals are made. Finally, we present further insights into the construction of wave-function functionals by studying a previously proposed construction of functionals {psi}[{chi}] that lead to the exact expectation of arbitrary Hermitian operators. We discover that analogous to the solutions of the Schroedinger equation, there exist {psi}[{chi}] that are unphysical in that they lead to singular values for the expectations. We also explain the origin of the singularity.

  11. Generation of rogue waves in a wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechuga, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rogue waves have been reported as causing damages and ship accidents all over the oceans of the world. For this reason in the past decades theoretical studies have been carried out with the double aim of improving the knowledge of their main characteristics and of attempting to predict its sudden appearance. As an effort on this line we are trying to generate them in a water tank. The description of the procedure to do that is the objective of this presentation. After Akhmediev et al. (2011) we use a symmetric spectrum as input on the wave maker to produce waves with a rate(Maximun wave height/ significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77, clearly between the limits of rogue waves. As it was pointed out by Janssen (2003), Onorato et al. (2006) and Kharif, Pelinovsky and Slunyaev (2009) modulation instability is enhanced when waves depart from Gaussian statistics (i.e. big kurtosis) and therefore both numbers enforce the criterion that we are generating genuine rogue waves. The same is confirmed by Shemer (2010) and Dudley et al.(2009) from a different perspective. If besides being symmetrical the spectrum is triangular, following Akhmediev(2011),the generated waves are even more conspicuously rogue waves.

  12. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  13. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative. PMID:22184674

  14. Study of Novel Slow Wave Circuit for Miniaturized Millimeter Wave Helical Traveling Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Xiaofang; Liao, Li; Yang, Zhonghai; Zeng, Baoqing; Yao, Lieming

    2006-07-01

    Two kinds of novel helical slow wave circuit, supported by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond, are presented. They are applying in miniaturized millimeter wave helical traveling wave tube. Cold test characteristic of these circuits are simulated by MAFIA code. Higher performances are achieved with smaller size, compared with conventional circuit supported by BeO rods. The nonlinear analysis is implemented by Beam and Wave Interaction (BWI) module, which is a part of TWTCAD Integrated Framework. Results have been found to be consistent with the expectation. It should be wider apply in microwave and millimeter wave vacuum electronic devices.

  15. Satellite observations of the QBO wave driving by Kelvin waves and gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Kalisch, Silvio; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere is an important process in atmospheric dynamics influencing a wide range of altitudes and latitudes. Effects of the QBO are found also in the mesosphere and in the extra-tropics. The QBO even has influence on the surface weather and climate, for example during winter in the northern hemisphere at midlatitudes. Still, climate models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO. One reason for this deficiency are uncertainties in the wave driving by planetary waves and, in particular, gravity waves that are usually too small-scale to be resolved in global models. Different global equatorial wave modes (e.g., Kelvin waves) have been identified by longitude-time 2D spectral analysis in Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite temperature data, as well as ECMWF temperatures. We find good agreement between SABER satellite observations and ECMWF wave variances in both QBO-related temporal variations and their magnitude. Slow phase speed waves are strongly modulated by the QBO, higher phase speed waves are almost unaffected by the QBO, and ultra-fast equatorial waves can even reach the MLT region. Momentum fluxes and zonal wind drag due to Kelvin waves are derived, and the relative contribution of Kelvin waves to the QBO wind reversal from westward to eastward wind is estimated to be about 30% of the total wave driving. This is in good agreement with the general assumption that gravity waves (GWs) are probably more important for the QBO driving than global-scale waves. This is further supported by SABER and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite observations of gravity wave drag in the equatorial region. These observations are compared with the drag still missing in the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) tropical momentum budget after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global

  16. Relevance of Infragravity Waves in a Wave Dominated Shallow Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabarrieta, M.; Bertin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Infragravity (IG) waves have received a growing attention over the last decade and they have been shown to partly control dune erosion, barrier breaching, development of seiches in harbors or the circulation on fringing reefs. Although the relevance IG waves in surf and swash zone dynamics is well recognized, their dynamics and effects on tidal inlets and estuaries have not been analyzed. This study investigates the importance of IG waves at Albufeira Lagoon Inlet, a shallow wave-dominated inlet located on the western Coast of Portugal. Water levels and currents were measured synchronously during a two-day field experiment carried out at Albufeira Lagoon Inlet in September 2010. Apart from the tidally induced gravity wave modulations and wave induced setup inside the lagoon, an important IG wave contribution was identified. Low frequency oscillations were noticeable in the free surface elevation records and produced fluctuations of up to 100% in current intensities. While IG waves in the ebb shoal were present during the whole tidal cycle, the absence of IG waves characterized the ebbing tide inside the lagoon. The energy in the IG frequency band gradually increased from low tide to high tide, and disappeared during the ebbing tide. The modeling system Xbeach was applied to hindcast the hydrodynamics during the field experiment period. The model captures the main physics related with the IG wave generation and propagation inside the inlet, and reproduced the IG blocking during the ebb as identified in the measurements. This behavior was explained by the combination of advection and wave blocking induced by opposing tidal currents. Both measurements and numerical results suggested the bound wave release as the dominant mechanism responsible for IG wave generation. The fact that IG waves only propagate at flood tide has strong implications on the sediment balance of the inlet and contribute to inlet infilling under energetic wave conditions. It is expected that IG

  17. Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    The coexistence of two different types of fundamental rogue waves is unveiled, based on the coupled equations describing the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance. For a wide range of asymptotic background fields, each family of three rogue wave components can be triggered by using a slight deterministic alteration to the otherwise identical background field. The ability to trigger markedly different rogue wave profiles from similar initial conditions is confirmed by numerical simulations. This remarkable feature, which is absent in the scalar nonlinear Schrödinger equation, is attributed to the specific three-wave interaction process and may be universal for a variety of multicomponent wave dynamics spanning from oceanography to nonlinear optics. PMID:25314555

  18. Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    The coexistence of two different types of fundamental rogue waves is unveiled, based on the coupled equations describing the (2+1)-component long-wave-short-wave resonance. For a wide range of asymptotic background fields, each family of three rogue wave components can be triggered by using a slight deterministic alteration to the otherwise identical background field. The ability to trigger markedly different rogue wave profiles from similar initial conditions is confirmed by numerical simulations. This remarkable feature, which is absent in the scalar nonlinear Schrödinger equation, is attributed to the specific three-wave interaction process and may be universal for a variety of multicomponent wave dynamics spanning from oceanography to nonlinear optics.

  19. Wave and particle dynamics of the beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, P. )

    1989-10-15

    We present two-dimensional wave-envelope studies of the interaction between a plasma beat-wave and the laser pumps which drive it. A new method of focusing is demonstrated which requires the plasma wave to be driven slightly below its resonant frequency. Test particles are employed to investigate possible means of extending the accelerator stage length. {copyright} 1989 American Institute of Physics

  20. Hydrodynamic Performance of a Wave Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingchen

    2010-11-01

    To harvest energy from ocean waves, a new wave energy converter (WEC) was proposed and tested in a wave tank. The WEC freely floats on the water surface and rides waves. It utilizes its wave-driven angular oscillation to convert the mechanical energy of waves into electricity. To gain the maximum possible angular oscillation of the WEC under specified wave conditions, both floatation of the WEC and wave interaction with the WEC play critical roles in a joint fashion. During the experiments, the submersion condition of the WEC and wave condition were varied. The results were analyzed in terms of the oscillation amplitude, stability, auto-orientation capability, and wave frequency dependency.

  1. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  2. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Density wave theory. [interstellar gas dynamics and galactic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The prospect that density waves and galactic shock waves are present on the large scale in disk shaped galaxies has received support in recent years from both theoretical and observational studies. Large-scale galactic shock waves in the interstellar gas are suggested to play an important governing role in star formation, molecule formation, and the degree of development of spiral structure. Through the dynamics of the interstellar gas and the galactic shock-wave phenomenon, a new insight into the physical basis underlying the morphological classification system of galaxies is suggested.

  4. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    A. Pletzer; C.K. Phillips; D.N. Smithe

    2003-06-18

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach.

  5. Comparison of standing-wave and traveling-wave structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.

    1986-04-01

    The controversy over the relative advantages of standing-wave and traveling-wave linear accelerators is now in its fourth decade. It has been fed by a considerable body of misinformation. The author hopes in this paper to shed some light on the subject, and expose some of the falsehoods. The discussion is directed toward the question of which structure to use for short pulse high field electron accelerators since it is almost universally accepted that standing-wave structures are appropriate for CW and long pulse accelerators. Three arguments against standing-wave accelerators are discussed and shown to be invalid.

  6. Helical localized wave solutions of the scalar wave equation.

    PubMed

    Overfelt, P L

    2001-08-01

    A right-handed helical nonorthogonal coordinate system is used to determine helical localized wave solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation. Introducing the characteristic variables in the helical system, i.e., u = zeta - ct and v = zeta + ct, where zeta is the coordinate along the helical axis, we can use the bidirectional traveling plane wave representation and obtain sets of elementary bidirectional helical solutions to the wave equation. Not only are these sets bidirectional, i.e., based on a product of plane waves, but they may also be broken up into right-handed and left-handed solutions. The elementary helical solutions may in turn be used to create general superpositions, both Fourier and bidirectional, from which new solutions to the wave equation may be synthesized. These new solutions, based on the helical bidirectional superposition, are members of the class of localized waves. Examples of these new solutions are a helical fundamental Gaussian focus wave mode, a helical Bessel-Gauss pulse, and a helical acoustic directed energy pulse train. Some of these solutions have the interesting feature that their shape and localization properties depend not only on the wave number governing propagation along the longitudinal axis but also on the normalized helical pitch.

  7. Midlatitude Rossby wave forcing of equatorial Kelvin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biello, J. A.; Kiladis, G. N.; Back, A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations strongly suggest that convectively coupled Kelvin waves can be generated by extratropical wave activity. This mechanism is particularly efficient over Australia, where wave activity appears immediately after the extratropical Rossby waves propagate into the region during the Austral winter. This interaction occurs where the zonal wind is strongly sheared both in the meridional and vertical directions. In order to understand this phenomenon the authors study the linear primitive equations in the presence of barotropic and baroclinic shear and the dispersion characteristics of the sheared Matsuno modes are calculated. Depending on the shear strength, the waves are stable or unstable and can be categorized into three groups. First there are the classical Matsuno modes modified by shear. Second there are extratropical "free" Rossby waves. Third, there are Rossby waves meridionally confined to the shear layer - these latter modes can be unstable, or stable and part of the continuous spectrum. In examples where the zonal winds are barotropically and baroclinically stable, we show that a continuous spectrum of Rossby waves exists. If the zonal winds are strong enough, the Rossby waves in the continuous spectrum have an equatorial signature exactly like the Matsuno Kelvin wave - despite the fact that, in these examples, the Matsuno Kelvin wave also exists on its own and that all modes are stable. For stronger shears, these continuous spectrum modes become unstable. Although the appear similar to Sakai's Rossby/Kelvin instability, their existence arises from a completely different phenomenon. The Sakai instability requires the frequency of a stable equatorial Rossby mode to coincide with the stable Kelvin wave frequency in order for the two modes to create a stable/unstable pair. Our results show that unstable Rossby waves need only have their frequencies Doppler shifted to that of the Kelvin wave frequency by the underlying shear in order that they acquire a

  8. Helical localized wave solutions of the scalar wave equation.

    PubMed

    Overfelt, P L

    2001-08-01

    A right-handed helical nonorthogonal coordinate system is used to determine helical localized wave solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation. Introducing the characteristic variables in the helical system, i.e., u = zeta - ct and v = zeta + ct, where zeta is the coordinate along the helical axis, we can use the bidirectional traveling plane wave representation and obtain sets of elementary bidirectional helical solutions to the wave equation. Not only are these sets bidirectional, i.e., based on a product of plane waves, but they may also be broken up into right-handed and left-handed solutions. The elementary helical solutions may in turn be used to create general superpositions, both Fourier and bidirectional, from which new solutions to the wave equation may be synthesized. These new solutions, based on the helical bidirectional superposition, are members of the class of localized waves. Examples of these new solutions are a helical fundamental Gaussian focus wave mode, a helical Bessel-Gauss pulse, and a helical acoustic directed energy pulse train. Some of these solutions have the interesting feature that their shape and localization properties depend not only on the wave number governing propagation along the longitudinal axis but also on the normalized helical pitch. PMID:11488494

  9. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  10. Ion wave breaking acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Bamberg, K.-U.; Ma, W. J.; Liu, J.; He, X. T.; Yan, X. Q.; Ruhl, H.

    2016-07-01

    Laser driven ion wave breaking acceleration (IWBA) in plasma wakefields is investigated by means of a one-dimensional (1D) model and 1D/3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. IWBA operates in relativistic transparent plasma for laser intensities in the range of 1020- 1023 W /cm2 . The threshold for IWBA is identified in the plane of plasma density and laser amplitude. In the region just beyond the threshold, self-injection takes place only for a fraction of ions and in a limited time period. This leads to well collimated ion pulses with peaked energy spectra, in particular for 3D geometry.

  11. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M; Porter, John L.

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  12. Spin waves in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A working report is presented in order to document early results of research on the stability of laminar boundary layers. The report shows that constitutive equations for a structured continua may be derived by the technique of reinterpreting velocity in the conventional stress to rate-of-strain relationship so as to account for effects of particle rotation. It is demonstrated that accounting for particle structure even at a molecular level makes the fluid viscoelastic with the ability to propagate vector waves. It is shown that particle structure modifies the basic stability equation for the system, which in turn would alter values for critical Reynolds number.

  13. Spin waves in the (

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscombe, O. J.; Chen, G. F.; Fang, Chen; Perring, T. G.; Abernathy, Douglas L; Christianson, Andrew D; Egami, Takeshi; Wang, Nanlin; Hu, Jiangping; Dai, Pengcheng

    2011-01-01

    We use neutron scattering to show that spin waves in the iron chalcogenide Fe{sub 1.05}Te display novel dispersion clearly different from both the first principles density functional calculations and recent observations in the related iron pnictide CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. By fitting to a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we find that although the nearest-neighbor exchange couplings in the two systems are quite different, their next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) couplings are similar. This suggests that superconductivity in the pnictides and chalcogenides share a common magnetic origin that is intimately associated with the NNN magnetic coupling between the irons.

  14. Spin Wave Genie

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-16

    The four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,w) obtained by inelastic neutron scattering measurements provides unique "dynamical fingerprints" of the spin state and interactions present in complex magnetic materials. Extracting this information however is currently a slow and complex process that may take an expert -depending on the complexity of the system- up to several weeks of painstaking work to complete. Spin Wave Genie was created to abstract and automate this process. It strives to both reduce the time to complete this analysis and make these calculations more accessible to a broader group of scientists and engineers.

  15. Spin Wave Genie

    2015-02-16

    The four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,w) obtained by inelastic neutron scattering measurements provides unique "dynamical fingerprints" of the spin state and interactions present in complex magnetic materials. Extracting this information however is currently a slow and complex process that may take an expert -depending on the complexity of the system- up to several weeks of painstaking work to complete. Spin Wave Genie was created to abstract and automate this process. It strives to both reduce themore » time to complete this analysis and make these calculations more accessible to a broader group of scientists and engineers.« less

  16. Alfven Waves in Interstellar Gasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1995-02-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves contribute a significant pressure in both the diffuse interstellar medium and in molecular clouds. Alfvén waves are subject to less damping than compressive MHD waves and are therefore likely to be the dominant mode in astrophysical environments. Provided that the medium in which the waves are propagating is slowly varying, the dynamical effects of ideal MHD waves are governed by equations derived by Dewar. We show that these equations are similar in form to the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order υ/c, provided that the radiation is nearly isotropic. For the case of Alfvén waves, the pressure due the waves, Pw, is isotropic. Furthermore, Pw is directly observable through the non- thermal line width σnt; for a randomly oriented field, Pw = (3/2)ρσ2nt. In several simple cases, including that in which the Alfvén waves are isotropic, that in which the density is spatially uniform, and that in which the medium undergoes a self-similar contraction or expansion, undamped Alfvén waves behave like a gas with a ratio of specific heats of 3/2; i.e., pressure variations are related to density variations by Δ ln Pw = γwΔ ln ρ with γw = 3/2. In a spatially nonuniform cloud, γw generally depends on position; an explicit expression is given. In the opposite limit of rapid variations, such as in a strong shock, the wave magnetic field behaves like a static field and the wave pressure can increase as fast as ρ2, depending on the orientation of the shock and the polarization of the waves. The jump conditions for a shock in a medium containing MHD waves are given. For strong nonradiative shocks, neither the wave pressure nor the static magnetic field pressure is significant downstream, but for radiative shocks these two pressures can become dominant. Alfvén waves are essential in supporting molecular clouds against gravitational collapse. In a static cloud with a nonuniform density ρ(r), the spatial variation of the wave

  17. Plasma waves near the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoppe, M. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Etcheto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma waves associated with the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath to the outer magnetosphere are investigated to obtain a clear definition of the boundaries and regions, to characterize the waves observed in these regions, to determine which wave modes are present, and to determine their origin. Emphasis is on high time resolution data and a comparison between measurements by different antenna systems. It is shown that the magnetosheath flux transfer events, the magnetopause current layer, the outer magnetosphere, and the boundary layer can be identified by their magnetic field and plasma wave characteristics, as well as by their plasma and energetic particle signatures. The plasma wave characteristics in the current layer and in the boundary layer are very similar to the features in the flux transfer events, and upon entry into their outer magnetosphere, the plasma wave spectra are dominated by intense electromagnetic chorus bursts and electrostatic emissions.

  18. Wave reflection at a stent.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Antonio; García, Javier; Manuel, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A simple analytical expression has been derived to calculate the characteristics of a wave that reflects at a stent implanted in a uniform vessel. The stent is characterized by its length and the wave velocity in the stented region. The reflected wave is proportional to the time derivative of the incident wave. The reflection coefficient is a small quantity of the order of the length of the stent divided by the wavelength of the unstented vessel. The results obtained coincide with those obtained numerically by Charonko et al. The main simplifications used are small amplitude of the waves so that equations can be linearized and that the length of the stent is small enough so that the values of the wave functions are nearly uniform along the stent. Both assumptions hold in typical situations. PMID:23516957

  19. Investigation of Pressurized Wave Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2003-01-01

    The wave bearing has been pioneered and developed by Dr. Dimofte over the past several years. This bearing will be the main focus of this research. It is believed that the wave bearing offers a number of advantages over the foil bearing, which is the bearing that NASA is currently pursuing for turbomachinery applications. The wave bearing is basically a journal bearing whose film thickness varies around the circumference approximately sinusoidally, with usually 3 or 4 waves. Being a rigid geometry bearing, it provides precise control of shaft centerlines. The wave profile also provides good load capacity and makes the bearing very stable. Manufacturing techniques have been devised that should allow the production of wave bearings almost as cheaply as conventional full-circular bearings.

  20. WINDII atmospheric wave airglow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Solheim, B.H.; Shepherd, G.G.

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary WINDII nighttime airglow wave-imaging data in the UARS rolldown attitude has been analyzed with the goal to survey gravity waves near the upper boundary of the middle atmosphere. Wave analysis is performed on O[sub 2](0,0) emissions from a selected 1[sup 0] x 1[sup 0] oblique view of the airglow layer at approximately 95 km altitude, which has no direct earth background and only an atmospheric background which is optically thick for the 0[sub 2](0,0) emission. From a small data set, orbital imaging of atmospheric wave structures is demonstrated, with indication of large variations in wave activity across land and sea. Comparison ground-based imagery is discussed with respect to similarity of wave variations across land/sea boundaries and future orbital mosaic image construction.

  1. Solitary waves in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-07-01

    Since space charge waves on a particle beam exhibit both dispersive and nonlinear character, solitary waves or solitons are possible. Dispersive, nonlinear wave propagation in high current beams is found to be similar to ion-acoustic waves in plasmas with an analogy between Debye screening and beam pipe shielding. Exact longitudinal solitary wave propagation is found for potentials associated with certain transverse distributions which fill the beam pipe. For weak dispersion, the waves satisfy the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, but for strong dispersion they exhibit breaking. More physically realizable distributions which do not fill the beam pipe are investigated and shown to also satisfy a KdV equation for weak dispersion if averaging over rapid transverse motion is physically justified. Scaling laws are presented to explore likely parameter regimes where these phenomena may be observed experimentally.

  2. Wave reflection at a stent.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Antonio; García, Javier; Manuel, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A simple analytical expression has been derived to calculate the characteristics of a wave that reflects at a stent implanted in a uniform vessel. The stent is characterized by its length and the wave velocity in the stented region. The reflected wave is proportional to the time derivative of the incident wave. The reflection coefficient is a small quantity of the order of the length of the stent divided by the wavelength of the unstented vessel. The results obtained coincide with those obtained numerically by Charonko et al. The main simplifications used are small amplitude of the waves so that equations can be linearized and that the length of the stent is small enough so that the values of the wave functions are nearly uniform along the stent. Both assumptions hold in typical situations.

  3. A two-scale approximation for wave-wave interactions in an operational wave model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Will; Toulany, Bechara; Resio, Donald T.; Roland, Aron; Auclair, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The two-scale approximation (hereafter, TSA) to the full Boltzman integral representation of quadruplet wave-wave interactions has recently been presented as a new method to estimate nonlinear transfer rates in wind waves, and has been tested for idealized spectral data, as well as for observed field measurements. TSA has been shown to perform well for wave spectra from field measurements, even for cases with directional energy shearing, compared to the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), which is used in almost all operational wave forecast models. In this study, TSA is implemented in a modern operational wave model, WAVEWATCHIII®, hereafter WW3. Tests include idealized wave spectra based on field measurements, as well as additional tests for fetch-limited wave growth, and waves generated by hurricane Juan. Generally, TSA is shown to work well when its basic assumptions are met, when its first order, broad-scale term represents most of the spectrum, and its second order term is a perturbation-scale residual representing the rest of the spectrum. These conditions are easily met for test cases involving idealized JONSWAP-type spectra and in time-stepping cases when winds are spatially and temporally constant. To some extent, they also appear to be met in more demanding conditions, when storms move through their life cycles, with winds that change speed and direction, and with complex wave spectra, involving swell-windsea interactions, multiple peaks and directional shears.

  4. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801

  5. Infragravity waves across the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Arshad; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Aucan, Jerome

    2014-05-01

    The propagation of transoceanic Infragravity (IG) wave was investigated using a global spectral wave model together with deep-ocean pressure recorders. IG waves are generated mostly at the shorelines due to non-linear hydrodynamic effects that transfer energy from the main windsea and swell band, with periods of 1 to 25 s, to periods up to 500 s. IG waves are important for the study of near-shore processes and harbor agitation, and can also be a potential source of errors in satellite altimetry measurements. Setting up a global IG model was motivated by the investigation of these errors for the future planned SWOT mission. Despite the fact that the infragravity waves exhibit much smaller vertical amplitudes than the usual high frequency wind-driven waves, of the order of 1 cm in the deep oceans, their propagation throughout the oceans and signature in the wave spectrum can be clearly observed. Using a simplified empirical parameterization of the nearshore source of free IG waves as a function of the incoming wave parameters we extended to WAVEWATCH III model, used so far for windseas and swell, to the IG band, up to periods of 300 s. The spatial and temporal variability of the modeled IG energy was well correlated to the DART station records, making it useful to interpret the records of IG waves. Open ocean IG wave records appear dominated by trans-oceanic events with well defined sources concentrated on a few days, usually on West coasts, and affecting the entire ocean basin, with amplitude patterns very similar to those of tsunamis. Three particular IG bursts during 2008 are studied, 2 in the Pacific Ocean and 1 in the North Atlantic. It was observed that the liberated IG waves can travel long distances often crossing whole oceans with negligible dissipation. The IG signatures are clearly observed at sensors along their propagation paths.

  6. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations.

  7. Traveling waves in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Nauhaus, Ian; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-07-26

    Electrode recordings and imaging studies have revealed that localized visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that travel across primary visual cortex. Traveling waves are present also during spontaneous activity, but they can be greatly reduced by widespread and intensive visual stimulation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence in favor of these traveling waves. We suggest that their substrate may lie in long-range horizontal connections and that their functional role may involve the integration of information over large regions of space.

  8. Quantitative wave-particle duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Tabish

    2016-07-01

    The complementary wave and particle character of quantum objects (or quantons) was pointed out by Niels Bohr. This wave-particle duality, in the context of the two-slit experiment, is here described not just as two extreme cases of wave and particle characteristics, but in terms of quantitative measures of these characteristics, known to follow a duality relation. A very simple and intuitive derivation of a closely related duality relation is presented, which should be understandable to the introductory student.

  9. Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Chris

    2004-08-01

    Presenting a comprehensive introduction to the propagation of high-frequency body-waves in elastodynamics, this volume develops the theory of seismic wave propagation in acoustic, elastic and anisotropic media to allow seismic waves to be modelled in complex, realistic three-dimensional Earth models. The book is a text for graduate courses in theoretical seismology, and a reference for all academic and industrial seismologists using numerical modelling methods. Exercises and suggestions for further reading are included in each chapter.

  10. Mathematics of oscillations and waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyuk, P. N.

    2016-07-01

    Analytical definition of the sine function and the number π which is related to sine function allows to understand, how harmonic oscillations and waves appear. The functional equation for the sine is received. The new fast algorithm of calculation of the π number is formulated. In the elementary case oscillations and waves are harmonious or sinusoidal. The sine function appears not accidentally. This function can be defined as the solution of the functional equation characterizing periodic properties of oscillations and waves.

  11. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  12. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  13. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials. PMID:26169801

  14. Surface waves affect frontogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hamlington, Peter E.; Van Roekel, Luke P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of momentum, angular momentum, vorticity, and energy budgets of a submesoscale front undergoing frontogenesis driven by an upper-ocean, submesoscale eddy field in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the wave-averaged, or Craik-Leibovich, equations in order to account for the Stokes forces that result from interactions between nonbreaking surface waves and currents, and resolves both submesoscale eddies and boundary layer turbulence down to 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 1.25 m grid scales. It is found that submesoscale frontogenesis differs from traditional frontogenesis theory due to four effects: Stokes forces, momentum and kinetic energy transfer from submesoscale eddies to frontal secondary circulations, resolved turbulent stresses, and unbalanced torque. In the energy, momentum, angular momentum, and vorticity budgets for the frontal overturning circulation, the Stokes shear force is a leading-order contributor, typically either the second or third largest source of frontal overturning. These effects violate hydrostatic and thermal wind balances during submesoscale frontogenesis. The effect of the Stokes shear force becomes stronger with increasing alignment of the front and Stokes shear and with a nondimensional scaling. The Stokes shear force and momentum transfer from submesoscale eddies significantly energize the frontal secondary circulation along with the buoyancy.

  15. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  16. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  17. Large amplitude ion waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerenkov Masers, which are mildly relativistic (100-200 KV), moderate-current, electron-beam (1-20A)-driven dielectric resonators, have been used to produce multihendred kW power levels in the middle part of the mm wavelength range. The devices make use of the fact that the evanescence scale length in the transverse direction of a slow wave is given by (lambda)(beta)(gamma) lambda - wavelength, beta velocity measured in units of the speed of light, gamma = 1/sg. root of(1-beta squared). The scaling (lambda)(beta)(gamma) approx. 1 will maintain good beam-to-wave-coupling in the mm range, while also maintaining convenient transverse resonator dimension. A variety of configurations and modifications are considered and discussed in detail. All experimental results presented pertain to oscillator configurations of the basic device. The basic interaction can, however, be used as the basis of an amplifier and a theoretical analysis of such a device is presented.

  18. Rotational waves in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  19. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  20. Surfing wave climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  1. When Shock Waves Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  2. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  3. Wave propagation in solids and fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of mathematical analysis for wave phenomena in gases, solids, and liquids are presented in an introduction for scientists and engineers. Chapters are devoted to oscillatory phenomena, the physics of wave propagation, partial differential equations for wave propagation, transverse vibration of strings, water waves, and sound waves. Consideration is given to the dynamics of viscous and inviscid fluids, wave propagation in elastic media, and variational methods in wave phenomena. 41 refs.

  4. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  5. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert G.; Paine, Robert T.; Quinn, James F.; Suchanek, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 × 108 J, per m2 in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms “harness” wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding. PMID:16593813

  6. Wave characteristics in Lake Peipsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolkina, Irina; Soomere, Tarmo; Didenkulova, Ira

    2013-04-01

    The main features of wave properties in relatively large but shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia) are determined based on wave measurements at its western coast (58.75°N 27.1°E) in summer and autumn 2005-2007. Although the data set is relatively limited, it still covers 263 days and characterizes well the basic properties of wave climate in this water body. The wave regime is mostly calm, with the long-term average significant wave height below 0.3 m and seas with Hs <0.2 m covering at least 2/3 of the ice-free time. The seasonal variation in wave properties mimics the analogous variation in the wind speed, with the most stormy months October-December. Wave heights are, on average, considerably lower in summer (July-August) than in autumn (October-November). Significant wave heights >1 m were recorded in autumn and covered 3% or the measurement time. The maximum recorded wave height Hs = 1.98 m occurred on October 27, 2005. The mean periods are mostly concentrated in a range of 1.5-2.5 s and exhibit an almost Gaussian distribution.

  7. Delaying vortex breakdown by waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.

  8. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  9. Source modeling sleep slow waves

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael; Riedner, Brady A.; Huber, Reto; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Slow waves are the most prominent electroencephalographic (EEG) feature of sleep. These waves arise from the synchronization of slow oscillations in the membrane potentials of millions of neurons. Scalp-level studies have indicated that slow waves are not instantaneous events, but rather they travel across the brain. Previous studies of EEG slow waves were limited by the poor spatial resolution of EEGs and by the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex. Here we use high-density EEG (hd-EEG) source modeling to show that individual spontaneous slow waves have distinct cortical origins, propagate uniquely across the cortex, and involve unique subsets of cortical structures. However, when the waves are examined en masse, we find that there are diffuse hot spots of slow wave origins centered on the lateral sulci. Furthermore, slow wave propagation along the anterior−posterior axis of the brain is largely mediated by a cingulate highway. As a group, slow waves are associated with large currents in the medial frontal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate, the precuneus, and the posterior cingulate. These areas overlap with the major connectional backbone of the cortex and with many parts of the default network. PMID:19164756

  10. Time reversal of water waves.

    PubMed

    Przadka, A; Feat, S; Petitjeans, P; Pagneux, V; Maurel, A; Fink, M

    2012-08-10

    We present time reversal experiments demonstrating refocusing of gravity-capillary waves in a water tank cavity. Owing to the reverberating effect of the cavity, only a few channels are sufficient to reconstruct the surface wave at the point source, even if the absorption is not negligible. Space-time-resolved measurements of the waves during the refocusing allow us to quantitatively demonstrate that the quality of the refocusing increases linearly with the number of reemitting channels. Numerical simulations corresponding to water waves at larger scales, with negligible damping, indicate the possibility of very high quality refocusing.

  11. Stabilized wave segments in an excitable medium with a phase wave at the wave back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykov, V. S.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2014-04-01

    The propagation velocity and the shape of a stationary propagating wave segment are determined analytically for excitable media supporting excitation waves with trigger fronts and phase backs. The general relationships between the medium's excitability and the wave segment parameters are obtained in the framework of the free boundary approach under quite usual assumptions. Two universal limits restricting the region of existence of stabilized wave segments are found. The comparison of the analytical results with numerical simulations of the well-known Kessler-Levine model demonstrates their good quantitative agreement. The findings should be applicable to a wide class of systems, such as the propagation of electrical waves in the cardiac muscle or wave propagation in autocatalytic chemical reactions, due to the generality of the free-boundary approach used.

  12. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.

  13. Vector plane wave spectrum of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanming; Chen, Jiabi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2006-03-20

    By using the method of modal expansions of the independent transverse fields, a formula of vector plane wave spectrum (VPWS) of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave in a homogenous medium is derived. In this formula VPWS is composed of TM- and TE-mode plane wave spectrum, where the amplitude and unit polarized direction of every plane wave are separable, which has more obviously physical meaning and is more convenient to apply in some cases compared to previous formula of VPWS. As an example, the formula of VPWS is applied to the well-known radially and azimuthally polarized beam. In addition, vector Fourier-Bessel transform pairs of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave with circular symmetry are also derived.

  14. Vector plane wave spectrum of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanming; Chen, Jiabi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2006-03-01

    By using the method of modal expansions of the independent transverse fields, a formula of vector plane wave spectrum (VPWS) of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave in a homogenous medium is derived. In this formula VPWS is composed of TM- and TE-mode plane wave spectrum, where the amplitude and unit polarized direction of every plane wave are separable, which has more obviously physical meaning and is more convenient to apply in some cases compared to previous formula of VPWS. As an example, the formula of VPWS is applied to the well-known radially and azimuthally polarized beam. In addition, vector Fourier-Bessel transform pairs of an arbitrary polarized electromagnetic wave with circular symmetry are also derived.

  15. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  16. Freak waves: is prediction possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toffoli, A.; Lefevre, J. M.; Lehner, S.; Monbaliu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Freak waves are individual waves of exceptional height or steepness and more and more they are believed to have caused a large number of casualties to ships and offshore structures. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated their existence and a number of them have been objectively recorded in situ. Ships that founder represent a great disaster both from an economical and a human point of view. Moreover the environmental collateral damages may be enormous. Therefore description of freak waves is not only important for design work but also for operational purposes it would be of great benefit if a warning might be given to mariners. Meteo-centers already add wave forecasts in the weather and sea bulletins, usually in terms of significant wave height, wave period and wave direction both for wind sea and swell conditions. These forecasts are based on spectral wave models. Although a spectrum only gives some average description of the sea-state, and therefore no details about the instantaneous position of the sea surface, it might contain additional information that points at an increased risk for the occurrence of exceptional waves. It is one of the objectives of the EU project MaxWave to investigate this. To this end a database with 650 ship accidents was extracted from the Lloyd’s Marine Information Service (LMIS) and Lloyd’s casualty reports. The database covers serious casualties, including total losses, reported to all propelled sea-going merchant ships in the world of about 100 gross tonnage and above, due to bad weather. For these accidents, wave and wind conditions were downloaded from the ECMWF-archive. The wave information included full spectra allowing to calculate additional parameters from the spectra such as the wave steepness, bandwidth, and directional spread. The correlation between casualties and sea-state may help in identifying situations of increased risk, next to ocean areas more prone to bad weather in general and abnormal waves

  17. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  18. The role of wave-wave interaction during stratospheric splits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andreas; Plumb, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are the most studied example of troposphere-stratosphere coupling. They are often categorized as either splits (dominated by wavenumber 2) or displacements (wavenumber 1) and many studies (e.g. Charlton and Polvani (2007)) found statistically significant differences between the zonal wind fields and associated momentum fluxes. These differences are observed from the stratosphere to the surface. Our study focuses on how wave-wave interactions within the stratosphere can determine the type of SSW. We derive an energy budget for each wavenumber that allows us to quantify the major stratospheric processes within each wavenumber as well as the energy transfer from one wavenumber into another. Calculating these budgets, using MERRA reanalysis data, we find that for many split events the energy flux into the stratosphere is predominantly in wavenumber one. Thus, wave-wave interactions within the stratosphere, which can flux energy between wavenumbers, play a key role in splitting the polar stratospheric vortex. However, the signal is weak when we calculate composites over all splits as the timing of wave-wave interactions is unrelated to classic definitions (e.g. central date) highlighting the need for a dynamically more meaningful definition of SSWs. In order to better understand the role of wave-wave interactions, we employ GFDL's FMS shallow water model to simulate the stratospheric vortex under idealized forcings (similar to Polavani et al. (1994)). Contrary to many other idealized experiments, we are able to simulate both types of warmings with pure wavenumber one or two forcings. We further explore the strength of the necessary forcing to cause stratospheric splits in relation to the state of of the polar vortex. These results are compared to the work of Matthewman and Esler (2011) on splits being a result of resonance. We finally use the energy budget described above to determine the importance of wave-wave interaction in this

  19. Control of optical solitons by light waves.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, V S; Hasegawa, A; Maruta, A

    1995-04-15

    A new method of controlling optical solitons by means of light wave(s) in fibers is presented. By a proper choice of light wave(s), parametric four-wave mixing can control the soliton shape as well as the soliton parameters (amplitude, frequency, velocity, and position).

  20. Optimization of one-way wave equations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Suh, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of wave extrapolation is based on the square-root equation or one-way equation. The full wave equation represents waves which propagate in both directions. On the contrary, the square-root equation represents waves propagating in one direction only. A new optimization method presented here improves the dispersion relation of the one-way wave equation. -from Authors

  1. Millimeter-wave studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on millimeter-wave propagation experiments in Hawaii is reported. A short path for measuring attenuation in rain at 9.6, 28.8, 57.6, and 96.1 GHz is in operation. A slant path from Hilo to the top of Mauna Kea is scheduled. On this path, scattering from rain and clouds that may cause interference for satellites closely spaced in geosynchronous orbit will be measured at the same frequencies at 28.8 and 96.1 GHz. In addition the full transmission matrix will be measured at the same frequencies on the slant path. The technique and equipment used to measure the transmission matrix are described.

  2. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  3. Geophysical wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoguang

    2000-11-01

    This study is concerned with geophysical wave tomography techniques that include advanced diffraction tomography, traveltime calculation techniques and simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches. We propose the source independent approximation, the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation and develop a fast and accurate diffraction tomography algorithm that uses this approximation. Since the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation accounts for the scattering fields within scatterers, this tomography algorithm produces better image quality than conventional Born approximation tomography algorithm does with or without the presence of multiple scatterers and can be used to reconstruct images of high contrast objects. Since iteration is not required, this algorithm is efficient. We improve the finite difference traveltime calculation algorithm proposed by Vidale (1990). The bucket theory is utilized in order to enhance the sorting efficiency, which accounts for about ten percent computing time improvement for large velocity models. Snell's law is employed to solve the causality problem analytically, which enables the modified algorithm to compute traveltimes accurately and rapidly for high velocity contrast media. We also develop two simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches, which use traveltimes and amplitude spectra of the observed data, and discuss some of their applications. One approach is processing geophysical data that come from one single survey and the other deals with the repeated survey cases. These approaches are nonlinear and therefore more accurate than linear tomography. A linear system for wave propagation and constant-Q media are assumed in order to develop the tomography algorithms. These approaches not only produce attenuation and velocity images at the same time but also can be used to infer the physical rock properties, such as the dielectric permittivity, the electric conductivity, and the porosity. A crosshole radar

  4. Monolithic Millimeter Wave Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan-Lei

    There is an increasing interest in the millimeter -wave spectrum for use in communications and for military and scientific applications. The concept of monolithic integration aims to produce very-high-frequency circuits in a more reliable, reproducible way than conventional electronics, and also at lower cost, with smaller size and lighter weight. In this thesis, a negative resistance device is integrated monolithically with a resonator to produce an effective oscillator. This work fills the void resulting from the exclusion of the local oscillator from the monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMMIC) receiver design. For convenience a microwave frequency model was used to design the resonator circuit. A 5 GHz hybrid oscillator was first fabricated to test the design; the necessary GaAs process technology was developed for the fabrication. Negative resistance devices and oscillator theory were studied, and a simple but practical model of the Gunn diode was devised to solve the impedance matching problem. Monolithic oscillators at the Ka band (35 GHz) were built and refined. All devices operated in CW mode. By means of an electric-field probe, the output power was coupled into a metallic waveguide for measurement purposes. The best result was 3.63 mW of power output, the highest efficiency was 0.43% and the frequency stability was better than 10-4. In the future, an IMPATT diode could replace the Gunn device to give much higher power and efficiency. A varactor-tuned circuit also suitable for large-scale integration is under study.

  5. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  6. The Waves and Tsunamis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Frashure, K.; Micozzi, N.; Stephen, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    The goals of the Waves and Tsunamis Project are "to make waves real" to middle school students and to teach them some fundamental concepts of waves. The curriculum was designed in Fall 2004 (before the Sumatra Tsunami) and involves an ocean scientist classroom visit, hands-on demonstrations, and an interactive website designed to explain ocean wave properties. The website is called 'The Plymouth Wave Lab' and it has had more than 40,000 hits since the Sumatra event. One inexpensive and interesting demonstration is based on a string composed of alternating elastic bands and paper clips. Washers can be added to the paper clips to construct strings with varying mass. For example, a tapered string with mass decreasing in the wave propagation direction is an analog of tsunami waves propagating from deep to shallow water. The Waves and Tsunamis Project evolved as a collaborative effort involving an ocean science researcher and middle school science teachers. It was carried out through the direction of the Centers of Ocean Science Education Excellence New England (COSEE-NE) Ocean Science Education Institute (OSEI). COSEE-NE is involved in developing models for sustainable involvement of ocean science researchers in K-12 education ( http://necosee.net ). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Compressive passive millimeter wave imager

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Liao, Shaolin; Elmer, Thomas W; Koehl, Eugene R; Heifetz, Alexander; Raptis, Apostolos C

    2015-01-27

    A compressive scanning approach for millimeter wave imaging and sensing. A Hadamard mask is positioned to receive millimeter waves from an object to be imaged. A subset of the full set of Hadamard acquisitions is sampled. The subset is used to reconstruct an image representing the object.

  8. Wave generation by turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan

    1990-01-01

    Wave generation by turbulent convection in a plane parallel, stratified atmosphere lying in a gravitational field is studied. The turbulent spectrum is related to the convective energy flux via the Kolmogorov scaling and the mixing length hypothesis. Efficiencies for the conversion of the convective energy flux into both trapped and propagating waves are estimated.

  9. Just How Does Sound Wave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When children first hear the term "sound wave" perhaps they might associate it with the way a hand waves or perhaps the squiggly line image on a television monitor when sound recordings are being made. Research suggests that children tend to think sound somehow travels as a discrete package, a fast-moving invisible thing, and not something that…

  10. Magnetodynamic waves in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Alexander I.

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes experiments to search for a variable magnetic field close to a rechargeable conductive flat plate and a ball in the air, as well as an experiment looking for a variable electric field near a rotating permanent magnet. It has been found that variable electric and magnetic fields do not induce each other within the measurement error. It means that rotary Maxwell's equations are not applicable in the near-field zone and the classical concept of displacement current in vacuum (air) has no physical meaning. A conclusion is made on the existence of transverse magnetodynamic waves. Statics and dynamics of the magnetic field near the permanent magnet rod are investigated experimentally. The methods to compute magnetodynamic waves from any source are presented. Four types of polarization of these waves are identified: linear, circular, toroidal and mixed. Concentration and deflection of magnetodynamic waves are observed on introducing inhomogeneity in the form of a ferrite rod into their propagation way, which is similar to diffraction in optics. Secondary magnetodynamic waves from the induced magnetic moments in atoms of ferrite are registered near its surface, which is like reflection in optics. Some ideas for observation of effects similar to dispersion and interference are presented for magnetodynamic waves. The structure and properties of electrodynamic, magnetodynamic and electromagnetic waves are discussed. The ideas of experiments to search for their unknown properties are described. In conclusion, technical applications of magnetodynamic waves such as magnetography, magnetic tomography and other are considered.

  11. Monitoring with Coda Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gret, A.; Snieder, R.

    2004-12-01

    Aki has been a pioneer in monitoring the subsurface with coda waves and with guided waves. His analysis of temporal and spatial variations in coda Q has proven to be a powerful tool for monitoring purposes. We have extended his technique in new method called coda wave interferometry where changes in the full waveforms of coda waves are used to monitor changes in the subsurface. We have developed and implemented the theory to use this technique to monitor the following changes: a change in the seismic velocity, a change in scatterer locations, and a change in the location of earthquakes. As shown by Aki, the seismic coda is dominated by shear waves. Therefore our technique is primarily sensitive to changes in the S-velocity. Aki also worked on wave propagation in volcanoes. We have used coda wave interferometry to monitor two active volcanoes, Arenal (Costa Rica) and Mt. Erebus (Antarctica). I will give several examples to illustrate how coda waves can be used for monitoring purposes.

  12. Rogue Waves and Modulational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Dyachenko, A.

    2015-12-01

    The most plausible cause of rogue wave formation in a deep ocean is development of modulational instability of quasimonochromatic wave trains. An adequate model for study of this phenomenon is the Euler equation for potential flow of incompressible fluid with free surface in 2-D geometry. Numerical integration of these equations confirms completely the conjecture of rogue wave formation from modulational instability but the procedure is time consuming for determination of rogue wave appearance probability for a given shape of wave energy spectrum. This program can be realized in framework of simpler model using replacement of the exact interaction Hamiltonian by more compact Hamiltonian. There is a family of such models. The popular one is the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). This model is completely integrable and suitable for numerical simulation but we consider that it is oversimplified. It misses such important phenomenon as wave breaking. Recently, we elaborated much more reliable model that describes wave breaking but is as suitable as NLSE from the point of numerical modeling. This model allows to perform massive numerical experiments and study statistics of rogue wave formation in details.

  13. Multichannel analysis of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1999-01-01

    The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of

  14. Waves In Space Plasmas (WISP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Waves in space plasmas (WISP) utilizes powerful radio transmitters and sensitive receivers to probe the secrets of the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere. The scientific objective is to achieve a better understanding of the physical processes occurring in these regions. For example, audio frequency radio waves will be radiated from the long WISP antenna, will travel to the outer reaches of the magnetosphere, and will interact with Van Allen belt particles, releasing some of their energy which amplifies the waves. Study of this interaction will give us a better understanding of a major magnetospheric process, wave particle interactions. Radio waves from WISP at higher frequencies (AM radio and beyond) will be reflected by the ionosphere and will, for example, advance our understanding of bubbles in the equatorial ionosphere which affect satellite communications.

  15. Waves In Space Plasmas (WISP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Waves in space plasmas (WISP) utilizes powerful radio transmitters and sensitive receivers to probe the secrets of the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere. The scientific objective is to achieve a better understanding of the physical processes occurring in these regions. For example, audio frequency radio waves will be radiated from the long WISP antenna, will travel to the outer reaches of the magnetosphere, and will interact with Van Allen belt particles, releasing some of their energy which amplifies the waves. Study of this interaction will give a better understanding of a major magnetospheric process, wave-particle interactions. Radio waves from WISP at higher frequencies (AM radio and beyond) will be reflected by the ionosphere and will, for example, advance our understanding of bubbles in the equatorial ionosphere which affect satellite communications.

  16. PMP-2: Equatorial wave dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, I.

    1982-01-01

    After the discovery of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the stratospheric zonal wind, there were, in the last two decades, a large number of observational and theoretical studies on the structure and behavior of the mean zonal wind and waves in the tropical stratosphere. Planetary-scale, vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO through the mechanism of wave-mean flow interaction. Concerning the dynamics of the equatorial upper stratosphere and mesosphere, however, little was known about the possible wave motions, except for tides, mainly because of the lack of adequate observations in this region. The main purpose is to provide the nature of various types of equatorial wave modes, with the aid of improved sounding techniques and sophisticated numerical modelings.

  17. Snell's Law for Spin Waves.

    PubMed

    Stigloher, J; Decker, M; Körner, H S; Tanabe, K; Moriyama, T; Taniguchi, T; Hata, H; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T; Back, C H

    2016-07-15

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications. PMID:27472134

  18. Aircraft measurements of wave clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5°C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. The measurements presented here and in previous recent studies suggest a different interaction of dynamics and microphysics in wave clouds from the accepted model. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and cloud.

  19. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

  20. Decay of capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Deike, Luc; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent as the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by a viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.